WorldWideScience

Sample records for adiabatic reformer processes

  1. Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G

    2009-01-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)

  2. Semi adiabatic theory of seasonal Markov processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talkner, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dynamics of many natural and technical systems are essentially influenced by a periodic forcing. Analytic solutions of the equations of motion for periodically driven systems are generally not known. Simulations, numerical solutions or in some limiting cases approximate analytic solutions represent the known approaches to study the dynamics of such systems. Besides the regime of weak periodic forces where linear response theory works, the limit of a slow driving force can often be treated analytically using an adiabatic approximation. For this approximation to hold all intrinsic processes must be fast on the time-scale of a period of the external driving force. We developed a perturbation theory for periodically driven Markovian systems that covers the adiabatic regime but also works if the system has a single slow mode that may even be slower than the driving force. We call it the semi adiabatic approximation. Some results of this approximation for a system exhibiting stochastic resonance which usually takes place within the semi adiabatic regime are indicated. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs.

  3. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  4. On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level

    OpenAIRE

    A, Michaud

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.

  5. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  6. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  7. Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.

  8. Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.

  9. Reforming the Interagency Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchida, Ted T

    2005-01-01

    .... The result is a process that continues lacking the ability to clarify objectives, chains of command, and policy implementation plans Insights from organizational behavior theory reveal that some of the IAP's sub-optimal performance and irrational behavior are rooted in bureaucratic bargaining and decisions.

  10. Diabatic and adiabatic representations for atomic collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delos, J.B.; Thorson, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    A consistent general definition of diabatic representations has not previously been given, even though many practical examples of such representations have been constructed for specific problems. Such a definition is provided in this paper. Beginning with a classical trajectory formulation, we describe the form and behavior of velocity-dependent couplings in slow collisions, including the effects of electron-translation factors (ETF's). We compare the couplings arising from atomic representations and atomic ETF's with those arising from molecular representations and ''switching function'' ETF's. We show that a unique set of switching functions makes the two descriptions identical in their effects. We then show that an acceptable general definition of a diabatic representation is provided by the condition P+A=0, where P is the usual nonadiabatic coupling matrix and A represents corrections to it arising from electron translation factors (ETF's). Two distinct types of diabatic representation result, depending on the definition taken for A. States that undergo no deformation are called F diabatic; those that have no velocity-dependent couplings are called M diabatic. Finally, we discuss the properties of representations that are partially diabatic and partially adiabatic, and we give some rules for the construction of representations that should be nearly optimal for describing many types of collision processes

  11. Classical molecular dynamics simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J

    2016-12-22

    Both classical and quantum mechanics (as well as hybrids thereof, i.e., semiclassical approaches) find widespread use in simulating dynamical processes in molecular systems. For large chemical systems, however, which involve potential energy surfaces (PES) of general/arbitrary form, it is usually the case that only classical molecular dynamics (MD) approaches are feasible, and their use is thus ubiquitous nowadays, at least for chemical processes involving dynamics on a single PES (i.e., within a single Born-Oppenheimer electronic state). This paper reviews recent developments in an approach which extends standard classical MD methods to the treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes, i.e., those that involve transitions between different electronic states. The approach treats nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) equivalently (i.e., by classical mechanics, thereby retaining the simplicity of standard MD), and provides "quantization" of the electronic states through a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model. The approach is seen to be capable of treating extreme regimes of strong and weak coupling between the electronic states, as well as accurately describing coherence effects in the electronic DOF (including the de-coherence of such effects caused by coupling to the nuclear DOF). A survey of recent applications is presented to illustrate the performance of the approach. Also described is a newly developed variation on the original SQC model (found universally superior to the original) and a general extension of the SQC model to obtain the full electronic density matrix (at no additional cost/complexity).

  12. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  13. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  14. High temperature and dynamic testing of AHSS for an analytical description of the adiabatic cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.; Schmitz, F.; Clausmeyer, T.; Tekkaya, A. E.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2017-03-01

    In the automotive industry, advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are widely used as sheet part components to reduce weight, even though this leads to several challenges. The demand for high-quality shear cutting surfaces that do not require reworking can be fulfilled by adiabatic shear cutting: High strain rates and local temperatures lead to the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASB). While this process is well suited to produce AHSS parts with excellent cutting surface quality, a fundamental understanding of the process is still missing today. In this study, compression tests in a Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar with an initial strain rate of 1000 s-1 were performed in a temperature range between 200 °C and 1000 °C. The experimental results show that high strength steels with nearly the same mechanical properties at RT may possess a considerably different behavior at higher temperatures. The resulting microstructures after testing at different temperatures were analyzed by optical microscopy. The thermo-mechanical material behavior was then considered in an analytical model. To predict the local temperature increase that occurs during the adiabatic blanking process, experimentally determined flow curves were used. Furthermore, the influence of temperature evolution with respect to phase transformation is discussed. This study contributes to a more complete understanding of the relevant microstructural and thermo-mechanical mechanisms leading to the evolution of ASB during cutting of AHSS.

  15. Modelling of the processes of heat and mass transfer in adiabatic steam and drop flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrizhievskij, A.A.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Trifonov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical models for investigating the local and integral characteristics of heat and mass transfer processes during simultaneous motion of adiabatic steam and drop flow and a flux of impurity particles are given. The mathematical model is constrUcted on the basis of one-dimensional stationary eqUations of conservation of mass, thermal energy and momentum of liquid and vapor phases. Dispersion composition of condensed moisture is described by the Nukiyama-Tanasava distribution function formed taking into account the Veber number critical value. Equations of motion and mass balance conservation for impurity particles are included into the mathematical model. These equations are considered as additional inactive phase

  16. Novel Auto thermal Reforming Process for Pure Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.S.E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of heptane for hydrogen production is investigated in a novel Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer-Regenerator system (CFBMRR) utilizing a number of hydrogen and oxygen selective membranes. It is shown that although the amount of carbon deposition is significant, the effect on catalyst deactivation is negligible due to the large solid to gas mass feed ratio and the continuous catalyst regeneration in the system. The combustion of the deposited carbon in the catalyst regenerator supplies the heat needed for the endothermic steam reforming as well as the combustion of flammable gases from the riser reformer. Auto thermal operation is achievable for the entire adiabatic reformer-regenerator system when the exothermic heat generated from the regenerator is sufficient to compensate the endothermic heat consumed in the reformer. Multiplicity of the steady states exists in the range of steam to carbon feed ratio of 1.4442.251 mol/mol. The novel configuration has the potential advantages not only with respect to hydrogen production but also energy minimization

  17. Improvements of reforming performance of a nuclear heated steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko

    1996-10-01

    Performance of an energy production process by utilizing high temperature nuclear process heat was not competitive to that by utilizing non-nuclear process heat, especially fossil-fired process heat due to its less favorable chemical reaction conditions. Less favorable conditions are because a temperature of the nuclear generated heat is around 950degC and the heat transferring fluid is the helium gas pressurized at around 4 MPa. Improvements of reforming performance of nuclear heated steam reforming process were proposed in the present report. The steam reforming process, one of hydrogen production processes, has the possibility to be industrialized as a nuclear heated process as early as expected, and technical solutions to resolve issues for coupling an HTGR with the steam reforming system are applicable to other nuclear-heated hydrogen production systems. The improvements are as follows: As for the steam reformer, (1) increase in heat input to process gas by applying a bayonet type of reformer tubes and so on, (2) increase in reforming temperature by enhancing heat transfer rate by the use of combined promoters of orifice baffles, cylindrical thermal radiation pipes and other proposal, and (3) increase in conversion rate of methane to hydrogen by optimizing chemical compositions of feed process gas. Regarding system arrangement, a steam generator and superheater are set in the helium loop as downstream coolers of the steam reformer, so as to effectively utilize the residual nuclear heat for generating feed steam. The improvements are estimated to achieve the hydrogen production rate of approximately 3800 STP-m 3 /h for the heat source of 10 MW and therefore will provide the potential competitiveness to a fossil-fired steam reforming process. Those improvements also provide the compactness of reformer tubes, giving the applicability of seamless tubes. (J.P.N.)

  18. Constitutional reform processes and political parties: principles for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in constitution-building processes. The publication shows that although country-specific reform processes may be unique in terms of objectives, context, popular involvement, and achievements, they go ...

  19. Approximations of time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanics: adiabatic versus sudden processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnichuk, S V; Dijk, W van; Nogami, Y

    2005-01-01

    By means of a one-dimensional model of a particle in an infinite square-well potential with one wall moving at a constant speed, we examine aspects of time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanics such as adiabatic and sudden processes. The particle is assumed to be initially in the ground state of the potential with its initial width. The time dependence of the wavefunction of the particle in the well is generally more complicated when the potential well is compressed than when it is expanded. We are particularly interested in the case in which the potential well is suddenly compressed. The so-called sudden approximation is not applicable in this case. We also study the energy of the particle in the changing well as a function of time for expansion and contraction as well as for expansion followed by contraction and vice versa

  20. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Adiabatic Processes of an Ideal Gas: Physics Teacher Candidates' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 46 teacher candidates taking the course of "Thermodynamics" in the Department of Physics Teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine the difficulties that teacher candidates experienced in explaining the heat, work and internal energy relationships in the processes of adiabatic compression…

  1. Education management process implementation of reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondratyeva

    2013-12-01

    In the dissertation research looks at the problem of the study. This article contains material research and evaluate different points of view on the issue of a systematic approach using educational management in the implementation of reforms.

  2. Constitutional reform processes and political parties : principles for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in

  3. Nonstationary quantum mechanics. 4. Nonadiabatic properties of the Schroedinger equation in adiabatic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, N S [Low Temperature Department of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia

    1981-04-01

    It is shown that the nonstationary Schroedinger equation does not satisfy a well-known adiabatical principle in thermodynamics. A ''renormalization procedure'' based on the possible existence of a time-irreversible basic evolution equation is proposed with the help of which one comes to agreement in a variety of specific cases of an adiabatic inclusion of a perturbing potential. The ideology of the present article rests essentially on the ideology of the preceding articles, in particular article I.

  4. Nonstationary quantum mechanics. IV. Nonadiabatic properties of the Schroedinger equation in adiabatic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, N S

    1981-04-01

    It is shown that the nonstationary Schroedinger equation does not satisfy a well-known adiabatical principle in thermodynamics. A ''renormalization procedure'' based on the possible existence of a time-irreversible basic evolution equation is proposed with the help of which one comes to agreement in a variety of specific cases of an adiabatic inclusion of a perturbing potential. The ideology of the present article IV rests essentially on the ideology of the preceding articles, in particular article I.

  5. Quantum-classical dynamics of scattering processes in adiabatic and diabatic representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzari, Panchanan; Sarkar, Biplab; Adhikari, Satrajit

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the workability of a TDDVR based [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 5302 (2003)], novel quantum-classical approach, for simulating scattering processes on a quasi-Jahn-Teller model [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 9141 (1996)] surface. The formulation introduces a set of DVR grid points defined by the Hermite part of the basis set in each dimension and allows the movement of grid points around the central trajectory. With enough trajectories (grid points), the method converges to the exact quantum formulation whereas with only one grid point, we recover the conventional molecular dynamics approach. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation and classical equations of motion are solved self-consistently and electronic transitions are allowed anywhere in the configuration space among any number of coupled states. Quantum-classical calculations are performed on diabatic surfaces (two and three) to reveal the effects of symmetry on inelastic and reactive state-to-state transition probabilities, along with calculations on an adiabatic surface with ordinary Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Excellent agreement between TDDVR and DVR results is obtained in both the representations

  6. Progress in catalytic naphtha reforming process: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Mitra; Iranshahi, Davood

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic naphtha reforming process is a vital process for refineries due to the production of high-octane components, which is intensely demanded in our modern life. The significance of this industrial process induced researchers to investigate different aspects of catalytic naphtha reforming process intensively. Some of the investigators try to improve this process by representing more effective catalysts, while others try to elucidate its kinetic and deactivation mechanisms and design more efficient reactor setups. The amount of these established papers is so much that may confuse some of the researchers who want to find collective information about catalytic naphtha reforming process. In the present paper, the published studies from 1949 until now are categorized into three main groups including finding suitable catalyst, revealing appropriate kinetic and deactivation model, and suggesting efficient reactor configuration and mode of operation. These studies are reviewed separately, and a suitable reference is provided for those who want to have access to generalized information about catalytic naphtha reforming process. Finally, various suggestions for revamping the catalytic naphtha reforming process have been proposed as a guideline for further investigations

  7. The telecom reform process in Europe and the upcoming challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    2013-01-01

    of the whole information communications technology (ICT) area requiring new policy and regulatory answers. Originality/value – The paper provides a brief introduction to the European telecommunication reform process, its achievements, present challenges, and the policy responses of the European Union......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to the telecommunication reform process in Europe, its status, and upcoming policy issues. Furthermore, it also aims to provide an overview of the papers in this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides...

  8. First step towards a non-adiabatic description of the fission process based on the Generator Coordinate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different theoretical approaches able to describe fission, microscopic ones can help us in the understanding of this process, as they have the advantage of describing the nuclear structure and the dynamics in a consistent manner. The sole input of the calculations is the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Such a microscopic time-dependent and quantum mechanical formalism has already been used, based on the Gaussian Overlap Approximation of the Generator Coordinate Method with the adiabatic approximation, to analyze the collective dynamics of low-energy fission in 238U [1]. However, at higher energies, a few MeV above the barrier, the adiabatic approximation doesn’t seem valid anymore. Indeed, manifestations of proton pair breaking have been observed in 238U and 239U for an excitation energy of 2.3 MeV above the barrier [2–4]. Taking the intrinsic excitations into account during the fission process will enable us to determine the coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom, in particular from saddle to scission. Guidelines of the new formalism under development are presented and some preliminary results on overlaps between non excited and excited states are discussed.

  9. First Step Towards a Non-Adiabatic Description of the Fission Process Based on the Generator Coordinate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, R.; Goutte, H.; Gogny, D.; Dubray, N.; Lacroix, D.

    2009-01-01

    Among the different theoretical approaches able to describe fission, microscopic ones can help us in the understanding of this process, as they have the advantage of describing the nuclear structure and the dynamics in a consistent manner. The sole input of the calculations is the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Such a microscopic time-dependent and quantum mechanical formalism has already been used, based on the Gaussian Overlap Approximation of the Generator Coordinate Method with the adiabatic approximation, to analyze the collective dynamics of low-energy fission in 238 U. However, at higher energies, a few MeV above the barrier, the adiabatic approximation doesn't seem valid anymore. Indeed, manifestations of proton pair breaking have been observed in 238 U and 239 U for an excitation energy of 2.3 MeV above the barrier. Taking the intrinsic excitations into account during the fission process will enable us to determine the coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom, in particular from saddle to scission. Guidelines of the new formalism under development are presented and some preliminary results on overlaps between non excited and excited states are discussed.

  10. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  11. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  12. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadi, N., E-mail: nurhadi@tekmira.esdm.go.id; Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah [R& D Centre for Mineral and Coal Technology, Jln. Jend.Sudirman no. 623, Bandung. Telp. 022-6030483 (Malaysia); Istadi, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jln. Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Semarang (Malaysia)

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  14. Reforming Scottish Criminal Procedure: In Search of Process Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela R. Ferguson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent proposals to reform Scottish criminal procedure are motivated by considerations of efficiency and accurate fact-finding, and there is little attempt to offer a normative account. This paper describes these proposals and contends that their emphasis on finding ‘the truth’ is misplaced on two distinct bases: (1 it equates erroneous acquittals to wrongful convictions, thus fails to uphold a fundamental tenet of criminal procedure, namely the particular importance of protecting the innocent against wrongful conviction; and (2 it fails to recognise the importance of non-instrumental process values which are at the heart of the adversarial criminal trial.  The paper suggests that it is only by adhering to these process values that the state maintains – and demonstrates that it maintains – its moral authority to condemn and punish offenders. Key notes: Return Directive, entry ban, illegal migrant, criminal law sanctions, crimmigration, expulsion.

  15. Losses of neutral injected fast ions due to adiabaticity breaking processes in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Inoue, Koji; Ishizuka, Takashi; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasawa, Naotaka

    2004-02-01

    Losses of neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions from the confinement region of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) with a strong magnetic mirror are numerically analyzed for parameters relevant to NB injection experiments on the FIX (FRC injection experiment) device [T. Asai et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2294 (2000)]. Ionization processes of beam particles are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The confinement of beam ions is discussed with the concept of accessible regions that restrict the ion excursion and are determined from two constants of motion, the kinetic energy and canonical angular momentum, in the case of an axisymmetric and a steady state FRC without an electrostatic field. From the calculation of the accessible regions, it is found that all the fast ions suffer from the orbit loss on the wall surface and/or the end loss. Single particle orbits are also calculated to find a difference of confinement properties from the results by employing the accessible regions. The magnetic moment is observed to show non-adiabatic motions of the beam ions, which cause a gradual orbit loss on the wall even in a case that a strong magnetic mirror is applied. The results show that the correlation of the magnetic moment disappears as the fast ions experience the density gradient around the separatrix surface and the field-null points. (author)

  16. Integration Processes on Civil Service Reform in the Eurasian Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Borshevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article was studied the process of reforming the institute of civil service in the countries of the Eurasian space (e.g. Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The integration of national systems of public administration and, in particular, the civil service, is an important factor contributing to the implementation of the centripetal tendencies in the post-Soviet space. The research methodology is based on a combination of comparative legal analysis, historical retrospective method, normalization and scaling, structural-functional and system analysis. A comparison of the legal models of public service was made in research. The author puts forward the hypothesis that it is presence the relationship between the quantitative changes (for example, number of employees of civil service and the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators (e.g. number of employed in the economy. In this regard were observed common trends. On materials of the statistical surveys were considered quantitative changes in national systems of civil service. The study of the socio-demographic characteristics of the public service (gender, age, profession allowed to formulate conclusions about the general and specific trends in the reform of the civil service of the analyzed countries. A number of values were first calculated by the author. The work is intended to become the basis for a broad international research on the development of civil service, which is the central mechanism for implementation the integration in the post-Soviet space.

  17. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ETHYLBENZENE DEHYDROGENATION PROCESS KINETICS IN A TWO-STAGE ADIABATIC CONTINUOUS REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation in a two-stage adiabatic reactor with a catalytic bed functioning on continuous technology. The analysis of chemical reactions taking place parallel to the main reaction of styrene formation has been carried out on the basis of which a number of assumptions were made proceeding from which a kinetic scheme describing the mechanism of the chemical reactions during the dehydrogenation process was developed. A mathematical model of the dehydrogenation process, describing the dynamics of chemical reactions taking place in each of the two stages of the reactor block at a constant temperature is developed. The estimation of the rate constants of direct and reverse reactions of each component, formation and exhaustion of the reacted mixture was made. The dynamics of the starting material concentration variations (ethyl benzene batch was obtained as well as styrene formation dynamics and all byproducts of dehydrogenation (benzene, toluene, ethylene, carbon, hydrogen, ect.. The calculated the variations of the component composition of the reaction mixture during its passage through the first and second stages of the reactor showed that the proposed mathematical description adequately reproduces the kinetics of the process under investigation. This demonstrates the advantage of the developed model, as well as loyalty to the values found for the rate constants of reactions, which enable the use of models for calculating the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation under nonisothermal mode in order to determine the optimal temperature trajectory of the reactor operation. In the future, it will reduce energy and resource consumption, increase the volume of produced styrene and improve the economic indexes of the process.

  18. An anticipatory quality improvement process for curricular reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Harry; Loeser, Helen; Irby, David

    2002-09-01

    Over half of American medical schools are currently engaged in significant curricular reform. Traditionally, evaluation of the efficacy of educational changes has occurred well after the implementation of curricular reform, resulting in significant time elapsed before modification of goals and content can be accomplished. We were interested in establishing a process by which a new curriculum could be reviewed and refined before its actual introduction. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine embarked upon a new curriculum for the class entering in September 2001. Two separate committees coordinated plans for curricular change. The Essential Core Steering Committee was responsible for the first two years of training, and the Integrated Clinical Steering Committee guided the development of the third-and fourth-year curriculum. Both groups operated under guidelines of curricular reform, established by the School's Committee on Curriculum and Educational Policy, that emphasized integration of basic, clinical, and social sciences; longitudinal inclusion of themes such as behavior, culture, and ethics; use of clinical cases in teaching; and inclusion of small-group and problem-based learning. In early 2001, the deans of education and curricular affairs appointed an ad hoc committee to examine the status of the first-year curriculum, which had been entirely reformulated into a series of new multidisciplinary block courses. This ad hoc committee was composed of students and clinical faculty members who had not been substantially involved in the detailed planning of the blocks. The charge to the committee was to critique the progress of individual courses, and the first year as a whole, in meeting the goals outlined above, and to make recommendations for improving the preparation of students for the clinical years. To accomplish these goals, the committee reviewed background planning documents; interviewed each course director using a

  19. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  20. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept

  1. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  2. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel integrated thermally coupled moving bed reactors for naphtha reforming process with hydrodealkylation of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranshahi, Davood; Saeedi, Reza; Azizi, Kolsoom; Nategh, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel thermally coupled reactor in CCR naphtha reforming process is modeled. • The required heat of Naphtha process is attained with toluene hydrodealkylation. • A new kinetic model involving 32 pseudo-component and 84 reactions is proposed. • The aromatics and hydrogen production increase 19% and 23%, respectively. - Abstract: Due to the importance of catalytic naphtha reforming process in refineries, development of this process to attain the highest yield of desired products is crucial. In this study, continuous catalyst regeneration naphtha reforming process with radial flow is coupled with hydrodealkylation of toluene to prevent energy loss while enhancing aromatics and hydrogen yields. In this coupled process, heat is transferred between hot and cold sections (from hydrodealkylation of toluene to catalytic naphtha reforming process) using the process integration method. A steady-state two-dimensional model, which considers coke formation on the catalyst pellets, is developed and 32 pseudo-components with 84 reactions are investigated. Kinetic model utilized for HDA process is homogeneous and non-catalytic. The modeling results reveal an approximate increase of 19% and 23% in aromatics and hydrogen molar flow rates, respectively, in comparison with conventional naphtha reforming process. The improvement in aromatics production evidently indicates that HDA is a suitable process to be coupled with naphtha reforming.

  4. Design of the steam reformer for the HTR-10 high temperature process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Huaiming; Xu Yuanhui; Jia Haijun

    2000-01-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Reactor Test Module (HTR-10) is being constructed now and planned to be operational in 2000. One of the objectives is to develop the high temperature process heat application. The methane steam reformer is one of the key-facilities for the nuclear process heat application system. The paper describes the conceptual design of the HTR-10 Steam Reformer with He heating, and the design optimization computer code. It can be used to perform sensitivity analysis for parameters, and to improve the design. Principal parameters and construction features of the HTR-10 reformer heated by He are introduced. (author)

  5. To the Question of Influence of Amanulla's Reforms to Ethnopolitical Processes in the Afghan Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Хомид Саидов

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article are considered some aspects of the deep social and economic reform initiated by emir Amanulla-khan that affect the public and political development of the country, in particular ethnic national processes in Afghanistan.

  6. Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Quantum computers promise to exploit counterintuitive quantum physics principles like superposition, entanglement, and uncertainty to solve problems using fundamentally fewer steps than any conventional computer ever could. The mere possibility of such a device has sharpened our understanding of quantum coherent information, just as lasers did for our understanding of coherent light. The chief obstacle to developing quantum computer technology is decoherence--one of the fastest phenomena in all of physics. In principle, decoherence can be overcome by using clever entangled redundancies in a process called fault-tolerant quantum error correction. However, the quality and scale of technology required to realize this solution appears distant. An exciting alternative is a proposal called ``adiabatic'' quantum computing (AQC), in which adiabatic quantum physics keeps the computer in its lowest-energy configuration throughout its operation, rendering it immune to many decoherence sources. The Adiabatic Quantum Architectures In Ultracold Systems (AQUARIUS) Grand Challenge Project at Sandia seeks to demonstrate this robustness in the laboratory and point a path forward for future hardware development. We are building devices in AQUARIUS that realize the AQC architecture on up to three quantum bits (``qubits'') in two platforms: Cs atoms laser-cooled to below 5 microkelvin and Si quantum dots cryo-cooled to below 100 millikelvin. We are also expanding theoretical frontiers by developing methods for scalable universal AQC in these platforms. We have successfully demonstrated operational qubits in both platforms and have even run modest one-qubit calculations using our Cs device. In the course of reaching our primary proof-of-principle demonstrations, we have developed multiple spinoff technologies including nanofabricated diffractive optical elements that define optical-tweezer trap arrays and atomic-scale Si lithography commensurate with placing individual donor atoms with

  7. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  8. Eyewitness Identification Reform: Data, Theory, and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators view my analyses (Clark, 2012, this issue) as an important step forward in assessing the costs and benefits of eyewitness identification reform. Others suggest that the trade-off between correct identifications lost and false identifications avoided is well-known; that the expected utility model is misspecified; and that the loss of correct identifications due to the use of reformed eyewitness identification procedures is irrelevant to policy decisions, as those correct identifications are the illegitimate product of suggestion and lucky guesses. Contrary to these criticisms, the loss of correct identifications has not been adequately considered in theoretical or policy matters, criticisms regarding the various utilities do not substantively change the nature of the trade-off, and the dismissal of lost correct identifications is based not on data but on an outdated theory of recognition memory. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Energy-efficient biogas reforming process to produce syngas: The enhanced methane conversion by O_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuejing; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of O_2 content from 0 to 15% on Ni/SiO_2 are studied for biogas reforming. • The presence of O_2 in biogas improves CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. • An obvious carbon-resistance effect is observed due to the carbon gasification effect of O_2 in biogas. • The presence of O_2 in biogas greatly helps inhibit the catalyst sintering. - Abstract: We report an energy-efficient biogas reforming process with high and stable methane conversions by O_2 presence. During this biogas reforming process, the effects of various O_2 concentrations in biogas on initial conversions and stability at various temperatures on a Ni/SiO_2 catalyst were detailed investigated. In addition, theoretical energy consumption and conversions were calculated based on the Gibbs energy minimization method to compare with experimental results. Carbon formation and sintering during the reforming process were characterized by thermal gravity analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying this process to an inexpensive nickel catalyst. The results showed that 5% O_2 in biogas improved the CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. The enhancement of stability was attributed to the inhibited sintering, our first finding, and the reduced carbon deposition at the same time, which sustained a stable conversion of CH_4, and proved the applicability of base Ni catalyst to this process. Higher O_2 concentrations (⩾10%) in biogas resulted in severe decrease in CO_2 conversion and greater H_2O productivity. Our proposed biogas reforming process, with a high and stable conversion of CH_4, reduced energy input, and the applicability to inexpensive base metal catalyst, offers a good choice for biogas reforming with low O_2 concentrations (⩽5%) to produce syngas with high energy efficiency.

  10. Acting in Good Time – Conceptual Reflections on the Sequencing of Political Reform Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Beyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, the sequencing of political reform processes has been discussed on a separate basis in the context of different scientific debates. Existing analysis in macroeconomics and democracy theory focuses on shock-therapeutic versus gradual reform policies, the succession of specific reform steps or the right timing of reforms. An analytical approach to sequences has been elaborated. Theoretical concepts of social change, which refer to path dependence or the punctuated development of historical sequences, have evolved in the context of institutionalist research. The present article summarises the state of research and extends it with conceptual reflections on the motivation of sequential political action, which can then serve as a starting point for differentiation between sequencing processes in further research.

  11. Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzynski, C.

    1994-01-01

    Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the open-quotes goodnessclose quotes of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees)

  12. Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.

  13. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Hydrogen Production Process from Glycerol using Steam Reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongpil; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae-Ok; Shin, Dongil; Lee, Seunghwan; Moon, Dong Ju

    2014-01-01

    For improved sustainability of the biorefinery industry, biorefinery-byproduct glycerol is being investigated as an alternate source for hydrogen production. This research designs and optimizes a hydrogen-production process for small hydrogen stations using steam reforming of purified glycerol as the main reaction, replacing existing processes relying on steam methane reforming. Modeling, simulation and optimization using a commercial process simulator are performed for the proposed hydrogen production process from glycerol. The mixture of glycerol and steam are used for making syngas in the reforming process. Then hydrogen are produced from carbon monoxide and steam through the water-gas shift reaction. Finally, hydrogen is separated from carbon dioxide using PSA. This study shows higher yield than former U.S.. DOE and Linde studies. Economic evaluations are performed for optimal planning of constructing domestic hydrogen energy infrastructure based on the proposed glycerol-based hydrogen station

  14. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongchang, Thawatchai; Patumsawad, Suthum

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH 4 ) and ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C 2 H 6 ) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  15. Adiabatic quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Lobe, Elisabeth; Stollenwerk, Tobias; Tröltzsch, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, the field of adiabatic quantum computing has gained importance due to the advances in the realisation of such machines, especially by the company D-Wave Systems. These machines are suited to solve discrete optimisation problems which are typically very hard to solve on a classical computer. Due to the quantum nature of the device it is assumed that there is a substantial speedup compared to classical HPC facilities. We explain the basic principles of adiabatic ...

  16. The Political Economy and Coalitions in Botswana’s Water Sector Reform 2009-13: to what extent can the process of reform be understood?

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Anthony John

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the process of water sector reform in Botswana, focusing on barriers to effective delivery of clean water and improved sanitation services (WSS) to all, and water resource management (WRM), in a water insecure country, dependent for surface water on international river basin organisations. The study provides a crtitical analysis of policy change in progress. The impact of the water reforms on the poor and the process of centralising control of WSS, from both tribal and lo...

  17. Processing and structural characterization of porous reforming catalytic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xianghui; Williams, Jey; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2006-01-01

    Nickel-based catalysts are often used to reform methanol into hydrogen. The preparation and installation of these catalysts are costly and laborious. As an alternative, directly applying catalytic films onto the separator components can improve the manufacturing efficiency. This paper reports the successful deposition of adherent porous NiO-Al 2 O 3 -based catalytic films with well-controlled stoichiometry, using a single-step Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) method. The microstructure, composition and crystalline phase of the as-deposited catalytic films are characterized using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer. The results have demonstrated the capability of AACVD to produce porous NiO-Al 2 O 3 -based catalytic films

  18. Narratives of change and reform processes: global and local transactions in French psychiatric hospital reform after the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    As with the rest of biomedicine, psychiatry has, since the Second World War, developed under the strong influence of the transnational accumulation of a whole series of practices and knowledge. Anthropology has taught us to pay attention to the transactions between local-level actors and those operating at the global level in the construction of this new world of medicine. This article examines the role played by the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee of Mental Health in the reform of the French mental health system during the 1950s. Rooted in the experience of practitioners and administrators participating in the process of reforming local psychiatric systems, the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee developed a new vision of regulating psychiatry, based on professionalism and an idea of a normativity of the doctor-patient relation. This article shows how, by mobilizing the WHO reports' recommendations, French administrators and doctors succeeded in creating a typically French object: "the psychiatric sector", founded on elaborating a new mandate for the psychiatric profession. The article thus questions the deinstitutionalization model as an explanation of transformations of the structure of the French psychiatry system in the post-war period.

