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Sample records for adiabatic compression heating

  1. Plasma heating via adiabatic magnetic compression-expansion cycle

    Avinash, K.; Sengupta, M.; Ganesh, R.

    2016-06-01

    Heating of collisionless plasmas in closed adiabatic magnetic cycle comprising of a quasi static compression followed by a non quasi static constrained expansion against a constant external pressure is proposed. Thermodynamic constraints are derived to show that the plasma always gains heat in cycles having at least one non quasi static process. The turbulent relaxation of the plasma to the equilibrium state at the end of the non quasi static expansion is discussed and verified via 1D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations. Applications of this scheme to heating plasmas in open configurations (mirror machines) and closed configurations (tokamak, reverse field pinche) are discussed.

  2. Adiabatic Compression of Compact Tori for Current Drive and Heating

    Woodruff, Simon; McNab, Angus; Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Several critical issues stand in the development path for compact tori. An important one is the production of strong magnetic fields, (or large flux amplifications) by use of a low current source. The Pulsed Build-up Experiment is a Phase II SBIR project in which we aim to show a new means for generating strong magnetic fields from a low current source, namely, the repetitive injection of helicity-bearing plasma that also undergoes an acceleration and compression. In the Phase I SBIR, advanced computations were benchmarked against analytic theory and run to determine the best means for the acceleration and compression of a compact torus plasma. The study included detailed simulations of magnetic reconnection. In Phase II, an experiment has been designed and is being built to produce strong magnetic fields in a spheromak by the repetitive injection of magnetic helicity from a low current coaxial plasma source. The plasma will be accelerated and compressed in a similar manner to a traveling wave adiabatic compression scheme that was previously applied to a mirror plasma [1]. [1] P. M. Bellan Scalings for a Traveling Mirror Adiabatic Magnetic Compressor Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53(8) 1214 (1982) Work supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER84449.

  3. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  4. A lower bound on adiabatic heating of compressed turbulence for simulation and model validation

    Davidovits, Seth

    2016-01-01

    The energy in turbulent flow can be amplified by compression, when the compression occurs on a timescale shorter than the turbulent dissipation time. This mechanism may play a part in sustaining turbulence in various astrophysical systems, including molecular clouds. The amount of turbulent amplification depends on the net effect of the compressive forcing and turbulent dissipation. By giving an argument for a bound on this dissipation, we give a lower bound for the scaling of the turbulent velocity with compression ratio in compressed turbulence. That is, turbulence undergoing compression will be enhanced at least as much as the bound given here, subject to a set of caveats that will be outlined. Used as a validation check, this lower bound suggests that some simulations and models of compressing astrophysical turbulence are too dissipative. The technique used highlights the relationship between compressed turbulence and decaying turbulence.

  5. ADELE adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Status and perspectives

    Freund, Sebastian [General Electric Deutschland Holding GmbH, Garching (Germany). GE Global Research Renewable Energy Systems Lab.; Marquardt, Roland; Moser, Peter [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Research and Development Innovative Power Plant Technology

    2013-06-01

    This paper gives an overview about compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology and a summary of the ADELE programme, a multi-year R and D programme undertaken by a consortium led by RWE Power to develop adiabatic (A) CAES technology and commercialise the first plant. The ACAES technology is to utilise waste heat developing upon compression in order to increase the entire efficiency. The ADELE-ING project is to provide the basis for making the decision on the construction of a 85 MW prototype. (orig.)

  6. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    systems are under development, which show an interesting trend in that they use near-isothermal compression and expansion of air (compression/expansion at almost constant temperature), eliminate compression heat loss and still maintain nearly the same level of energy density as existing CAES systems...... in turbine/generator, heat exchangers, and a large quantity of thermal oil. To improve the economy, it would be relevant to investigate the possibility of replacing the thermal oil by water, for example by injecting the water directly into the air flow between the different compression stages to get a direct...... the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion...

  7. Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)

    2012-07-01

    Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.

  8. Commercial concepts for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Freund, Sebastian [General Electric Global Research, Garching (Germany); Schainker, Robert [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Moreau, Robert [General Electric Oil and Gas, Florence (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) systems offer the potential for efficient large-scale energy storage, almost approaching values typical for pumped hydro. In an ACAES plant, the heat of compression is stored and utilized during the expansion of the air instead of firing natural gas like in commercial CAES. However, no ACAES plants have been commercialized due to challenges with respect to the cost and the heat storage technology. In this study, conducted by EPRI, GE Global Research and GE Oil and Gas, several concepts for ACAES plants are analyzed and their efficiency, complexity and technical risk compared. The components selected for the plants are available either off-the-shelf or near-commercial within a short development time and without the high costs associated with developing a new generation of large custom-made compressors and turbines. The most promising concept for near-term commercialization and low costs turns out to be a two-stage, low-temperature ACAES system. A regenerative (solid) and a recuperative (liquid) thermal storage system have been designed and analyzed for this concept, with the result that the liquid-recuperative system offers a much lower cost and comparable performance. Performance and cost targets for the concepts are 100 MW output per plant for 6 h with a round-trip efficiency above 60% and a capital cost of about $1000/kW. Selections of the turbomachinery for the compression and expansion train from General Electric Oil and Gas are presented for several plant options along with their expansion power range (25..100 MW), round-trip efficiency (66%..70%) and preliminary capital cost estimates (1100..1200 $/kW).

  9. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, ...

  10. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    2015-07-01

    is pressurized to specific driving pressures into an accumulator tank above a rapid-opening valve. This valve is placed directly above the burst disc...this mission. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of the propellant at elevated temperatures and the resulting system peak pressures and...dynamic response characteristics. For this study, an adiabatic compression U-tube apparatus was used to determine the driving pressure threshold levels

  11. Prediction of mean flow data for adiabatic 2-D compressible turbulent boundary layers

    Motallebi, F.

    1997-01-01

    This book presents a method for the prediction of mean flow data (i.e. skin friction, velocity profile and shape parameter) for adiabatic two-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient. The transformed law of the wall, law of the lake, the van Driest model for the c

  12. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    Giugni, Andrea

    2013-10-20

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  13. Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene

    Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-06

    Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

  14. Adiabatic compressibility of an immiscible molten NaCl-AgI salt mixture

    Stepanov, V. P.; Tkachev, N. K.; Kulik, N. P.; Peshkina, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    Adiabatic compressibility β of an immiscible 0.5NaCl + 0.5AgI liquid mixture in the immiscibility range is studied experimentally and theoretically using the model of charged hard spheres. The compressibility is calculated by the relationship β = 1/ u 2ρ studied using sound velocity u measured by a pulse method and density ρ determined by hydrostatic weighing. It is shown that the compressibility of the upper phase decreases and that of the lower phase increases when the temperature increases because of the superposition of the effects of the thermal motion of ions and the phase compositions. The temperature dependence of the difference between the compressibilities of the equilibrium phases is described using the empirical equation Δβ = ( T c- T)0.442, which is close to the mean-field theory description. The results of the model calculations adequately reproduce the experimentally observed temperature dependence of the compressibility of the coexisting phases. However, the theoretically predicted critical exponent (1/2) differs from the experimentally determined exponent by 13%. These results are discussed in terms of the nature of chemical bond in silver iodide.