  19. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  20. Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PROFIROIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

  1. Thermodynamic comparison of two processes of hydrogen production: steam methane reforming-A solar thermochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah; Boumaza, Mourad

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is mainly employed like primary product, for the synthesis of ammonia. The ammonia is synthesized by chemically combining hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure, in the presence of a catalyst. This ammonia is used, for the production of the nitrate fertilizers. Nowadays hydrogen gains more attention mainly because, it is regarded as a future significant fuel by much of experts. The widespread use of hydrogen as source of energy could help to reduce the concern concerning the safety of energy, the total change of climate and the quality of air. Hydrogen is presented then as an excellent alternate initially and as substitute thereafter. It can play a role even more significant than conventional energies. Indeed, it has the advantage of being nonpolluting and it can use the same means of transport as conventional energies. For Algeria, it proves of importance capital. It not only makes it possible to increase and diversify its energy reserves and its exports but also to provide for its energy needs which become increasingly significant. Although hydrogen can be produced starting from a large variety of resources using a range of various technologies, the natural gas is generally preferred and will remain in the near future the principal primary product for the manufacture of hydrogen. Currently the most effective means of production of hydrogen is the Steam Reforming of Natural Gas (SMR). This process is seen as a one of principal technologies for the production of hydrogen. The disadvantages of this process it's that it consumes a great quantity of primary energy and that it releases in the atmosphere the gases that contribute to the warming of the plane. Among the alternatives processes of hydrogen production one can quote solar thermochemical processes. In this study, an exergetic analysis of the process of hydrogen production based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions is presented. In the first part of this study, an exergetic analysis is made for a temperature of the

  2. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adiabatic Quantum Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Bacon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a many-body quantum system that can be made to quantum compute by the adiabatic application of a large applied field to the system. Prior to the application of the field, quantum information is localized on one boundary of the device, and after the application of the field, this information propagates to the other side of the device, with a quantum circuit applied to the information. The applied circuit depends on the many-body Hamiltonian of the material, and the computation takes place in a degenerate ground space with symmetry-protected topological order. Such “adiabatic quantum transistors” are universal adiabatic quantum computing devices that have the added benefit of being modular. Here, we describe this model, provide arguments for why it is an efficient model of quantum computing, and examine these many-body systems in the presence of a noisy environment.

  4. Reformed and reforming: Adapting the licensing process to meet new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    The NRC has engaged in a steady, albeit modest, examination of its preparedness for advanced designs over the past few years. These efforts have included examination of its own guidance and processes as well as co-operation with the US Department of Energy (US DOE) in identifying key issues and potential strategies. But the NRC is constrained in some respects from devoting substantial resources to the development of new or revised regulatory approaches due to statutory requirements that the NRC recover most of its appropriated funds through user fees imposed on the industry. Unless designers are prepared to put up the funds necessary to cover the fees for review of the new designs, the NRC is not able to review them, and licensees of operating facilities paying annual fees may not all be supportive of the NRC expending resources to develop infrastructure for the review of advanced reactor designs. Given the current context, this article will attempt to reflect on the NRC's current framework for licensing, the lessons from NRC's regulations in 10 CFR Part 52 and strategies for adapting to the new demands that may be made on the agency

  5. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  6. A numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during the steam reforming process of ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiczek, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Robert; Mozdzierz, Marcin; Brus, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during the steam reforming of ethane. From a chemical point of view, the reforming process of heavy hydrocarbons, such as ethane, is complex. One of the main issue is a set of undesired chemical reactions that causes the deposition of solid carbon and consequently blocks the catalytic property of a reactor. In the literature a carbon deposition regime is selected by thermodynamical analysis to design safe operation conditions. In the case of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD, hereafter) models each control volume should be investigated to determinate if carbon deposition is thermodynamically favourable. In this paper the authors combine equilibrium and kinetics analysis to simulate the steam reforming of methane-ethane rich fuel. The results of the computations were juxtaposed with experimental data for methane steam reforming, and good agreement was found. An analysis based on the kinetics of reactions was conducted to predict the influence of temperature drop and non-equilibrium composition on solid carbon deposition. It was found that strong non-uniform temperature distribution in the reactor causes conditions favourable for carbon deposition at the inlet of the reformer. It was shown that equilibrium calculations, often used in the literature, are insufficient.

  7. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  8. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process: evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Falco, M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  9. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process : evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, de M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  10. The Reform Process of Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: From Collegial to Managerial Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Sofia; Carvalho, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Portuguese public higher education institutions have been undergoing a major reform process since 2007. The most noticeable changes were introduced by Law 62/2007, which gave higher education institutions the option to choose between two different institutional models (foundational and public institute), and allowed the implementation of new…

  11. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  12. Back from the brink: The 2008 mediation process and reforms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review. Back from the brink: The 2008 mediation process and reforms in. Kenya. Graça Machel and Benjamin Mkapa 2014. Geneva, African Union Commission, 310 pages. ISBN 978-9966-065-73-5. Reviewed by Charles Nyuykonge. Senior Researcher: Knowledge Production Department, ACCORD. Although much ...

  13. IMPACT OF THE REFORM PROCESS OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA MODIGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian society is in a continuous process of change in which all the economic, social, political, civic saw a new dynamic in trying to adapt to specific conditions of the phenomenon of Europeanization (full member of the European Union. The changing of Romanian society requires the public administration reform to be analyzed and disseminated on the following levels: strategic - by which to redefine the role of the state clearly, legally - using larger framework laws, organizational - administrative and fiscal decentralization, cultural - following a change of values and modes of action of public officials, non governmental organizations, the citizen / customer of public service. The term administrative reform is trivial, repetitive and recurrent nets into change, public administration reform is invited to constantly readjust the organization and the action and to clearly state objectives, called sometimes the brakes released, blockages to overcome obstacles of the past which is manifested by the upward trend of the society. Public administration is criticized especially by the public and less by governments in office. Almost general belief is that the administration functions poorly, fulfil its mission in an unsatisfactory manner, but nevertheless has an impact too on community life, economy and society. This paper aims to identify the type of problems that other countries have had to solve and the need hierarchy and management combined in a single system. Understanding the types of problems encountered and they do other countries in this process will shorten the learning cycle for Romania. The objectives of this approach is that the critical analysis of the relationship between public administration reform and administrative capacity based on the literature, outlining the operational model to assess the reform process in our country, the study of democratization (the stage of democratization of public administration modernization strategy

  14. Reforming European universities: Scope for an evidence-based process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugelers, R.; van der Ploeg, F.; Dewatripont, M.; Thys-Clément, F.; Wilkin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Universities are key players in the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society. However, this crucial sector of society needs restructuring if Europe is not to lose out in the global competition in education, research and innovation. To allow a more evidence based process of

  15. New media technologies and mass media reform processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and assesses the chances for survival and development of the media in Serbia and ib the region, from the perspective of new information and communication technologies (ICT applied in media business. In the paper theoretical method is used and harmonized with the needs of describing the problems and the observed processes and phenomena, as well as empirical method which is used for collecting and interpreting concrete facts and data on the observed processes and phenomena. The starting point lies in the fact that modern media is definitely, more and more, dependent on new technologies. A part of the new technologies is used in the process of collecting, selecting and editing media content, while the other part of the technology is used in the process of dissemination and propulsion of media content to the mass audience, and also in the feedback function as well. The technology revolution, which we describe, started with mp3, jpg and avi files, and continues with internet broadcasting, social networks, cloud technologies and new digital platforms which are used by today's media for distribution of media content. The particularity of the media in the region lies in the fact that they operating in the societes with delay of political and economic transition, so all the productive resources of society, due to this backlog, are slower adapted to the new conditions of business in the digital era. The consequences that have arisen from such dynamics of development make many media in Serbia and the region quite dysfunctional, especially those who were exposed during this transition to long-standing legal, economic and program crises. That is why most of the existing media in Serbia, especially small ones, are unprepared for modernization and they are not ready for re-modeling in accordance with the new technological circumstances.

  16. Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitianiec, W.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.

  17. Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester

  18. Analysis of reforming process of large distorted ring in final enlarging forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Takeshi; Murai, Etsuo

    2002-01-01

    In the construction of reactors or pressure vessels for oil chemical plants and nuclear power stations, mono block open-die forging rings are often utilized. Generally, a large forged ring is manufactured by means of enlarging forging with reductions of the wall thickness. During the enlarging process the circular ring is often distorted and becomes an ellipse in shape. However the shape control of the ring is a complicated work. This phenomenon makes the matter still worse in forging of larger rings. In order to make precision forging of large rings, we have developed the forging method using a v-shape anvil. The v-shape anvil is geometrically adjusted to fit the distorted ring in the final circle and reform automatically the shape of the ring during enlarging forging. This paper has analyzed the reforming process of distorted ring by computer program based on F.E.M. and examined the effect on the precision of ring forging. (author)

  19. Curriculum reform and evolution: Innovative content and processes at one US medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, Janet E; Olvet, Doreen M; Iuli, Richard J; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2018-03-11

    Curriculum reform in medical schools continues to be an ever-present and challenging activity in medical education. This paper describes one school's experiences with specific curricular innovations that were developed or adapted and targeted to meet a clear set of curricular goals during the curriculum reform process. Those goals included: (a) promoting active learning and learner engagement; (b) establishing early professional identity; and (c) developing physician competencies in an integrated and contextual manner while allowing for individualized learning experiences for the millennial student. Six specific innovations championed by the school are described in detail. These included Themes in Medical Education, Translational Pillars, Stony Brook Teaching Families, Transition Courses, Educational Continuous Quality Improvement Processes, and our Career Advising Program. Development of the ideas and design of the innovations were done by faculty and student teams. We discuss successes and ongoing challenges with these innovations which are currently in the fourth year of implementation. Our curriculum reform has emphasized the iterative process of curriculum building. Based on our experience, we discuss general and practical guidelines for curriculum innovation in its three phases: setting the stage, implementation, and monitoring for the achievement of intended goals.

  20. Study of Catalyst Variation Effect in Glycerol Conversion Process to Hydrogen Gas by Steam Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Hartono, R.; Elizabeth, E.; Annisa, A. N.

    2018-04-01

    Along with the economic development, needs of energy being increase too. Hydrogen as alternative energy has many usages. Besides that, hydrogen is one source of energy that is a clean fuel, but process production of hydrogen from natural gas as a raw material has been used for a long time. Therefore, there is need new invention to produce hydrogen from the others raw material. Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is a compound which can be used as a raw material for hydrogen production. By using glycerol as a raw material of hydrogen production, we can get added value of glycerol as well as an energy source solution. The process production of hydrogen by steam reforming is a thermochemical process with efficiency 70%. This process needs contribution of catalyst to improve its efficiency and selectivity of the process. In this study will be examined the effect variation of catalyst for glycerol conversion process to hydrogen by steam reforming. The method for catalyst preparation was variation of catalyst impregnation composition, catalyst calcined with difference concentration of hydrochloric acid and calcined with difference hydrochloric acid ratio. After that, all of catalyst which have been prepared, used for steam reforming process for hydrogen production from glycerol as a raw material. From the study, the highest yield of hydrogen gas showed in the process production by natural zeolite catalyst with 1:15 Hydrochloric acid ratio was 42.28%. Hydrogen yield for 2M calcined natural zeolite catalyst was 38.37%, for ZSM-5 catalyst was 15.83%, for 0.5M calcined natural zeolite was 13.09% and for ultrasonic natural zeolite was 11.43%. The lowest yield of hydrogen gas showed in catalyst 2Zn/ZSM-5 with 11.22%. This result showed that hydrogen yield product was affected by catalyst variation because of the catalyst has difference characteristic and difference catalytic activity after the catalyst preparation process.

  1. Investigating the Plasma-Assisted and Thermal Catalytic Dry Methane Reforming for Syngas Production: Process Design, Simulation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Delikonstantis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing surplus of green electricity generated by renewable energy technologies has fueled research towards chemical industry electrification. By adapting power-to-chemical concepts, such as plasma-assisted processes, cheap resources could be converted into fuels and base chemicals. However, the feasibility of those electrified processes at large scale has not been investigated yet. Thus, the current work strives to compare, for first time in the literature, plasma-assisted production of syngas, from CH4 and CO2 (dry methane reforming, with thermal catalytic dry methane reforming. Specifically, both processes are conceptually designed to deliver syngas suitable for methanol synthesis (H2/CO ≥ 2 in mole. The processes are simulated in the Aspen Plus process simulator where different process steps are investigated. Heat integration and equipment cost estimation are performed for the most promising process flow diagrams. Collectively, plasma-assisted dry methane reforming integrated with combined steam/CO2 methane reforming is an effective way to deliver syngas for methanol production. It is more sustainable than combined thermal catalytic dry methane reforming with steam methane reforming, which has also been proposed for syngas production of H2/CO ≥ 2; in the former process, 40% more CO2 is captured, while 38% less H2O is consumed per mol of syngas. Furthermore, the plasma-assisted process is less complex than the thermal catalytic one; it requires higher amount of utilities, but comparable capital investment.

  2. Exploration on practice teaching reform of Photoelectric Image Processing course under applied transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Binfang; Li, Xiaoqin; Liu, Changqing; Li, Jianqi

    2017-08-01

    With the further applied transformation of local colleges, teachers are urgently needed to make corresponding changes in the teaching content and methods from different courses. The article discusses practice teaching reform of the Photoelectric Image Processing course in the Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering major. The Digital Signal Processing (DSP) platform is introduced to the experimental teaching. It will mobilize and inspire students and also enhance their learning motivation and innovation through specific examples. The course via teaching practice process has become the most popular course among students, which will further drive students' enthusiasm and confidence to participate in all kinds of electronic competitions.

  3. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  4. Adiabatic quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) started as an approach to solving optimization problems and has evolved into an important universal alternative to the standard circuit model of quantum computing, with deep connections to both classical and quantum complexity theory and condensed matter physics. This review gives an account of the major theoretical developments in the field, while focusing on the closed-system setting. The review is organized around a series of topics that are essential to an understanding of the underlying principles of AQC, its algorithmic accomplishments and limitations, and its scope in the more general setting of computational complexity theory. Several variants are presented of the adiabatic theorem, the cornerstone of AQC, and examples are given of explicit AQC algorithms that exhibit a quantum speedup. An overview of several proofs of the universality of AQC and related Hamiltonian quantum complexity theory is given. Considerable space is devoted to stoquastic AQC, the setting of most AQC work to date, where obstructions to success and their possible resolutions are discussed.

  5. Adiabatic quantum simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Biamonte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be controllable, and built using existing technology. In some cases, moving away from gate-model-based implementations of quantum computing may offer a more feasible solution for particular experimental implementations. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-local interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-local interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes free evolution until measured. This allows one to recover e.g. the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian being simulated. Given a ground state, this scheme can be used to verify the QMA-complete problem LOCAL HAMILTONIAN, and is therefore likely more powerful than classical computing.

  6. Reform of abortion law in Uruguay: context, process and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of process parameter and reformer configuration for hydrogen production from steam reforming of heavy hydrocarbons. Paper no. IGEC-1-079

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The present optimization investigation is classified into reforming configuration optimization in one hand and parameter optimization of each configuration on the other hand. Heptane is used as a model component for heavy hydrocarbons. The proposed novel reforming process is basically a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Membrane Reformer (CFBMR) with continuous catalyst regeneration and gas-solid separation. Composite hydrogen selective membranes are used for removing the product hydrogen from the reacting gas mixture and therefore driving the reversible reactions beyond their thermodynamic equilibriums. Dense perovskite oxygen selective membranes are also used to introduce oxygen for the exothermic oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon. Four configurations are investigated, two of them are with the catalyst regeneration before the gas-solid separation and the other two are with the catalyst regeneration after the gas-solid separation. The optimization of the performance of each configuration is carried out for a number of design and operating parameters as optimization parameters and under both non-autothermal and autothermal reforming conditions. Results show that the autothermal operation with direct contact between cold feeds (water and heptane) and hot circulating catalyst can be the best configuration for efficient hydrogen production with minimum energy consumption. The maximum net hydrogen yield is 16.732 moles of hydrogen per mole of heptane fed, which is 76.05% of the maximum theoretical hydrogen yield of 22. (author)

  8. Generalized shortcuts to adiabaticity and enhanced robustness against decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alan C.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2018-01-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a general approach to mimic adiabatic quantum processes via arbitrarily fast evolutions in Hilbert space. For these counter-diabatic evolutions, higher speed comes at higher energy cost. Here, the counter-diabatic theory is employed as a minimal energy demanding scheme for speeding up adiabatic tasks. As a by-product, we show that this approach can be used to obtain infinite classes of transitionless models, including time-independent Hamiltonians under certain conditions over the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian. We apply these results to investigate shortcuts to adiabaticity in decohering environments by introducing the requirement of a fixed energy resource. In this scenario, we show that generalized transitionless evolutions can be more robust against decoherence than their adiabatic counterparts. We illustrate this enhanced robustness both for the Landau-Zener model and for quantum gate Hamiltonians.

  9. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  10. A novel integrated process of coal pyrolysis and methane CO{sub 2} reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Wang; Pengfei Wang; Lijun Jin; Haoquan Hu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2007-07-01

    In the paper, a novel pyrolysis method, namely coal pyrolysis coupling with CO{sub 2} reforming of methane (CRMP) or catalytic pyrolysis of coal coupling with CO{sub 2} reforming of methane (CRMCP), for improving the tar yield of coal pyrolysis was introduced. The behaviours of YM coal in both processes were investigated and compared with pyrolysis under N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The results show that the tar yield of coal pyrolysis in both processes obviously increase compared with that in N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. When YM coal pyrolysis was carried out in stream of mixture gas CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} (1:1) with the existence of the catalyst at 0.1 MPa and 800{sup o}C, the tar yield is 2.8 times for CRMP and 4.3 times for CRMCP as that of pyrolysis under N{sub 2} and 1.7 and 2.6 times as that of hydropyrolysis at the same conditions, respectively. Sulfur content of char obtained from CRMP and CRMCP process are lower, especially in CRMP process, than that from N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  12. Heat supply analysis of steam reforming hydrogen production process in conventional and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2015-01-01

    Tile analysis of heat energy supply in the production of hydrogen by natural gas steam reforming process has been done. The aim of the study is to compare the energy supply system of conventional and nuclear heat. Methodology used in this study is an assessment of literature and analysis based on the comparisons. The study shows that the heat sources of fossil fuels (natural gas) is able to provide optimum operating conditions of temperature and pressure of 850-900 °C and 2-3 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by radiation heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved on the catalyst tube relatively high (50-80 kW/m"2) and provide high thermal efficiency of about 85 %. While in the system with nuclear energy, due to the demands of safety, process operating at less than optimum conditions of temperature and pressure of 800-850 °C and 4.5 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by convection heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved catalyst tube is relatively low (1020 kW/m"2) and it provides a low thermal efficiency of about 50 %. Modifications of reformer and heat utilization can increase the heat flux up to 40 kW/m"2 so that the thermal efficiency can reach 78 %. Nevertheless, the application of nuclear energy to hydrogen production with steam reforming process is able to reduce the burning of fossil fuels which has implications for the potential decrease in the rate of CO2 emissions into the environment. (author)

  13. Curricular Revision and Reform: The Process, What Was Important, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkiw, Jan E; Nelson, Richard W; Watson, Johanna L; Conley, Alan J; Raybould, Helen E; Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen

    Beginning in 2005, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of California underwent major curricular review and reform. To provide information for others that follow, we have documented our process and commented on factors that were critical to success, as well as factors we found surprising, difficult, or problematic. The review and reform were initiated by the Executive Committee, who led the process and commissioned the committees. The planning stage took 6 years and involved four faculty committees, while the implementation stage took 5 years and was led by the Curriculum Committee. We are now in year 2 of the institutionalizing stage and no longer refer to our reform as the "new curriculum." The change was driven by a desire to improve the curriculum and the learning environment of the students by aligning the delivery of information with current teaching methodologies and implementing adult learning strategies. We moved from a department- and discipline-based curriculum to a school-wide integrated block curriculum that emphasized student-centered, inquiry-based learning. A limit was placed on in-class time to allow students to apply classroom knowledge by solving problems and cases. We found the journey long and arduous, requiring tremendous commitment and effort. In the change process, we learned the importance of adequate planning, leadership, communication, and a reward structure for those doing the "heavy lifting." Specific to our curricular design, we learned the importance of the block leader role, of setting clear expectations for students, and of partnering with students on the journey.

  14. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  15. Experimental evaluation of methane dry reforming process on a membrane reactor to hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabiano S.A.; Benachour, Mohand; Abreu, Cesar A.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], Email: f.aruda@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In a fixed bed membrane reactor evaluations of methane-carbon dioxide reforming over a Ni/{gamma}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were performed at 773 K, 823 K and 873 K. A to convert natural gas into syngas a fixed-bed reactor associate with a selective membrane was employed, where the operating procedures allowed to shift the chemical equilibrium of the reaction in the direction of the products of the process. Operations under hydrogen permeation, at 873 K, promoted the increase of methane conversion, circa 83%, and doubled the yield of hydrogen production, when compared with operations where no hydrogen permeation occurred. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a national process of reforming curricula in postgraduate medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang, Gunver; Bugge, Lasse; Beck, Henning

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: A national reform of the postgraduate medical education in Denmark introduced (1) Outcome-based education, (2) The CanMEDS framework of competence related to seven roles of the doctor, and (3) In-training assessment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the process...... of developing new curricula for 38 specialist training programmes. The research question was: which conditions promote and which conditions impede the process? METHODS: Evaluation of the process was conducted among 76 contact-persons, who were chairing the curriculum development process within the specialties...... and motivation in faculty and support from written guidelines and seminars. Identified impeding factors included insufficient pedagogical support, poor introduction to the task, changing and inconsistent information from authorities, replacement of advisors, and stressful deadlines. CONCLUSIONS: This study...

  17. Improving the positive feedback adiabatic logic familiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fischer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive Feedback Adiabatic Logic (PFAL shows the lowest energy dissipation among adiabatic logic families based on cross-coupled transistors, due to the reduction of both adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses. The dissipation primarily depends on the resistance of the charging path, which consists of a single p-channel MOSFET during the recovery phase. In this paper, a new logic family called Improved PFAL (IPFAL is proposed, where all n- and pchannel devices are swapped so that the charge can be recovered through an n-channel MOSFET. This allows to decrease the resistance of the charging path up to a factor of 2, and it enables a significant reduction of the energy dissipation. Simulations based on a 0.13µm CMOS process confirm the improvements in terms of power consumption over a large frequency range. However, the same simple design rule, which enables in PFAL an additional reduction of the dissipation by optimal transistor sizing, does not apply to IPFAL. Therefore, the influence of several sources of dissipation for a generic IPFAL gate is illustrated and discussed, in order to lower the power consumption and achieve better performance.

  18. Unionism, the Decision-Making Process and Social Security Reform in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast literature on social security reform there are relatively few studies that analyze the participation of representatives coming from the union movement in the decision-making process. This article aims to fill part of that gap in Brazilian academic production on unionism and public policy. In situations in which unionist representatives support the ruling party, does the union bloc tend to defend the specific interests of their base of social representation or to follow the guidance of the party coalition of which they are part? The study addresses this research problemby analyzing the participation of the union bloc in the decision-making process of a social security reform, Proposal of Amendment to the Constitution, Article 40 (PEC 40, during the first term of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's government. The main findings of the study confirm the thesis of party predominance. In an institutional political scenario in which party discipline prevails, unionist representatives and senators tend to follow the guidance of the party coalition even under contrary pressures from their electoral base. The research sheds light on the relations involved between the Executive and Legislative branches, in the process of changing public policy, in which a government considered to be allied imposes losses for specific sectors of the union base, notably the active and inactive public servants of the federal government, states and municipalities.

  19. Topology hidden behind the breakdown of adiabaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L.-B.; Chen, S.-G.

    2005-01-01

    For classical Hamiltonian systems, the adiabatic condition may fail at some critical points. However, the breakdown of the adiabatic condition does not always cause the adiabatic evolution to be destroyed. In this paper, we suggest a supplemental condition of the adiabatic evolution for the fixed points of classical Hamiltonian systems when the adiabatic condition breaks down at the critical points. As an example, we investigate the adiabatic evolution of the fixed points of a classical Hamiltonian system which has a number of applications

  20. Decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2015-06-01

    Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master-equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit T2 time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary cancellation methods, designed to improve the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computing in the closed-system setting, remain beneficial in the open-system setting. To address the high computational cost of master-equation simulations, we also demonstrate that a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that explicitly accounts for a thermal bosonic bath can be used to interpolate between classical and quantum annealing. Our study highlights and clarifies the significantly different role played by decoherence in the adiabatic and circuit models of quantum computing.

  1. Catalytic Reforming: Methodology and Process Development for a Constant Optimisation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avenier Priscilla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic reforming process has been used to produce high octane gasoline since the 1940s. It would appear to be an old process that is well established and for which nothing new could be done. It is however not the case and constant improvements are proposed at IFP Energies nouvelles. With a global R&D approach using new concepts and forefront methodology, IFPEN is able to: propose a patented new reactor concept, increasing capacity; ensure efficiency and safety of mechanical design for reactor using modelization of the structure; develop new catalysts to increase process performance due to a high comprehension of catalytic mechanism by using, an experimental and innovative analytical approach (119Sn Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and also a Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations; have efficient, reliable and adapted pilots to validate catalyst performance.

  2. Why infrastructure still matters: unravelling water reform processes in an uneven waterscape in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeltsje Sanne Kemerink

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. Whereas before governments primarily invested in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure and were mainly concerned with the distribution of water, in the new approach they mainly focus on managing water resources systems by stipulating general frameworks for water allocation. This paper studies the rationales used to justify the water reform process in Kenya and discusses how and to what extent these rationales apply to different groups of water users within Likii catchment in the central part of the country. Adopting a critical institutionalist's perspective, this paper shows how the water resource configurations in the catchment are constituted by the interplay between a normative policy model introduced in a plural institutional context and the disparate infrastructural options available to water users as result of historically produced uneven social relations. We argue that, to progressively redress the colonial legacy, direct investments in infrastructure for marginalized water users and targeting the actual (redistribution of water to the users might be more effective than focusing exclusively on institutional reforms.

  3. Comparative simulation of a fluidised bed reformer using industrial process simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Hamed; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rahmat; Sarvar-Amini, Amin; Haghtalab, Ali; Mostoufi, Navid

    2016-08-01

    A simulation model is developed by commercial simulators in order to predict the performance of a fluidised bed reformer. As many physical and chemical phenomena take place in the reformer, two sub-models (hydrodynamic and reaction sub-models) are needed. The hydrodynamic sub-model is based on the dynamic two-phase model and the reaction sub-model is derived from the literature. In the overall model, the bed is divided into several sections. In each section, the flow of the gas is considered as plug flow through the bubble phase and perfectly mixed through the emulsion phase. Experimental data from the literature were used to validate the model. Close agreement was found between the model of both ASPEN Plus (ASPEN PLUS 2004 ©) and HYSYS (ASPEN HYSYS 2004 ©) and the experimental data using various sectioning of the reactor ranged from one to four. The experimental conversion lies between one and four sections as expected. The model proposed in this work can be used as a framework in developing the complicated models for non-ideal reactors inside of the process simulators.

  4. The role of the State in land reform processes: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Botella Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el proceso de reforma agrarian en Latinoamérica y caracterizar el caso de Brasil, por esta razón voy a exponer una visión general del proceso y el rol de los gobiernos durante el siglo XX acorde al punto de vista de organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial o el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Como punto a añadir al objetivo de mi investigación está el explicar en términos generales y únicamente con un análisis teórico el proceso de reforma agraria y, por esta razón, me gustaría mostrar las mejores normas a fin de poner en práctica esta clase de política de acuerdo a la difícil situación del punto de salida. Finalmente, la presencia de Brasil será tomada para demostrar las importantes implicaciones de los movimientos sociales para llevar a cabo los procesos de reforma agraria.____________________ABSTRACT:The purpose of my article is to study land reform processes in Latin America and characterise the case of Brazil, for this reason I am going to expound a general vision of the process and the role of Governments during the 20th century according to the point of view of International Organizations like The World Bank or The Inter-American Development Bank. In addition the objective of my research is explaining in general terms and only with a theoretical analysis land reform processes and, for this reason, I would like to show the best norms in order to put in practise this kind of policy according to the difficult situation of the starting point. Finally the instance of Brazil will be undertaken to demonstrate the main implications of social movements in order to make land reform processes.

  5. Constitutional framework of the process of decentralization and public administration reform in Serbia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiplić Svetozar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the comparative analyze of the processes of the decentralization reorganization and reform of the public administration at the level of the horizontal governance organization in Serbia and Croatia. At the first part of the work the authors analyze the decentralization and devolution as well as their demarcation in the sense of their related but not similar meanings. The second part is devoted to the historical experiences and genesis foundations of the common state where Serbia and Croatia were joined. The particular historical developments of Serbia and Croatia influenced the present attitude of their political elites toward decentralization. The third, final part/conclusion, is dedicated to a comparative analyses of the constitutional solutions in Serbia and Croatia which are related to the vertical organization. .

  6. Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)

  7. Life Cycle Assessment Of Hydrogen Production From Natural Gas Reforming Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, M.

    2010-01-01

    Society has become concerned about the issues of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation. The environmental performance of products or processes has become a key issue, which is why ways to minimize the effects on the environment are investigated. The most effective tool for this purpose is called life cycle assessment (LCA). This concept considers the entire life cycle of product or process. The life cycle of a product begins with the extraction of raw materials from the earth to create the product and ends at the point when all materials are returned to the earth. LCA makes it possible to estimate the cumulative environmental impacts resulting from all stages in the product life cycle, often including impacts not considered in more traditional analyses. Therefore, LCA provides a comprehensive view of the environmental aspects of the product or process and a more accurate picture of the true environmental trade-offs in product selection. In the case of this study, life cycle assessments of hydrogen production via natural gas reforming process are investigated for environmental affect.

  8. Teachers' Emotions in the Context of Education Reform: Labor Process Theory and Social Constructionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Kwong, Tsun Lok

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many teachers suffered different kinds of negative emotions in the context of education reforms. A typical explanation was that the education reforms disempowered teachers in teaching, so teachers were forced to do much non-instructional work. Teachers considered their work meaningless but were powerless to change it, and…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  10. Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, B; Anders, J; Markham, D

    2014-01-01

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)

  11. Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components’ accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components’ accuracy by comparing each component’s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship’s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1 extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2 registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles’ shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration’s direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

  12. Impact of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform on hospital patient experience and processes-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Saadat, Lily; Chung, Jeanette; Dahlke, Allison; Yang, Anthony D; Odell, David D; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) expanded restrictions on resident duty hours. While studies have shown no association between these restrictions and improved outcomes, process-of-care and patient experience measures may be more sensitive to resident performance, and thus may be impacted by duty hour policies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the 2011 resident duty hour reform and measures of processes-of-care and patient experience. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey data and process-of-care scores were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website for 1 year prior to (1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011) and 1 year after (1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012) duty hour reform implementation. Using a difference-in-differences model, non-teaching and teaching hospitals were compared before and after the 2011 reform to test the association of this policy with changes in process-of-care and patient experience measure scores. Duty hour reform was not associated with a change in the five patient experience measures evaluated, including patients rating a hospital 9 or 10 (coefficient -0.003, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.79) or stating they would 'definitely recommend' a hospital (coefficient -0.28, 95% CI -1.01 to 0.44). For all 10 process-of-care measures examined, such as antibiotic timing (coefficient -0.462, 95% CI -1.502 to 0.579) and discontinuation (0.188, 95% CI -0.529 to 0.904), duty hour reform was not associated with a change in scores. The 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was not associated with improvements in process-of-care and patient experience measures. These data should be considered when considering reform of resident duty hour policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Developing a Steady-state Kinetic Model for Industrial Scale Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif Mohaddecy, R.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for high octane gasoline as a transportation fuel, the catalytic naphtha reformer has become one of the most important processes in petroleum refineries. In this research, the steady-state modelling of a catalytic fixed-bed naphtha reforming process to predict the momentous output variables was studied. These variables were octane number, yield, hydrogen purity, and temperature of all reforming reactors. To do such a task, an industrial scale semi-regenerative catalytic naphtha reforming unit was studied and modelled. In addition, to evaluate the developed model, the predicted variables i.e. outlet temperatures of reactors, research octane number, yield of gasoline and hydrogen purity were compared against actual data. The results showed that there is a close mapping between the actual and predicted variables, and the mean relative absolute deviation of the mentioned process variables were 0.38 %, 0.52 %, 0.54 %, 0.32 %, 4.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively.