  15. University Students Explaining Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas--A New Phenomenon in Introductory Thermal Physics

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were…

  16. Adiabatic Joule Heating of Copper from 4 K to the Melting Temperature

    Guillet, Alain; Delamarre, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Considering a copper wire heated by Joule effect and the variation of its resistivity and specific heat with temperature, we established numerical and analytical solutions (between 293 and 1356 K for the latter) for the evolution of its temperature over time. The Temperature vs. Time evolution follows a Lambertian function. The calculations are based on the assumption of adiabatic heating and uniform current distribution within the wire. We demonstrate that at very low temperature the heating...

  17. Partial molar volumes and partial molar adiabatic compressibilities of a short chain perfluorosurfactant: Sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: faruso@usc.es; Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature.

  18. Scaling laws and deformation mechanisms of nanoporous copper under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression

    Fuping Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.

  19. Stabilization of high-compression, indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    MacPhee, A. G.; Peterson, J. L.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and poor fuel compression are major factors for capsule performance degradation in ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility. Using a recently developed laser drive profile with a decaying first shock to tune the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (ARM) instability and subsequent in-flight Rayleigh-Taylor growth, we have demonstrated reduced growth compared to the standard ignition pulse whilst maintaining conditions for a low fuel adiabat needed for increased compression. Using in-flight x-ray radiography of pre-machined modulations, the first growth measurements using this new ARM-tuned drive have demonstrated instability growth reduction of ∼4× compared to the original design at a convergence ratio of ∼2. Corresponding simulations give a fuel adiabat of ∼1.6, similar to the original goal and consistent with ignition requirements.

  20. Adiabatic Quasi-Spherical Compressions Driven by Magnetic Pressure for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASH,THOMAS J.

    2000-11-01

    The magnetic implosion of a high-Z quasi-spherical shell filled with DT fuel by the 20-MA Z accelerator can heat the fuel to near-ignition temperature. The attainable implosion velocity on Z, 13-cm/{micro}s, is fast enough that thermal losses from the fuel to the shell are small. The high-Z shell traps radiation losses from the fuel, and the fuel reaches a high enough density to reabsorb the trapped radiation. The implosion is then nearly adiabatic. In this case the temperature of the fuel increases as the square of the convergence. The initial temperature of the fuel is set by the heating of an ion acoustic wave to be about 200-eV after a convergence of 4. To reach the ignition temperature of 5-keV an additional convergence of 5 is required. The implosion dynamics of the quasi-spherical implosion is modeled with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. LASNEX shows an 8-mm diameter quasi-spherical tungsten shell on Z driving 6-atmospheres of DT fuel nearly to ignition at 3.5-keV with a convergence of 20. The convergence is limited by mass flow along the surface of the quasi-spherical shell. With a convergence of 20 the final spot size is 400-{micro}m in diameter.

  1. GLOBAL EXISTENCE AND BLOW-UP PHENOMENA OF CLASSICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE SYSTEM OF COMPRESSIBLE ADIABATIC FLOW THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    刘法贵; 孔德兴

    2004-01-01

    By means of maximum principle for nonlinear hyperbolic systems,the results given by HSIAO Ling and D.Serre was improved for Cauchy problem of compressible adiabatic flow through porous media,and a complete result on the global existence and the blow-up phenomena of classical solutions of these systems.These results show that the dissipation is strong enough to preserve the smoothness of 'small ' solution.

  2. QCD phase diagram : heating or compressing ?

    Maire, Antonin

    2011-01-01

    The sketch tries to address the question of the difference between heating and compressing the baryonic matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, i.e. how one can reach in the laboratory "high" temperature at "low" net baryon density (baryon chemical potential) or "low" temperature at "high" net baryon density.

  3. Optimal control of the power adiabatic stroke of an optomechanical heat engine

    Bathaee, M.; Bahrampour, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the power adiabatic stroke of the Otto optomechanical heat engine introduced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150602. We derive the maximum extractable work of both optomechanical normal modes in the minimum time while the system experiences quantum friction effects. We show that the total work done by the system in the power adiabatic stroke is optimized by a bang-bang control. The time duration of the power adiabatic stroke is of the order of the inverse of the effective optomechanical-coupling coefficient. The optimal phase-space trajectory of the Otto cycle for both optomechanical normal modes is also obtained.

  4. Effect of adiabatic square ribs on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel

    Abidi-Saad, Aissa; Kadja, Mahfoud; Popa, Catalin; Polidori, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    A 2-D numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effect of two adiabatic square ribs on laminar flow and heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated channel. The two ribs are symmetrically located on each wall, exactly above the heating zone. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady bi-dimensional continuity, momentum and energy equations with the finite volume method. The investigations focused more specifically on the influence of ribs sizes on the flow structure and heat transfer enhancement. The results showed that the variation of ribs sizes significantly alters the heat transfer and fluid flow distribution along the channel, especially in the vicinity of protrusions. Also, the results show that streamlines, isotherms, and the number, sizes and formation of vortex structures inside the channel strongly depend on the size of protrusions. The changes in heat transfer parameters have also been presented.

  5. Adiabatic Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade

    Garg, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a rotating film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the United Technologies Research Center(UTRC) rotor with five film-cooling rows containing 83 holes, including three rows on the shower head with 49 holes, covering about 86% of the blade span. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature 1900 K and stagnation pressure 3 MPa. The blade speed is taken to be 5200 rpm. The adiabatic effectiveness is higher for a rotating blade as compared to that for a stationary blade. Also, the direction of coolant injection from the shower-head holes considerably affects the effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient values on both the pressure and suction surfaces. In all cases the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness are highly three-dimensional in the vicinity of holes but tend to become two-dimensional far downstream.

  6. Scaling-Up Quantum Heat Engines Efficiently via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    Mathieu Beau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction, and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inverse-square pairwise interactions that includes non-interacting and hard-core bosons as limiting cases.

  7. Scaling-up quantum heat engines efficiently via shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Beau, M; del Campo, A

    2016-01-01

    The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inv...

  8. The adiabatic phase mixing and heating of electrons in Buneman turbulence

    Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    The nonlinear development of the strong Buneman instability and the associated fast electron heating in thin current layers with Ω{sub e}/ω{sub pe}<1 is explored. Phase mixing of the electrons in wave potential troughs and a rapid increase in temperature are observed during the saturation of the instability. We show that the motion of trapped electrons can be described using a Hamiltonian formalism in the adiabatic approximation. The process of separatrix crossing as electrons are trapped and de-trapped is irreversible and guarantees that the resulting electron energy gain is a true heating process.

  9. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    Khalifa, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of Bryton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks is presented. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. If installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or 170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified. Related studies in the area of waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines and NASA-CR-168255 (Steam Rankine) and CR-168256 (Organic Rankine).

  10. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Bailey, M.M.

    1985-07-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced ''adiabatic'' diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum improvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  11. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Bailey, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced adiabatic diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum imporvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  12. Macroscopic Expressions of Molecular Adiabatic Compressibility of Methyl and Ethyl Caprate under High Pressure and High Temperature

    Fuxi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular compressibility, which is a macroscopic quantity to reveal the microcompressibility by additivity of molecular constitutions, is considered as a fixed value for specific organic liquids. In this study, we introduced two calculated expressions of molecular adiabatic compressibility to demonstrate its pressure and temperature dependency. The first one was developed from Wada’s constant expression based on experimental data of density and sound velocity. Secondly, by introducing the 2D fitting expressions and their partial derivative of pressure and temperature, molecular compressibility dependency was analyzed further, and a 3D fitting expression was obtained from the calculated data of the first one. The third was derived with introducing the pressure and temperature correction factors based on analogy to Lennard-Jones potential function and energy equipartition theorem. In wide range of temperatures (293compressibility was certified.

  13. Non-Hermitian heat engine with all-quantum-adiabatic-process cycle

    Lin, S.; Song, Z.

    2016-11-01

    As a quantum device, a quantum heat engine (QHE) is described by a Hermitian Hamiltonian. However, since it is an open system, reservoirs must be imposed phenomenologically without any description in the context of quantum mechanics. A non-Hermitian system is expected to describe an open system that exchanges energy and particles with external reservoirs. Correspondingly, such an exchange can be adiabatic in the context of quantum mechanics. We first propose a non-Hermitian QHE by a concrete simple two-level system, which is an S=1/2 spin in a complex external magnetic field. The non-Hermitian { P }{ T }-symmetric Hamiltonian, as a self-contained one, describes both the working medium and reservoirs. A heat engine cycle is composed of completely quantum adiabatic processes. Surprisingly, the heat efficiency is obtained to be the same as that of the Hermitian quantum Otto cycle. A classical analog of this scheme is also presented. Our finding paves the way for revealing the role of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in physics.

  14. Testing of a scanning adiabatic calorimeter with Joule effect heating of the sample.

    Barreiro-Rodríguez, G; Yáñez-Limón, J M; Contreras-Servin, C A; Herrera-Gomez, A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a scanning adiabatic resistive calorimeter (SARC) developed to measure the specific enthalpy of viscous and gel-type materials. The sample is heated employing the Joule effect. The cell is constituted by a cylindrical jacket and two pistons, and the sample is contained inside the jacket between the two pistons. The upper piston can slide to allow for thermal expansion and to keep the pressure constant. The pistons also function as electrodes for the sample. While the sample is heated through the Joule effect, the electrodes and the jacket are independently heated to the same temperature of the sample using automatic control. This minimizes the heat transport between the sample and its surroundings. The energy to the sample is supplied by applying to the electrodes an ac voltage in the kilohertz range, establishing a current in the sample and inducing electric dissipation. This energy can be measured with enough exactitude to determine the heat capacity. This apparatus also allows for the quantification of the thermal conductivity by reproducing the evolution of the temperature as heat is introduced only to one of the pistons. To this end, the system was modeled using finite element calculations. This dual capability proved to be very valuable for correction in the determination of the specific enthalpy. The performance of the SARC was evaluated by comparing the heat capacity results to those obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements using a commercial apparatus. The analyzed samples were zeolite, bauxite, hematite, bentonite, rice flour, corn flour, and potato starch.

  15. AA-CAES. Opportunities and challenges of advanced adiabatic compressed-air energy storage technology as a balancing tool in interconnected grids

    Marquardt, Roland; Moser, Peter [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung, Neue Technologien; Hoffmann, Stephanie [GE Global Research Europe, Garching (Germany); Pazzi, Simone [GE Infrastructure, Oil and Gas, Firenze (Italy); Klafki, Michael [ESK GmbH (RWE Group), Freiberg (Germany); Zunft, Stefan [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2008-07-01

    An expansion of CO{sub 2}-neutral energy supply is in the focus of European and national environmental policy and will be crucially supported by offshore wind power generation in future. Grid-compatible integration of these fluctuating electricity quantities will - in the medium term already - require substantial adjustments of the German grid and power plant system in order to cope with the upcoming new boundary conditions. The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible European electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in Adiabatic CAES power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. Before this concept can be implemented, however, several technical problems must be solved and technical development work done, especially in the field of turbomachinery and the required heat storage device. This paper outlines the technical possibilities and the need for development. Ongoing development activities are described and first interim results presented. (orig.)

  16. Thermal behavior, specific heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of G(FOX-7).

    Xu, Kangzhen; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi; Ma, Haixia; Gao, Hongxu; Chang, Chunran; Ren, Yinghui; Hu, Rongzu

    2008-10-30

    [H(2)N=C(NH(2))(2)](+)(FOX-7)(-)-G(FOX-7) was prepared by mixing FOX-7 and guanidinium chloride solution in potassium hydroxide solution. Its thermal decomposition was studied under the non-isothermal conditions with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The apparent activation energy (E) and pre-exponential constant (A) of the two exothermic decomposition stages were obtained by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion (T(b)) was obtained as 201.72 degrees C. The specific heat capacity of G(FOX-7) was determined with Micro-DSC method and theoretical calculation method and the standard molar specific heat capacity is 282.025 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 298.15 K. Adiabatic time-to-explosion of G(FOX-7) was also calculated to be a certain value between 13.95 and 15.66 s.

  17. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    Khalifa, H.E.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents an evaluation of Brayton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. It is also shown that, if installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or $170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that would hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified.

  18. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)

    2015-07-27

    CONTRACT NUMBER In- House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Phu Quach, Adam Brand, and Greg Warmoth 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...cutting team of US experts for GPIM Background • Rapid isentropic compression of entrained gas bubbles • Closure or opening of valves • External...mechanical shock • Gas introduced by thermal decomp., during priming, or high Q pumping • Bubble collapse increases local temp. & exothermic decomp. T

  19. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  20. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm2, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 1014 and 5.5 × 1014) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the "high-foot" experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3-10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm2. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  1. Thermal Behavior, Specific Heat Capacity and Adiabatic Time-to-explosion of GDN

    YANG Xing-kun; XU Kang-zhen; ZHAO Feng-qi; YANG Xin; WANG Han; SONG Ji-rong; WANG Yao-yu

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, [(NH2)2C=NH2]+N(NO2)2-(GDN), was prepared by mixing ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and guanidine hydrochloride in water. The thermal behavior of GDN was studied under the non-isothermal conditions with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The apparent activation energy(E) and pre-exponential constant(A) of the exothermic decomposition stage of GDN were 118.75 kJ/mol and 1010.86 s-1, respectively. The critical temperature of the thermal explosion(Tb) of GDN was 164.09 ℃. The specific heat capacity of GDN was determined with the Micro-DSC method and the theoretical calculation method, and the standard molar specific heat capacity was 234.76J·mol-1·K-1 at 298.15K.The adiabatic time-to-explosion of GDN was also calculated to be a certain value between 404.80 and 454.95 s.

  2. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  3. Two-level system in spin baths: non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport.

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-28

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  4. Isothermal and Adiabatic Measurements.

    McNairy, William W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the working of the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus, a useful tool for measuring the pressure, temperature, and volume of a variety of gases undergoing compressions and expansions. Describes the adaptation of this apparatus to perform isothermal measurements and discusses the theory behind the adiabatic and isothermal processes. (JRH)

  5. Heat recovery by means of innovative, already successfully tested absorption compression heat pumps

    Mucic, V. [Schmeink und Cofreth GmbH and Co. KG, Bocholt (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    First the paper shows the thermodynamical advantages of mixtures compared to single substances as working fluids for compression heat pumps. It is especially the ammonia-water mixture which above all other known mixtures has the best thermodynamical characteristics as a working medium for high-temperature heat pumps used for industrial heat recovery. Then it is shown that the industrial waste heat which at present is uselessly delivered to the environment can be economically recovered by means of absorption compression heat pumps observing certain requirements specified in detail in the paper. (orig.)