  14. Investigation of hydrogen generation in a three reactor chemical looping reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohammed N.; Shamim, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-reactor based chemical looping reforming system for hydrogen production. • Investigation of operating parameters using a system-level model. • Optimum operating conditions for hydrogen production are identified. • Different operating parameters affect the reactor temperatures differently. - Abstract: Chemical looping reforming (CLR) is a relatively new method to produce hydrogen (H_2) and is also used as an energy conversion method for solid, liquid or gaseous fuels. There are various advantages of this method such as inherent carbon dioxide (CO_2) capture, minimal NOx emissions and the H_2 production. In this process, there is no direct contact between the fuel and oxidizer. This method utilizes oxygen from an oxygen carrier which may be a transition metal. The idea is to split the combustion process into three separate sub-processes by employing three separate reactors: air reactor where the oxygen carrier is oxidized by air, fuel reactor where natural gas is oxidized to produce a stream of CO_2 and H_2O and steam reactor where the steam is reduced to produce H_2. In this study, a thermodynamic model with iron oxides as oxygen carrier has been developed using Aspen Plus by employing conservation of mass and energy for all the components of the CLR system. The developed model was employed to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as mass flow rates of air, fuel, steam and oxygen carrier and fraction of inert material on H_2 and CO_2 production and key reactor temperatures. The results show that the H_2 production increases with the increase in air, fuel and steam flow rates up to a certain limit and stays constant for higher flow rates. The CO_2 production follows a similar trend. Similarly, the H_2 production also increases with the increase in oxide flow rate and fraction of inert material up to a particular value, but then decrease for higher oxide flow rates and inert fractions. Reactor temperatures were also

  15. Adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carvalho, A.M.G.; Mejía, C.S.; Ponte, C.A.; Silva, L.E.L.; Kaštil, Jiří; Kamarád, Jiří; Gomes, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 246. ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * adiabatic temperature change * calorimetric device * gadolinium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  16. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood

  17. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  18. Quantum adiabatic Markovian master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albash, Tameem; Zanardi, Paolo; Boixo, Sergio; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We develop from first principles Markovian master equations suited for studying the time evolution of a system evolving adiabatically while coupled weakly to a thermal bath. We derive two sets of equations in the adiabatic limit, one using the rotating wave (secular) approximation that results in a master equation in Lindblad form, the other without the rotating wave approximation but not in Lindblad form. The two equations make markedly different predictions depending on whether or not the Lamb shift is included. Our analysis keeps track of the various time and energy scales associated with the various approximations we make, and thus allows for a systematic inclusion of higher order corrections, in particular beyond the adiabatic limit. We use our formalism to study the evolution of an Ising spin chain in a transverse field and coupled to a thermal bosonic bath, for which we identify four distinct evolution phases. While we do not expect this to be a generic feature, in one of these phases dissipation acts to increase the fidelity of the system state relative to the adiabatic ground state. (paper)

  19. Health sector reform processes in Nigeria: A review of factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Medicine and Health Development ... district health system, community-based health insurance ,immunization and disease- ... of the key factors which have determined whether reforms preferentially benefit the poorest ...

  20. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sangchul, E-mail: soh@qf.org.qa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Kais, Sabre, E-mail: kais@purdue.edu [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  1. Process for manufacture of a catalyst suitable for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons and for obtaining methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golebiowski, A.; Romotowski, T.; Hennel, W.; Wroblewska-Wroblewska, T.; Polanski, A.; Janecki, Z.; Paluch-Paluch, S.

    1982-07-29

    The invention concerns a process for the manufacture of a catalyst suitable for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons or for obtaining methane, by the deposition of the catalytic components on a metal carrier with a large surface area, particularly a process for the manufacture of a solid nickel catalyst, which is suitable for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons, particularly of methane. The following steps of the process are carried out: producing a highly porous layer of spongy metal from Ni powder on the side of a metal wall away from a heat medium, which separates the reaction mixture from the heat medium, then separate application of a non-reducing oxide (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and a reducing oxide (nickel oxide) on the spongy metal by soaking with metal salt solution and then roasting in the temperature range of 400 to 1200/sup 0/C.

  2. Reactor modeling of sorption-enhanced autothermal reforming of methane. Part I: Performance study of hydrotalcite and lithium zirconate-based processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halabi, M.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schaaf, van der J.; Cobden, P.D.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis for the sorption-enhanced autothermal reforming of CH4 in a fixed bed reformer for pure H2 production with in situ CO2 capture. The process is analyzed for two candidate sorbents of K-promoted hydrotalcite and lithium zirconate in a fixed bed reactor using

  3. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  4. The Canadian environmental assessment process: current process, expected reforms, and implications for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order (EARP) was the Canadian federal law governing environmental assessment of projects. EARP had been subject to misinterpretation, had been significantly modified in different directions as a result of numerous court cases, and no longer accurately reflected government policy. Parliament therefore passed the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), which received Royal Assent in 1992, but had still not been proclaimed at the time of the conference, pending a review of draft regulations. CEAA will speed up stalled projects, particularly in the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry, by removing uncertainty and by permitting more focussed, flexible, and consistent public reviews; it defines what kind of government projects require approval; it provides for integration of environmental concerns into federal decision making, e.g. by the AECB; it will allow less expensive and more timely environmental assessments

  5. Ion Motion in the Adiabatic Focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we numerically study the effect of ion motion in an adiabatic focuser, motivated by a recent suggestion that ion motion in an adiabatic focuser might be significant and even preclude operation of the focuser as previously envisioned. It is shown that despite ion motion the adiabatic focuser should work as well as originally envisioned

  6. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario

  7. HIGHTEX: a computer program for the steady-state simulation of steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Seya, Toko

    1977-08-01

    This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tube, and treats the reactant single-phase in the two-dimensional catalyst bed. Output of the computer program is radial distributions of temperature and reaction products in the catalyst-packed bed, pressure loss of the packed bed, stress in the reformer tube, hydrogen permeation rate through the reformer tube, heat rate of reaction, and heat-transfer rate between helium and process gas. The running time (cpu) for a 9m-long bayonet type reformer tube is 12 min with FACOM-230/75. (auth.)

  8. Socio-Cultural Factors of the Russian Reforming Process of the 18-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Korobkov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern Russian reforms aimed at moving the society to a new stage of development are going through a complicated, contradictory way, with great social costs and zigzags of the political course of power. This poses the task of identifying and overcoming the inhibiting factors in the development of the country. One of the most effective mechanisms of such work is the study of the three-hundred-year experience of Russian reformation and the identification of timeless sociocultural and mental risk factors affecting the nature and content of reforms. This article is devoted to this purpose. In the course of study, we have drawn the conclusions about the deterrent effect on the development of the country of such features of Russian society as its socio-cultural split, absence of internal mechanisms for the self-development of society, lack of a dialogue between government and society, whose relationships are determined by the principle of "antisocial state - anti-state society", mental characteristics of the Russian intelligentsia, which dogmatically implements particular ideas at the expense of economic expediency and common sense, orientation of the ruling elite on the Western values as opposed to national traditions, conservatism and lack of conscious reformative motivation of the masses. This leads to the need to correlate the current reforms not only with the current trends of socio-economic development, but also with the sociocultural foundations of Russian society and the peculiarities of its mentality.

  9. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration Processes in Biogas Tri-Reforming Process. The Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Izquierdo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies Ni-based catalyst deactivation and regeneration processes in the presence of H2S under a biogas tri-reforming process for hydrogen production, which is an energy vector of great interest. 25 ppm of hydrogen sulfide were continuously added to the system in order to provoke an observable catalyst deactivation, and once fully deactivated two different regeneration processes were studied: a self-regeneration and a regeneration by low temperature oxidation. For that purpose, several Ni-based catalysts and a bimetallic Rh-Ni catalyst supported on alumina modified with CeO2 and ZrO2 were used as well as a commercial Katalco 57-5 for comparison purposes. Ni/Ce-Al2O3 and Ni/Ce-Zr-Al2O3 catalysts almost recovered their initial activity. For these catalysts, after the regeneration under oxidative conditions at low temperature, the CO2 conversions achieved—79.5% and 86.9%, respectively—were significantly higher than the ones obtained before sulfur poisoning—66.7% and 45.2%, respectively. This effect could be attributed to the support modification with CeO2 and the higher selectivity achieved for the Reverse Water-Gas-Shift (rWGS reaction after catalysts deactivation. As expected, the bimetallic Rh-Ni/Ce-Al2O3 catalyst showed higher resistance to deactivation and its sulfur poisoning seems to be reversible. In the case of the commercial and Ni/Zr-Al2O3 catalysts, they did not recover their activity.

  10. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in cutting a spin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Feng-Hua [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); School of Computer Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Zhao-Ming, E-mail: mingmoon78@126.com [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gu, Yong-Jian, E-mail: yjgu@ouc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2017-01-15

    “Shortcuts to adiabaticity” represents a strategy for accelerating a quantum adiabatic process, is useful for preparing or manipulating a quantum state. In this paper, we investigate the adiabaticity in the dynamics of an XY spin chain. During the process of cutting one long chain into two short chains, a “shortcut” can be obtained by applying a sequence of external pulses. The fidelity which measures the adiabaticity can be dramatically enhanced by increasing the pulse strength or pulse duration time. This reliability can be kept for different types of pulses, such as random pulse time interval or random strength. The free choice of the pulse can be explained by the adiabatic representation of the Hamiltonian, and it shows that the control effects are determined by the integral of the control function in the time domain. - Highlights: • “Shortcuts to adiabaticity” is proposed by applying external pulses. • The adiabaticity can be accelerated by increasing pulse strength or duration time. • Control effects are determined by the integral of the control function with respect to time.

  11. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  12. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  13. Plasma heating by adiabatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.A. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    These two lectures will cover the following three topics: (i) The application of adiabatic compression to toroidal devices is reviewed. The special case of adiabatic compression in tokamaks is considered in more detail, including a discussion of the equilibrium, scaling laws, and heating effects. (ii) The ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) device which was completed in May 1972, is described in detail. Compression of a tokamak plasma across a static toroidal field is studied in this device. The device is designed to produce a pre-compression plasma with a major radius of 17 cm, toroidal field of 20 kG, and current of 90 kA. The compression leads to a plasma with major radius of 38 cm and minor radius of 10 cm. Scaling laws imply a density increase of a factor 6, temperature increase of a factor 3, and current increase of a factor 2.4. An additional feature of ATC is that it is a large tokamak which operates without a copper shell. (iii) Data which show that the expected MHD behavior is largely observed is presented and discussed. (U.S.)

  14. CFD analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming: Coupled interactions of transport, heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Deutschmann, Olaf

    Direct internal reforming in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) results in increased overall efficiency of the system. Present study focus on the chemical and electrochemical process in an internally reforming anode supported SOFC button cell running on humidified CH 4 (3% H 2 O). The computational approach employs a detailed multi-step model for heterogeneous chemistry in the anode, modified Butler-Volmer formalism for the electrochemistry and Dusty Gas Model (DGM) for the porous media transport. Two-dimensional elliptic model equations are solved for a button cell configuration. The electrochemical model assumes hydrogen as the only electrochemically active species. The predicted cell performances are compared with experimental reports. The results show that model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observation except the open circuit potentials. Furthermore, the steam content in the anode feed stream is found to have remarkable effect on the resulting overpotential losses and surface coverages of various species at the three-phase boundary.

  15. Making Sense of Policy Implementation Process in Pakistan: The Case of Hospital Autonomy Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Hospital Autonomy Reforms were initiated in the 90s by the Government in the 17 teaching hospitals of the Province of Punjab, Pakistan with the claimed objectives of bringing efficiency and better services to the patients. A host of administrative, structural and financial changes were introduced in

  16. Design Thinking: A Process for Developing and Implementing Lasting District Reform. Knowledge Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, challenges such as how to sustain district reform, how to build a leadership pipeline, how to create an integrated project, or how to best intervene with struggling students would be resolved with a team of "experts" developing a solution in isolation of the stakeholders involved. By contrast, design thinking centers on the…

  17. Reforming the Discipline Management Process in Schools: An Alternative Approach to Zero Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajs, Lawrence T.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for educational reform of zero tolerance policies in school disciplinary management procedures. Zero tolerance policies are rigid mandates of predetermined consequences for specific student misconduct. Common sense and fairness are not necessarily served by the application of inflexible disciplinary rules that do not address the…

  18. Simulation and calculation of three-reactor system of catalytic reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikalovska, Tatjana; Markovska, Liljana; Meshko, Vera; Poposka, Filimena

    1999-01-01

    The process of catalytic reforming has been operated for quite a long time, one can not always find real data for the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reactions that take place during the catalytic reforming process in order to facilitate the designing of reactor system or its simulation in a wide:ran e of process parameters. Kinetic and thermodynamic data have been collected for the reactions that take place during the catalytic reforming process. The stress has been pointed on four major reactions: dehydrogenation of naphthenes (aromatization), dehydrocyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of naphthenes and paraffins. On the base of such a kinetic model, the reforming process has been described with a system of differential equations. For the purpose of solving these equations computer programs for simulation of a three-reactor system for adiabatic operation of the reactors. The computer simulation of the mathematical model of this three-reactor system has been accomplished by use of the ISIM-dynamic simulator. The results obtained out of the simulation agree very good with the data of the real process of catalytic reforming in OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Skopje, Macedonia. (Author)

  19. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  20. A comprehensive energy–exergy-based assessment and parametric study of a hydrogen production process using steam glycerol reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Noureddine; Chahbani, Amna; Khila, Zouhour

    2014-01-01

    Various assessment tools are applied to comprehensively investigate a glycerol-to-hydrogen production system. These tools investigate the chemical reactions, design and simulate the entire hydrogen production process, study the energetic and exergetic performances and perform parametric analyses (using intuitive and design of experiment-based methods). Investigating the chemical reaction of steam glycerol reforming reveals that the optimal conditions, determined based on maximizing the hydrogen production while minimizing the methane and carbon monoxide contents and coke formation, can be achieved at a reforming temperature and a water-to-glycerol feed ratio (WGFR) of 950 K and 9, respectively. The thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the resulting process are 66.6% and 59.9%, respectively. These findings are lower than those cited in the literature and relative to other reformates (methane, ethanol and methanol). The parametric investigation indicates that the performance of the process (energetic and exergetic) could be ensured by using an appropriate and judiciously selected combination of the reactor temperature and WGFR. Based on the parametric energetic and exergetic investigation, WGFR = 6 and T = 1100 K appear to be the most accurate parameters for the entire glycerol-to-hydrogen process. For this recommend configuration, the thermal and exergetic efficiencies are 78.1% and 66.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are used to assess glycerol-to-hydrogen process. • Recommended conditions for glycerol-to-hydrogen process are WGFR = 6 and T = 1100 K. • For recommend conditions, thermal and exergetic efficiencies are 78.1% and 66.1%. • Energy and exergy consideration should be included by engineers and scientists

  1. Adiabatic Expansion of Electron Gas in a Magnetic Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Ando, Akira

    2018-01-01

    A specially constructed experiment shows the near perfect adiabatic expansion of an ideal electron gas resulting in a polytropic index greater than 1.4, approaching the adiabatic value of 5 /3 , when removing electric fields from the system, while the polytropic index close to unity is observed when the electrons are trapped by the electric fields. The measurements were made on collisionless electrons in an argon plasma expanding in a magnetic nozzle. The collision lengths of all electron collision processes are greater than the scale length of the expansion, meaning the system cannot be in thermodynamic equilibrium, yet thermodynamic concepts can be used, with caution, in explaining the results. In particular, a Lorentz force, created by inhomogeneities in the radial plasma density, does work on the expanding magnetic field, reducing the internal energy of the electron gas that behaves as an adiabatically expanding ideal gas.

  2. A design study of non-adiabatic electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, J.J.; Stellati, C.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a non-adiabatic gun capable of producing a 10 A, 50 KeV high-quality laminar electron beam is reported. In contrast to the magnetron injection gun with a conical cathode, where the beam is generated initially with a transverse velocity component, in the non-adiabatic gun electrons are extracted in a direction parallel to the axial guide magnetic field. The beam electrons acquire cyclotron motion as result of non-adiabatic processes in a strong non uniform electric field across the modulation anode. Such an extraction method gives rise to favourable features that are explored throughout the work. An extensive numerical simulation study has also been done to minimize velocity and energy spreads. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Optimization of the reaction parameters of heavy naphtha reforming process using Pt-Re/Al2O3 catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien A. Elsayed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant procedures in oil refineries is naphtha catalytic reforming unit in which high octane gasoline is gained. Normally, in oil refineries, flow instability in the composition of feedstock can affect the product quality. The aim of the present work was focused on modifications of the final product flow rate and product’s octane number with respect to the modifications of the feedstock composition. The main three reforming reactions investigated, namely; dehydrogenation, dehydrocyclization, and hydrocracking were conducted employing silica supported bimetallic (Pt-Re patented catalyst. Optimization of the catalytic process reaction conditions, i.e.; temperature, hydrogen pressure and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV was carried out with regard to conversion and selectivity. The optimization results indicated that heavy naphtha component conversion (paraffin’s and naphthenes increases with an increasing in reaction temperature and pressure while decreases with an increase in LHSV. The kinetic study of catalytic reforming reactions reported helped establishing the reaction model explicitly.

  4. On the Deposition Equilibrium of Carbon Nanotubes or Graphite in the Reforming Processes of Lower Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Jaworski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of carbon deposition from C-H-O reformates has usually employed thermodynamic data for graphite, but has rarely employed such data for impure filamentous carbon. Therefore, electrochemical data for the literature on the chemical potential of two types of purified carbon nanotubes (CNTs are included in the study. Parameter values determining the thermodynamic equilibrium of the deposition of either graphite or CNTs are computed for dry and wet reformates from natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The calculation results are presented as the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C against temperature (200 to 100 °C for various pressures (1 to 30 bar. Areas of O/C for either carbon deposition or deposition-free are computed, and indicate the critical O/C values below which the deposition can occur. Only three types of deposited carbon were found in the studied equilibrium conditions: Graphite, multi-walled CNTs, and single-walled CNTs in bundles. The temperature regions of the appearance of the thermodynamically stable forms of solid carbon are numerically determined as being independent of pressure and the analyzed reactants. The modeling indicates a significant increase in the critical O/C for the deposition of CNTs against that for graphite. The highest rise in the critical O/C, of up to 290% at 30 bar, was found for the wet reforming process.

  5. Reforming the court management system of Romania in the European Union integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Elvis Cioabă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Superior Council of Magistracy represent a cornerstone of the Romanian court management system. This responsibility is partly shared with the Ministry of Justice. The reform of the court management system in Romania has been and still is disputable, the main actors being on one hand the magistrates and on the other the Ministry of Justice. While observing this „dispute“ we may discover a third actor, namely the European Union, who has entered scene in the context of Romania’s European integration. This research is looking to plausibly explain which was the part played by the EU and how did it influence the above mentioned reform, with special emphasis on the Superior Council of Magistracy.

  6. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  7. A Phase Matching, Adiabatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [Hamburg U.; Flöttmann, Klaus [DESY; Kärtner, Franz [CFEL, Hamburg; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2017-05-01

    Tabletop accelerators are a thing of the future. Reducing their size will require scaling down electromagnetic wavelengths; however, without correspondingly high field gradients, particles will be more susceptible to phase-slippage – especially at low energy. We investigate how an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide could maintain phase-matching between the accelerating mode and electron bunch. We benchmark our simple model with CST and implement it into ASTRA; finally we provide a first glimpse into the beam dynamics in a phase-matching accelerator.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulation of Adiabatic Cooling and Nuclear Magnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Viertiö, H. E.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    in experimental studies of nuclear magnetism using adiabatic demagnetization methods. It is found that, although fluctuations reduce the transition temperatures by 40%, the isentropes are reduced by less than 10% relative to those calculated by mean-field theory. The dynamics of the ordering process following...

  9. Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adiabatic transfer process through the 'dark state' by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. ... control field of Rabi frequency C(t) transfers one photon in the cavity mode to a long- .... It gives an approximate statistical description of the.

  10. Reforming The U.S. Security Assistance Export Process To Build Existing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    the USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise (ASAE), as well as cases associated with Foreign Military Sales (FMS) (Turner 2012, 5). The...reforms, excess defense articles, U.S. Army Security Assistance Command, Foreign Military Sales 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 73 16. PRICE CODE 17...Contract Audit Agency DCMA Defense Contract Management Agency DCS Direct Commercial Sales DELG Defense Export Loan Guarantee DISAM Defense

  11. The Transference of Gender-based Norms in the Law Reform Process: A Reflection on my Work in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-Vonne Hutchinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, I spent a year as a Rule of Law specialist in Thailand with the International Rescue Committee (IRC, as part of a fellowship program for human rights lawyers. I was assigned the task of facilitating the development of a comprehensive legal code for the refugee camps along the border between Thailand and /Burma. As part of my work, I also sought to increase gender-based protection under the law through the incorporation of Thai and international human rights norms. This paper is a reflection on the processes that occurred during my time at IRC. The reform project approached the transference of contentious international norms for protection of women and girls in two ways: a through the inclusive design of the law reform process and b the establishment of a prohibition on rules that clearly violated international or national law. By forming a representative drafting committee and placing an emphasis on community consultation as a precursor to code finalisation, refugee perspectives, particularly female perspectives, were given scope to inform interpretations of national and international legal standards. By requiring international and national legal compliance and placing an emphasis on explanation and clarification of international and national standards in discussions, the project supported downward transference of international norms to a specific community context. We hoped that, as a product of these two normative flows, the resulting legal code would be a sustainable mechanism for gender-based protection and redress in cases of sexual and gender-based violence. During negotiations, it became evident that the inclusive design of the law reform process had a more positive impact on the success of norms transference than the actual substance of the norm. The norms that were most readily accepted were those introduced by law reform committee members themselves. Local norm translators played a pivotal role in the norms diffusion process

  12. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  13. Steam reforming: an old process for a new solution; Le vaporeformage catalytique: un vieux procede pour une solution nouvelle...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aupretre, F.; Descorme, C.; Duprez, D. [Poitiers Univ., Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, LACCO, UMR CNRS 6503, 86 (France)

    2000-07-01

    A bibliographic review allows to understand very quickly the stake that the electric-powered vehicle represents. The research of a hydrogen production process answering to the demands of the fuel cell application is then one of the main stakes. The catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons or of alcohols is a very promising way. The choices of ethanol and of rhodium based catalysts supported on oxides with strong oxygen mobility will be entirely justified because of the physico-chemical characteristics of the ethanol, of the reaction mechanism, of the cerium based oxide catalyst and of the specifications involved in the fuel cell application. (O.M.)

  14. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Keefe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of traditional formulations of the Second Law, evidenced by attainment of a final process temperature below that which would result from an adiabatic magneto-caloric process applied to bulk dimensioned specimens.

  15. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  16. Property rights and water markets in Australia: An evolutionary process toward institutional reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigram, John J.

    1993-04-01

    In the past decade far-reaching reforms have taken place in the Australian water industry. Extensive restructuring of water administration has been accompanied by increased evidence of willingness by public agencies to consider alternative institutional arrangements to the traditional regulatory approach to water allocation and use. In irrigated agriculture, a market-based system linked to enforceable property rights to water is seen as preferable to rule-based management of water resources. However, significant social and economic considerations and political realities constrain the unfettered operation of water markets. The challenge facing the irrigation industry in Australia is to put in place institutional arrangements which reflect the most appropriate mix of incentive-based and regulatory mechanisms for water management.

  17. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  18. CFD analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming: Coupled interactions of transport, heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Deutschmann, Olaf [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Engesserstr. 20, D-76131 Karlsruhe, University of Karlsruhe (TH) (Germany)

    2006-11-22

    Direct internal reforming in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) results in increased overall efficiency of the system. Present study focus on the chemical and electrochemical process in an internally reforming anode supported SOFC button cell running on humidified CH{sub 4} (3% H{sub 2} O). The computational approach employs a detailed multi-step model for heterogeneous chemistry in the anode, modified Butler-Volmer formalism for the electrochemistry and Dusty Gas Model (DGM) for the porous media transport. Two-dimensional elliptic model equations are solved for a button cell configuration. The electrochemical model assumes hydrogen as the only electrochemically active species. The predicted cell performances are compared with experimental reports. The results show that model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observation except the open circuit potentials. Furthermore, the steam content in the anode feed stream is found to have remarkable effect on the resulting overpotential losses and surface coverages of various species at the three-phase boundary. (author)

  19. Quantum entangling power of adiabatically connected Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Zanardi, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The space of quantum Hamiltonians has a natural partition in classes of operators that can be adiabatically deformed into each other. We consider parametric families of Hamiltonians acting on a bipartite quantum state space. When the different Hamiltonians in the family fall in the same adiabatic class, one can manipulate entanglement by moving through energy eigenstates corresponding to different values of the control parameters. We introduce an associated notion of adiabatic entangling power. This novel measure is analyzed for general dxd quantum systems, and specific two-qubit examples are studied

  20. Boosting work characteristics and overall heat engine performance via shortcuts to adiabaticity: quantum and classical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jiawen; Wang, Qing-hai; Liu, Zhihao; Hanggi, Peter; Gong, Jiangbin

    2013-01-01

    Under a general framework, shortcuts to adiabatic processes are shown to be possible in classical systems. We then study the distribution function of the work done on a small system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium. It is found that the work fluctuations can be significantly reduced via shortcuts to adiabatic processes. For example, in the classical case probabilities of having very large or almost zero work values are suppressed. In the quantum case negative work may be totally remo...

  1. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.

  2. The adiabatic versus the diabatic approximation in the decoupling of electron and nuclear motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    There are two limiting approximations that are used as starting points for the analysis of a system of interacting electrons and nuclei. The more widely used is the adiabatic approximation in which one assumes that the electrons adjust adiabatically to the instantaneous configuration of the nuclei. This yields an effective internuclear potential. In treating the nuclear motion, this potential can legitimately be expanded to fourth order in nuclear displacements from equilibrium. The difficulties of extending this expansion further are discussed. In situations where two adiabatic potentials approach each other the so-called diabatic approximation has to be used. A novel application to non-radioactive processes in solids is discussed. (author)

  3. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  4. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  5. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  6. Effect of Feed Composition Changing at Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Unit Due to Involvement of Gasoline Fraction Obtained by Diesel Fuels Hydrodewaxing into the Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Natalia Sergeevna; Ivanchina, Emilia Dmitrievna; Ivashkina, Elena Nikolaevna; Frantsina, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Silko, Galina Yurievna

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary products of hydrodewaxing process is stable gasoline, which is characterized by low octane number on the one hand. On the other hand, it contains a significant amount of iso-paraffins (on average 45% wt.) and naphthenes (on average 25% wt.), which are reagents in the naphtha catalytic reforming process primary reactions. Feasibility of stable gasoline obtained by means of diesel fuel catalytic hydrodewaxing process involving into the processing at the naphtha catalytic refo...

  7. Magnus approximation in the adiabatic picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarsfeld, S.; Oteo, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple approximate nonperturbative method is described for treating time-dependent problems that works well in the intermediate regime far from both the sudden and the adiabatic limits. The method consists of applying the Magnus expansion after transforming to the adiabatic basis defined by the eigenstates of the instantaneous Hamiltonian. A few exactly soluble examples are considered in order to assess the domain of validity of the approximation. (author) 32 refs., 4 figs

  8. The patents-based pharmaceutical development process: rationale, problems, and potential reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John H; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2005-10-26

    The pharmaceutical industry is facing substantial criticism from many directions, including financial barriers to access to drugs in both developed and developing countries, high profits, spending on advertising and marketing, and other issues. Underlying these criticisms are fundamental questions about the value of the current patent-based drug development system. Six major problems with the patent system are (1) recovery of research costs by patent monopoly reduces access to drugs; (2) market demand rather than health needs determines research priorities; (3) resources between research and marketing are misallocated; (4) the market for drugs has inherent market failures; (5) overall investment in drug research and development is too low, compared with profits; and (6) the existing system discriminates against US patients. Potential solutions fall into 3 categories: change in drug pricing through either price controls or tiered pricing; change in drug industry structure through a "buy-out" pricing system or with the public sector acting as exclusive research funder; and change in development incentives through a disease burden incentive system, orphan drug approaches, or requiring new drugs to demonstrate improvement over existing products prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval. We recommend 4 complementary reforms: (1) having no requirement to test new drug products against existing products prior to approval but requiring rigorous comparative postapproval testing; (2) international tiered pricing and systematic safeguards to prevent flow-back; (3) increased government-funded research and buy-out for select conditions; and (4) targeted experiments using other approaches for health conditions in which there has been little progress and innovation over the last few decades.

  9. Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao; Gong, Jiangbin

    2014-01-01

    Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau–Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory. (paper)

  10. Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…

  11. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hua; Ozkan, Umit S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H 2 /day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H 2 /day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H 2 /day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H 2 /day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  12. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  13. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of tradi...

  14. Adiabatic theorem for the time-dependent wave operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Killingbeck, John P.; Perrin, Marie-Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The application of time-dependent wave operator theory to the development of a quantum adiabatic perturbation theory is treated both theoretically and numerically, with emphasis on the description of field-matter interactions which involve short laser pulses. It is first shown that the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent wave operator corresponds to a succession of instantaneous static Bloch wave operators. Wave operator theory is then shown to be compatible with the two-time Floquet theory of light-matter interaction, thus allowing the application of Floquet theory to cases which require the use of a degenerate active space. A numerical study of some problems shows that the perturbation strength associated with nonadiabatic processes can be reduced by using multidimensional active spaces and illustrates the capacity of the wave operator approach to produce a quasiadiabatic treatment of a nominally nonadiabatic Floquet dynamical system

  15. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.

    2016-01-01

    A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.

  16. Reformation of organization and realization of budgetary process: basic directions, problems and ways of their solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the research of the basic problems of organization and realization of budgetary process in the country on the modern stage. A budgetary process is one of the main levers which is able really to provide management of an economy under conditions of a market economy. Organizational and administrative structures of the budgetary process are ineffective in Ukraine. In spite of more than twenty-year old history, the budgetary process of Ukraine has the row of unsolved problems. For this reason there is the necessity in deep theoretical rethinking and methodological work at approaches to the budgetary process. We consider it is wise to find out the basic problems which arise during organization and realization of the budgetary process in Ukraine. The study of the matter results in the complex of recommendations which are able to provide effective realization of the budgetary process in Ukraine and solve a number of problem questions.