  6. Numerical Investigation of the effect of adiabatic section location on thermal performance of a heat pipe network with the application in thermal energy storage systems

    Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang

    2015-11-01

    Latent heat thermal energy storage systems benefits from high energy density and isothermal storing process. However, the low thermal conductivity of the phase change material leads to prolong the melting or solidification time. Using a passive device such as heat pipes is required to enhance the heat transfer and to improve the efficiency of the system. In the present work, the performance of a heat pipe network specifically designed for a thermal energy storage system is studied numerically. The network includes a primary heat pipe, which transfers heat received from solar receiver to the heat engine. The excess heat is simultaneously delivered to charge the phase change material via secondary heat pipes. The primary heat pipe composed of a disk shape evaporator, an adiabatic section and a disk shape condenser. The adiabatic section can be either located at the center or positioned outward to the surrounding of the container. Here, the effect of adiabatic section position on thermal performance of the system is investigated. It was concluded that displacing the adiabatic section outwards dramatically increases the average temperatures of the condensers and reduces the thermal resistance of heat pipes.

  7. Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts

    Cross, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.

  8. Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Relating Work to the Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas.

    Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. Involves students from a first-year university physics course and a second-year thermal physics course. Focuses on the ability of students to relate the first law to the adiabatic physics course. Discusses implications for thermal physics and mechanics…

  9. Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps for Operation Aboard Spacecraft

    Ruemmele, Warren; Ungar, Eugene; Cornwell, John

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-compression heat pumps (including both refrigerators and heat pumps) of a proposed type would be capable of operating in microgravity and would be safe to use in enclosed environments like those of spacecraft. The designs of these pumps would incorporate modifications of, and additions to, vapor-compression cycles of heat pumps now used in normal Earth gravitation, in order to ensure efficiency and reliability during all phases of operation, including startup, shutdown, nominal continuous operation, and peak operation. Features of such a design might include any or all of the following: (1) Configuring the compressor, condenser, evaporator, valves, capillary tubes (if any), and controls to function in microgravitation; (2) Selection of a working fluid that satisfies thermodynamic requirements and is safe to use in a closed crew compartment; (3) Incorporation of a solenoid valve and/or a check valve to prevent influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup (such influx could damage the compressor); (4) Use of a diode heat pipe between the cold volume and the evaporator to limit the influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup; and (5) Use of a heated block to vaporize any liquid that arrives at the compressor inlet.

  10. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  11. Novel Synthesis of β-FeOOH Nanofluid and Determination of Its Heat Capacity by an Adiabatic Calorimeter

    NAN, Zhaodong; ZHANG, Pingping; YU, Aijun; WEI, Chengzhen; SHI, Quan; TAN, Zhicheng

    2009-01-01

    A novel and facile method for preparation of stable nanofluid is introduced, in which FeCl3·6H2O and urea were used as reactants without any surfactants. The obtained solid sample was proved to be β-FeOOH by XRD technol- ogy and spindle-shaped by TEM technology. The coexisting NH3 molecules may be the main reason for the stable nanofluid. The weak bonding between nitrogen and iron atoms would be formed. The investigation on the excess heat capacity of the obtained nanofluid sustains this opinion. The heat capacities of the obtained β-FeOOH particles and the nanofluid were determined by an adiabatic calorimeter. And these obtained results will help the applications of β-FeOOH and the nanofluid to industry, and the establishment of the model of thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The thermodynamic properties of the obtained β-FeOOH particles and the nanofluid were calculated based on the obtained functions of heat capacity with respective to thermodynamic temperature and the relationships between the thermodynamic properties.

  12. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part I - flow development length and adiabatic friction factor

    Tiruselvam, R.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    The study is conducted to evaluate the flow characteristics in a double tube heat exchanger using two new and versatile enhancement configurations. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Correlations are proposed for flow development length and friction factor for use in predicting fluid pumping power in thermal equipment as well as in subsequent heat transfer characterization of the surface. (orig.)

  13. Preparation, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics, heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of NTOxDNAZ.

    Ma, Haixia; Yan, Biao; Li, Zhaona; Guan, Yulei; Song, Jirong; Xu, Kangzhen; Hu, Rongzu

    2009-09-30

    NTOxDNAZ was prepared by mixing 3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNAZ) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in ethanol solution. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG methods. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the DSC and TG/DTG curves by Kissinger method, Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The main exothermic decomposition reaction mechanism of NTOxDNAZ is classified as chemical reaction, and the kinetic parameters of the reaction are E(a)=149.68 kJ mol(-1) and A=10(15.81)s(-1). The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with continuous C(p) mode of microcalorimeter. The standard mole specific heat capacity of NTOxDNAZ was 352.56 J mol(-1)K(-1) in 298.15K. Using the relationship between C(p) and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was obtained.

  14. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  15. Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers on a Strongly Heated Wall

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns the theoretical and experimental modelling of the flat wall,highly heated,compressible turbulent boundary layer.Its final objective is to develop a numerical Navier-Stokes solver and to conclude on its capability to correctly represent complex aerothermic viscous flows near the wall.The paper presents a constructed numerical method with particular attention given to the turbulence modelling at low Reynolds number and comparisons with supersonic and transonic experimental data.For the transonic experiment,very high wall temperature(Tw=1100K)is realized.The method of this difficult experimental set up is discussed.The comparison between experimental and computational data conducts to the first conclusion and gives some indications for the future work.

  16. Tensile Deformation and Adiabatic Heating in Post-Yield Response of Polycarbonate

    2015-11-01

    strain histories for max and gage length and b) stress-strain behavior of PC at intermediate rate for max and gage length 8 3.4 Rate Effects on... frame . To determine the variations in yield and post-yield response at different locations of the gage area of the specimen, digital image...significant rate-sensitive mechanical response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS polycarbonate, tension, rate effects , thermal, heating 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  17. Solitary shock waves and adiabatic phase transition in lipid interfaces and nerves.

    Shrivastava, Shamit; Kang, Kevin Heeyong; Schneider, Matthias F

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the stability of solitary waves excited in a lipid monolayer near a phase transition requires positive curvature of the adiabats, a known necessary condition in shock compression science. It is further shown that the condition results in a threshold for excitation, saturation of the wave's amplitude, and the splitting of the wave at the phase boundaries. Splitting in particular confirms that a hydrated lipid interface can undergo condensation on adiabatic heating, thus showing retrograde behavior. Finally, using the theoretical insights and state dependence of conduction velocity in nerves, the curvature of the adiabatic state diagram is shown to be closely tied to the thermodynamic blockage of nerve pulse propagation.

  18. Reattachment heating upstream of short compression ramps in hypersonic flow

    Estruch-Samper, David

    2016-05-01

    Hypersonic shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions with separation induce unsteady thermal loads of particularly high intensity in flow reattachment regions. Building on earlier semi-empirical correlations, the maximum heat transfer rates upstream of short compression ramp obstacles of angles 15° ⩽ θ ⩽ 135° are here discretised based on time-dependent experimental measurements to develop insight into their transient nature (Me = 8.2-12.3, Re_h= 0.17× 105-0.47× 105). Interactions with an incoming laminar boundary layer experience transition at separation, with heat transfer oscillating between laminar and turbulent levels exceeding slightly those in fully turbulent interactions. Peak heat transfer rates are strongly influenced by the stagnation of the flow upon reattachment close ahead of obstacles and increase with ramp angle all the way up to θ =135°, whereby rates well over two orders of magnitude above the undisturbed laminar levels are intermittently measured (q'_max>10^2q_{u,L}). Bearing in mind the varying degrees of strength in the competing effect between the inviscid and viscous terms—namely the square of the hypersonic similarity parameter (Mθ )^2 for strong interactions and the viscous interaction parameter bar{χ } (primarily a function of Re and M)—the two physical factors that appear to most globally encompass the effects of peak heating for blunt ramps (θ ⩾ 45°) are deflection angle and stagnation heat transfer, so that this may be fundamentally expressed as q'_max∝ {q_{o,2D}} θ ^2 with further parameters in turn influencing the interaction to a lesser extent. The dominant effect of deflection angle is restricted to short obstacle heights, where the rapid expansion at the top edge of the obstacle influences the relaxation region just downstream of reattachment and leads to an upstream displacement of the separation front. The extreme heating rates result from the strengthening of the reattaching shear layer with the increase in

  19. Effect of internal heating during hot compression testing on the stress-strain behavior and hot working characteristics of Alloy 304L

    Mataya, M.C.; Sackschewsky, V.E.

    1993-05-01

    Temperature change from conversion of deformation to internal heat, and its effect on stress-strain behavior of alloy 304L was investigated by initially isothermal (temperature of specimen, compression dies, environment equilibrated at initiation of test) uniaxial compression. Strain rate was varied 0.01 s{sup {minus}1} to 1 s{sup {minus}1} (thermal state of specimen varied from nearly isothermal to nearly adiabatic). Specimens were deformed at 750 to 1150 to a strain of 1. Change in temperature with strain was calculated via finite element analysis from measured stress-strain data and predictions were confirmed with thermocouples to verify the model. Temperature increased nearly linearly at the highest strain rate, consistent with temperature rise being a linear function of strain (adiabatic). As strain rate was lowered, heat transfer from superheated specimen to cooler dies caused sample temperature to increase and then decrease with strain as the sample thinned and specimen-die contact area increased. As-measured stress was corrected. Resulting isothermal flow curves were compared to predictions of a simplified method suggested by Thomas and Shrinivasan and differences are discussed. Strain rate sensitivity, activation energy for deformation, and flow curve peak associated with onset of dynamic recrystallization were determined from both as-measured and isothermal stress-strain data and found to vary widely. The impact of utilizing as-measured stress-strain data, not corrected for internal heating, on results of a number of published investigations is discussed.

  20. Wind power integration in Aalborg Municipality using compression heat pumps and geothermal absorption heat pumps

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    -temperature geothermal resources. The analyses have also demonstrated that the municipality will still rely heavily on surrounding areas for electric load balancing assistance. With a departure in a previously elaborated 100% renewable energy scenario, this article investigates how absorption heat pumps (AHP......) and compression heat pumps (HP) for the supply of DH impact the integration of wind power. Hourly scenario-analyses made using the EnergyPLAN model reveal a boiler production and electricity excess which is higher with AHPs than with HPs whereas condensing mode power generation is increased by the application......Aalborg Municipality, Denmark is investigating ways of switching to 100% renewable energy supply over the next 40 years. Analyses so far have demonstrated a potential for such a transition through energy savings, district heating (DH) and the use of locally available biomass, wind power and low...

  1. Adiabatic calorimetry test of the reaction kinetics and self-heating model for 18650 Li-ion cells in various states of charge

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Wang, Yih-Wen; Shu, Chi-Min

    2016-06-01

    Use of adiabatic calorimetry to characterise thermal runaway of Li-ion cells is a crucial technique in battery safety testing. Various states of charge (SoC) of Li-ion cells were investigated to ascertain their thermal runaway features using a Vent Sizing Package 2 (VSP2) adiabatic calorimeter. To evaluate the thermal runaway characteristics, the temperature-pressure-time trajectories of commercial cylindrical cells were tested, and it was found that cells at a SoC of greater than 50% were subject to thermal explosion at elevated temperatures. Calorimetry data from various 18650 Li-ion cells with different SoC were used to calculate the thermal explosion energies and chemical kinetics; furthermore, a novel self-heating model based on a pseudo-zero-order reaction that follows the Arrhenius equation was found to be applicable for studying the exothermic reaction of a charged cell.

  2. Influence of compression-expansion effect on oscillating-flow heat transfer in a finned heat exchanger

    Ke TANG; Juan YU; Tao JIN; Zhi-hua GAN

    2013-01-01

    Compression and expansion of a working gas due to the pressure oscillation of an oscillating flow can lead to a temperature variation of the working gas,which will affect the heat transfer in the oscillating flow.This study focuses on the impact of the compression-expansion effect,indicated by the pressure ratio,on the heat transfer in a finned heat exchanger under practical operating conditions of the ambient-temperature heat exchangers in Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators.The experimental results summarized as the Nusselt number are presented for analysis.An increase in the pressure ratio can result in a marked rise in the Nussclt number,which indicates that the compression-expansion effect should be considered in characterizing the heat transfer of the oscillating flow,especially in the cases with a higher Valensi number and a lower maximum Reynolds number.

  3. Performance analysis of adiabatic engine

    Sudhakar, V.

    1984-01-01

    As the development of the adiabatic diesel engine continues with a goal of 65% reduction in net in-cylinder heat transfer over a cooled engine, several uncooled engines with intermediate levels of reduced heat transfer were studied. Some aspects and results of the adiabatic diesel engine cycle simulation are discussed. Performance test data and simulation results are compared for a conventionally cooled and uncooled Cummins NH-450 turbocompound engines. Exhaust emissions were also measured and compared.

  4. Combined vapor compression/absorption heat pump cycles for engine-driven heat pumps

    Radermacher, Reinhard; Herold, Keith E.; Howe, Lawrence A.

    1988-12-01

    The performance of three combined absorption/vapor compression cycles for gas-fired internal combustion engine driven heat pumps was theoretically assessed. Two cycles were selected for the preliminary design of breadboard systems using only off-the-shelf components. The first cycle, based on the working pair ammonia/water, is termed the simple-cycle. The second cycle, based on the working pair lithium-bromide/water, is termed the compressor enhanced double-effect chiller. Both cycles are found to be technically feasible. The coefficient of performance and the capacity are increased by up to 21 percent for cooling in the first case (compressor efficiency of 0.7) and by up to 14 percent in the second (compressor efficiency of 0.5). Both were compared against the engine drive R22 vapor compression heat pump. The performance of actual machinery for both cycles is, in the current design, hampered by the fact that the desired oil-free compressors have poor isentropic efficiencies. Oil lubricated compressors together with very effective oil separators would improve the performance of the combined LiBr/water cycle to 23 percent.

  5. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  6. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  7. Design of serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps for district heating with the utilisation of a geothermal heat source

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) can reduce the primary energy consumption in urban areas with significant heat demands. The design of a serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump system was investigated for operation in the Greater Copenhagen DH network in Denmark, in order...... to supply 7.2 MW heat at 85 °C utilizing a geothermal heat source at 73 °C. Both the heat source and heat sink experience a large temperature change over the heat transfer process, of which a significant part may be achieved by direct heat exchange. First a generic study with a simple representation...

  8. Investigation of ammonia/water hybrid absorption/compression heat pumps for heat supply temperatures above 100 °C

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Reinholdt, Lars; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid absorption/compression heat pump (HACHP) using ammonia-water as working fluid is a promising technology for development of a high temperature industrial heat pump. This is due to two properties inherent to the use of zeotropic mixtures: non-isothermal phase change and reduced vapour...