  17. Production of gaseous and liquid chemicals by aqueous phase reforming of crude glycerol: Influence of operating conditions on the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón, J.; Giménez, J.R.; Valiente, A.; García, L.; Arauzo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous phase reforming: a tailor-made process for the valorisation of crude glycerol. • In-depth understanding of the effect of the operating conditions on the process. • Process optimisation for the selective production of valuable gas and liquid products. • Low pressure and high temperature and spatial time favour gas production. • High pressure and medium temperature maximise the production of valuable liquids. - Abstract: The present work studies the influence of the temperature (200–240 °C), pressure (38–50 bar), glycerol concentration (10–50 wt.%) and mass of catalyst/ glycerol mass flow rate ratio (W/m_g_l_y_c_e_r_o_l = 10–40 g catalyst min/g glycerol) during the aqueous phase reforming (APR) of a glycerol solution obtained from the production of biodiesel. The operating conditions exerted a statistically significant influence on the reforming results. Specifically, the global glycerol conversion and the carbon converted into gas and liquid products varied as follows: 4–100%, 1–80% and 16–93%, respectively. The gas phase was made up of H_2 (8–55 vol.%), CO_2 (34–66 vol.%), CO (0–4 vol.%) and CH_4 (6–45 vol.%). The liquid phase consisted of a mixture of alcohols (monohydric: methanol and ethanol; and polyhydric: 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-ethanediol, 2,3-butanediol), aldehydes (acetaldehyde), ketones (C3-ketones: acetone and 2-propanone-1-hydroxy; C4-ketones: 2-butanone-3-hydroxy and 2-butanone-1-hydroxy; and cyclic ketones), carboxylic acids (acetic and propionic acids) and esters (1,2,3-propanetriol-monoacetate), together with unreacted glycerol and water. The relative amount (free of water and un-reacted glycerol) of these compounds in the liquid phase was as follows: monohydric alcohols: 4–47%, polyhydric-alcohols: 14–68%, aldehydes: 0–5%, C3-ketones: 2–33%, C4-ketones: 0–10%, ciclo-ketones: 0–6%, carboxylic acids: 2–43%, and esters: 0–46%. This process turned out to be highly customisable for the

  18. Netherlands : An ‘Echternach’ Procession in Different Directions: Oscillating Steps Towards Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; de Boer, Harry F.; Enders, Jürgen; Paradeise, C.; Reale, E.; Bleiklie, I.; Ferlie, E.

    2009-01-01

    The annual procession in the Luxemburg town of Echternach is famous for its laborious manner of reaching its end: two steps forward, one step back. In this paper, we will maintain that the policy of the Dutch government over the period of c.1982–2007 resembles an Echternach procession in reverse:

  19. Quantum adiabatic approximation and the geometric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafazadeh, A.

    1997-01-01

    A precise definition of an adiabaticity parameter ν of a time-dependent Hamiltonian is proposed. A variation of the time-dependent perturbation theory is presented which yields a series expansion of the evolution operator U(τ)=summation scr(l) U (scr(l)) (τ) with U (scr(l)) (τ) being at least of the order ν scr(l) . In particular, U (0) (τ) corresponds to the adiabatic approximation and yields Berry close-quote s adiabatic phase. It is shown that this series expansion has nothing to do with the 1/τ expansion of U(τ). It is also shown that the nonadiabatic part of the evolution operator is generated by a transformed Hamiltonian which is off-diagonal in the eigenbasis of the initial Hamiltonian. This suggests the introduction of an adiabatic product expansion for U(τ) which turns out to yield exact expressions for U(τ) for a large number of quantum systems. In particular, a simple application of the adiabatic product expansion is used to show that for the Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a magnetic dipole in an arbitrarily changing magnetic field, there exists another Hamiltonian with the same eigenvectors for which the Schroedinger equation is exactly solvable. Some related issues concerning geometric phases and their physical significance are also discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. University Merger Reforms: Rational, political, institutional or incidental processes? The case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Kurt; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Mergers have for some years been popular within the public sector in many countries this includes mergers between higher education institutions. In the Danish university and Government Research Institutions sector a process of merger took place in 2006. ‘University merger reforms’ is an analysis ...... on an organizational level demands the use of more than one conceptual model for agenda-setting - decision making and institutional restructuring,......-sector and some of the conclusions made from other kinds of merger studies. Important conclusions of the study of the three universities are that mergers and especially post-mergers processes are much more than linear, straight forward rational processes and that understanding merger processes...

  1. Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)

    2012-07-01

    Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.

  2. How to understand, evaluate and influence efficient progress in South Africa’s land reform process: A typology from historical lessons from selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla C. Mbatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures

  3. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  4. Perturbative treatment of possible failures in the adiabatic theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The adiabatic theorem (AT) is one of the oldest and basic results in quantum physics, and has been in widespread use ever since. The theorem concerns the evolution of systems subject to slowly varying Hamiltonians. Roughly, its content is that a system prepared in an instantaneous eigenstate of a time-dependent Hamiltonian H(t) will remain close to an instantaneous eigenstate at later times, provided the Hamiltonian changes sufficiently slowly. The role of the AT in the study of slowly varying quantum mechanical systems spans a vast array of fields and applications. In a recent application the adiabatic geometric phases have been proposed to perform various quantum computational tasks on a naturally fault-tolerant way. Additional interest has arisen in adiabatic processes in connection with the concept of adiabatic quantum computing, where the solution to a problem is encoded in the (unknown) ground state of a (known) Hamiltonian. The evolution of the quantum state is governed by a time-dependent Hamiltonian H(t), starting with an initial Hamiltonian H i with a known ground state and slowly (adiabatically) evolving to the final Hamiltonian H f with the unknown ground state, e.g., H(t) = (1 - t/T )H i + (t/T )H f , (1) where 0 ≤ t/T ≤ 1 and T controls the rate at which H(t) varies. Since the ground state of the system is very robust against external perturbations and decoherence, this scheme offers many advantages compared to the conventional quantum circuit model of quantum computation. The achievable speed-up of adiabatic quantum algorithms (compared to classical methods) depends on the value of the run-time T. The standard AT yields a general criterion to estimate the necessary run-time T, however recently Marzlin and Sanders have claimed that an inconsistency does exist for a particular class of Hamiltonians, so that the condition for the estimate of T may do not hold. Marzlin and Sanders start with a time

  5. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adiabatic quantum search algorithm for structured problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, Jeremie; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2003-01-01

    The study of quantum computation has been motivated by the hope of finding efficient quantum algorithms for solving classically hard problems. In this context, quantum algorithms by local adiabatic evolution have been shown to solve an unstructured search problem with a quadratic speedup over a classical search, just as Grover's algorithm. In this paper, we study how the structure of the search problem may be exploited to further improve the efficiency of these quantum adiabatic algorithms. We show that by nesting a partial search over a reduced set of variables into a global search, it is possible to devise quantum adiabatic algorithms with a complexity that, although still exponential, grows with a reduced order in the problem size

  7. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  8. Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: A study of ICES reform processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, K.; Olssen, P.; Österblom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years

  9. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  10. Ecological modernization and environmental policy reform in Thailand: the case of food processing SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattanapinyo, A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate environmental pollution from a rapidly expanding Thai food processing industry, different options and technologies can be identifi ed. However, actually implementing these environmental improvements within small and medium-sized agro-food companies requires governing efforts of a variety

  11. A versatile, steam reforming based small-scale hydrogen production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P C Hulteberg; F A Silversand; B Porter; R Woods

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new design methodology and process is proposed for small scale pure hydrogen production capable of serving energy markets ranging from distributed generation to vehicular refuelling. The system was designed for producing 7 Nm 3 /hr pure hydrogen (purity of ≤ 1 ppm CO dry), yielding 10 kWe net power from a fuel cell system with an overall parasitic power loss ≤ 10 %. The discussion of this process includes a detailed description of the design methodology and operational results of the catalytic converter, the hydrogen purification system and the fuel cell system. This paper will discuss the design methodology of the overall system, as well as the specific design of the catalytic converter, the catalysts used within, and the hydrogen purification system. It will also report the system performance including gas purity, recovery rate, overall hydrogen production efficiencies, and electrical efficiencies during fuel cell operation. (authors)

  12. Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand

  14. Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Roscilde, T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (Canada); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results.

  15. Working towards Justice, Security Sector Reform and Better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on security sector reform, constitutional reform, governance of diversity and critical dialogues in MENA societies. ... Reform will take time and one of the tests for those involved in this process is exercising patience and .... Related articles ...

  16. A Matter of Time: Enacting the Exclusion of Onshore Refugee Applicants through the Reform and Acceleration of Refugee Determination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Vogl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State-based processes for determining refugee claims are crucial sites of inclusion or exclusion for onshore refugee applicants. This paper argues that cultures of disbelief and exclusion towards onshore refugee applicants are increasingly being enacted indirectly, via procedural reforms to Refugee Status Determination (RSD, which limit the ability of applicants to establish and articulate their claims. Focusing on Australia and Canada, this paper tracks the acceleration and truncation of RSD procedures, which first reflect and then frequently achieve the exclusion of onshore applicants. Two sets of reforms in particular have profoundly limited the terms on which applicants may present their claims. In Canada, this occurred as the result of a major overhaul of RSD that took place in December 2012. In Australia, the policy of ‘enhanced screening’ of applicants achieves the immediate screening-out of certain claims from the Australian determination system. Alongside analysing these reforms as a means of exclusion, this paper argues that the new procedures most disadvantage applicants making claims on the basis of gender-related persecution. Los procesos estatales para resolver las concesiones de asilo son situaciones cruciales para la inclusión o exclusión de los solicitantes de asilo una vez están en el territorio de acogida. Este artículo defiende que cada vez más, se está promulgando indirectamente la cultura de la desconfianza y exclusión hacia los solicitantes de asilo, a través de reformas procesuales de la Determinación del Estatus de Refugiado (DER, lo que limita la capacidad de los solicitantes para establecer y articular sus demandas de asilo. Centrándose en Australia y Canadá, este artículo realiza un seguimiento de la aceleración y el truncamiento de los procedimientos de DER que primero reflejan y después a menudo consiguen la exclusión de los solicitantes en el propio territorio de acogida. Dos grupos de reformas

  17. Hydrogen production by reforming of fossil and biomass fuels accompanied by carbon dioxide capture process is the energy source for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Idem, Raphael; Tontiwachwuthikul, Paitoon; Wilson, Malcolm; Kambietz, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen has a significant future potential as an alternative energy source for the transportation sector as well as in residential homes and offices, H 2 in fuel cell power systems provides an alternative to direct fossil fuel and biomass combustion based technologies and offer the possibility for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission based on improved H 2 yield per unit of fossil fuel and biomass, compatibility with renewable energies and motivation to convert to a H 2 -based energy economy. Several practical techniques for H 2 production to service H 2 refuelling stations as well as homes and offices, all of which need to be located at the end of the energy distribution network, include: (1) the carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas; (2) reforming of gasoline; (3) reforming of crude ethanol. Locating the H 2 production at the end of the energy distribution network solves the well-known problems of metal fatigue and high cost of H 2 compression for long distance transportation if H 2 is produced in a large centralized plant. In addition, the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the need to reduce emissions of CO 2 to the atmosphere has prompted the capture and utilization of the CO 2 produced from the reforming process. In this research: (1) new efficient catalysts for each reforming process was developed; (2) a new efficient catalyst for our version of the water gas shift reaction to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide was developed; (3) a new membrane separation process for production of high purity, fuel cell-grade H 2 was designed; (4) a numerical model for optimum process design and optimum utilization of resources both at the laboratory and industrial scales was developed; (5) various processes for CO 2 capture were investigated experimentally in order to achieve a net improvement in the absorption process; (6) the utilization of captured CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery and/or storage in an aging oil field were investigated; (7

  18. Performance analysis of a complete adiabatic logic system driven by the proposed power clock generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanungo, Jitendra; Dasgupta, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the energy performance of a complete adiabatic circuit/system including the Power Clock Generator (PCG) at the 90 nm CMOS technology node. The energy performance in terms of the conversion efficiency of the PCG is extensively carried out under the variations of supply voltage, process corner and the driver transistor's width. We propose an energy-efficient singe cycle control circuit based on the two-stage comparator for the synchronous charge recovery sinusoidal power clock generator (PCG). The proposed PCG is used to drive the 4-bit adiabatic Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) and their simulation results are compared with the adiabatic RCA driven by the reported PCG. We have also simulated the logically equivalent static CMOS RCA circuit to compare the energy saving of adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic circuits. In the clock frequency range from 25 MHz to 1GHz, the proposed PCG gives a maximum conversion efficiency of 56.48%. This research work shows how the design of an efficient PCG increases the energy saving of adiabatic logic. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm3+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm 3+ :YAG crystal. Tm 3+ :YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm 3+ :YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results

  20. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  1. Depathologising gender diversity in childhood in the process of ICD revision and reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess Schwend, Amets; Winter, Sam; Chiam, Zhan; Smiley, Adam; Cabral Grinspan, Mauro

    2018-01-24

    From 2007 on, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has been revising its diagnostic manual, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), with approval of ICD-11 due in 2018. The ICD revision has prompted debates on diagnostic classifications related to gender diversity and gender development processes, and specifically on the 'Gender incongruence of childhood' (GIC) code. These debates have taken place at a time an emergent trans depathologisation movement is becoming increasingly international, and regional and international human rights bodies are recognising gender identity as a source of discrimination. With reference to the history of diagnostic classification of gender diversity in childhood, this paper conducts a literature review of academic, activist and institutional documents related to the current discussion on the merits of retaining or abandoning the GIC code. Within this broader discussion, the paper reviews in more detail recent publications arguing for the abandonment of this diagnostic code drawing upon clinical, bioethical and human rights perspectives. The review indicates that gender diverse children engaged in exploring their gender identity and expression do not benefit from diagnosis. Instead they benefit from support from their families, their schools and from society more broadly.

  2. Pulsed adiabatic structure and complete population transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1992-10-01

    Population can be transferred between atomic or molecular energy states in a variety of ways. The basic idea of adiabatic transfer, discussed in many textbooks, is as follows. One begins with an atom that is in some single energy state (an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian). This energy state is one of many possible states, known variously as the unperturbed states or basis states or diabatic states. Next one begins to change the Hamiltonian very slowly. The changes may occur in either the diagonal elements (the basis state energies) or in the off-diagonal elements (interactions between basis states). If there are off-diagonal elements then the Hamiltonian will no longer commute with the original one. Because the Hamiltonian is no longer the one that was used to define the original basis states, it will cause these states to become mixed. However, if the change is sufficiently slow, the system can remain in a single eigenstate of the changing Hamiltonian -- an adiabatic state, composed of a combination of basis states. Finally, at some later time, one examines the system once again in the original basis. One finds that the population has undergone a change, and now resides in a different unperturbed state. One has produced population transfer. There are many illustrative examples of adiabatic passage, both theory and experiment. The author mentions briefly two common examples, inelastic collisions between atoms, and the static Stark effect in Rydberg atoms, before continuing with the main objective, a discussion of adiabatic passage induced by laser pulses

  3. Post-adiabatic analysis of atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klar, H.; Fano, U.

    1976-01-01

    The coupling between adiabatic channels can be partially transformed away. The transformation need not induce any transition between channnels; but it correlates the radial wave functions and their gradients with the channel functions and it depresses the lower effective potentials, as the energy increases, in accordance with empirical evidence

  4. Connection between adiabaticity and the mirror mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    The size of magnetic moment jumps of a particle in a long, thin equilibrium magnetic mirror field is shown to be related to the complex zeroes of the mirror mode parameter B + 4πdP/sub perpendicular//dB. A consequence is that adiabaticity places a lower limit on β than does the mirror mode

  5. Performance analysis of a SOFC under direct internal reforming conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Deutschmann, Olaf [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Engesserstr 20, D-76131 Karlsruhe, University of Karlsruhe (Germany); Heuveline, Vincent [Institute for Applied and Numerical Mathematics, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) under direct internal reforming conditions. A detailed solid-oxide fuel cell model is used to study the influences of various operating parameters on cell performance. Significant differences in efficiency and power density are observed for isothermal and adiabatic operational regimes. The influence of air number, specific catalyst area, anode thickness, steam to carbon (s/c) ratio of the inlet fuel, and extend of pre-reforming on cell performance is analyzed. In all cases except for the case of pre-reformed fuel, adiabatic operation results in lower performance compared to isothermal operation. It is further discussed that, though direct internal reforming may lead to cost reduction and increased efficiency by effective utilization of waste heat, the efficiency of the fuel cell itself is higher for pre-reformed fuel compared to non-reformed fuel. Furthermore, criteria for the choice of optimal operating conditions for cell stacks operating under direct internal reforming conditions are discussed. (author)

  6. Performance analysis of a SOFC under direct internal reforming conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) under direct internal reforming conditions. A detailed solid-oxide fuel cell model is used to study the influences of various operating parameters on cell performance. Significant differences in efficiency and power density are observed for isothermal and adiabatic operational regimes. The influence of air number, specific catalyst area, anode thickness, steam to carbon (s/c) ratio of the inlet fuel, and extend of pre-reforming on cell performance is analyzed. In all cases except for the case of pre-reformed fuel, adiabatic operation results in lower performance compared to isothermal operation. It is further discussed that, though direct internal reforming may lead to cost reduction and increased efficiency by effective utilization of waste heat, the efficiency of the fuel cell itself is higher for pre-reformed fuel compared to non-reformed fuel. Furthermore, criteria for the choice of optimal operating conditions for cell stacks operating under direct internal reforming conditions are discussed.

  7. Orthopaedic Surgery Under National Health Reform: An Analysis of Power, Process, Adaptation, and Leadership: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Charles D; Adair, Daniel; Bozic, Kevin J; Manning, Blaine T; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Khaled J

    2014-07-02

    Morrison argued that demography, economy, and technology drive the evolution of industries from a formative first-generation state ("First Curve") to a radically different way of doing things ("Second Curve") that is marked by new skills, strategies, and partners. The current health-reform movement in the United States reflects these three key evolutionary trends: surging medical needs of an aging population, dramatic expansion of Medicare spending, and care delivery systems optimized through powerful information technology. Successful transition from a formative first-generation state (First Curve) to a radically different way of doing things (Second Curve) will require new skills, strategies, and partners. In a new world that is value-driven, community-centric (versus hospital-centric), and prevention-focused, orthopaedic surgeons and health-care administrators must form new alliances to reduce the cost of care and improve durable outcomes for musculoskeletal problems. The greatest barrier to success in the Second Curve stems not from lack of empirical support for integrated models of care, but rather from resistance by those who would execute them. Porter's five forces of competitive strategy and the behavioral analysis of change provide insights into the predictable forms of resistance that undermine clinical and economic success in the new environment of care. This paper analyzes the components that will differentiate orthopaedic care provision for the Second Curve. It also provides recommendations for future-focused orthopaedic surgery and health-care administrative leaders to consider as they design newly adaptive, mutually reinforcing, and economically viable musculoskeletal care processes that drive the level of orthopaedic care that our nation deserves-at a cost that it can afford. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  8. Adiabatic energization in the ring current and its relation to other source and loss terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Kozyra, J. U.; Clauer, C. R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2002-04-01

    The influence of adiabatic energization and deenergization effects, caused by particle drift in radial distance, on ring current growth rates and loss lifetimes is investigated. Growth and loss rates from simulation results of four storms (5 June 1991, 15 May 1997, 19 October 1998, and 25 September 1998) are examined and compared against the y component of the solar wind electric field (Ey,sw). Energy change rates with and without the inclusion of adiabatic energy changes are considered to isolate the influence of this mechanism in governing changes of ring current strength. It is found that the influence of adiabatic drift effects on the energy change rates is very large when energization and deenergization are considered separately as gain and loss mechanisms, often about an order of magnitude larger than all other source or loss terms combined. This is true not only during storm times, when the open drift path configuration of the hot ions dominates the physics of the ring current, but also during quiet times, when the small oscillation in L of the closed trajectories creates a large source and loss of energy each drift orbit. However, the net energy change from adiabatic drift is often smaller than other source and loss processes, especially during quiet times. Energization from adiabatic drift dominates ring current growth only during portions of the main phase of storms. Furthermore, the net-adiabatic energization is often positive, because some particles are lost in the inner magnetosphere before they can adiabatically deenergize. It is shown that the inclusion of only this net-adiabatic drift effect in the total source rate or loss lifetime (depending on the sign of the net-adiabatic energization) best matches the observed source and loss values from empirical Dst predictor methods (that is, for consistency, these values should be compared between the calculation methods). While adiabatic deenergization dominates the loss timescales for all Ey,sw values

  9. Exergy analysis of the biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process integrated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemanand, Sarunyou; Im-orb, Karittha; Tippawan, Phanicha; Wiyaratn, Wisitsree; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A biogas reforming and fuel cell integrated process is considered. • Energy and exergy analyses of the integrated process are performed. • Increasing the nickel oxide-to-biogas ratio decreases the exergy efficiency. • The exergy destruction of the fuel cell increases with increasing cell temperature. • The exergy efficiency of the process is improved when heat integration is applied. - Abstract: A biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process integrated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell is analyzed. Modeling of such an integrated process is performed by using a flowsheet simulator (Aspen plus). The exergy analysis is performed to evaluate the energy utilization efficiency of each unit and that of the integrated process. The effect of steam and nickel oxide to biogas ratios on the exergetic performance of the stand-alone biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process is investigated. The total exergy destruction increases as the steam or nickel oxide to biogas ratio increases. The main exergy destruction is found at the air reactor. For the high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, the main exergy destruction is found at the cathode. The total exergy destruction increases when cell temperature increases, whereas the inverse effect is found when the current density is considered as a key parameter. Regarding the exergy efficiency, the results show opposite trend to the exergy destruction. The heat integration analysis is performed to improve the exergetic performance. It is found that the integrated process including the heat integration system can improve the exergy destruction and exergy efficiency of 48% and 60%, respectively.

  10. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-09-19

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis on the CO2 conversion processes of methane dry reforming for hydrogen production and CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyi; Liu, Liping

    2017-12-01

    Based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization, the thermodynamic analysis on the CO2 conversion processes of dry reforming of methane for H2 and CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether was carried out. The composition of the reaction system was determined on the basis of reaction mechanism. The effects of reaction temperature, pressure and raw material composition on the equilibrium conversion and the selectivity of products were analyzed. The results show that high temperature, low pressure, CO2/CH4 molar ratio of 1.0-1.5 and appropriate amount of oxygen are beneficial to the dry reforming of methane. For CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether, low temperature, high pressure, the appropriate H2/CO2 and the proper CO addition in feed are favorable. The calculated results are compared with the relevant studies, indicating that industrial catalytic technology needs further improvement.

  12. Long-term process of reforming the economy of Republic of Serbia in order to achieve macroeconomic stabilization: From transient changes to the activist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's economy, which is burdened by problems such as non-productive economy, high unemployment rates, constant inflationary pressures, great attention is paid to the interaction of monetary and fiscal policies in order to achieve macroeconomic stability. There is no universal model of economic policy even in countries around the world, nor in the Serbian economy, and policy makers are looking for the optimal design of monetary and fiscal strategies and their synchronization with other non-negligible specific economic policy objectives (in terms of balance of payments, objectives related to foreign currency course, the distribution of income, implemented stage of market reforms of the nineties, and then phase of reforms in the first decade of the 21st century. How good coordination of monetary and fiscal measures can be no qualitative basis, or as it is not possible to reconstruct and degrade previous economic structure, and that there is no definition of the new strategy, and continued the process of reforming and in the period from the time of deepening global financial crisis in 2008 . The Republic of Serbia, a country whose economy in the long process of reforming, seeks better use of comparative advantages, encouraging production and employment, adequate planning and allocation of available resources of its own and charge, absorption of new technologies, intensifying exports, encouraging investment, and with a constant potential danger which increase the vulnerability of small economies. The solid foundations of macroeconomic stability and discipline must be in production, proper allocation of resources, which will run the economy, and then increase the employment rate, and therefore national income. of crucial importance of good projections of macroeconomic aggregates, because of them depend on public revenue and public expenditure.

  13. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  14. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models

  15. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  16. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  17. ADIABATIC HEATING OF CONTRACTING TURBULENT FLUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases 'adiabatically heat', experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.

  18. Adiabatic Theorem for Quantum Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; De Roeck, W.; Fraas, M.

    2017-08-01

    The first proof of the quantum adiabatic theorem was given as early as 1928. Today, this theorem is increasingly applied in a many-body context, e.g., in quantum annealing and in studies of topological properties of matter. In this setup, the rate of variation ɛ of local terms is indeed small compared to the gap, but the rate of variation of the total, extensive Hamiltonian, is not. Therefore, applications to many-body systems are not covered by the proofs and arguments in the literature. In this Letter, we prove a version of the adiabatic theorem for gapped ground states of interacting quantum spin systems, under assumptions that remain valid in the thermodynamic limit. As an application, we give a mathematical proof of Kubo's linear response formula for a broad class of gapped interacting systems. We predict that the density of nonadiabatic excitations is exponentially small in the driving rate and the scaling of the exponent depends on the dimension.

  19. Adiabatic invariance with first integrals of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2002-10-01

    The construction of a microthermodynamic formalism for isolated systems based on the concept of adiabatic invariance is an old but seldom appreciated effort in the literature, dating back at least to P. Hertz [Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 225 (1910)]. An apparently independent extension of such formalism for systems bearing additional first integrals of motion was recently proposed by Hans H. Rugh [Phys. Rev. E 64, 055101 (2001)], establishing the concept of adiabatic invariance even in such singular cases. After some remarks in connection with the formalism pioneered by Hertz, it will be suggested that such an extension can incidentally explain the success of a dynamical method for computing the entropy of classical interacting fluids, at least in some potential applications where the presence of additional first integrals cannot be ignored.

  20. Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2012-01-06

    The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.

  1. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  2. Adiabatic perturbation theory in quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Teufel, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Separation of scales plays a fundamental role in the understanding of the dynamical behaviour of complex systems in physics and other natural sciences. A prominent example is the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular dynamics. This book focuses on a recent approach to adiabatic perturbation theory, which emphasizes the role of effective equations of motion and the separation of the adiabatic limit from the semiclassical limit. A detailed introduction gives an overview of the subject and makes the later chapters accessible also to readers less familiar with the material. Although the general mathematical theory based on pseudodifferential calculus is presented in detail, there is an emphasis on concrete and relevant examples from physics. Applications range from molecular dynamics to the dynamics of electrons in a crystal and from the quantum mechanics of partially confined systems to Dirac particles and nonrelativistic QED.

  3. Change of adiabatic invariant near the separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.

    1995-10-01

    The properties of particle motion in the vicinity of the separatrix in a phase plane are investigated. The change of adiabatic invariant value due to the separatrix crossing is evaluated as a function of a perturbation parameter magnitude and a phase of a particle for time dependent Hamiltonians. It is demonstrated that the change of adiabatic invariant value near the separatrix birth is much larger than that in the case of the separatrix crossing near the saddle point in a phase plane. The conditions of a stochastic regime to appear around the separatrix are found. The results are applied to study the longitudinal invariant behaviour of charged particles near singular lines of the magnetic field. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  4. Pumped shot noise in adiabatically modulated graphene-based double-barrier structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Lai, Maoli

    2011-11-16

    Quantum pumping processes are accompanied by considerable quantum noise. Based on the scattering approach, we investigated the pumped shot noise properties in adiabatically modulated graphene-based double-barrier structures. It is found that compared with the Poisson processes, the pumped shot noise is dramatically enhanced where the dc pumped current changes flow direction, which demonstrates the effect of the Klein paradox.

  5. Pumped shot noise in adiabatically modulated graphene-based double-barrier structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Lai, Maoli

    2011-11-01

    Quantum pumping processes are accompanied by considerable quantum noise. Based on the scattering approach, we investigated the pumped shot noise properties in adiabatically modulated graphene-based double-barrier structures. It is found that compared with the Poisson processes, the pumped shot noise is dramatically enhanced where the dc pumped current changes flow direction, which demonstrates the effect of the Klein paradox.

  6. Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size

  7. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  8. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  9. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  10. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  11. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  12. Preliminary risk analysis of an Hydrogen production plant using the reformed process of methane with vapor coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores y Flores, A.; Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to identify the different types of dangers, as well as their causes, probabilities and consequences of the same ones, inside plants, industries and any process to classify the risks. This work is focused in particular to a study using the technical HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) for a plant of reformed of methane with vapor coupled to a nuclear reactor of the type HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor), which is designed to be built in Japan. In particular in this study the interaction is analyzed between the nuclear reactor and the plant of reformed of methane with vapor. After knowing the possible causes of risk one it is built chart of results of HAZOP to have a better vision of the consequences of this faults toward the buildings and constructions, to people and the influence of the fault on each plant; for what there are proposed solutions to mitigate these consequences or to avoid them. The work is divided in three sections: a brief introduction about the technique of HAZOP; some important aspects of the plant of reformed of methane with vapor; and the construction of the chart of results of HAZOP. (Author)

  13. Life cycle inventory analysis of hydrogen production by the steam-reforming process: comparison between vegetable oils and fossil fuels as feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquevich, M.; Sonnemann, G.W.; Castells, F.; Montane, D.

    2002-01-01

    A life cycle inventory analysis has been conducted to assess the environmental load, specifically CO 2 (fossil) emissions and global warming potential (GWP), associated to the production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks (methane and naphtha) and vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, soybean oil and palm oil). Results show that the GWPs associated with the production of hydrogen by steam reforming in a 100 years time frame are 9.71 and 9.46 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. For vegetable oils, the GWP decreases to 6.42 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for rapeseed oil, 4.32 for palm oil and 3.30 for soybean oil. A dominance analysis determined that the part of the process that has the largest effect on the GWP is the steam reforming reaction itself for the fossil fuel-based systems, which accounts for 56.7% and 74% of the total GWP for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. This contribution is zero for vegetable oil-based systems, for which harvesting and oil production are the main sources of CO 2 -eq emissions.(author)

  14. Interpolation approach to Hamiltonian-varying quantum systems and the adiabatic theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R.; Miao, Zibo; Amini, Nina H.; Ugrinovskii, Valery

    2015-01-01

    Quantum control could be implemented by varying the system Hamiltonian. According to adiabatic theorem, a slowly changing Hamiltonian can approximately keep the system at the ground state during the evolution if the initial state is a ground state. In this paper we consider this process as an interpolation between the initial and final Hamiltonians. We use the mean value of a single operator to measure the distance between the final state and the ideal ground state. This measure resembles the excitation energy or excess work performed in thermodynamics, which can be taken as the error of adiabatic approximation. We prove that under certain conditions, this error can be estimated for an arbitrarily given interpolating function. This error estimation could be used as guideline to induce adiabatic evolution. According to our calculation, the adiabatic approximation error is not linearly proportional to the average speed of the variation of the system Hamiltonian and the inverse of the energy gaps in many cases. In particular, we apply this analysis to an example in which the applicability of the adiabatic theorem is questionable. (orig.)

  15. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  16. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  17. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  18. Muon transfer rates in collisions of hydrogen isotope mesic atoms on 'bare' nuclei. Multichannel adiabatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobov, V.I.; Melezhik, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical scheme for solving the problem of slow collisions in the three-body adiabatic approach is applied for calculation of muon transfer rates in collisions of hydrogen isotope atoms on bare nuclei. It is demonstrated that the multichannel adiabatic approach allows one to reach high accuracy results (∼3%) estimating the cross sections of charge transfer processes which are the best ones up to date. The method is appliable in a wide range of energies (0.001-50 eV) which is of interest for analysis of muon catalysed fusion experiments. 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K. [HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Lynby (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  20. Reforming of natural gas—hydrogen generation for small scale stationary fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, A.; Vogel, B.; Hübner, P.

    The reforming of natural gas to produce hydrogen for fuel cells is described, including the basic concepts (steam reforming or autothermal reforming) and the mechanisms of the chemical reactions. Experimental work has been done with a compact steam reformer, and a prototype of an experimental reactor for autothermal reforming was tested, both containing a Pt-catalyst on metallic substrate. Experimental results on the steam reforming system and a comparison of the steam reforming process with the autothermal process are given.

  1. Accuracy versus run time in an adiabatic quantum search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhani, A. T.; Pimachev, A. K.; Lidar, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: The error decreases exponentially for short times and then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well-known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.