  9. A small sample-size automated adiabatic calorimeter from 70 to 580 K——Molar heat capacities of α-Al2O3

    谭志诚; 张际标; 孟霜鹤; 李莉

    1999-01-01

    An automatic adiabatic calorimeter for measuring heat capacities in the temperature range 70—580 K, equipped with a small sample cell of 7.4 cm~3 in the internal volume has been developed. In order to obtain a good adiabatic condition of the calorimeter at high temperature, the calorimeter was surrounded in sequence by two adiabatic shields, three radiation shields and an auxiliary temperature-controlled sheath. The main body of the cell made of copper and the lid made of brass are silver-soldered and the cell is sealed with a copper screw cap. A sealing gasket made of Pb-Sn alloy is put between the cap and the lid to ensure a high vacuum sealing of the cell in the whole experimental temperature range. All the leads are insulated and fixed with W30-11 varnish, thus a good electric insulation is obtained at high temperature. All the experimental data, including those for energy and temperature are collected and processed automatically with a personal computer using a predetermined program. To verify the

  10. Support of NASA ADR/ Cross-Enterprise NRA Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling from 10K to 50mK, Development of a Heat Switch

    Richards, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical heat switches are used in conjunction with sorption refrigerators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators and for other cryogenic tasks including the pre-cooling cryogenic systems. They use a mechanical actuator which closes Au plated Cu jaws on an Au plated Cu bar. The thermal conductance in the closed position is essentially independent of the area of the jaws and proportional to the force applied. It varies linearly with T. It is approximately 10mW/K for 200 N at 1.5K. In some applications, the heat switch can be driven from outside the cryostat by a rotating rod and a screw. Such heat switches are available commercially from several sources. In other applications, including systems for space, it is desirable to drive the switch using a cold linear motor, or solenoid. Superconducting windings are used at temperatures s 4.2K to minimize power dissipation, but are not appropriate for pre-cooling a system at higher temperatures. This project was intended to improve the design of solenoid activated mechanical heat switches and to provide such switches as required to support the development of Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling from 10 K to 50 mK at GSFC. By the time funding began in 5/1/01, the immediate need for mechanical heat switches at GSFC had subsided but, at the same time, the opportunity had arisen to improve the design of mechanical heat switching by incorporating a "latching solenoid". In this device, the solenoid current is required only for changing the state of the switch and not during the whole time that the switch is closed.

  11. Conventional and advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of an ammonia-water hybridabsorption-compression heat pump

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a technology suitable for industrial scale heat pumps in the process industry. A helpful tool in the design of cost effective and low environmental impact energy conversion systems, such as the HACHP, is the application...

  12. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  13. Compressible Friction Coefficients in a Simulated Heat Pipe.

    1987-12-01

    injection and decrease with suction. 5 4 FROMM Kinney and Sparrow (6) used an analytical model to in- - -~ vestigate the effects of surface suction on...Therefore, two models were used in the num- erical simulation: an incompressible model for Mach numbers less than 0.01, and a compressible model for Mach

  14. EFFECTS OF COMPRESSED AIR FOAM APPLICATION ON HEAT

    Adam THOMITZEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the knowledge obtained in firefighting tests using compressed air foam system (CAFS within a confined space. Six experiments were conducted for verification during the cooling of rooms and the self-extinguishing effect. The simulation was for a fully developed fire within a room. The fuel was chosen to simulate ordinary combustible materials utilized in residential areas. Mantel thermocouples were placed in the rooms to record the temperature changes. Compressed air foam was first applied with a standard fire hose nozzle to the ceiling and then to the epicenter of fire. Fire extinguishing was initiated after reaching the desired temperature in the room. The temperature for the start of fire extinguishing matched the third phase of development of a fire. Fire extinguishing was terminated after no obvious signs of fire were shown in epicenter of fire. The outputs of the experiments were evaluated on the basis of the amount of time passed for the temperature to drop below the suggested limit. Individual experiments were also conducted with various different admixing foaming agents over different locations. In the experiments, it has been verified that the application of compressed air foam has a positive effect on room cooling. Use of a compressed air foaming agent does not allow for the development of steam that can scald firefighters and reduce visibility. Furthermore, the extinguishing agent used is more efficient utilizing less water flow out of the fire area.

  15. Electron Heating by the Ion Cyclotron Instability in Collisionless Accretion Flows. I. Compression-Driven Instabilities and the Electron Heating Mechanism

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In systems accreting well below the Eddington rate, the plasma in the innermost regions of the disk is collisionless and two-temperature, with the ions hotter than the electrons. Yet, whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is still an open question. We study the physics of electron heating during the growth of ion velocity-space instabilities, by means of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A large-scale compression - embedded in a novel form of the PIC equations - continuously amplifies the field. This constantly drives a pressure anisotropy P_perp > P_parallel, due to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. We find that, for ion plasma beta values beta_i ~ 5-30 appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows, mirror modes dominate if the electron-to-proton temperature ratio is > 0.2, whereas if it is m_e/m_i - governed by the conservation of the magnetic moment in the growing fields ...

  16. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump for heat supply in a spraydrying facility

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 C. The implementation of anammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation ratios for a number of ammonia mass...... fractions and heat pump loads. An exergo economic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are imposed to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms of heat load, ammonia mass fraction...

  17. Non-isothermal Decomposition Kinetics,Specific Heat Capacity and Adiabatic Time-to-explosion of 1-Amino-1-hydrazino-2,2-dinitroethylene (AHDNE)

    XU,Kangzhen; ZHAO,Fengqi; SONG,Jirong; CHANG,Chunran; LI,Meng; WANG,Yaoyu; HU,Rongzu

    2009-01-01

    The thermal behavior and non-isothermal kinetics of the exothermic decomposition reaction of 1-amino-1-hydrazino-2,2-dinitroethylene (AHDNE) were studied with DSC and TG/DTG methods.The kinetic equation obtained is dα/dT=1019.29(1-α)exp(-1.88×104/T)/β.The critical temperature of thermal explosion is 98.16 ℃.The specific heat capacity of AHDNE was determined,and the standard molar specific heat capacity is 211.86 J·mol-1·K-1 at 298.15 K.The adiabatic time-to-explosion of AHDNE was also calculated to be 59.21 s.AHDNE is unstable and has much lower thermostability than 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7).

  18. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    Bing Hu; Yuanshu Cao; Weibin Ma

    2015-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show th...

  19. Compression behavior of a ferritic-martensitic Cr-Mo steel

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The compression behavior of a ferritic-martensitic Cr-Mo steel is characterized for strain rates ranging from 10-4 s-1 to 10-1 s-1 and engineering strains up to 40%. Adiabatic heating causes a reduction in flow stress during continuous compression at a strain rate of 10-1 s-1. No reduction...

  20. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE BY ADDING INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER

    Muhammad Asmail Eleiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thispaper presents practical study to improve the indication COP of a vaporcompression refrigeration cycle in instrumented automobile air conditioner bydesigning internal heat exchanger and installing it in the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle.  Two cases of  vapor compression refrigeration cycle were takenin this paper:  the first case is thatthe vapor compression refrigeration cycle without internal heat exchanger andin  the second case the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle with heat exchanger ; in these two cases, the temperatureat each point of  a vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle, the low and the high pressure ,the indoor temperature andthe outdoor temperature were measured at each time at compressor speed 1450 rpmand 2900 rpm for each blower speed 1, blower speed 2 and blower speed 3.Therefrigerant fluid was used in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle withoutIHE and with IHE is R134a..