  2. Photoionization by a bichromatic field: Adiabatic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdzersky, V.A.; Yurovsky, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Atom photoionization by the superposition of a fundamental field and its second harmonic is considered. The finite analytical expressions for the photoionization probability are obtained using the adiabatic approximation. They demonstrate that the photoelectron angular distribution has a polar symmetry when the electrical field strength has a maximal polar asymmetry and the distribution is asymmetrical when the field is symmetrical. A strict proof of the polar symmetry of the photoionization probability in the case of the electrical field with maximal asymmetry is deduced using the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss theories. The obtained results are in agreement with the experimental data available

  3. Decoherence in a scalable adiabatic quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, S.; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    We consider the effects of decoherence on Landau-Zener crossings encountered in a large-scale adiabatic-quantum-computing setup. We analyze the dependence of the success probability--i.e., the probability for the system to end up in its new ground state--on the noise amplitude and correlation time. We determine the optimal sweep rate that is required to maximize the success probability. We then discuss the scaling of decoherence effects with increasing system size. We find that those effects can be important for large systems, even if they are small for each of the small building blocks

  4. Neutron generator based on adiabatic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.N.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Panov, D.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Shatalov, G.E.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility of 14 MeV neutron generator (NG) production on the basis of axial-symmetric adiabatic trap with MHD cusped armature for the testing of materials and elements of the DT reactor first wall and blanket structure is discussed. General requirements to NG are formulated. It is shown that the NG variant discussed meets the requirements formulated. Approximate calculation of the NG parameters has shown that total energy consumption by the generator does not exceed 220 MW at neutron flux specific capacity of 2.5 MW/m 2 and radiation test area of 5-6 m 2

  5. Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes

  6. Correction for adiabatic effects in lethe calculated instantaneous gas consumption of scuba dives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Le Péchon, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In scuba-diving practice, instantaneous gas consumption is generally calculated from the fall in cylinder pressure without considering the effects of water temperature (heat transfer) and adiabatic processes. We aimed to develop a simple but precise method for calculating the

  7. Modelling of an adiabatic trickle-bed reactor with phase change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez Castelan, Carlos Eduardo; Hidalgo-Vivas, Angelica; Brix, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a modelling approach of the behavior of trickle-bed reactors used for catalytic hydrotreating of oil fractions. A dynamic plug-flow heterogeneous one-dimensional adiabatic model was used to describe the main reactions present in the hydrotreating process: hydrodesulfurization...

  8. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Castro-Dominguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS. Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR for MSR, (ii a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  9. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  10. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron oscillations in a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, C.

    1977-03-01

    The influence of a static electric field on the oscillations of a one-dimensional stream of electrons is investigated. In the weak field limit the oscillations are adiabatic and mode coupling negligible, but becomes significant if the field is tronger. The latter effect is believed to be of importance for the stability of e.g. potential double layers

  11. Adiabatic evolution of decoherence-free subspaces and its shortcuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. L.; Huang, X. L.; Li, H.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-10-01

    The adiabatic theorem and shortcuts to adiabaticity for time-dependent open quantum systems are explored in this paper. Starting from the definition of dynamical stable decoherence-free subspace, we show that, under a compact adiabatic condition, the quantum state remains in the time-dependent decoherence-free subspace with an extremely high purity, even though the dynamics of the open quantum system may not be adiabatic. The adiabatic condition mentioned here in the adiabatic theorem for open systems is very similar to that for closed quantum systems, except that the operators required to change slowly are the Lindblad operators. We also show that the adiabatic evolution of decoherence-free subspaces depends on the existence of instantaneous decoherence-free subspaces, which requires that the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems be engineered according to the incoherent control protocol. In addition, shortcuts to adiabaticity for adiabatic decoherence-free subspaces are also presented based on the transitionless quantum driving method. Finally, we provide an example that consists of a two-level system coupled to a broadband squeezed vacuum field to show our theory. Our approach employs Markovian master equations and the theory can apply to finite-dimensional quantum open systems.

  12. An Adiabatic Phase-Matching Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [DESY; Floettmann, Klaus [DESY; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.; Kaertner, Franz X. [Hamburg U.; Assmann, Ralph [DESY

    2017-12-22

    We present a general concept to accelerate non-relativistic charged particles. Our concept employs an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide which supports accelerating phase velocities for synchronous acceleration. We propose an ansatz for the transient field equations, show it satisfies Maxwell's equations under an adiabatic approximation and find excellent agreement with a finite-difference time-domain computer simulation. The fields were implemented into the particle-tracking program {\\sc astra} and we present beam dynamics results for an accelerating field with a 1-mm-wavelength and peak electric field of 100~MV/m. The numerical simulations indicate that a $\\sim 200$-keV electron beam can be accelerated to an energy of $\\sim10$~MeV over $\\sim 10$~cm. The novel scheme is also found to form electron beams with parameters of interest to a wide range of applications including, e.g., future advanced accelerators, and ultra-fast electron diffraction.

  13. Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.

  14. Comparison of high-temperature and low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems with glycerol reforming process for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authayanun, Suthida; Mamlouk, Mohamed; Scott, Keith; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PEMFC systems with a glycerol steam reformer for stationary application are studied. • Performance of HT-PEMFC and LT-PEMFC systems is compared. • HT-PEMFC system shows good performance over LT-PEMFC system at a high current density. • HT-PEMFC system with water gas shift reactor shows the highest system efficiency. • Heat integration can improve the efficiency of HT-PEMFC system. - Abstract: A high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) has a major advantage over a low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (LT-PEMFC) demonstrated by a tolerance to a higher CO content in the hydrogen feed and thus a simpler fuel processing. In this study, a direct comparison between the performance of HT-PEMFC and LT-PEMFC systems integrated with a glycerol steam reformer with and without a water gas shift reactor is shown. Under pure hydrogen operation, the LT-PEMFC performance is superior to the HT-PEMFC. However, the HT-PEMFC system shows good performance over the LT-PEMFC system when operated under high current density and high pressure (3 atm) and using the reformate gas derived from the glycerol processor as fuel. At high current density, the high concentration of CO is the major limitation for the operation of HT-PEMFC system without water gas shift reactor, whereas the LT-PEMFC suffers from CO poisoning and restricted oxygen mass transport. Considering the system efficiency with co-heat and power generation, the HT-PEMFC system with water gas shift reactor shows the highest overall system efficiency (approximately 60%) and therefore one of the most suitable technologies for stationary applications

  15. Adiabatic surface thermometer for improved production braze quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittbenner, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    An adiabatic surface thermometer was developed to control automatically the critical temperature-time cycle of a production vacuum-brazing process. Investigations revealed that optimum braze-joint strength required precise control of the brazing temperature. Spot-welded thermocouples could not be used because the spot welds cause surface damage. This thermometer touches the surface and uses a differential thermocouple and heater to measure surface temperature without heat flow, thereby eliminating large errors caused by conduction losses common to conventional spring-loaded thermocouples. Temperatures in air or vacuum are measured to 800 0 C with errors less than 5 0 C. This thermometer has minimized the rejection of production parts, resulting in a cost saving to the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration

  16. Adiabatic Cooling for Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The field of cold molecular ions is a fast growing one, with applications in high resolution spectroscopy and metrology, the search for time variations of fundamental constants, cold chemistry and collisions, and quantum information processing, to name a few. The study of single molecular ions...... is attractive as it enables one to push the limits of spectroscopic accuracy. Non-destructive spectroscopic detection of molecular ions can be achieved by co-trapping with an easier to detect atomic ion. The ion chain has coupled motion, and transitions which change both the internal and motional states...... to the measured heating rates, almost perfectly fitting existing heating rate theory. Further, the same model successfully predicted the heating rates of the in-phase mode of a two-ion crystal, indicating that we can use it to predict the heating rates in experiments on molecule-atom chains. Adiabatic cooling...

  17. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  18. Thermodynamic study of ibuprofen by adiabatic calorimetry and thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fen; Sun Lixian; Tan Zhicheng; Liang Jianguo; Li Ruilian

    2004-01-01

    Molar heat capacities of ibuprofen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The polynomial functions of C p,m (J K -1 mol -1 ) versus T were established on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least fitting square method. The functions are as follows: for solid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 79.105 K≤T≤333.297 K, C p,m =144.27+77.046X+3.5171X 2 +10.925X 3 +11.224X 4 , where X=(T-206.201)/127.096; for liquid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 353.406 K≤T≤378.785 K, C p,m =325.79+8.9696X-1.6073X 2 -1.5145X 3 , where X=(T-366.095)/12.690. A fusion transition at T=348.02 K was found from the C p -T curve. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the fusion transition were determined to be 26.65 kJ mol -1 and 76.58 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively. The thermodynamic functions on the base of the reference temperature of 298.15 K, (H T -H 298.15 ) and (S T -S 298.15 ), were derived. Thermal characteristic of ibuprofen was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The temperature of fusion, the molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion obtained by DSC were well consistent with those obtained by adiabatic calorimeter. The evaporation process of ibuprofen was investigated further by TG and DTG, and the activation energy of the evaporation process was determined to be 80.3±1.4 kJ mol -1

  19. Dependence of adiabatic population transfer on pulse profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Control of population transfer by rapid adiabatic passage has been an established technique wherein the exact amplitude profile of the shaped pulse is considered to be insignificant. We study the effect of ultrafast shaped pulses for two-level systems, by density-matrix approach. However, we find that adiabaticity depends ...

  20. Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Michael I.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)

  1. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  2. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Brand for their technical expertise and guidance. He also wishes to thank Mr. Stephen McKim from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for his assistance...Wilson, D. B., and Stoltzfus, J. M. "Adiabatic Compression of Oxygen: Real Fluid Temperatures," 2000. 10Ismail, I. M. K., and Hawkins , T. W. "Adiabatic

  3. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second...

  4. Quantum Adiabatic Optimization and Combinatorial Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Knysh, S.; Morris, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the performance of the Quantum Adiabatic Evolution (QAE) algorithm on a variant of Satisfiability problem for an ensemble of random graphs parametrized by the ratio of clauses to variables, gamma = M / N. We introduce a set of macroscopic parameters (landscapes) and put forward an ansatz of universality for random bit flips. We then formulate the problem of finding the smallest eigenvalue and the excitation gap as a statistical mechanics problem. We use the so-called annealing approximation with a refinement that a finite set of macroscopic variables (verses only energy) is used, and are able to show the existence of a dynamic threshold gamma = gammad, beyond which QAE should take an exponentially long time to find a solution. We compare the results for extended and simplified sets of landscapes and provide numerical evidence in support of our universality ansatz.

  5. Adiabatic/diabatic polarization beam splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRose, Christopher; Cai, Hong

    2017-09-12

    The various presented herein relate to an on-chip polarization beam splitter (PBS), which is adiabatic for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and diabatic for the transverse electric (TE) mode. The PBS comprises a through waveguide and a cross waveguide, wherein an electromagnetic beam comprising TE mode and TM mode components is applied to an input port of the through waveguide. The PBS can be utilized to separate the TE mode component from the TM mode component, wherein the TE mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the through waveguide, and the TM mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the cross waveguide. The PBS has a structure that is tolerant to manufacturing variations and exhibits high polarization extinction ratios over a wide bandwidth.

  6. Quantum tunneling in the adiabatic Dicke model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gang; Chen Zidong; Liang Jiuqing

    2007-01-01

    The Dicke model describes N two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode bosonic field and exhibits a second-order phase transition from the normal to the superradiant phase. The energy levels are not degenerate in the normal phase but have degeneracy in the superradiant phase, where quantum tunneling occurs. By means of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the instanton method in quantum field theory, the tunneling splitting, inversely proportional to the tunneling rate for the adiabatic Dicke model, in the superradiant phase can be evaluated explicitly. It is shown that the tunneling splitting vanishes as exp(-N) for large N, whereas for small N it disappears as √(N)/exp(N). The dependence of the tunneling splitting on the relevant parameters, especially on the atom-field coupling strength, is also discussed

  7. Adiabatic quantum pumping and charge quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheyevs, V; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlmanl, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Modern techniques for coherent manipulation of electrons at the nano scale (electrostatic gating, surface acoustic waves) allow for studies of the adiabatic quantum pumping effect - a directed current induced by a slowly varying external perturbation. Scattering theory of pumping predicts transfer of an almost integer number of electrons per cycle if instantaneous transmission is determined by a sequence of resonances. We show that this quantization can be explained in terms of loading/unloading quasi-bound virtual states, and derive a tool for analyzing quantized pumping induced by a general potential. This theory is applied to a simple model of pumping due to surface acoustic waves. The results reproduce all the qualitative features observed in actual experiments

  8. The adiabatic approximation in multichannel scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Using two-dimensional models, an attempt has been made to get an impression of the conditions of validity of the adiabatic approximation. For a nucleon bound to a rotating nucleus the Coriolis coupling is neglected and the relation between this nuclear Coriolis coupling and the classical Coriolis force has been examined. The approximation for particle scattering from an axially symmetric rotating nucleus based on a short duration of the collision, has been combined with an approximation based on the limitation of angular momentum transfer between particle and nucleus. Numerical calculations demonstrate the validity of the new combined method. The concept of time duration for quantum mechanical collisions has also been studied, as has the collective description of permanently deformed nuclei. (C.F.)

  9. Adiabatic equilibrium models for direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.; Allen, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies are being extended to include a wider spectrum of reactor plants than was considered in NUREG-1150. There is a need for simple direct containment heating (DCH) models that can be used for screening studies aimed at identifying potentially significant contributors to overall risk in individual nuclear power plants. This paper presents two adiabatic equilibrium models suitable for the task. The first, a single-cell model, places a true upper bound on DCH loads. This upper bound, however, often far exceeds reasonable expectations of containment loads based on CONTAIN calculations and experiment observations. In this paper, a two cell model is developed that captures the major mitigating feature of containment compartmentalization, thus providing more reasonable estimates of the containment load

  10. Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.

  11. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  13. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  14. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  15. Adiabatic, chaotic and quasi-adiabatic charged particle motion in two-dimensional magnetic field reversals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    For a number of problems in the Plasma Astrophysics it is necessary to know the laws, which govern the non adiabatic charged particle dynamics in strongly curves magnetic field reversals. These are, e.q., the kinetic theory of the microscopic and macroscopicstability of current sheets in collionless plasma, of microturbulence, causing anomalous resistivity and dissipating currents, the problem of spontaneous reconnection, the formation of non Maxwellian distribution functions, particle acceleration and the use of particles as a diagnostic tool ('tracers'). To find such laws we derived from the differential equations of motion discrete mappings. These mappings allow an investigation of the motion after the break down of the adiabaticity of the magnetic moment. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Quantum theory of NMR adiabatic pulses and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Recently explosive developments of in vivo NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) and imaging (NMRI) in biological and medical sciences have resulted in the establishment of NMR as one of the most advanced major technique in life sciences. These developments have created huge demands for a variety of NMR adiabatic pulses with play a very important role in NMR experiments in vivo. In order to develop new NMR adiabatic pulses, a rigorous systematical quantum theory for this kind of pulses is greatly needed. Providing such a theory is one of the important goals of this dissertation. Quantum density matrix theory and product operator method have been used throughout this dissertation. Another goal, which is the major goal of this thesis research, is to use the quantum theory as a guide to develop new NMR adiabatic pulses and their applications. To fill this goal, a technique to construct a new type of adiabatic pulses, narrow band selective adiabatic pulses, has been invented, which is described through the example of constructing an adiabatic DANTE inversion pulse. This new adiabatic pulse is the first narrow band selective adiabatic pulses: Adiabatic homonuclear and heteronuclear spectral editing sequences. Unique to the first pulse sequence is a B 1 -field filter which is built by using two non-refocusing adiabatic full passage pulses to refocus the wanted signal and dephase unwanted signals. This extra filter greatly enhance the editing efficiency. Unlike commonly used heteronuclear spectral editing sequences which depend on the polarization transfer or spectral subtraction by phase cycling techniques, the second pulse sequences accomplishes the editing of heteronuclear J-coupled signals based on the fact that this sequence is transparent to the uncoupled spins and is equivalent a 90 degrees excitation pulse to the heteronuclear J-coupled spins. Experimental results have confirmed the ability of spectral editing with these two new sequences

  17. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  18. Session 4: Study of alkyl-aromatics hydrodealkylation reaction to orient the production of benzene from the catalytic reforming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppi, S.; Thomas, C.; Sayag, C.; Brodzki, D.; Djega-Mariadassou, G. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Reactivite de Surface, UMR CNRS 7609, 75 - Paris (France); Toppi, S.; Travers, C.; Le Peltier, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    Due to more stringent environmental constraints, the benzene content in the gasoline decreases regularly and has been fixed to 1% since January 2001. In the same time, the demand in aromatics, benzene, toluene, and xylenes, for the petrochemistry continuously increases. The aim of this work is to study the hydrodealkylation reactions and particularly the benzene formation under reforming operating conditions, with the bifunctional industrial catalyst. It is, therefore, of great importance to determine the role of each function of the catalyst involved in the benzene production in order to orient the reaction by modification of the catalyst. n-propylbenzene transformation was investigated on each family of model catalysts and allowed us to propose a detailed scheme for the reaction on acidic and metallic sites. The identified reactions are: - on metallic sites: dehydrogenation, cyclisation and hydrogenolysis A detailed reaction scheme for this transformation has already been proposed involving the formation of cyclisation products and the existence of a common reactive adsorbate for the indene compounds and ethylbenzene; - on acidic sites: dehydrogenation, isomerization and cracking. The study of the cracking reactions coupled with measurements of the acidity of the catalyst, shows that benzene is the preferentially formed cracking product, on the Broensted sites of the catalyst, through a carbo-cationic mechanism. Conversely, ethylbenzene and toluene are formed through a 'radical' mechanism over the Lewis acid sites of alumina. As far as the cracking reaction leading to benzene is concerned, two compulsory steps were pointed out: the first one is the isomerization of n-propylbenzene to iso-propylbenzene, and the second one is the cracking of iso-propylbenzene into benzene. The increase of strong Broensted acidity over model acidic catalysts, has been correlated with a strong increase of the benzene formation rate, emphasizing the role of strong Broensted

  19. Adiabatic shear behaviors in rolled and annealed pure titanium subjected to dynamic impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Lianjun; Chen, Zhiyong, E-mail: czysh@netease.com; Jiang, Yanghui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Renke; Liu, Chuming

    2017-02-08

    The hat-shaped samples cut from rolled and annealed titanium plates were prepared to explore the adiabatic shear behaviors subjected to high-strain-rate deformation operated via Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The dynamic shear response calculation reveals that dynamic deformation processes of both state samples can be divided in similar three stages but rolled sample shows a higher susceptibility of adiabatic shear localization compared with the annealed one. Optical microscopy and electronic backscatter diffraction technique (EBSD) were used to systematically analyze the microstructure and texture characteristics. The results show that adiabatic shear bands form in both state samples and rotational dynamic recrystallization (RDRX) occurs within shear area and results in the formation of ultrafine equiaxed grains. Furthermore, ultrafine equiaxed grains within adiabatic shear bands have the same texture feature that <11–20> direction and {10-10} plane parallel to macro local shear direction and shear plane respectively. In the deformation region around the shear band, {10–12} <–1011> tensile and {11–22} <11-2-3> compressive two types twins are observed in both state samples and {10–12} <–1011> tensile twins are more frequently observed in rolled sample. In the rolled sample, {10–12} <–1011> tensile twins are more likely to happen in the hat-brim side than the hat-body side due to the difference of stress state in two sides.

  20. Adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, T.G.; Hill, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Dust grains in the ring systems and rapidly rotating magnetospheres of the outer planets such as Jupiter and Saturn may be sufficiently charged that the magnetic and electric forces on them are comparable with the gravitational force. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion has previously been applied to electrons and atomic size particles. But it is also applicable to these charged dust grains in the micrometer and smaller size range. We derive here the guiding center equation of motion, drift velocity, and parallel equation of motion for these grains in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of periodic grain charge-discharge have not been treated previously and have been included in this analysis. Grain charge is affected by the surrounding plasma properties and by the grain plasma velocity (among other factors), both of which may vary over the gyrocircle. The resulting charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency destroys the invariance of the magnetic moment and causes a grain to move radially. The magnetic moment may increase or decrease, depending on the gyrophase of the charge variation. If it decreases, the motion is always toward synchronous radius for an equatorial grain. But the orbit becomes circular before the grain reaches synchronous radius, a conclusion that follows from an exact constant of the motion. This circularization can be viewed as a consequence of the gradual reduction in the magnetic moment. This circularization also suggests that dust grains leaving Io could not reach the region of the Jovian ring, but several effects could change that conclusion. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained between adiabatic theory and detailed numerical orbit integrations

  1. The rise and fall of French Ecological Tax Reform: social acceptability versus political feasibility in the energy tax implementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroubaix, Jose-Frederic; Leveque, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The French government has a 10-year history of negotiations with industry, resulting in voluntary agreements on energy consumption. When implemented, these voluntary agreements produced very few results in terms of global reduction of greenhouse emissions (Politiques et Management Public 11(4) (1993) 47), hence the idea of an energy tax became increasingly attractive for many French decision-makers. Ecological/Environmental Tax Reform (ETR) should have been one of the major political decisions and successes of the past leftwing coalition government. Instead it became one of its major failures as the Constitutional Court decided to terminate the energy tax project in December 2000. Through insights gleaned from focus groups and interviews with business-people and decision-makers, an attempt is made to understand the failure of the energy tax project. Firstly, decision-makers lacked crucial information about public and business opinions and secondly, there were conflicts between the relevant administrations. The fuel revolts of 2000 ended any hope of resolving the conflicts and implementing ETR, which was ultimately found unconstitutional. This paper examines the political controversies raised by the ETR project and the reasons for its eventual collapse, in the hope of contributing new understanding to the body of knowledge on the political difficulties of introducing environmental policy instruments. (author)

  2. Modeling of an axial flow, spherical packed-bed reactor for naphtha reforming process in the presence of the catalyst deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranshahi, D.; Pourazadi, E.; Paymooni, K.; Bahmanpour, A.M.; Rahimpour, M.R.; Shariati, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Improving the octane number of the aromatics' compounds has always been an important matter in refineries and lots of investigations have been made concerning this issue. In this study, an axial-flow spherical packed-bed reactor (AF-SPBR) is considered for naphtha reforming process in the presence of catalyst deactivation. Model equations are solved by the orthogonal collocation method. The AF-SPBR results are compared with the plant data of a conventional tubular packed-bed reactor (TR). The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on aromatic and hydrogen production rates and catalyst activity have been investigated. Higher production rates of aromatics can successfully be achieved in this novel reactor. Moreover, results show the capability of flow augmentation in the proposed configuration in comparison with the TR. This study shows the superiority of AF-SPBR configuration to the conventional types. (author)

  3. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dubgyur, Lungten

    2004-01-01

    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  4. Piecewise adiabatic following in non-Hermitian cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Qing-hai

    2018-05-01

    The time evolution of periodically driven non-Hermitian systems is in general nonunitary but can be stable. It is hence of considerable interest to examine the adiabatic following dynamics in periodically driven non-Hermitian systems. We show in this work the possibility of piecewise adiabatic following interrupted by hopping between instantaneous system eigenstates. This phenomenon is first observed in a computational model and then theoretically explained, using an exactly solvable model, in terms of the Stokes phenomenon. In the latter case, the piecewise adiabatic following is shown to be a genuine critical behavior and the precise phase boundary in the parameter space is located. Interestingly, the critical boundary for piecewise adiabatic following is found to be unrelated to the domain for exceptional points. To characterize the adiabatic following dynamics, we also advocate a simple definition of the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) phase for nonunitary cyclic dynamics, which always yields real AA phases. In the slow driving limit, the AA phase reduces to the Berry phase if adiabatic following persists throughout the driving without hopping, but oscillates violently and does not approach any limit in cases of piecewise adiabatic following. This work exposes the rich features of nonunitary dynamics in cases of slow cycling and should stimulate future applications of nonunitary dynamics.

  5. Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti

    2012-01-01

    We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included

  6. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  7. Are the reactions of quinones on graphite adiabatic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, N.B.; Schmickler, W.

    2013-01-01

    Outer sphere electron transfer reactions on pure metal electrodes are often adiabatic and hence independent of the electrode material. Since it is not clear, whether adiabatic electron transfer can also occur on a semi-metal like graphite, we have re-investigated experimental data presented in a recent communication by Nissim et al. [Chemical Communications 48 (2012) 3294] on the reactions of quinones on graphite. We have supplemented their work by DFT calculations and conclude, that these reactions are indeed adiabatic. This contradicts the assertion of Nissim et al. that the rates are proportional to the density of states at the Fermi level

  8. Approximability of optimization problems through adiabatic quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Santos, William

    2014-01-01

    The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is l

  9. Modeling non-adiabatic photoexcited reaction dynamics in condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    Reactions of photoexcited molecules, ions, and radicals in condensed phase environments involve non-adiabatic dynamics over coupled electronic surfaces. We focus on how local environmental symmetries can effect non-adiabatic coupling between excited electronic states and thus influence, in a possibly controllable way, the outcome of photo-excited reactions. Semi-classical and mixed quantum-classical non-adiabatic molecular dynamics methods, together with semi-empirical excited state potentials are used to probe the dynamical mixing of electronic states in different environments from molecular clusters, to simple liquids and solids, and photo-excited reactions in complex reaction environments such as zeolites

  10. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Fostering Home-Grown Democratic Reform | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To support the political and governance-related processes taking place, the Arab Reform Initiative ... In the summer of 2012, several papers were commissioned on Egypt's constitutional reform looking at specific issues such ... Related articles ...

  12. Landau-Zener evolution under weak measurement: manifestation of the Zeno effect under diabatic and adiabatic measurement protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Anna; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution and the asymptotic outcome of a Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZ) process under continuous weak non-selective measurement is analyzed. We compare two measurement protocols in which the populations of either the adiabatic or the non-adiabatic levels are (continuously and weakly) monitored. The weak measurement formalism, described using a Gaussian Kraus operator, leads to a time evolution characterized by a Markovian dephasing process, which, in the non-adiabatic measurement protocol is similar to earlier studies of LZ dynamics in a dephasing environment. Casting the problem in the language of measurement theory makes it possible for us to compare diabatic and adiabatic measurement scenarios, to consider engineered dephasing as a control device and to examine the manifestation of the Zeno effect under the different measurement protocols. In particular, under measurement of the non-adiabatic populations, the Zeno effect is manifested not as a freezing of the measured system in its initial state, but rather as an approach to equal asymptotic populations of the two diabatic states. This behavior can be traced to the way by which the weak measurement formalism behaves in the strong measurement limit, with a built-in relationship between measurement time and strength.

  13. Landau–Zener evolution under weak measurement: manifestation of the Zeno effect under diabatic and adiabatic measurement protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, Anna; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution and the asymptotic outcome of a Landau–Zener–Stueckelberg–Majorana (LZ) process under continuous weak non-selective measurement is analyzed. We compare two measurement protocols in which the populations of either the adiabatic or the non-adiabatic levels are (continuously and weakly) monitored. The weak measurement formalism, described using a Gaussian Kraus operator, leads to a time evolution characterized by a Markovian dephasing process, which, in the non-adiabatic measurement protocol is similar to earlier studies of LZ dynamics in a dephasing environment. Casting the problem in the language of measurement theory makes it possible for us to compare diabatic and adiabatic measurement scenarios, to consider engineered dephasing as a control device and to examine the manifestation of the Zeno effect under the different measurement protocols. In particular, under measurement of the non-adiabatic populations, the Zeno effect is manifested not as a freezing of the measured system in its initial state, but rather as an approach to equal asymptotic populations of the two diabatic states. This behavior can be traced to the way by which the weak measurement formalism behaves in the strong measurement limit, with a built-in relationship between measurement time and strength. (paper)

  14. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-06-08

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  15. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name ''Adiabatic

  16. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  17. Shortcuts to adiabatic passage for fast generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states by transitionless quantum driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Chen, Qing-Qin

    2015-10-28

    Berry's approach on "transitionless quantum driving" shows how to set a Hamiltonian which drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final result of an adiabatic process in a shorter time. In this paper, motivated by transitionless quantum driving, we construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage in a three-atom system to create the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics and of non-resonant lasers. The influence of various decoherence processes is discussed by numerical simulation and the result proves that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection.

  18. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  19. Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.

  20. On the adiabatic theorem in quantum statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1982-01-01

    We show that with suitable assumptions the equilibrium states are exactly the states invariant under adiabatic local perturbations. The relevance of this fact to the problem of ergodicity is discussed. (Author)

  1. Diffusion Monte Carlo approach versus adiabatic computation for local Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringewatt, Jacob; Dorland, William; Jordan, Stephen P.; Mink, Alan

    2018-02-01

    Most research regarding quantum adiabatic optimization has focused on stoquastic Hamiltonians, whose ground states can be expressed with only real non-negative amplitudes and thus for whom destructive interference is not manifest. This raises the question of whether classical Monte Carlo algorithms can efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization with stoquastic Hamiltonians. Recent results have given counterexamples in which path-integral and diffusion Monte Carlo fail to do so. However, most adiabatic optimization algorithms, such as for solving MAX-k -SAT problems, use k -local Hamiltonians, whereas our previous counterexample for diffusion Monte Carlo involved n -body interactions. Here we present a 6-local counterexample which demonstrates that even for these local Hamiltonians there are cases where diffusion Monte Carlo cannot efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization. Furthermore, we perform empirical testing of diffusion Monte Carlo on a standard well-studied class of permutation-symmetric tunneling problems and similarly find large advantages for quantum optimization over diffusion Monte Carlo.

  2. Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, M. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied 'straight line' adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev's toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm

  3. Convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion for helium-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrashkevich, A.G.; Abrashkevich, D.G.; Pojda, V.Yu.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Kaschiev, M.S.; Puzynin, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion has been studied numerically. The spectral problems arising after separation of variables are solved by the finite-difference and finite element methods. The energies of the ground and some doubly excited staes of a hydrogen ion are calculated in the six-channel approximation within the 10 -4 a.u. accuracy. Obtained results demonstrate a rapid convergence of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion. 14 refs.; 5 tabs

  4. Adiabatic analysis of collisions. III. Remarks on the spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano, U.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of a spin-rotation model illustrates how transitions between adiabatic channel states stem from the second, rather than from the first, rate of change of these states, provided that appropriate identification of channels and scaling of the independent variable are used. These remarks, like the earlier development of a post-adiabatic approach, aim at elucidating the surprising success of approximate separation of variables in the treatment of complex mechanical systems

  5. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1983-06-01

    The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas.

  6. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas

  7. RFDR with Adiabatic Inversion Pulses: Application to Internuclear Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the structural characterisation of biomolecular systems via MAS solid state NMR, the potential utility of homonuclear dipolar recoupling with adiabatic inversion pulses has been assessed via numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of internuclear distances via an analysis of the initial cross-peak intensity buildup curves generated from two-dimensional adiabatic inversion pulse driven longitudinal magnetisation exchange experiments

  8. Non-adiabatic generator-coordinate calculation of H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tostes, J.G.R.; Para Univ., Belem; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de

    1982-10-01

    A non-adiabatic calculation of the few lowest J=O states in the H 2+ molecule done within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method is reported. Substantial accuracy is achivied with the diagonalization of matrices of very modest dimensions. The resulting wavefunctions are strongly dominated by just a few basis states. The computational scheme is set up so as to take the best advantage of good analytical approximations to existing adiabatic molecular wavefunctions. (Author) [pt

  9. A note on the geometric phase in adiabatic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, D.M.; Singh, K.; Kwek, L.C.; Fan, X.J.; Oh, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The adiabatic theorem shows that the instantaneous eigenstate is a good approximation of the exact solution for a quantum system in adiabatic evolution. One may therefore expect that the geometric phase calculated by using the eigenstate should be also a good approximation of exact geometric phase. However, we find that the former phase may differ appreciably from the latter if the evolution time is large enough

  10. Adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Moumita; Ghosh, Asim Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Exact analytic expressions of eigenvalues of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagon in the presence of uniform magnetic field have been obtained. Magnetization process, nature of isentrops and properties of magneto caloric effect in terms of adiabatic demagnetization have been investigated. Theoretical results have been used to study the magneto caloric effect of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal compound Cu_3WO_6.