  1. In vitro burn model illustrating heat conduction patterns using compressed thermal papers.

    Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho

    2015-01-01

    To date, heat conduction from heat sources to tissue has been estimated by complex mathematical modeling. In the present study, we developed an intuitive in vitro skin burn model that illustrates heat conduction patterns inside the skin. This was composed of tightly compressed thermal papers with compression frames. Heat flow through the model left a trace by changing the color of thermal papers. These were digitized and three-dimensionally reconstituted to reproduce the heat conduction patterns in the skin. For standardization, we validated K91HG-CE thermal paper using a printout test and bivariate correlation analysis. We measured the papers' physical properties and calculated the estimated depth of heat conduction using Fourier's equation. Through contact burns of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 seconds on porcine skin and our burn model using a heated brass comb, and comparing the burn wound and heat conduction trace, we validated our model. The heat conduction pattern correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.846, p < 0.001) and the heat conduction depth correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93, p < 0.001) showed statistically significant high correlations between the porcine burn wound and our model. Our model showed good correlation with porcine skin burn injury and replicated its heat conduction patterns.

  2. Shell-structure effects on high-pressure Rankine-Hugoniot shock adiabats

    Pain, J C

    2007-01-01

    Rankine-Hugoniot shock adiabats are calculated in the pressure range 1 Mbar-10 Gbar with two atomic-structure models: the atom in a spherical cell and the atom in a jellium of charges. These quantum self-consistent-field models include shell effects, which have a strong impact on pressure and shock velocity along the shock adiabat. Comparisons with experimental data are presented and quantum effects are interpreted in terms of electronic specific heat. A simple analytical estimate for the maximum compression is proposed, depending on initial density, atomic weight and atomic number.

  3. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  4. Influence of exercise training with thigh compression on heat-loss responses.

    Amano, T; Inoue, Y; Koga, S; Nishiyasu, T; Kondo, N

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of thigh compression, which accelerates activation of central command and muscle metabo- and mechanoreceptors, on the adaptation of sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise heat acclimation. Nine non-heat-acclimated male subjects were acclimated to heat (32 °C and 50% RH) while cycling [50% of maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x )] 60 min/day for 7 days (control group). The experimental group (n = 9) conducted the same training while the proximal thighs were compressed by a cuff at 60 mmHg. V ˙ O 2 m a x , acetylcholine-induced forearm sweating rate (iontophoresis), and mean sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the forehead, chest, and forearm (SRmean and CVCmean ) during passive heating were evaluated before and after training. Training significantly increased V ˙ O 2 m a x while did not affect acetylcholine-induced sweating rates in either group. Training significantly decreased Tb thresholds for SRmean and CVCmean during passive heating without the alternations of sensitivities in both groups. Although SRmean during passive heating at a given ΔTb was not improved in either group, CVCmean was significantly (P training only in experimental group. Our results indicate that thigh cuff compression during exercise heat acclimation does not influence adaptation of the sweating response but attenuate cutaneous vasodilation.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  6. Low Temperature Heat Capacities and Thermodynamic Properties of Zinc L-Threonate Zn(C4H7O5)2(s)by Adiabatic Calorimetry

    CHEN Jing-tao; DI You-ying; TAN Zhi-cheng; CHEN San-ping; GAO Sheng-li

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature heat capacities of the solid compound Zn(C4H7O5)2(s) were measured in a temperature range from 78 to 374 K,with an automated adiabatic calorimeter.A solid-to-solid phase transition occurred in the temperature range of 295-322 K.The peak temperature,the enthalpy,and entropy of the phase transition were experimental values of the molar heat capacities in the temperature regions of 78-295 K and 322-374 K were fitted to two polynomial equations of heat capacities(Cp,m) with reduced temperatures(X) and [X=f(T)],with the help of the least squares method,respectively.The smoothed molar heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound,relative to that of the standard reference temperature 293.15 K,were calculated on the basis of the fitted polynomials and tabulated with an interval of 5 K.In addition,the possible mechanism of thermal decomposition of the compound was inferred by the result of TG-DTG analysis.

  7. Changes of Chemical Composition and Crystalline of Compressed Chinese Fir Wood in Heating Fixation

    Tang Xiaoshu; Zhao Guangjie; Nakao Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    The changes in relative crystalline, chemical composition and internal structure of compressed Chinese fir wood after different heating fixations were found strictly related to fixation conditions. The compressed wood powders were fixed either by heating at different temperatures all resulting in a 10% recovery, or by incubating at 180 °C for different periods with subsequent recovery levels. Both X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption of those samples have been measured. Relative crystalline increases at early stage of heating fixation, and then decreased gradually. Hemicellulose and lignin decomposition were induced by the fixation process, especially at 180 °C, and lignin was degraded actively. Furthermore, absorbed water was lost after heating, but cellulose did not change markedly. Although different fixation pathways can result in the same recovery level, the major chemical reactions underlying them vary, which is consistent with the difference of fixation mechanisms.

  8. Heat transfer analysis of liquid piston compressor for hydrogen applications

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model is developed...... and through the walls, is investigated and compared with the adiabatic case. The results show that depending on heat transfer correlation, the hydrogen temperature reduces slightly between 0.2% and 0.4% compared to the adiabatic case, at 500bar, due to the large wall resistance and small contact area...... at the interface. Moreover, the results of the sensitivity analysis illustrates that increasing the total heat transfer coefficients at the interface and the wall, together with compression time, play key roles in reducing the hydrogen temperature. Increasing the total heat transfer coefficient at the interface...

  9. Low cryogen inventory, forced flow Ne cooling system with room temperature compression stage and heat recuperation

    Shornikov, A; Wolf, A

    2014-01-01

    We present design and commissioning results of a forced flow cooling system utilizing neon at 30 K. The cryogen is pumped through the system by a room-temperature compression stage. To decouple the cold zone from the compression stage a recuperating counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger is used. Commissioning demonstrated successful condensation of neon and transfer of up to 30 W cooling power to the load at 30 K using only 30 g of the cryogen circulating in the system at pressures below 170 kPa.

  10. Stabilization of Thin-Shell Implosions Using a High-Foot Adiabat-Shaped Drive on the National Ignition Facility

    Lafon, Marion; Gauthier, Pascal; Masse, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    The High Foot (HF) campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has improved the neutron yield by an order of magnitude as compared to the implosions reported during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) while dramatically lowering the ablation-front instability growth. However, this yield increase came at the expense of reduced fuel compression due to higher fuel adiabat. Thinner shell adiabat-shaped HF implosions have been designed to combine the ablation front stability benefits of the current HF pulses with the demonstrated high fuel compressibility of the NIC implosions and increased implosion velocity. This is accomplished by using a hybrid adiabat-shaping technique which both lowers the laser power between the first and second pulses to enhance the ablative stabilization at early times and precisely tailors the rise-to-peak drive to prevent undesired shocks from propagating in the fuel and depositing additional entropy. Ablation front growth factor spectra are generated from two-dimensional simulations with the FCI2 radiation hydrodynamics code. Linear analysis of the instability growth demonstrates that adiabat-shaped pulses provide a path to control and reduce ablation front instability growth while placing the fuel on a lower adiabat to achieve the alpha-heating-dominated regime. Adiabat-shaped pulses without picket are also investigated as a potential way to enhance the stability of the holhraum walls at early times.

  11. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2012-01-01

    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  12. Thermolysis, nonisothermal decomposition kinetics, specific heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 (DNANT= dinitroacetonitrile).