  11. 300 nm bandwidth adiabatic SOI polarization splitter-rotators exploiting continuous symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socci, Luciano; Sorianello, Vito; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-07-27

    Adiabatic polarization splitter-rotators are investigated exploiting continuous symmetry breaking thereby achieving significant device size and losses reduction in a single mask fabrication process for both SOI channel and ridge waveguides. A crosstalk lower than -25 dB is expected over 300nm bandwidth, making the device suitable for full grid CWDM and diplexer/triplexer FTTH applications at 1310, 1490 and 1550nm.

  12. Environmental consequences of electricity sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, the electricity industry is in the process of undergoing fundamental transitions. The reform process typically involves one or more of the following changes: commercialisation, privatisation, unbundling/restructuring and introduction of competition. The environmental impacts of these changes pull in different directions. There is concern that restructured electricity markets may not always incorporate adequately the environmental impacts of electricity resource development and consumption decisions. However, the electricity sector reform process also offers an opportunity to promote positive environmental changes: because the sector is already in flux, it may be easier to address environmental issues. The paper gives an overview of power sector reform in six countries where reforms have already been implemented, and concludes that reform measures will have to be accompanied by competitively neutral regulations in order to stimulate investment in environmentally sound technologies, including renewable and energy efficient technologies. (author)

  13. Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... This paper discusses the telecommunications reforms process, the role of the regulatory body (Nigeria Commission, the current state of the telecommunication sector and the marketing challenges in ...

  14. Dynamical constraints and adiabatic invariants in chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J C

    2007-08-23

    For long-range electrostatic potentials and, more generally, when the topography of the potential energy surface is locally simple, the reaction path coordinate is adiabatically separable from the perpendicular degrees of freedom. For the ion-permanent dipole and ion-quadrupole interactions, the Poisson bracket of the adiabatic invariant decreases with the interfragment distance more rapidly than the electrostatic potential. The smaller the translational momentum, the moment of inertia of the neutral fragment, and the dipole or quadrupole moments are, the more reliable the adiabatic approximation is, as expected from the usual argumentation. Closed-form expressions for an effective one-dimensional potential in an adiabatic Hamiltonian are given. Connection with a model where the decoupling is exact is obtained in the limit of an infinitely heavy dipole. The dynamics is also constrained by adiabatic invariance for a harmonic valley about a curved reaction path, as shown by the reaction path Hamiltonian method. The maximum entropy method reveals that, as a result of the invariance properties of the entropy, constraints whose validity has been demonstrated locally only subsist in all parts of phase space. However, their form varies continuously, and they are not necessarily expressed in simple terms as they are in the asymptotic region. Therefore, although the influence of adiabatic invariance has been demonstrated at asymptotically large values of the reaction coordinate only, it persists in more interesting ranges.

  15. Thermodynamic study of ibuprofen by adiabatic calorimetry and thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fen; Sun Lixian; Tan Zhicheng; Liang Jianguo; Li Ruilian

    2004-03-23

    Molar heat capacities of ibuprofen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The polynomial functions of C{sub p,m} (J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) versus T were established on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least fitting square method. The functions are as follows: for solid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 79.105 K{<=}T{<=}333.297 K, C{sub p,m}=144.27+77.046X+3.5171X{sup 2}+10.925X{sup 3}+11.224X{sup 4}, where X=(T-206.201)/127.096; for liquid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 353.406 K{<=}T{<=}378.785 K, C{sub p,m}=325.79+8.9696X-1.6073X{sup 2}-1.5145X{sup 3}, where X=(T-366.095)/12.690. A fusion transition at T=348.02 K was found from the C{sub p}-T curve. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the fusion transition were determined to be 26.65 kJ mol{sup -1} and 76.58 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. The thermodynamic functions on the base of the reference temperature of 298.15 K, (H{sub T}-H{sub 298.15}) and (S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15}), were derived. Thermal characteristic of ibuprofen was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The temperature of fusion, the molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion obtained by DSC were well consistent with those obtained by adiabatic calorimeter. The evaporation process of ibuprofen was investigated further by TG and DTG, and the activation energy of the evaporation process was determined to be 80.3{+-}1.4 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  16. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  17. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).

  18. Bio-hydrogen production based on catalytic reforming of volatiles generated by cellulose pyrolysis: An integrated process for ZnO reduction and zinc nanostructures fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Adriana Veloso; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Nova Mussel, Wagner da; Brito, Walter de; Duarte Pasa, Vanya Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a process of cellulose thermal degradation with bio-hydrogen generation and zinc nanostructures synthesis. Production of zinc nanowires and zinc nanoflowers was performed by a novel processes based on cellulose pyrolysis, volatiles reforming and direct reduction of ZnO. The bio-hydrogen generated in situ promoted the ZnO reduction with Zn nanostructures formation by vapor-solid (VS) route. The cellulose and cellulose/ZnO samples were characterized by thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The hydrogen was detected by TPR (Temperature Programmed Reaction) tests. The results showed that in the presence of ZnO the cellulose thermal degradation produced larger amounts of H 2 when compared to pure cellulose. The process was also carried out in a tubular furnace with N 2 atmosphere, at temperatures up to 900 o C, and different heating rates. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction, at temperatures lower than those required in the carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of zinc nanostructures that are crystalline, were obtained without significant re-oxidation and whose morphologies are dependent on the heating rates of the process. This route presents a potential use as an industrial process taking into account the simple operational conditions, the low costs of cellulose and the importance of bio-hydrogen and nanostructured zinc.

  19. Determination of adiabatic temperature change in MnFe(P,Ge) compounds with pulse-field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trung, N T; Tegus, O; Cam Thanh, D T; Buschow, K H J; Brueck, E; Klaasse, J C P

    2010-01-01

    Fast magnetic measurements performed by means of a 20 T pulse-field magnet provide a good approach for directly monitoring the magnetocaloric effect of the MnFe(P,Ge) compounds. Based on the comparison of magnetization curves obtained either in an adiabatic or isothermal process, we propose that the method introduced by Levitin et al is applicable to determine the adiabatic temperature change for an equivalent field change in first-order magnetic transition materials. More strikingly, experimental results confirm that the first-order nature of the transition in MnFe(P,Ge) alloys is not a limiting factor to the operation frequency of a magnetic refrigerator.

  20. Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)

  1. Fast-forward of quantum adiabatic dynamics in electro-magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wavefunctions under electro-magnetic field by developing the previous theory (Masuda & Nakamura 2008 and 2010). Firstly we investigate the orbital dynamics of a charged particle. We derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states except for the spatially uniform phase such as the adiabatic phase in any desired short time. Fast-forward of adiabatic squeezing and tran...

  2. Microstructural evolution in adiabatic shear bands of copper at high strain rates: Electron backscatter diffraction characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lin; Chen Zhiyong; Zhan Congkun; Yang Xuyue; Liu Chuming; Cai Hongnian

    2012-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of adiabatic shear bands in annealed copper with different large strains at high strain rates has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show that mechanical twinning can occur with minimal contribution to shear localization under dynamic loading. Elongated ultrafine grains with widths of 100–300 nm are observed during the evolution of the adiabatic shear bands. A rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the elongated ultrafine grains. - Highlights: ► The microstructural evolution of ASB is studied by electron backscatter diffraction. ► Twinning can occur in ASB while the contribution to shear localization is slight. ► Elongated ultrafine grains are observed during the evolution process of ASB. ► A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the microstructure evolution of ASB.

  3. Monte Carlo modeling of Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor in adiabatic equilibrium state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisz, Przemysław, E-mail: pstanisz@agh.edu.pl; Oettingen, Mikołaj, E-mail: moettin@agh.edu.pl; Cetnar, Jerzy, E-mail: cetnar@mail.ftj.agh.edu.pl

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present the Monte Carlo modeling of the LFR in the adiabatic equilibrium state. • We assess the adiabatic equilibrium fuel composition using the MCB code. • We define the self-adjusting process of breeding gain by the control rod operation. • The designed LFR can work in the adiabatic cycle with zero fuel breeding. - Abstract: Nuclear power would appear to be the only energy source able to satisfy the global energy demand while also achieving a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it can provide a stable and secure source of electricity, and plays an important role in many European countries. However, nuclear power generation from its birth has been doomed by the legacy of radioactive nuclear waste. In addition, the looming decrease in the available resources of fissile U235 may influence the future sustainability of nuclear energy. The integrated solution to both problems is not trivial, and postulates the introduction of a closed-fuel cycle strategy based on breeder reactors. The perfect choice of a novel reactor system fulfilling both requirements is the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor operating in the adiabatic equilibrium state. In such a state, the reactor converts depleted or natural uranium into plutonium while consuming any self-generated minor actinides and transferring only fission products as waste. We present the preliminary design of a Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor operating in the adiabatic equilibrium state with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB. As a reference reactor model we apply the core design developed initially under the framework of the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY) project and refined in the follow-up Lead-cooled European Advanced DEmonstration Reactor (LEADER) project. The major objective of the study is to show to what extent the constraints of the adiabatic cycle are maintained and to indicate the phase space for further improvements. The analysis

  4. A MEASUREMENT OF THE ADIABATIC COOLING INDEX FOR INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PICKUP IONS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Kallenbach, Reinald

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar neutral gas enters the inner heliosphere where it is ionized and becomes the pickup ion population of the solar wind. It is often assumed that this population will subsequently cool adiabatically, like an expanding ideal gas due, to the divergent flow of the solar wind. Here, we report the first independent measure of the effective adiabatic cooling index in the inner heliosphere from SOHO CELIAS measurements of singly charged helium taken during times of perpendicular interplanetary magnetic field. We use a simple adiabatic transport model of interstellar pickup helium ions, valid for the upwind region of the inner heliosphere. The time averaged velocity spectrum of helium pickup ions measured by CELIAS/CTOF is fit to this model with a single free parameter which indicates an effective cooling rate with a power-law index of γ = 1.35 ± 0.2. While this average is consistent with the 'ideal-gas' assumption of γ = 1.5, the analysis indicates that such an assumption will not apply in general, and that due to observational constraints further measurements are necessary to constrain the cooling process. Implications are discussed for understanding the transport processes in the inner heliosphere and improving this measurement technique.

  5. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  6. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  7. Multiple coupled landscapes and non-adiabatic dynamics with applications to self-activating genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Haidong; Sasai, Masaki; Wang, Jin

    2015-11-21

    Many physical, chemical and biochemical systems (e.g. electronic dynamics and gene regulatory networks) are governed by continuous stochastic processes (e.g. electron dynamics on a particular electronic energy surface and protein (gene product) synthesis) coupled with discrete processes (e.g. hopping among different electronic energy surfaces and on and off switching of genes). One can also think of the underlying dynamics as the continuous motion on a particular landscape and discrete hoppings among different landscapes. The main difference of such systems from the intra-landscape dynamics alone is the emergence of the timescale involved in transitions among different landscapes in addition to the timescale involved in a particular landscape. The adiabatic limit when inter-landscape hoppings are fast compared to continuous intra-landscape dynamics has been studied both analytically and numerically, but the analytical treatment of the non-adiabatic regime where the inter-landscape hoppings are slow or comparable to continuous intra-landscape dynamics remains challenging. In this study, we show that there exists mathematical mapping of the dynamics on 2(N) discretely coupled N continuous dimensional landscapes onto one single landscape in 2N dimensional extended continuous space. On this 2N dimensional landscape, eddy current emerges as a sign of non-equilibrium non-adiabatic dynamics and plays an important role in system evolution. Many interesting physical effects such as the enhancement of fluctuations, irreversibility, dissipation and optimal kinetics emerge due to non-adiabaticity manifested by the eddy current illustrated for an N = 1 self-activator. We further generalize our theory to the N-gene network with multiple binding sites and multiple synthesis rates for discretely coupled non-equilibrium stochastic physical and biological systems.

  8. Health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  9. Evolution of f{sub NL} to the adiabatic limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliston, Joseph; Mulryne, David J.; Tavakol, Reza [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Seery, David, E-mail: J.Elliston@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Mulryne@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Seery@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: R.Tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-01

    We study inflationary perturbations in multiple-field models, for which ζ typically evolves until all isocurvature modes decay — the {sup a}diabatic limit{sup .} We use numerical methods to explore the sensitivity of the local-shape bispectrum to the process by which this limit is achieved, finding an appreciable dependence on model-specific data such as the time at which slow-roll breaks down or the timescale of reheating. In models with a sum-separable potential where the isocurvature modes decay before the end of the slow-roll phase we give an analytic criterion for the asymptotic value of f{sub NL} to be large. Other examples can be constructed using a waterfall field to terminate inflation while f{sub NL} is transiently large, caused by descent from a ridge or convergence into a valley. We show that these two types of evolution are distinguished by the sign of the bispectrum, and give approximate expressions for the peak f{sub NL}.

  10. Evolution of fNL to the adiabatic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliston, Joseph; Mulryne, David J.; Seery, David; Tavakol, Reza

    2011-11-01

    We study inflationary perturbations in multiple-field models, for which ζ typically evolves until all isocurvature modes decay — the "adiabatic limit". We use numerical methods to explore the sensitivity of the local-shape bispectrum to the process by which this limit is achieved, finding an appreciable dependence on model-specific data such as the time at which slow-roll breaks down or the timescale of reheating. In models with a sum-separable potential where the isocurvature modes decay before the end of the slow-roll phase we give an analytic criterion for the asymptotic value of fNL to be large. Other examples can be constructed using a waterfall field to terminate inflation while fNL is transiently large, caused by descent from a ridge or convergence into a valley. We show that these two types of evolution are distinguished by the sign of the bispectrum, and give approximate expressions for the peak fNL.

  11. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2013-10-20

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  12. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Krishnan, R; Jogeswararao, G; Parthasarathy, R; Premalatha, S; Prabhakar Rao, J; Gunasekaran, G; Ananthasivan, K

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  13. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%

  14. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Toma, Andrea; Francardi, Marco; Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Stockman, Mark Mark; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  15. The effect of freestream turbulence on film cooling adiabatic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhew, James E.; Baughn, James W.; Byerley, Aaron R.

    2003-01-01

    The film-cooling performance of a flat plate in the presence of low and high freestream turbulence is investigated using liquid crystal thermography. This paper contributes high-resolution color images that clearly show how the freestream turbulence spreads the cooling air around a larger area of the film-cooled surface. Distributions of the adiabatic effectiveness are determined over the film-cooled surface of the flat plate using the hue method and image processing. Three blowing rates are investigated for a model with three straight holes spaced three diameters apart, with density ratio near unity. High freestream turbulence is shown to increase the area-averaged effectiveness at high blowing rates, but decrease it at low blowing rates. At low blowing ratio, freestream turbulence clearly reduces the coverage area of the cooling air due to increased mixing with the main flow. However, at high blowing ratio, when much of the jet has lifted off in the low turbulence case, high freestream turbulence turns its increased mixing into an asset, entraining some of the coolant that penetrates into the main flow and mixing it with the air near the surface

  16. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K., E-mail: asivan@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  17. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  18. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  19. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  20. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  1. Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukova Svetlana, Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

  2. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)

    2017-05-15

    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painleve) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I{sub adia} = circular integral p{sub i}dq{sub i} introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area. (orig.)

  3. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-05-01

    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painlevé) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I_adia = \\oint p_i dq_i introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area.

  4. Interplay between electric and magnetic effect in adiabatic polaritonic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, Alessandro; Toma, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Giugni, Andrea; De Angelis, Francesco De; Das, Gobind; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2013-01-01

    We report on the possibility of realizing adiabatic compression of polaritonic wave on a metallic conical nano-structure through an oscillating electric potential (quasi dynamic regime). By comparing this result with an electromagnetic wave excitation, we were able to relate the classical lighting-rod effect to adiabatic compression. Furthermore, we show that while the magnetic contribution plays a marginal role in the formation of adiabatic compression, it provides a blue shift in the spectral region. In particular, magnetic permeability can be used as a free parameter for tuning the polaritonic resonances. The peculiar form of adiabatic compression is instead dictated by both the source and the metal permittivity. The analysis is performed by starting from a simple electrostatic system to end with the complete electromagnetic one through intermediate situations such as the quasi-electrostatic and quasi-dynamic regimes. Each configuration is defined by a particular set of equations which allows to clearly determine the individual role played by the electric and magnetic contribution in the generation of adiabatic compression. We notice that these findings can be applied for the realization of a THz nano-metric generator. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  5. Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krovi, Hari; Ozols, Maris; Roland, Jeremie

    2010-01-01

    We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P ' where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP ' and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.

  6. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage from an atomic to a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.D.; Kheruntsyan, K.V.; Heinzen, D.J.; Wynar, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The process of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) provides a possible route for the generation of a coherent molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) from an atomic BEC. We analyze this process in a three-dimensional mean-field theory, including atom-atom interactions and nonresonant intermediate levels. We find that the process is feasible, but at larger Rabi frequencies than anticipated from a crude single-mode lossless analysis, due to two-photon dephasing caused by the atomic interactions. We then identify optimal strategies in STIRAP allowing one to maintain high conversion efficiencies with smaller Rabi frequencies and under experimentally less demanding conditions

  7. On the recirculation of ammonia-lithium nitrate in adiabatic absorbers for chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventas, R.; Lecuona, A.; Legrand, M.; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of single-effect absorption cycles with ammonia-lithium nitrate solution as the working pair and incorporating an adiabatic absorber. It is based on UA-ΔT lm models for separate regions of plate-type heat exchangers and it assumes an approach factor to adiabatic equilibrium. The results are offered as a function of external temperatures. A loop circuit with a heat exchanger upstream the absorber produces subcooling for facilitating absorption process. The effect of the mass flow rate recirculated through the absorber is studied. Results show a diminishing return effect. The value at which the recirculation mass flow yields a reasonable performance is between 4 and 6 times the solution mass flow. With a heat transfer area 6 times smaller than with a conventional diabatic shell-and-tube type absorber, the adiabatic absorber configured with a plate heat exchanger yields a 2% smaller maximum COP and a 15-20% smaller cooling power.

  8. Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement

  9. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  10. Calculation of a hydrogen molecule in the adiabatic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukajlovich, F.R.; Mogilevskij, O.A.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1979-01-01

    The adiabatic approximation js used for calculating the energy levels of a hydrogen molecule, i.e. of the simplest four-body system with a Coulomb interaction. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the possible use of the adiabatic method in the molecular problems. The most effective regions of its application are discussed. An infinite system of integro-differential equations is constructed, which describes the hydrogen molecule in the adiabatic approximation with the effective potentials taking into account the corrections to the nuclear motion. The energy of the first three vibrational states of the hydrogen molecule is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The convergence of the method is discussed

  11. Compact beam splitters in coupled waveguides using shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wen, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jie-Long; Tseng, Shuo-Yen

    2018-04-01

    There are various works on adiabatic (three) waveguide coupler devices but most are focused on the quantum optical analogies and the physics itself. We successfully apply shortcuts to adiabaticity techniques to the coupled waveguide system with a suitable length for integrated optics devices. Especially, the counter-diabatic driving protocol followed by unitary transformation overcomes the previously unrealistic implemention, and is used to design feasible and robust 1 × 2 and 1 × 3 beam splitters for symmetric and asymmetric three waveguide couplers. Numerical simulations with the beam propagation method demonstrate that these shortcut designs for beam splitters are shorter than the adiabatic ones, and also have a better tolerance than parallel waveguides resonant beam splitters with respect to spacing errors and wavelength variation.

  12. Adiabatic passage and ensemble control of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghtas, Z; Sarlette, A; Rouchon, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers population transfer between eigenstates of a finite quantum ladder controlled by a classical electric field. Using an appropriate change of variables, we show that this setting can be set in the framework of adiabatic passage, which is known to facilitate ensemble control of quantum systems. Building on this insight, we present a mathematical proof of robustness for a control protocol-chirped pulse-practised by experimentalists to drive an ensemble of quantum systems from the ground state to the most excited state. We then propose new adiabatic control protocols using a single chirped and amplitude-shaped pulse, to robustly perform any permutation of eigenstate populations, on an ensemble of systems with unknown coupling strengths. These adiabatic control protocols are illustrated by simulations on a four-level ladder.

  13. Dynamics of ionizing shock waves on adiabatic motions of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of free (adiabatic) motion of a spherical ionizing wave in deuterium produced by an expanding laser plasma. It is shown that the discrepancy between the free movement of shock waves (which lead to total ionization of the gas) and the Sedov-Taylor model of a spontaneous point explosion is not related to variations in the adiabat exponent γ and the motion occurs for a constant γ=5/3. The effect is ascribed to the influence of the shock wave front structure on the dynamics of its propagation. An analytic expression for the motion of symmetric ionizing shock waves is found which has an accuracy of better than 1%. As a result the adiabat exponent was determined experimentally. A method for determining the energy of a shock wave on the basis of its dynamics of motion is developed which has an accuracy of approximately 5% [ru

  14. The Political Context of School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    1976-01-01

    Reports the results of a case study of the political decision-making process in Wisconsin through which control over educational finance reform was exercised between January, 1972, and August, 1973. (Author)

  15. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  16. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  17. High beta lasing in micropillar cavities with adiabatic layer design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels; Lorke, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on lasing in optically pumped adiabatic micropillar cavities, based on the AlAs/GaAs material system. A detailed study of the threshold pump power and the spontaneous emission β factor in the lasing regime for different diameters dc is presented. We demonstrate a reduction of the thresh...... of the threshold pump power by over 2 orders of magnitude from dc = 2.25 μm down to 0.95 μm. Lasing with β factors exceeding 0.5 shows that adiabatic micropillars are operating deeply in the cavity quantum electrodynamics regime....

  18. Adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhin, Oleg I; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    As a first step towards the adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses, here we consider the simplest one-dimensional zero-range potential model. The asymptotic solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the adiabatic regime is obtained and the photoelectron spectrum is calculated. The factorization formula for the photoelectron spectrum in the back-rescattering region, first suggested by Morishita et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013903 (2008)] on the basis of ab initio calculations, is derived analytically.

  19. On the adiabatic theorem when eigenvalues dive into the continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Decebal Horia; Jensen, Arne; Knörr, Hans Konrad

    2018-01-01

    We consider a reduced two-channel model of an atom consisting of a quantum dot coupled to an open scattering channel described by a three-dimensional Laplacian. We are interested in the survival probability of a bound state when the dot energy varies smoothly and adiabatically in time. The initial...... in the adiabatic limit. At the end of the paper, we present a short outlook on how our method may be extended to cover other classes of Hamiltonians; details will be given elsewhere....

  20. Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine. Demands for legal reform have come from both inside and outside Palestine. Inside Palestine, legal reform is seen as a prerequisite for democracy and good governance. Outside, legal reform is perceived as integral to the continued peace process with Israel.

  1. Railway Reform in Germany: Restructuring, Service Contracts, and Infrastructure Charges

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the reform process in the German railway sector. We take a look at the process and the outcome of the reform and compare it with the theoretical findings. The regionalisation of the regional rail passenger services is of a special importance to us. We scrutinise the contracts for the provision of these services and try to find interrelations between the different contract elements. A further emphasis is placed on the influence of the European Commission on the reform process. We an...

  2. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    -making process as reform according to this ‘grand reform’ discourse was blocked by a combination of small-scale fishers’ informal networks and the power of the parliamentary majority. After a parliamentary shift in power the new government implemented the ‘grand reform’ gradually whilst new patterns...... of participation and exclusion emerged. In this process, the identities of the participating participants were reinterpreted to fit the new patterns of influence and participation. The article argues that fishery reform does not necessarily start with the collective recognition of a problem in marine resource use...... and a power-neutral process of institutional learning. Instead, it argues that fishery reform is likely to be the ‘reform of somebody’ and that this ‘somebody’ is itself a changing identity....

  3. Kristeva's Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In my brief remarks, I consider what it means to return and rebind—that is to say, the significance of the re for Kristeva’s thought.  Kristeva does not just talk about binding or birth, or unbinding or death, but rather rebinding and rebirth, suggesting that it is a retrospective return rather than an original moment that is crucial.  The most significant moment, then, is not the moment of imaginary plenitude, nor the moment of originary loss, but rather the moment of rebirth that comes through rebinding after the loss of plenitude.  Indeed, Kristeva’s insistence on re-turning suggests that there is no originary moment of plenitude nor of castration or loss, but rather a constant movement of compensation for a recurrent loss.  By emphasizing rebinding and rebirth, she underscores not the loss as cutting wound but rather the healing power of signification, always already inherent within loss.  The flip-side of separation is reattachment.  And rather than just focus on the separation or cut, Kristeva looks to that which allows us to rebind and reattach in order to create relations that sustain us.  Both unbinding and binding are necessary for rebinding.  Thus, by focusing on rebinding, Kristeva insists on the process of unbinding and binding, and the oscillation between them.

  4. The Work Breakdown Structure in an Acquisition Reform Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Neil

    1997-01-01

    These viewgraphs discuss acquisition reform, costs, provide a definition for work breakdown structure, development process of work breakdown, an overview of contract business management, a GAO review...

  5. Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape

  6. Non - Adiabaticity and Novel Isotope Effect in the Doped Cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.; WOLF, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a novel isotope effect which is due to a strong non-adiabaticity that manifests itself in the dependence of the carrier concentration on the isotopic mass. The critical temperature in turn depends on the carrier concentration giving rise to a unique and non-phononic isotope shift. (author)

  7. Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r 3 singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation

  8. Non-adiabatic rotational excitation of dipolar molecule under the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 1213–1221. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... The rotational wave packets of LiCl molecule excited non-adiabatically by half cycle pulse. (HCP) is .... pared to the intensities required for the ionization of ..... out and with delayed ultrashort HCP at different initial pulse dura-.

  9. Adiabatic and diabatic aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugauer, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Furger, M.; Jost, D.T.; Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Synoptic scale vertical motion, here detected by the geopotential height of the 500 hPa surface, mainly accounts for the aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch in winter. In summer, diabatic convection provides the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Nevertheless, synoptic scale adiabatic motion still determines whether diabatic convection can develop. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Probing Entanglement in Adiabatic Quantum Optimization with Trapped Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHauke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic quantum optimization has been proposed as a route to solve NP-complete problems, with a possible quantum speedup compared to classical algorithms. However, the precise role of quantum effects, such as entanglement, in these optimization protocols is still unclear. We propose a setup of cold trapped ions that allows one to quantitatively characterize, in a controlled experiment, the interplay of entanglement, decoherence, and non-adiabaticity in adiabatic quantum optimization. We show that, in this way, a broad class of NP-complete problems becomes accessible for quantum simulations, including the knapsack problem, number partitioning, and instances of the max-cut problem. Moreover, a general theoretical study reveals correlations of the success probability with entanglement at the end of the protocol. From exact numerical simulations for small systems and linear ramps, however, we find no substantial correlations with the entanglement during the optimization. For the final state, we derive analytically a universal upper bound for the success probability as a function of entanglement, which can be measured in experiment. The proposed trapped-ion setups and the presented study of entanglement address pertinent questions of adiabatic quantum optimization, which may be of general interest across experimental platforms.

  11. Building an adiabatic quantum computer simulation in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Santalla, Silvia N.

    2018-05-01

    We present a didactic introduction to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) via the explicit construction of a classical simulator of quantum computers. This constitutes a suitable route to introduce several important concepts for advanced undergraduates in physics: quantum many-body systems, quantum phase transitions, disordered systems, spin-glasses, and computational complexity theory.

  12. Adiabatic invariants of the extended KdV equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewska, Anna [Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Rozmej, Piotr, E-mail: p.rozmej@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Infeld, Eryk [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Rowlands, George [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7A (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-30

    When the Euler equations for shallow water are taken to the next order, beyond KdV, momentum and energy are no longer exact invariants. (The only one is mass.) However, adiabatic invariants (AI) can be found. When the KdV expansion parameters are zero, exact invariants are recovered. Existence of adiabatic invariants results from general theory of near-identity transformations (NIT) which allow us to transform higher order nonintegrable equations to asymptotically equivalent (when small parameters tend to zero) integrable form. Here we present a direct method of calculations of adiabatic invariants. It does not need a transformation to a moving reference frame nor performing a near-identity transformation. Numerical tests show that deviations of AI from constant values are indeed small. - Highlights: • We suggest a new and simple method for calculating adiabatic invariants of second order wave equations. • It is easy to use and we hope that it will be useful if published. • Interesting numerics included.

  13. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations...

  14. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M

    2016-06-09

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

  15. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Shangwu; Gu Zhiyu

    2005-01-01

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  16.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  17. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  18. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  19. A DIRECT METHOD TO DETERMINE THE PARALLEL MEAN FREE PATH OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES WITH ADIABATIC FOCUSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W.

    2012-01-01

    The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.

  20. Adiabatic shear banding and scaling laws in chip formation with application to cutting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Soldani, X.; Miguélez, M. H.

    2013-11-01

    The phenomenon of adiabatic shear banding is analyzed theoretically in the context of metal cutting. The mechanisms of material weakening that are accounted for are (i) thermal softening and (ii) material failure related to a critical value of the accumulated plastic strain. Orthogonal cutting is viewed as a unique configuration where adiabatic shear bands can be experimentally produced under well controlled loading conditions by individually tuning the cutting speed, the feed (uncut chip thickness) and the tool geometry. The role of cutting conditions on adiabatic shear banding and chip serration is investigated by combining finite element calculations and analytical modeling. This leads to the characterization and classification of different regimes of shear banding and the determination of scaling laws which involve dimensionless parameters representative of thermal and inertia effects. The analysis gives new insights into the physical aspects of plastic flow instability in chip formation. The originality with respect to classical works on adiabatic shear banding stems from the various facets of cutting conditions that influence shear banding and from the specific role exercised by convective flow on the evolution of shear bands. Shear bands are generated at the tool tip and propagate towards the chip free surface. They grow within the chip formation region while being convected away by chip flow. It is shown that important changes in the mechanism of shear banding take place when the characteristic time of shear band propagation becomes equal to a characteristic convection time. Application to Ti-6Al-4V titanium are considered and theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data in a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The fundamental knowledge developed in this work is thought to be useful not only for the understanding of metal cutting processes but also, by analogy, to similar problems where convective flow is also interfering with

  1. Experimental analysis of an autothermal reformer for automotive purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caners, C.; Peppley, B.; Harrison, S.; Oosthuizen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental analysis, concomitant with modeling research, to determine improved operating parameters and design of an autothermal reformer. The reformer, utilizing both partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions, along with the water gas shift phenomena is well suited for the mobile application of transportation. This is due to the novel geometry of the autothermal reformer, which seeks to improve the heat transfer characteristics of the process, whereby the exothermic partial oxidation reaction provides the heat energy required to drive the steam reforming reaction, to the point of a thermally neutral system. The paper will present data from the experimental results of reforming iso-octane as a surrogate for gasoline in the form of reformate composition, iso-octane conversion percentages and efficiencies in terms of hydrogen realized per mol of fuel input. (author)

  2. Power sector reform in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totare, Ninad P.; Pandit, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    In early 1990 the power sector in India required an initial set of reforms due to the scarcity of financial resources and its deteriorating technical and commercial efficiency. The Indian power sector is now going through a second stage of reforms in which restructuring of electric supply utilities has taken place. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) initiated reforms in 2005 by dividing the state electricity board into four separate companies. In this paper, the situations that led to the reform of the MSEB and the scope of the work required for an action plan initiated by the state electricity distribution company in the context of the proposed Key Performance Index are discussed. The post-reform status of the distribution company is analyzed with selected key parameters. The study also analyzes the electricity supply model implemented and the effect of a multi-year tariff plan as one of the key milestones of the tariff structure. The various new projects implemented by the distribution company to improve consumer services and the reform experiences of the other states are discussed, along with the future scope of the present reform process. (author)

  3. TRANSFERABILITY OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS: NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AS AN EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kapucu, Naim; Kösecik, Muhammet

    2002-01-01

    This article begins with the examination of models of analyzing the process of policy transfer, lesson drawing and policy streams with regard to initiating and directing factors and dynamics of the process. The paper continues with the assessment of administrative reform transferring by evaluating the necessity, major themes and transferability of administrative reform. Strategies for successful administrative reform transferring are emphasized. Special reference is given to New Public Manage...

  4. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO 2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO 2 /H 2 O/CH 4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO 2 reforming. The CO 2 /CH 4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO 2 /CH 4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO 2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication for exciting whispering gallery modes in microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroudmand, F.

    2014-05-01

    This article demonstrates an investigation and analysis of a tapered fiber fabrication using an etchant droplet method. To achieve precise control on process, a two-step etching method is proposed (using 48% concentration of HF acid and Buffered HF) which results in low-loss adiabatic tapered fiber. A spectrum analysis monitoring in addition to a microscopy system was used to verify the etching progress. Tapers with losses less than 0.4 dB in air and 4.5 dB in water are demonstrated. A biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method was used to excite the WGMs on a microsphere surface in aquatic environment.

  6. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  7. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  8. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.; Ghanadan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model, reform processes and outcomes have often failed to meet expectations. Drawing on an extensive literature review and case studies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe, this paper describes common features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions. Comparison with the sector-focused policy goals of deregulation in OECD countries highlights the importance of national fiscal crises, macroeconomic reforms, and persuasion by multilateral lenders in shaping non-OECD reforms. It also makes clear reform's dependence on attracting foreign capital, and consequent vulnerability to volatile international financial conditions. Case studies of Bolivia, Ghana, India, Poland, and Thailand illustrate reform's diverse pathways and problems in different settings. A broad range of non-OECD reform experiences indicates that disappointing results have often resulted from a narrow focus on finance and cost recovery, inflexibly applied. The paper concludes that improving reform will require emphasizing a broader set of objectives, including service provision, public benefits, effective regulation, and social/political legitimacy. Above all, reforms must be based on realistic assessments of national needs and capabilities. (author)

  9. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  10. Carbonaceous deposits on naptha reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwan, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous deposits on naphtha reforming catalysts play a decisive role in limiting process performance. The deposits negatively after catalyst activity, selectivity and the production cycle of a semi regenerative reformer. The magnitude of negative effect of those deposits is directly proportional to their amounts and complexity. Investigations on used reforming catalysts samples reveal that the amount and type (complexity of the chemical nature) of carbonaceous deposits are directly proportional to the catalysts life on stream and the severity of operating conditions. In addition, the combustibility behavior of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst samples taken from different reformers are found to be different. Optimal carbon removal, for in situ catalyst regeneration, requires the specific conditions be developed, based on the results of well designed and properly performed investigations of the amount and type of carbonaceous deposits. (author)

  11. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  12. Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.

  13. Adiabatic theory of nonlinear electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, I.A.; Stupakov, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma heating at electron frequency by an ordinary wave propagating at right angle to unidirectional magnetic field is treated. Injected microwave power is assumed to be so large that relativistic change of electron gyrofrequency during one flight thorugh the wave beam is much greater than inverse time of flight. The electron motion in the wave field is described using Hamiltonian formalism in adiabatic approximation. It is shown that energy coupling from the wave to electrons is due to a bifurcation of electron trajectory which results in a jumpm of the adiabatic invariant. The probability of bifurcational transition from one trajectory to another is calculated analytically and is used for the estimation of the beam power absorbed in plasma. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  14. An adiabatic matching device for the Orsay linear positron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Le Meur, G.; Mouton, B.; Renard, M.

    1983-03-01

    An adiabatically tapered solenoidal magnetic field is used to match positron beam source emittance to accelerating section acceptance. Such a matching system improves the accepted energy band which has been accurately computed and compared with analytical determination. The tapered field is provided by stacked pancakes and solenoids of various radii; total lens length is about 0.75m. The adiabatic matching system took place of a quarter wave transformer system and has been in operation for two years. Positron conversion ratio is 3.3% for a 1 GeV incident beam and presents a factor of nearly two of improvement for the positron yield. Energy bandwidth of positron beam has also been increased by a factor of nearly 2.5; the output positron beam energy is of 1.2 GeV

  15. Adiabatic pair creation in heavy-ion and laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickl, P.; Durr, D.

    2008-01-01

    The planned generation of lasers and heavy-ion colliders renews the hope to see electron-positron pair creation in strong classical fields. This old prediction is usually referred to as spontaneous pair creation. We observe that both heavy-ion collisions and pair creation in strong laser fields, are instances of the theory of adiabatic pair creation. We shall present the theory, thereby correcting earlier results. We give the momentum distribution of created pairs in overcritical fields. We discuss carefully the proposed experimental verifications and conclude that pure laser-based experiments are highly questionable. We propose a new experiment, joining laser fields and heavy ions, which may be feasible with present-day technology and which may indeed verify the theoretical prediction of adiabatic pair creation. Our presentation relies on recent rigorous works in mathematical physics. (authors)

  16. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    The simplest model of plasma dynamics is the adiabatic model. In this model the plasma is assumed to be in MHD equilibrium at each instant of time. The equilibria are connected by the requirement that they all have the same entropy per unit flux, i.e., the equilibria form a sequence generated by adiabatic changes. The standard way of computing such a sequence of equilibria was developed by Grad, but its practical use requires a fairly complicated code. It would be helpful if approximately the same results could be gotten either with a much simpler code or by analytical techniques. In Sec. II a one-dimensional equilibrium code is described and its results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code; in Sec. III an even simpler analytic calculation is presented.

  17. Adiabatic translation factors in slow ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaben, J.; Taulbjerg, K.

    1981-01-01

    The general properties of translation factors in slow atomic collisions are discussed. It is emphasised that an acceptable form of translation factors must be conceptually consistent with the basic underlying assumption of the molecular model; i.e. translation factors must relax adiabatically at intermediate and small internuclear separations. A simple physical argument is applied to derive a general parameter-free expression for the translation factor pertinent to an electron in a two-centre Coulomb field. Within the present approach the adiabatic translation factor is considered to be a property of the two-centre field independently of the molecular state under consideration. The generalisation to many-electron systems is therefore readily made. (author)

  18. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  19. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  20. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-04-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.

  1. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) for quantitative analysis of conformational dynamics in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Chao, Fa-An; Masterson, Larry R; Mangia, Silvia; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Seelig, Burckhard; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2012-06-01

    NMR relaxation methods probe biomolecular motions over a wide range of timescales. In particular, the rotating frame spin-lock R(1ρ) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) R(2) experiments are commonly used to characterize μs to ms dynamics, which play a critical role in enzyme folding and catalysis. In an effort to complement these approaches, we introduced the Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) method, where dispersion in rotating frame relaxation rate constants (longitudinal R(1ρ) and transverse R(2ρ)) is created by modulating the shape and duration of adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulses. Previously, we showed the ability of the HARD method to detect chemical exchange dynamics in the fast exchange regime (k(ex)∼10(4)-10(5) s(-1)). In this article, we show the sensitivity of the HARD method to slower exchange processes by measuring R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) relaxation rates for two soluble proteins (ubiquitin and 10C RNA ligase). One advantage of the HARD method is its nominal dependence on the applied radio frequency field, which can be leveraged to modulate the dispersion in the relaxation rate constants. In addition, we also include product operator simulations to define the dynamic range of adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) that is valid under all exchange regimes. We conclude from both experimental observations and simulations that this method is complementary to CPMG-based and rotating frame spin-lock R(1ρ) experiments to probe conformational exchange dynamics for biomolecules. Finally, this approach is germane to several NMR-active nuclei, where relaxation rates are frequency-offset independent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Boosting work characteristics and overall heat-engine performance via shortcuts to adiabaticity: quantum and classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiawen; Wang, Qing-hai; Liu, Zhihao; Hänggi, Peter; Gong, Jiangbin

    2013-12-01

    Under a general framework, shortcuts to adiabatic processes are shown to be possible in classical systems. We study the distribution function of the work done on a small system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium. We find that the work fluctuations can be significantly reduced via shortcuts to adiabatic processes. For example, in the classical case, probabilities of having very large or almost zero work values are suppressed. In the quantum case, negative work may be totally removed from the otherwise non-positive-definite work values. We also apply our findings to a micro Otto-cycle-based heat engine. It is shown that the use of shortcuts, which directly enhances the engine output power, can also increase the heat-engine efficiency substantially, in both quantum and classical regimes.

  4. Fast fracture: an adiabatic restriction on thermally activated crack propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Slow, isothermal, crack propagation is widely suspected to be rate controlled by thermally activated plastic deformation in the crack tip region. Adiabatic conditions are generally established in the fracture modified material at the tip of a crack during fast fracture. The temperature of this material is not the temperature of the specimen and is generally not measured during fast fracture. Thus, a complete thermodynamic description of adiabatic crack propagation data can not be made. When the slow, isothermal, crack propagation mechanisms are assumed to be operative during adiabatic crack propagation then certain predictions can be made. For example: the changes in the driving force due to temperature and rate are always in the opposite sense; there is no minimum in the driving force versus crack velocity without a change in mechanism; the temperature rise in the crack tip fracture modified material is determined mainly by the activation enthalpy for crack propagation; the interpretation of fast fracture structural steel data from simple plastic models is suspect since these materials have dissimilar isothermal temperature dependencies.

  5. Non-Adiabatic Molecular Dynamics Methods for Materials Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furche, Filipp [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Parker, Shane M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Muuronen, Mikko J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Roy, Saswata [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-04-04

    The flow of radiative energy in light-driven materials such as photosensitizer dyes or photocatalysts is governed by non-adiabatic transitions between electronic states and cannot be described within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation commonly used in electronic structure theory. The non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) methods based on Tully surface hopping and time-dependent density functional theory developed in this project have greatly extended the range of molecular materials that can be tackled by NAMD simulations. New algorithms to compute molecular excited state and response properties efficiently were developed. Fundamental limitations of common non-linear response methods were discovered and characterized. Methods for accurate computations of vibronic spectra of materials such as black absorbers were developed and applied. It was shown that open-shell TDDFT methods capture bond breaking in NAMD simulations, a longstanding challenge for single-reference molecular dynamics simulations. The methods developed in this project were applied to study the photodissociation of acetaldehyde and revealed that non-adiabatic effects are experimentally observable in fragment kinetic energy distributions. Finally, the project enabled the first detailed NAMD simulations of photocatalytic water oxidation by titania nanoclusters, uncovering the mechanism of this fundamentally important reaction for fuel generation and storage.

  6. Adiabatic theory of Wannier threshold laws and ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Adiabatic energy eigenvalues of H 2 + are computed for complex values of the internuclear distance R. The infinite number of bound-state eigenenergies are represented by a function ε(R) that is single valued on a multisheeted Riemann surface. A region is found where ε(R) and the corresponding eigenfunctions exhibit harmonic-oscillator structure characteristic of electron motion on a potential saddle. The Schroedinger equation is solved in the adiabatic approximation along a path in the complex R plane to compute ionization cross sections. The cross section thus obtained joins the Wannier threshold region with the keV energy region, but the exponent near the ionization threshold disagrees with well-accepted values. Accepted values are obtained when a lowest-order diabatic correction is employed, indicating that adiabatic approximations do not give the correct zero velocity limit for ionization cross sections. Semiclassical eigenvalues for general top-of-barrier motion are given and the theory is applied to the ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact. The theory with a first diabatic correction gives the Wannier threshold law even for this case

  7. Narrow-line laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew A.; Cline, Julia R. K.; Bartolotta, John P.; Holland, Murray J.; Thompson, James K.

    2018-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel laser cooling mechanism applicable to particles with narrow-linewidth optical transitions. By sweeping the frequency of counter-propagating laser beams in a sawtooth manner, we cause adiabatic transfer back and forth between the ground state and a long-lived optically excited state. The time-ordering of these adiabatic transfers is determined by Doppler shifts, which ensures that the associated photon recoils are in the opposite direction to the particle’s motion. This ultimately leads to a robust cooling mechanism capable of exerting large forces via a weak transition and with reduced reliance on spontaneous emission. We present a simple intuitive model for the resulting frictional force, and directly demonstrate its efficacy for increasing the total phase-space density of an atomic ensemble. We rely on both simulation and experimental studies using the 7.5 kHz linewidth 1S0 to 3P1 transition in 88Sr. The reduced reliance on spontaneous emission may allow this adiabatic sweep method to be a useful tool for cooling particles that lack closed cycling transitions, such as molecules.

  8. Quantum trajectories for time-dependent adiabatic master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ka Wa; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    We describe a quantum trajectories technique for the unraveling of the quantum adiabatic master equation in Lindblad form. By evolving a complex state vector of dimension N instead of a complex density matrix of dimension N2, simulations of larger system sizes become feasible. The cost of running many trajectories, which is required to recover the master equation evolution, can be minimized by running the trajectories in parallel, making this method suitable for high performance computing clusters. In general, the trajectories method can provide up to a factor N advantage over directly solving the master equation. In special cases where only the expectation values of certain observables are desired, an advantage of up to a factor N2 is possible. We test the method by demonstrating agreement with direct solution of the quantum adiabatic master equation for 8-qubit quantum annealing examples. We also apply the quantum trajectories method to a 16-qubit example originally introduced to demonstrate the role of tunneling in quantum annealing, which is significantly more time consuming to solve directly using the master equation. The quantum trajectories method provides insight into individual quantum jump trajectories and their statistics, thus shedding light on open system quantum adiabatic evolution beyond the master equation.

  9. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  10. Rovibrational controlled-NOT gates using optimized stimulated Raman adiabatic passage techniques and optimal control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugny, D.; Bomble, L.; Ribeyre, T.; Dulieu, O.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates in realistic molecular systems is studied using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) techniques optimized in the time domain by genetic algorithms or coupled with optimal control theory. In the first case, with an adiabatic solution (a series of STIRAP processes) as starting point, we optimize in the time domain different parameters of the pulses to obtain a high fidelity in two realistic cases under consideration. A two-qubit CNOT gate constructed from different assignments in rovibrational states is considered in diatomic (NaCs) or polyatomic (SCCl 2 ) molecules. The difficulty of encoding logical states in pure rotational states with STIRAP processes is illustrated. In such circumstances, the gate can be implemented by optimal control theory and the STIRAP sequence can then be used as an interesting trial field. We discuss the relative merits of the two methods for rovibrational computing (structure of the control field, duration of the control, and efficiency of the optimization).

  11. Radial Microchannel Reactor (RMR) used in Steam Reforming CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    steam reforming natural gas for a wide variety of application from distributed energy production...into synthesis gas . Synthesis gas is used in the production of hydrogen , in GTL and other chemical processes. Steam reforming in an RMR was studied...technology has the potential to have a transformational reduction in cost and size of steam reforming natural gas for a wide variety of application

  12. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  13. Cidadania: instrumento e finalidade do processo de trabalho na reforma psiquiátrica Citizenship: instrument and finality of the working process in psychiatric reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Guimarães Bottaro de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A reforma psiquiátrica apresentou a necessidade de resgate dos direitos de cidadania para os doentes mentais, no contexto brasileiro, a partir do final do século 20. Busca-se analisar a cidadania como instrumento e finalidade do processo de trabalho das equipes de seis instituições de atenção extra-hospitalar em saúde mental, da rede pública de Cuiabá (MT, no segundo semestre de 2001. Utiliza-se a dialética marxista como referencial teórico-metodológico. Apesar de se afirmar os direitos de cidadãos para os "pacientes", agora denominados "usuários" dos serviços, o paradoxo entre o conceito de cidadania e "doente mental" não foi problematizado e, portanto, não resulta em atitudes terapêuticas que possibilitem ou assegurem a participação cidadã de profissionais e usuários. A cidadania corresponde a uma abstração, excluída da esfera de trabalho e/ou tratamento. No trabalho alienado não se explicita a situação contraditória na qual os trabalhadores são agentes que operam saberes e práticas tradicionalmente excludentes e, simultaneamente, necessitam superar esse papel e produzir práticas de atenção psicossocial que respeitem o cidadão portador de transtorno mental.Within the Brazilian context, starting at the end of the 20th century, the psychiatric reform presented the necessity to rescue the rights of citizenship for the mentally ill. The objective was to analyze citizenship as an instrument and an end of the team work process at six institutions of extra-hospital mental health care belonging to the public network of Cuiabá (MT, in the second semester of 2001. Marxist dialectics was used as the theoretical-methodological framework. It was observed that, even though citizen rights are affirmed for "patients", now called service "users", the paradox between the concept of citizenship and the "mentally ill patient" has not been discussed as a problem and consequently has not resulted in therapeutic attitudes that

  14. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  15. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  16. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  17. Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taioli, Simone [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Garberoglio, Giovanni [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Simonucci, Stefano [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Beccara, Silvio a [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Nardi, Marco [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Verucchi, Roberto [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, FBK-CNR, Trento (Italy); Iannotta, Salvatore [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy); Dapor, Maurizio [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); and others

    2013-01-28

    In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

  18. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  20. Risk evaluation on the basis of pressure rate measured by automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yusaku; Koseki, Hiroshi

    2008-11-15

    An automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC) had been employed to obtain the thermokinetic and the vapor pressure data during runaway reactions. The APTAC is an adiabatic calorimeter with a large-scale sample mass and low thermal inertia, and is an extremely useful tool for assessing thermal hazards of reactive chemicals. The data obtained by the APTAC are important information for the design of the safe industrial process. The thermodynamics parameters and the gas production were discussed on the basis of the experimental data of various concentrations and weights of di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP)/toluene solution for the purpose of investigating the properties of the APTAC data. The thermal decomposition of DTBP was studied on the basis of the temperature data and the pressure data obtained by the APTAC. The activation energy and the frequency factor of DTBP are nearly constant and the same as the literature values in the concentrations between 20 and 60 wt.%. The pressure rise due to gas production is important data for designing the relief vent of a reactor. The time history of the gas production was investigated with various weights and concentrations. The total gas production index, which had the vapor pressure correction, was 1.0 in the decomposition of DTBP.

  1. Risk evaluation on the basis of pressure rate measured by automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yusaku; Koseki, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    An automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC) had been employed to obtain the thermokinetic and the vapor pressure data during runaway reactions. The APTAC is an adiabatic calorimeter with a large-scale sample mass and low thermal inertia, and is an extremely useful tool for assessing thermal hazards of reactive chemicals. The data obtained by the APTAC are important information for the design of the safe industrial process. The thermodynamics parameters and the gas production were discussed on the basis of the experimental data of various concentrations and weights of di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP)/toluene solution for the purpose of investigating the properties of the APTAC data. The thermal decomposition of DTBP was studied on the basis of the temperature data and the pressure data obtained by the APTAC. The activation energy and the frequency factor of DTBP are nearly constant and the same as the literature values in the concentrations between 20 and 60 wt.%. The pressure rise due to gas production is important data for designing the relief vent of a reactor. The time history of the gas production was investigated with various weights and concentrations. The total gas production index, which had the vapor pressure correction, was 1.0 in the decomposition of DTBP

  2. On the adiabatic walking of plasma waves in a pulsar magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz; Mitra, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    The pulsar radio emission is generated in the near magnetosphere of the neutron star, and it must propagate through the rest of it to emerge into the interstellar medium. An important issue is whether this propagation affects the planes of polarization of the generated radiation. Observationally, there is sufficient evidence that the emerging radiation is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field line planes that should be associated with the ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) plasma modes, respectively, excited by some radiative process. This strongly suggests that the excited X and O modes are not affected by the so-called adiabatic walking that causes a slow rotation of polarization vectors. In this paper, we demonstrate that the conditions for adiabatic walking are not fulfilled within the soliton model of pulsar radio emission, in which the coherent curvature radiation occurs at frequencies much lower than the characteristic plasma frequency, The X mode propagates freely and observationally represents the primary polarization mode. The O mode has difficulty escaping from the pulsar plasma; however, it is sporadically observed as a weaker secondary polarization mode. We discuss a possible scenario under which the O mode can also escape from the plasma and reach an observer.

  3. Path-integral isomorphic Hamiltonian for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuecheng; Shushkov, Philip; Miller, Thomas F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe a path-integral approach for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic chemical dynamics simulations. For a general physical system with multiple electronic energy levels, a corresponding isomorphic Hamiltonian is introduced such that Boltzmann sampling of the isomorphic Hamiltonian with classical nuclear degrees of freedom yields the exact quantum Boltzmann distribution for the original physical system. In the limit of a single electronic energy level, the isomorphic Hamiltonian reduces to the familiar cases of either ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) or centroid molecular dynamics Hamiltonians, depending on the implementation. An advantage of the isomorphic Hamiltonian is that it can easily be combined with existing mixed quantum-classical dynamics methods, such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, to enable the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes with nuclear quantum effects. We present numerical applications of the isomorphic Hamiltonian to model two- and three-level systems, with encouraging results that include improvement upon a previously reported combination of RPMD with surface hopping in the deep-tunneling regime.

  4. Numerical study on lithium titanate battery thermal response under adiabatic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiujuan; Wang, Qingsong; Zhao, Xuejuan; Sun, Jinhua; Lin, Zijing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of lithium titanate battery during cycling was investigated. • The temperature rate in charging was less than that of discharging in the cycling. • The temperature difference was less than 0.02 °C at 0.5 C in adiabatic condition. • The temperature distribution and thermal runaway of the battery were predicted. - Abstract: To analyze the thermal behavior of 945 mA h lithium titanate battery during charging and discharging processes, the experimental and numerical studies are performed in this work. The cathode and anode of the 945 mA h lithium titanate soft package battery are the lithium nickel–cobalt–manganese-oxide and lithium titanate, respectively. In the experiment, an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter combined with battery cycler is employed to investigate the electrochemical–thermal behavior during charge–discharge cycling under the adiabatic condition. In numerical simulation, one electrochemical-thermal model is adopted to predict the thermal response and validated with the experimental results. From both experimental and simulated results, the profile of potential and current, the heat generation, the temperature, the temperature changing rate and the temperature distribution in the cell are obtained and thermal runaway is predicted. The analysis of the electrochemical and thermal behavior is beneficial for the commercial application of lithium titanate battery in the fields of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles

  5. Dissipation in adiabatic quantum computers: lessons from an exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Maximilian; Montangero, Simone; Santoro, Giuseppe E.; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide

    2017-11-01

    We introduce and study the adiabatic dynamics of free-fermion models subject to a local Lindblad bath and in the presence of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The merit of these models is that they can be solved exactly, and will help us to study the interplay between nonadiabatic transitions and dissipation in many-body quantum systems. After the adiabatic evolution, we evaluate the excess energy (the average value of the Hamiltonian) as a measure of the deviation from reaching the final target ground state. We compute the excess energy in a variety of different situations, where the nature of the bath and the Hamiltonian is modified. We find robust evidence of the fact that an optimal working time for the quantum annealing protocol emerges as a result of the competition between the nonadiabatic effects and the dissipative processes. We compare these results with the matrix-product-operator simulations of an Ising system and show that the phenomenology we found also applies for this more realistic case.

  6. Thermodynamic performance analysis of gas-fired air-cooled adiabatic absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Chen, G.M.; Wang, Q.; Zhong, M.

    2007-01-01

    In China, the application of small size gas-fired air-cooled absorption refrigeration systems as an alternative for electric compression air conditioning systems has shown broad prospects due to occurrence of electricity peak demand in Chinese big cities and lack of water resources. However, for conventional air-cooled absorption refrigeration systems, it is difficult to enhance the heat and mass transfer process in the falling film absorber, and may cause problems, for example, remarkable increase of pressure, temperature and concentration in the generators, risk of crystallization, acceleration of corrosion, degradation of performance, and so on. This paper presents a gas-fired air-cooled adiabatic absorption refrigeration system using lithium bromide-water solutions as its working fluid, which is designed with a cooling capacity of 16 kW under standard conditions. The system has two new features of waste heat recovery of condensed water from generator and an adiabatic absorber with an air cooler. Performance simulation and characteristic analysis are crucial for the optimal control and reliability of operation in extremely hot climates. A methodology is presented to simulate thermodynamic performance of the system. The influences of outdoor air temperature on operation performances of the system are investigated

  7. Detuning-induced stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in dense two-level systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Lin, Gongwei; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the coherence generation in dense two-level systems under detuning-induced stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (D-STIRAP). In the dense two-level system, the near dipole-dipole (NDD) interaction should be taken into consideration. With the increase in the strength of the NDD interaction, it is found that a switchlike transition of the generated coherence from maximum value to zero appears. Meanwhile, the adiabatic condition of the D-STIRAP is destroyed in the presence of the NDD interaction. In order to avoid the sudden decrease in the generated coherence and maintain the maximum value, we can use stronger detuning pulse or pump pulse, between which increasing the intensity of the detuning pulse is of more efficiency. Except for taking advantage of such maximum coherence in the high density case into areas like enhancing the four-wave mixing process, we also point out that the phenomenon of the coherence transition can be applied as an optical switch.

  8. Microstructural characteristics of adiabatic shear localization in a metastable beta titanium alloy deformed at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Hongyi, E-mail: h.zhan@uq.edu.au [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Zeng, Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Gui [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Kent, Damon [School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland 4575 (Australia); Dargusch, Matthew [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    The microstructural evolution and grain refinement within adiabatic shear bands in the Ti6554 alloy deformed at high strain rates and elevated temperatures have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve, indicating that the initiation of adiabatic shear bands does not lead to the loss of load capacity for the Ti6554 alloy. The outer region of the shear bands mainly consists of cell structures bounded by dislocation clusters. Equiaxed subgrains in the core area of the shear band can be evolved from the subdivision of cell structures or reconstruction and transverse segmentation of dislocation clusters. It is proposed that dislocation activity dominates the grain refinement process. The rotational recrystallization mechanism may operate as the kinetic requirements for it are fulfilled. The coexistence of different substructures across the shear bands implies that the microstructural evolution inside the shear bands is not homogeneous and different grain refinement mechanisms may operate simultaneously to refine the structure. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure within the adiabatic shear band was characterized by TEM. • No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve. • Dislocation activity dominated the grain refinement process. • The kinetic requirements for rotational recrystallization mechanism were fulfilled. • Different grain refinement mechanisms operated simultaneously to refine the structure.

  9. The transnational grip on Scandinavian education reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals how templates that emerge from opaque albeit often inclusive policy processes in transnational forums (EU, OECD & the Bologna Process) affect education reform policy in Scandinavian countries, such as Denmark and Sweden. The open method of coordination is the mother template...... of the political technologies (standards, performance indicators, scorecards, best practices) that are instrumental in fashioning reforms. This template commits countries in consensus-making ways to comparison, and normalizes the competitive incentive of mutual peer pressure. The authors draw on post...

  10. Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji

    2015-01-28

    A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.

  11. Simulating a topological transition in a superconducting phase qubit by fast adiabatic trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tenghui; Zhang, Zhenxing; Xiang, Liang; Gong, Zhihao; Wu, Jianlan; Yin, Yi

    2018-04-01

    The significance of topological phases has been widely recognized in the community of condensed matter physics. The well controllable quantum systems provide an artificial platform to probe and engineer various topological phases. The adiabatic trajectory of a quantum state describes the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates with the momentum, and this adiabatic simulation method is however practically limited due to quantum dissipation. Here we apply the "shortcut to adiabaticity" (STA) protocol to realize fast adiabatic evolutions in the system of a superconducting phase qubit. The resulting fast adiabatic trajectories illustrate the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. A sharp transition is experimentally determined for the topological invariant of a winding number. Our experiment helps identify the topological Chern number of a two-dimensional toy model, suggesting the applicability of the fast adiabatic simulation method for topological systems.

  12. Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    McGeoch, Catherine C

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov

  13. η Condensate of Fermionic Atom Pairs via Adiabatic State Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantian, A.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss how an η condensate, corresponding to an exact excited eigenstate of the Fermi-Hubbard model, can be produced with cold atoms in an optical lattice. Using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group methods, we analyze a state preparation scheme beginning from a band insulator state in an optical superlattice. This state can act as an important test case, both for adiabatic preparation methods and the implementation of the many-body Hamiltonian, and measurements on the final state can be used to help detect associated errors.

  14. Non-adiabatic pumping in an oscillating-piston model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchem, Maya; Dittrich, Thomas; Cohen, Doron

    2012-05-01

    We consider the prototypical "piston pump" operating on a ring, where a circulating current is induced by means of an AC driving. This can be regarded as a generalized Fermi-Ulam model, incorporating a finite-height moving wall (piston) and non-trivial topology (ring). The amount of particles transported per cycle is determined by a layered structure of phase space. Each layer is characterized by a different drift velocity. We discuss the differences compared with the adiabatic and Boltzmann pictures, and highlight the significance of the "diabatic" contribution that might lead to a counter-stirring effect.

  15. Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinea, Allan L., E-mail: alinea@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ''bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (''bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.

  16. Adiabatic resonant oscillations of solar neutrinos in three generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.W.; Sze, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein model of resonant solar-neutrino oscillations is discussed for three generations of leptons. Assuming adiabatic transitions, bounds for the μ- and e-neutrinos mass-squared difference Δ/sub 21,0/ are obtained as a function of the e-μ mixing angle theta 1 . The allowed region in the Δ/sub 21,0/-theta 1 plot that would solve the solar-neutrino problem is shown to be substantially larger than that of the two-generation case. In particular, the difference between the two- and three-generation cases becomes significant for theta 1 larger than --20 0

  17. Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 2: Gravitational shocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    A new theory of gravitational shocking based on time-dependent perturbation theory shows that the changes in energy and angular momentum due to a slowly varying disturbance are not exponentially small for stellar dynamical systems in general. It predicts significant shock heating by slowly varying perturbations previously thought to be negligible according to the adiabatic criterion. The theory extends the scenarios traditionally computed only with the impulse approximation and is applicable to a wide class of disturbances. The approach is applied specifically to the problem of disk shocking of star clusters.

  18. Non-adiabatic study of the Kepler subgiant KIC 6442183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosjean M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the precision of Kepler observations, [3] were able to measure the linewidth and amplitude of individual modes (including mixed modes in several subgiant power spectra. We perform a forward modelling of a Kepler subgiant based on surface properties and observed frequencies. Non-adiabatic computations including a time- dependent treatment of convection give the lifetimes of radial and non-radial modes. Next, combining the lifetimes and inertias with a stochastic excitation model gives the amplitudes of the modes. We can now directly compare theoretical and observed linewidths and amplitudes of mixed-modes to obtain new constraints on our theoretical models.

  19. High temperature nuclear heat for isothermal reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature nuclear heat can be used to operate a reformer with various feedstock materials. The product synthesis gas can be used not only as a source for hydrogen and as a feedstock for many essential chemical industries, such as ammonia and other products, but also for methanol and synthetic fuels. It can also be burnt directly in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine in an efficient combined cycle and generate electricity. In addition, it can be used as fuel for fuel cells. The reforming reaction is endothermic and the contribution of the nuclear energy to the calorific value of the final product (synthesis gas) is about 25%, compared to the calorific value of the feedstock reactants. If the feedstock is from fossil origin, the nuclear energy contributes to a substantial reduction in CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. The catalytic steam reforming of natural gas is the most common process. However, other feedstock materials, such as biogas, landfill gas and CO 2 -contaminated natural gas, can be reformed as well, either directly or with the addition of steam. The industrial steam reformers are generally fixed bed reactors, and their performance is strongly affected by the heat transfer from the furnace to the catalyst tubes. In top-fired as well as side-fired industrial configurations of steam reformers, the radiation is the main mechanism of heat transfer and convection heat transfer is negligible. The flames and the furnace gas constitute the main sources of the heat. In the nuclear reformers developed primarily in Germany, in connection with the EVA-ADAM project (closed cycle), the nuclear heat is transferred from the nuclear reactor coolant gas by convection, using a heating jacket around the reformer tubes. In this presentation it is proposed that the helium in a secondary loop, used to cool the nuclear reactor, will be employed to evaporate intermediate medium, such as sodium, zinc and aluminum chloride. Then, the vapors of the medium material transfer

  20. Investigating the interface between health system reform and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the period in which the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken hold in sub-Saharan Africa, health system reforms have and continue to be introduced throughout the region. In spite of the multidisciplinary research undertaken, it can be questioned whether the relationships between processes of reform and some of the critical ...

  1. Strengthening revenue cycle capabilities in an era of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2011-05-01

    Strategies that healthcare finance professionals should incorporate to help their organizations respond effectively to payment reforms include: Assessing the organization's ability to capture and share relevant data. Educating themselves, the board of trustees, and the medical staff on pertinent rules as payment reforms are rolled out. Examining inefficiencies related to care processes. Establishing policies and procedures to address "commingled" data.

  2. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  3. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  4. Quasi-adiabatic Switching for Metal-Island Quantum-dot Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Geza; Lent, Craig S.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a working cell suitable for implementing the Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) paradigm. These experiments have been performed using metal island clusters. The most promising approach to QCA operation involves quasi-adiabatically switching the cells. This has been analyzed extensively in gated semiconductor cells. Here we present a metal island cell structure that makes quasi-adiabatic switching possible. We show how this permits quasi-adiabatic clocking...

  5. O processo de Bolonha no espaço europeu e a reforma universitária brasileira/The Bologna process in the european space and the brazilian higher education reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Célia Barradas Correia Bastos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda questões que envolvem o movimento de reformas educacionais na educação superior, a partir do final do Século XX, como a Declaração de Bolonha assinada em 1999, por ministros da Educação europeus, e que promove, atualmente, a reforma chamada Processo de Bolonha. Outros documentos como a Declaração Mundial sobre Educação Superior, 1998, representam marco referencial das reformas a que se refere este texto. Em sua essência, os documentos europeus vinculam o movimento reformista da educação superior às necessidades contextualizadas pelo padrão de globalização da economia. São articulações que têm como base o incentivo à competitividade, mobilidade discente, adaptação ao mercado de trabalho. No Brasil, em que sentido é possível situar os reflexos desse movimento? Na busca desse entendimento, focalizamos o movimento empreendido pelo Ministério da Educação para discutir a reforma universitária para o país, em especial destacamos o Seminário Internacional Universidade XXI e a Declaração de Brasília. Resguardadas as especificidades de cada situação, vislumbramos refletir sobre possíveis intersecções dos movimentos reformistas na educação superior contemporânea. This article approaches questions that involve the movement of educational reforms in the higher education, from the end of Century XX, until the Declaration of Bologna signed in 1999, by European ministers of Education that promoted the reform called Bologna Process. Other documents as the World-wide Declaration on Higher Education, 1998, represent referential landmark of the reforms that this text is related to. In its essence, the European documents tie the reformist movement of the higher education to the necessities contextualized by the economy globalization standard. They are have as base the competitiveness encouragement, learning mobility, and adaptation to the work market. In Brazil, where is possible to point out the

  6. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  7. Reforming processes for micro combined heat and powersystem based on solid oxide fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power generation and cogeneration. This technology has several advantages: the high electric efficiency, which can be theoretically improved through integration in power cycles; the low emissions; and the possibility of using...... a large variety of gaseous fuels. The high operating temperature (700-1000°C) of SOFCs has a number of consequences, the most important of which are the possibility to partially reform the raw fuel in the fuel cell anode compartment and the possibility to use high quality heat for cogeneration....... In this work, different configurations of SOFC systems for decentralized electricity production are considered and studied. The balance of plant (BoP) components will be identified including fuel and air supply, fuel management, start-up steam, anode re-circulation, exhaust gas heat management, power...

  8. Dynamic and Thermodynamic Properties of a CA Engine with Non-Instantaneous Adiabats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo T. Paéz-Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a Curzon and Alhborn thermal engine model where both internal irreversibilities and non-instantaneous adiabatic branches are considered, operating with maximum ecological function and maximum power output regimes. Its thermodynamic properties are shown, and an analysis of its local dynamic stability is performed. The results derived are compared throughout the work with the results obtained previously for a case in which the adiabatic branches were assumed as instantaneous. The results indicate a better performance for thermodynamic properties in the model with instantaneous adiabatic branches, whereas there is an improvement in robustness in the case where non-instantaneous adiabatic branches are considered.

  9. Non-adiabatic effect on Laughlin's argument of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I; Hatsugai, Y

    2009-01-01

    We have numerically studied a non-adiabatic charge transport in the quantum Hall system pumped by a magnetic flux, as one of the simplest theoretical realizations of non-adiabatic Thouless pumping. In the adiabatic limit, a pumped charge is quantized, known as Laughlin's argument in a cylindrical lattice. In a uniform electric field, we obtained a formula connecting quantized pumping in the adiabatic limit and no-pumping in the sudden limit. The intermediate region between the two limits is determined by the Landau gap. A randomness or impurity effect is also discussed.

  10. Estimation of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Several estimates of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II are summarized, and the calculational methods used to obtain them are described. Some estimates are based on analytic expressions; for others, particle orbits are calculated, magnetic-moment jumps are inspected, and adiabatic limits then derived. The results are sensitive to the assumed variation of the combined vacuum-plus-plasma magnetic field. The calculated adiabatic energy limit falls rapidly with beta, even for a gradual magnetic-field variation. If we assume a sharp depression in the axial profile of the combined magnetic field for a finite-beta plasma, the adiabatic limit can be further markedly reduced

  11. Adiabatic decay of internal solitons due to Earth's rotation within the framework of the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, Maria; Raj, Nawin; Stepanyants, Yury

    2018-03-01

    The adiabatic decay of different types of internal wave solitons caused by the Earth's rotation is studied within the framework of the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation. The governing equation describing such processes includes quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms, as well as the Boussinesq and Coriolis dispersions: (ut + c ux + α u ux + α1 u2 ux + β uxxx)x = γ u. It is shown that at the early stage of evolution solitons gradually decay under the influence of weak Earth's rotation described by the parameter γ. The characteristic decay time is derived for different types of solitons for positive and negative coefficients of cubic nonlinearity α1 (both signs of that parameter may occur in the oceans). The coefficient of quadratic nonlinearity α determines only a polarity of solitary wave when α1 0. It is found that the adiabatic theory describes well the decay of solitons having bell-shaped profiles. In contrast to that, large amplitude table-top solitons, which can exist when α1 is negative, are structurally unstable. Under the influence of Earth's rotation, they transfer first to the bell-shaped solitons, which decay then adiabatically. Estimates of the characteristic decay time of internal solitons are presented for the real oceanographic conditions.

  12. Preliminary thermodynamic study of regenerative Otto based cycles with zero NOx emissions operating with adiabatic and polytropic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Carril, Jose Carbia; Romero Gomez, Javier; Romero Gomez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient polytropic expansion based Otto cycle. • Thermal efficiency is due to the inherent regeneration. • Low temperature combustion with zero NOx emissions. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that a regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic or polytropic expansion can achieve improved performance over traditional Otto engines, even exceeding the Carnot factor. Thus, the work deals with a novel regenerative Otto based internal combustion engine which differs from the conventional Otto thermal cycles in that the process of heat conversion into mechanical work is performed obeying a polytropic path function instead of the conventional adiabatic expansion without regeneration. Design characteristics concern the fact that combustion at constant volume is carried out undergoing large air excess so that the top combustion temperature is significantly lower than in conventional Otto cycles and consequently NOx emissions are neglected. Furthermore, during the polytropic expansion based path function, heat is absorbed by being submitted to a controlled heat flow rate, to achieve the desired polytropic expansion. The analysis of the regenerative Otto based on polytropic expansion is presented and results are compared with a regenerative Otto based on the adiabatic expansion and CF. The results show that a relevant advantage of the proposed regenerative Otto with polytropic expansion over the regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic expansion involves performance enhancement within a wide range of combustion pressures, temperatures and regeneration capacities. Thus, thermal efficiency and specific work as function of the top combustion pressure ranges are of 71.95–58.43% and 143.5–173.6 kJ/kg respectively, when combustion pressures vary between 105 kPa and 200 kPa and CF is 60.8% (lower than the thermal efficiency). The successful results involving a compact engine structure, technically and economically viable, promises a new generation

  13. Method for assessing modular concepts for reformate gas processing for PEM fuel cell systems for decentral power supply; Methodik zur Bewertung modularer Konzepte zur Reformatgasaufbereitung fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellenanlagen zur dezentralen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, J.

    2007-02-08

    The dissertation presents the fundamentals of hydrogen gas processing and CO gas purification methods and, on this basis, develops a method for energetic modularisation of the gas treatment process. All process stages are modelled and analyzed on the basis of mass and energy balances. The theoretical discussion of solution methods for the balance equations of the various process stages is limited to the steam reforming and CO gas purification system. Parameters are defined for energetic assessment of the process variants. The method leads to the identification of energetically optimized process variants. Its main goal is the optimum utilisation of process-internal energy and mass flows. The graphic pinch method is a key component of the method presented; it is adapted to the exemplary process. [German] In der Dissertation wird, ausgehend von der Darstellung der Grundlagen der Wasserstoffgasaufbereitungs- und CO-Gasreinigungsverfahren, eine Methodik zur energetischen Modularisierung des Gasaufbereitungsprozesses entwickelt. Die Modellierung und Analyse der einzelnen Prozessstufen erfolgt auf der Basis von Masse- und Energiebilanzen. Die theoretische Darstellung der Loesungsmethoden fuer die Bilanzgleichungen der einzelnen Prozessstufen ist dabei auf das System Dampfreformierung und CO-Gasreinigung eingegrenzt. Parameter zur energetischen Bewertung der Prozessvarianten werden definiert. Die Methodik fuehrt zur Eingrenzung energetisch optimierter Prozessvarianten. Ihr Hauptziel liegt in der optimalen Nutzung prozessinterner Energie- und Stoffstroeme. Ein zentraler Bestandteil der Methodik ist die graphische Pinch-Methode. Sie wird dem vorliegenden Prozess angepasst.

  14. Optimization using quantum mechanics: quantum annealing through adiabatic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Giuseppe E; Tosatti, Erio

    2006-01-01

    We review here some recent work in the field of quantum annealing, alias adiabatic quantum computation. The idea of quantum annealing is to perform optimization by a quantum adiabatic evolution which tracks the ground state of a suitable time-dependent Hamiltonian, where 'ℎ' is slowly switched off. We illustrate several applications of quantum annealing strategies, starting from textbook toy-models-double-well potentials and other one-dimensional examples, with and without disorder. These examples display in a clear way the crucial differences between classical and quantum annealing. We then discuss applications of quantum annealing to challenging hard optimization problems, such as the random Ising model, the travelling salesman problem and Boolean satisfiability problems. The techniques used to implement quantum annealing are either deterministic Schroedinger's evolutions, for the toy models, or path-integral Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo approaches, for the hard optimization problems. The crucial role played by disorder and the associated non-trivial Landau-Zener tunnelling phenomena is discussed and emphasized. (topical review)

  15. FRW-type cosmologies with adiabatic matter creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.A.; Germano, A.S.; Abramo, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Some properties of cosmological models with matter creation are investigated in the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element. For adiabatic matter creation, as developed by Prigogine and co-workers, we derive a simple expression relating the particle number density n and energy density ρ which holds regardless of the matter creation rate. The conditions to generate inflation are discussed and by considering the natural phenomenological matter creation rate ψ=3βnH, where β is a pure number of the order of unity and H is the Hubble parameter, a minimally modified hot big-bang model is proposed. The dynamic properties of such models can be deduced from the standard ones simply by replacing the adiabatic index γ of the equation of state by an effective parameter γ * =γ(1-β). The thermodynamic behavior is determined and it is also shown that ages large enough to agree with observations are obtained even given the high values of H suggested by recent measurements. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  17. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education…

  18. Reforming Schools: A Case Study of New Basics in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Walsh, Lynne; Niesche, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Reforming schools is a challenging aspect of contemporary education. The role of leadership within reform agendas is critical. This article presents a case study of one school that has been highly successful in the implementation of this reform. The processes employed by the school at various levels demonstrate the ways in which effective…

  19. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  20. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  1. Indications of the Implementation in the Process of Educational Reform in Uruguay Indicadores de la implementación en procesos de reforma educativa en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. Sarasola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author investigates, from a qualitative perspective, the problems associated with implementing educational innovations. He studies the recent case of the Basic Cycle reform in Uruguay. Based on the concepts of van der Vegt and Vandenberghe (1992, he analyzes the "functions guides" exercised by the director in order to be able to regulate the internal flow of the implementation. The first of these is "conceptual clarity", which has to do with providing the professors with a clear vision of what will take place within the implementation, and with specifying that vision in terms of the professional knowledge and abilities of the faculty as well. The second of these is "directional pressure," which refers to an operational level of the implementation; that is to say, how daily activities mesh with the objectives of the reform. Next, "function of support" refers to the support offered by the director for the management of resources (material, emotional, technical, and administrative resources, so that the resources may then effectively support the work in the center. Finally is "definition of latitude," that is, the degree of educational autonomy that the faculty have with respect to the external objectives of the reform. En este trabajo el autor estudia, desde una perspectiva cualitativa, la problemática de la implementación de innovaciones educativas. Toma por caso la reciente reforma del Ciclo Básico en Uruguay. Con base en los conceptos de van der Vegt y Vandenberghe (1992, analiza las "funciones guía" ejercidas por el director para poder regular el flujo interno de la implementación. La primera de ellas es la "claridad conceptual", que tiene que ver con las posibilidades de proveer a los profesores de una clara visión de lo que ha de lograrse con la implementación y con concretar esa visión en términos de saber profesional y habilidades de los docentes. La segunda es la "presión direccional" que refiere a un nivel

  2. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  3. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  4. Two Roads to School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Joel S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research on legislative and electoral consideration of school finance reforms identifies three important elements; the art of compromise, the fiscal context, and political leadership. Adoption of new school finance formulas is far more likely through the legislative process than through a referendum. (Author/AM)

  5. GLOBALIZATION, NEOLIBERALISM, EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio González-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and neoliberalism strongly affect education reforms in our country. Changes involving the three processes have conditions that can promote or inhibit the development of creativity. We can use one or the other with the development of our own creativity.

  6. Computer Modeling of Platinum Reforming Reactors | Momoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, instead of using a theoretical approach has considered a computer model as means of assessing the reformate composition for three-stage fixed bed reactors in platforming unit. This is done by identifying many possible hydrocarbon transformation reactions that are peculiar to the process unit, identify the ...

  7. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.

  8. Progresses in the studies of adiabatic splitting of charged particle beams by crossing nonlinear resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Franchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator is performed by trapping the beam inside stable islands of the horizontal phase space. In general, by crossing a resonance of order n, n+1 beamlets are created whenever the resonance is stable, whereas if the resonance is unstable the beam is split in n parts. Islands are generated by nonlinear magnetic fields, whereas the trapping is realized by means of a given tune variation so to cross adiabatically a resonance. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron carried out in 2007 gave the evidence of protons trapped in stable islands while crossing the one-third and one-fifth resonances. Dedicated experiments were also carried out to study the trapping process and its reversibility properties. The results of these measurement campaigns are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. A Controlled-Phase Gate via Adiabatic Rydberg Dressing of Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Cook, Robert; Biederman, Grant; Jau, Yuan-Yu

    2014-05-01

    The dipole blockade effect between Rydberg atoms is a promising tool for quantum information processing in neutral atoms. So far, most efforts to perform a quantum logic gate with this effect have used resonant laser pulses to excite the atoms, which makes the system particularly susceptible to decoherence through thermal motional effects. We explore an alternative scheme in which the atomic ground states are adiabatically ``dressed'' by turning on an off-resonant laser. We analyze the implementation of a CPHASE gate using this mechanism and find that fidelities of >99% should be possible with current technology, owing primarily to the suppression of motional errors. We also discuss how such a scheme could be generalized to perform more complicated, multi-qubit gates; in particular, a simple generalization would allow us to perform a Toffoli gate in a single step.

  10. Optimum conditions for producing Cs2 molecular condensates by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhifang; Li Weidong; Wang Lirong; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2009-01-01

    The optimum conditions for producing Cs 2 molecular condensates from Cs atomic condensates with high transfer efficiency by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage are presented. Under the extended 'two-photon' resonance condition, including the two-photon process, the mean-field correction, and the tunneling coupling between two upper excited molecular levels, a high and stable conversion efficiency is realized. The high conversion efficiency could be achieved by following two methods under experimentally less demanding conditions (relatively small effective Rabi frequency for pump laser pulse). One is adjusting the detuning difference between two laser pulses for same effective Rabi frequencies with up to 87.2% transfer efficiency. Another one is adjusting the effective Rabi frequency, the detuning of dump laser for given effective Rabi frequency, and the detuning of pump laser with up to 80.7% transfer efficiency.

  11. Solving the Ternary Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic Gate Problem by Means of Adiabatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecar, Primoz; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Janez, Miha; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2008-06-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are one of the most promising alternative platforms of the future. Recent years have witnessed the development of basic logic structures as well as more complex processing structures, however most in the realm of binary logic. On the grounds that future platforms should not disregard the advantages of multi-valued logic, Lebar Bajec et al. were the first to show that quantum-dot cellular automata can be used for the implementation of ternary logic as well. In their study the ternary AND and OR logic functions proved to be the most troublesome primitive to implement. This research presents a revised solution that is based on adiabatic switching.

  12. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Helen; Hundt, P. Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D.

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  13. Progresses in the Studies of Adiabatic Splitting of Charged Particles Beams by Crossing Nonlinear Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Franchi, A; Giovannozzi, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    The multi-turn extraction from a circular particle accelerator is performed by trapping the beam inside stable islands of the horizontal phase space. In general, by crossing a resonance of order n, n+1 beamlets are created whenever the resonance is stable, whereas if the resonance is unstable the beam is split in n parts. Islands are generated by non-linear magnetic fields, whereas the trapping is realized by means of a given tune variation so to cross adiabatically a resonance. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron carried out in 2007 gave the evidence of protons trapped in stable islands while crossing the one-third and one-fifth resonances. Dedicated experiments were also carried out to study the trapping process and its reversibility properties. The results of these measurement campaigns are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Optimum conditions for producing Cs2 molecular condensates by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhifang; Li, Weidong; Wang, Lirong; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2009-10-01

    The optimum conditions for producing Cs2 molecular condensates from Cs atomic condensates with high transfer efficiency by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage are presented. Under the extended “two-photon” resonance condition, including the two-photon process, the mean-field correction, and the tunneling coupling between two upper excited molecular levels, a high and stable conversion efficiency is realized. The high conversion efficiency could be achieved by following two methods under experimentally less demanding conditions (relatively small effective Rabi frequency for pump laser pulse). One is adjusting the detuning difference between two laser pulses for same effective Rabi frequencies with up to 87.2% transfer efficiency. Another one is adjusting the effective Rabi frequency, the detuning of dump laser for given effective Rabi frequency, and the detuning of pump laser with up to 80.7% transfer efficiency.

  15. Recall Performance for Content-Addressable Memory Using Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, Neena [ORNL; Humble, Travis S. [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Hamilton, Kathleen E. [ORNL

    2017-09-01

    A content-addressable memory (CAM) stores key-value associations such that the key is recalled by providing its associated value. While CAM recall is traditionally performed using recurrent neural network models, we show how to solve this problem using adiabatic quantum optimization. Our approach maps the recurrent neural network to a commercially available quantum processing unit by taking advantage of the common underlying Ising spin model. We then assess the accuracy of the quantum processor to store key-value associations by quantifying recall performance against an ensemble of problem sets. We observe that different learning rules from the neural network community influence recall accuracy but performance appears to be limited by potential noise in the processor. The strong connection established between quantum processors and neural network problems supports the growing intersection of these two ideas.

  16. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  17. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  18. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  19. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  20. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  1. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  2. Non-adiabatic Excited State Molecule Dynamics Modeling of Photochemistry and Photophysics of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Tammie Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-06

    Understanding and controlling excited state dynamics lies at the heart of all our efforts to design photoactive materials with desired functionality. This tailor-design approach has become the standard for many technological applications (e.g., solar energy harvesting) including the design of organic conjugated electronic materials with applications in photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Over the years, our team has developed efficient LANL-based codes to model the relevant photophysical processes following photoexcitation (spatial energy transfer, excitation localization/delocalization, and/or charge separation). The developed approach allows the non-radiative relaxation to be followed on up to ~10 ps timescales for large realistic molecules (hundreds of atoms in size) in the realistic solvent dielectric environment. The Collective Electronic Oscillator (CEO) code is used to compute electronic excited states, and the Non-adiabatic Excited State Molecular Dynamics (NA-ESMD) code is used to follow the non-adiabatic dynamics on multiple coupled Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces. Our preliminary NA-ESMD simulations have revealed key photoinduced mechanisms controlling competing interactions and relaxation pathways in complex materials, including organic conjugated polymer materials, and have provided a detailed understanding of photochemical products and intermediates and the internal conversion process during the initiation of energetic materials. This project will be using LANL-based CEO and NA-ESMD codes to model nonradiative relaxation in organic and energetic materials. The NA-ESMD and CEO codes belong to a class of electronic structure/quantum chemistry codes that require large memory, “long-queue-few-core” distribution of resources in order to make useful progress. The NA-ESMD simulations are trivially parallelizable requiring ~300 processors for up to one week runtime to reach a meaningful restart point.

  3. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  4. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and adiabatic magnetization dynamics in molecular magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Michielsen, K; Machida, M

    A microscopic model of the molecular magnet V-15 is used to study mechanisms for the adiabatic change of the magnetization in time-dependent magnetic fields. The effects of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the most plausible source for the energy-level repulsions that lead to adiabatic changes

  5. Energy and entropy analysis of closed adiabatic expansion based trilateral cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Carril, Jose Carbia; Gomez, Javier Romero; Gomez, Manuel Romero

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The adiabatic expansion based TC surpass Carnot factor at low temperatures. • The fact of surpassing Carnot factor doesn’t violate the 2nd law. • An entropy analysis is applied to verify the fulfilment of the second law. • Correction of the exergy transfer associated with heat transferred to a cycle. - Abstract: A vast amount of heat energy is available at low cost within the range of medium and low temperatures. Existing thermal cycles cannot make efficient use of such available low grade heat because they are mainly based on conventional organic Rankine cycles which are limited by Carnot constraints. However, recent developments related to the performance of thermal cycles composed of closed processes have led to the exceeding of the Carnot factor. Consequently, once the viability of closed process based thermal cycles that surpass the Carnot factor operating at low and medium temperatures is globally accepted, research work will aim at looking into the consequences that lead from surpassing the Carnot factor while fulfilling the 2nd law, its impact on the 2nd law efficiency definition as well as the impact on the exergy transfer from thermal power sources to any heat consumer, including thermal cycles. The methodology used to meet the proposed objectives involves the analysis of energy and entropy on trilateral closed process based thermal cycles. Thus, such energy and entropy analysis is carried out upon non-condensing mode trilateral thermal cycles (TCs) characterised by the conversion of low grade heat into mechanical work undergoing closed adiabatic path functions: isochoric heat absorption, adiabatic heat to mechanical work conversion and isobaric heat rejection. Firstly, cycle energy analysis is performed to determine the range of some relevant cycle parameters, such as the operating temperatures and their associated pressures, entropies, internal energies and specific volumes. In this way, the ranges of temperatures within which

  6. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  7. Development and validation of a CFD-based steam reformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Dahlqvist, Mathis; Saksager, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Steam reforming of liquid biofuels (ethanol, bio-diesel etc.) represents a sustainable source of hydrogen for micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production as well as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). In relation to the design of the steam reforming reactor several parameter are important including...... for expensive prototypes. This paper presents an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics based model of a steam reformer. The model was implemented in the commercial CFD code Fluent through the User Defined Functions interface. The model accounts for the flue gas flow as well as the reformate flow including...... a detailed mechanism for the reforming reactions. Heat exchange between the flue gas and reformate streams through the reformer reactor walls was also included as a conjugate heat transfer process.  From a review of published models for the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol and preliminary predictions...

  8. Law Commissions – What is the essence of their law reform role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Faris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Neil Faris (Solicitor and a former Commissioner at the Northern Ireland Law Commission reflecting on the nature of law reform as carried out by law commissions. This is in the context of the author’s experience in the Northern Ireland Law Commission. The paper assesses the importance of independence in any law reform body and the particular impact which law commissioners may bring to the law reform process. The paper looks at the history of law reform in Northern Ireland leading to the establishment of the Commission with a brief overview of the work of the Commission. The conclusion is that there is a role for effective law reform driven by commissioner led independent law commissions. The author makes a strong case for the need for independent law commissions to promote high quality law reform. His article gives an idea about how law reform works in practice with law commissions providing one route for reforming the law.

  9. Properties of a two stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, H; Ueda, S; Arai, R; Numazawa, T; Li, J; Saito, A T; Nakagome, H

    2015-01-01

    Currently, many space missions using cryogenic temperatures are being planned. In particular, high resolution sensors such as Transition Edge Sensors need very low temperatures, below 100 mK. It is well known that the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is one of most useful tools for producing ultra-low temperatures in space because it is gravity independent. We studied a continuous ADR system consisting of 4 stages and demonstrated it could provide continuous temperatures around 100 mK. However, there was some heat leakage from the power leads which resulted in reduced cooling power. Our efforts to upgrade our ADR system are presented. We show the effect of using the HTS power leads and discuss a cascaded Carnot cycle consisting of 2 ADR units. (paper)

  10. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  11. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane-Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed.

  12. Novel latch for adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Ortlepp, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We herein propose the quantum-flux-latch (QFL) as a novel latch for adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic. A QFL is very compact and compatible with AQFP logic gates and can be read out in one clock cycle. Simulation results revealed that the QFL operates at 5 GHz with wide parameter margins of more than ±22%. The calculated energy dissipation was only ∼0.1 aJ/bit, which yields a small energy delay product of 20 aJ·ps. We also designed shift registers using QFLs to demonstrate more complex circuits with QFLs. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated correct operations of the QFL and a 1-bit shift register (a D flip-flop)

  13. Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility

  14. Diskoseismology: Probing accretion disks. I - Trapped adiabatic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1991-01-01

    The normal modes of acoustic oscillations within thin accretion disks which are terminated by an innermost stable orbit around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star are analyzed. The dominant relativistic effects which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. A general formalism is developed for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. The generic behavior is explored by way of an expansion of the Lagrangian displacement about the plane of symmetry and by assuming separable solutions with the same radial wavelength for the horizontal and vertical perturbations. The lowest eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a particular set of radial and quadrupole modes which have minimum motion normal for the plane are obtained. These modes correspond to the standard dispersion relation of disk theory.

  15. Hydroxylamine nitrate self-catalytic kinetics study with adiabatic calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lijun [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wei Chunyang [BASF Corporation, Wyandotte, MI 48192 (United States); Guo Yuyan; Rogers, William J. [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Sam Mannan, M. [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)], E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu

    2009-03-15

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is an important member of the hydroxylamine compound family with applications that include equipment decontamination in the nuclear industry and aqueous or solid propellants. Due to its instability and autocatalytic behavior, HAN has been involved in several incidents at the Hanford and Savannah River Site (SRS) [Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate, US Department of Energy, 1998]. Much research has been conducted on HAN in different areas, such as combustion mechanism, decomposition mechanism, and runaway behavior. However, the autocatalytic decomposition behavior of HAN at runaway stage has not been fully addressed due to its highly exothermic and rapid decomposition behavior. This work is focused on extracting HAN autocatalytic kinetics and analyzing HAN critical behavior from adiabatic calorimetry measurements. A lumped autocatalytic kinetic model for HAN and associated model parameters are determined. Also the storage and handling critical conditions of diluted HAN solution without metal presence are quantified.

  16. Electron Correlation from the Adiabatic Connection for Multireference Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    An adiabatic connection (AC) formula for the electron correlation energy is derived for a broad class of multireference wave functions. The AC expression recovers dynamic correlation energy and assures a balanced treatment of the correlation energy. Coupling the AC formalism with the extended random phase approximation allows one to find the correlation energy only from reference one- and two-electron reduced density matrices. If the generalized valence bond perfect pairing model is employed a simple closed-form expression for the approximate AC formula is obtained. This results in the overall M5 scaling of the computation cost making the method one of the most efficient multireference approaches accounting for dynamic electron correlation also for the strongly correlated systems.

  17. Dynamic hysteresis of a uniaxial superparamagnet: Semi-adiabatic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poperechny, I.S.; Raikher, Yu.L.; Stepanov, V.I.

    2014-01-01

    The semi-adiabatic theory of magnetic response of a uniaxial single-domain ferromagnetic particle is presented. The approach is developed in the context of the kinetic theory and allows for any orientation of the external field. Within this approximation, the dynamic magnetic hysteresis loops in an ac field are calculated. It is demonstrated that they very closely resemble those obtained by the full kinetic theory. The behavior of the effective coercive force is analyzed in detail, and for it a simple formula is proposed. This relation accounts not only for the temperature behavior of the coercive force, as the previous ones do, but also yields the dependence on the frequency and amplitude of the applied field

  18. Ohmic ignition of Neo-Alcator tokamak with adiabatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi

    1992-01-01

    Ohmic ignition condition on axis of the DT tokamak plasma heated by minor radius and major radius adiabatic compression is studied assuming parabolic profiles for plasma parameters, elliptic plasma cross section, and Neo-Alcator confinement scaling. It is noticeable that magnetic compression reduces the necessary total plasma current for Ohmic ignition device. Typically in compact ignition tokamak of the minor radius of 0.47 m, major radius of 1.5 m and on-axis toroidal field of 20 T, the plasma current of 6.8 MA is sufficient for compression plasma, while that of 11.7 MA is for no compression plasma. Another example with larger major radius is also described. In such a device the large flux swing of Ohmic transformer is available for long burn. Application of magnetic compression saves the flux swing and thereby extends the burn time. (author)

  19. Hydrodynamics of adiabatic inverted annular flow: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.

    1983-01-01

    For low-quality film boiling in tubes or rod bundles, the flow pattern may consist of a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus, i.e., inverted annular flow. The stability, shape, and break-up mechanisms of this liquid core must be understood in order to model correctly this regime and to develop appropriate interfacial transfer correlations. This paper reports on a study in which inverted annular flow was simulated in an adiabatic system. Turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long-aspect nozzles were enclosed within cocurrent gas annuli. Jet-core diameter and velocity, and gas-annulus diameter, velocity, and species were varied, yielding liquid Reynolds numbers up to 33,000, void fractions from 0.29 to 0.95, and relative velocities from near zero to over 80 m/s. Jet-core break-up lengths and secondarily, core break-up mechanisms, were observed visually, using strobe lighting

  20. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.; Linehan, J.

    1986-01-01

    Inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from large aspect ratio nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, breakup mode, and dispersed core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow destabilization led to inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and to dispersed droplet flow, core breakup length correlations were developed by extending work on free liquid jets to include this coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The results show length dependence upon D/sub J/, Re/sub J/, We/sub J/, α, and We/sub G/,rel. Correlations for core shape, breakup mechanisms, and dispersed core droplet size were also developed, by extending the results of free jet stability, roll wave entrainment, and churn turbulent droplet stability studies