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hao; Xu, Kangzhen; Zhang, Wantao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi

    2014-02-20

    A new energetic copper complex of dinitroacetonitrile (DNANT), [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2, was first synthesized through an unexpected reaction. The thermal decomposition of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 was studied with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The gas products were analyzed through a TG-FTIR-MS method. The nonisothermal kinetic equation of the exothermic process is dα/dT = 10(10.92)/β4(1 - α)[-ln(1 - α)](3/4) exp(-1.298 × 10(5)/RT). The self-accelerating decomposition temperature and critical temperature of thermal explosion are 217.9 and 221.0 °C. The specific heat capacity of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 was determined with a micro-DSC method, and the molar heat capacity is 512.6 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. Adiabatic time-to-explosion of Cu(NH3)4(DNANT)2 was also calculated to be about 137 s.

  13. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    Bing Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show that the working fluid type and the temperatures of heat source and condensation have important effects on the system performance. The system can achieve optimal performance when use R245fa as power and refrigeration medium. The ice quantity generated from per ton hot water is 86.42 kg and the ice-making rate for per kW waste heat is 2.27 kg/h, when the temperatures of hot water and condensation are respectively 100 and 40°C. A conclusion can be draw by the calculation and analysis that using organic Rankine-vapor compression system for ice making from food industry waste heat is feasible.

  14. Analytical solutions to a compressible boundary layer problem with heat transfer

    Liancun Zheng; Xinxin Zhang; Jicheng He

    2004-01-01

    The problem of momentum and heat transfer in a compressible boundary layer behind a thin expansion wave was solved by the application of the similarity transformation and the shooting technique. Utilizing the analytical expression of a two-point boundary value problem for momentum transfer, the energy boundary layer solution was represented as a function of the dimensionless velocity, and as the parameters of the Prandtl number, the velocity ratio, and the temperature ratio.

  15. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 1 - Vapour Compression Heat Pumps

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions is carried out considering...... the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive Net Present Value of the investment. The considered sink outlet temperature range is from 40 °C to 140 °C, but for the heat pumps considered in this paper, the upper limit is 100 °C. Five heat pumps are studied. For each set...... of heat sink and source temperatures the optimal solution is determined. At low sink temperature glide R717 heat pumps show best performance, while at higher sink glide transcritical R744 may become important. In a second paper, the results of the VCHP are compared to a similar study considering...

  16. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure ......, and 140 bar up to 147 °C. If the compressor discharge temperature limit is increased to 250 °C and the vapour water content constraint is removed, this becomes: 182 °C, 193 °C and 223 °C....

  17. Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Regimes

    2014-01-15

    engine speed and load conditions. The closed-cycle integrated and peak heat transfer rates were found to be lower for HCCI and RCCI when compared to...limit the load of HCCI due to practical engine limitations. Additionally, HCCI lacks a fast-response combustion phasing control, such as spark...cylinder research engine under Conventional Diesel (CDC), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition ( HCCI ), and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

  18. Modeling Granular Materials as Compressible Non-Linear Fluids: Heat Transfer Boundary Value Problems

    Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss three boundary value problems in the flow and heat transfer analysis in flowing granular materials: (i) the flow down an inclined plane with radiation effects at the free surface; (ii) the natural convection flow between two heated vertical walls; (iii) the shearing motion between two horizontal flat plates with heat conduction. It is assumed that the material behaves like a continuum, similar to a compressible nonlinear fluid where the effects of density gradients are incorporated in the stress tensor. For a fully developed flow the equations are simplified to a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed where the effects of various dimensionless numbers representing the effects of heat conduction, viscous dissipation, radiation, and so forth are presented.

  19. Cummins/Tacom advanced adiabatic engine

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company, Inc. and the U.S. Army have been jointly developing an adiabatic turbocompound engine during the last nine years. Although progress in the early years was slow, recent developments in the field of advanced ceramics have made it possible to make steady progress. It is now possible to reconsider the temperature limitation imposed on current heat engines and its subsequent influence on higher engine efficiency when using an exhaust energy utilization system. This paper presents an adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine concept in which high-performance ceramics are used in its design. The adiabatic turbocompound engine will enable higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and higher exhaust energy recovery, resulting in higher thermal engine efficiency. This paper indicates that the careful selection of ceramics in engine design is essential. Adiabatic engine materials requirements are defined and the possible ceramic materials which will satisfy these requirements are identified. Examples in design considerations of engine components are illustrated. In addition to these important points, the use of ceramic coatings in the design of engine components. The first generation adiabatic engine with ceramic coatings is described. The advanced adiabatic engine with minimum friction features utilizaing ceramics is also presented. The advanced ceramic turbocharger turbine rotor as well as the oilless ceramic bearing design is described. Finally, the current status of the advanced adiabatic engine program culminating in the AA750 V-8 adiabatic engine is presented.

  20. A BLOW-UP CRITERION FOR 3-D NON-RESISTIVE COMPRESSIBLE HEAT-CONDUCTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS WITH INITIAL VACUUM

    Xu Xinying

    2012-01-01

    In this paper; we prove a blow-up criterion of strong solutions to the 3-D viscous and non-resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations for compressible heat-conducting flows with initial vacuum.This blow-up criterion depends only on the gradient of velocity and the temperature,which is similar to the one for compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  1. Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

  2. Effects of compression and expansion ramp fuel injector configuration on scramjet combustion and heat transfer

    Stouffer, Scott D.; Baker, N. R.; Capriotti, D. P.; Northam, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    A scramjet combustor with four wall-ramp injectors containing Mach-1.7 fuel jets in the base of the ramps was investigated experimentally. During the test program, two swept ramp injector designs were evaluated. One swept-ramp model had 10-deg compression-ramps and the other had 10-deg expansion cavities between flush wall ramps. The scramjet combustor model was instrumented with pressure taps and heat-flux gages. The pressure measurements indicated that both injector configurations were effective in promoting mixing and combustion. Autoignition occurred for the compression-ramp injectors, and the fuel began to burn immediately downstream of the injectors. In tests of the expansion ramps, a pilot was required to ignite the fuel, and the fuel did not burn for a distance of at least two gaps downstream of the injectors. Once initiated, combustion was rapid in this configuration. Heat transfer measurements showed that the heat flux differed greatly both across the width of the combustor and along the length of the combustor.

  3. Isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and fluctuational properties of 1-bromoalkanes

    Korotkovskii, V I; Neruchev, Yu A; Goncharov, A L; Postnikov, E B

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the experimental measurements of the isobaric heat capacity for 1-bromohexane, 1-bromoheptane, 1-bromooctane, 1-bromononane, 1-bromodecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-bromododecane and 1-bromo-tetradecane at normal pressure and the speed of sound and the density for 1-bromotetradecane within the temperature range 298.15--423.15~K. These data on the isobaric heat capacity and the literature-based reference data for the density and the speed of sound were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility and the inverse reduced fluctuations. Based on the comparison of the results for pure n-alkanes and $\\alpha,\\omega$-dibromoalkanes, we discuss the influence of bromine atom on the volume fluctuations.

  4. Proton Heating in Solar Wind Compressible Turbulence with Collisions between Counter-propagating Waves

    He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Salem, Chadi S; Bale, Stuart D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating the laboratorial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. Different from the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfv\\'en waves, anti-sunward Alfv\\'en waves (AWs) are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond respectively to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Els\\"asser variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orth...

  5. Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines

    Mitianiec, W.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.

  6. The Effects of Wet Compression by the Electronic Expansion Valve Opening on the Performance of a Heat Pump System

    Kyoungjin Seong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by controlling the Electronic Expansion Valve opening, the influence of wet compression on a heat pump system was experimentally investigated in different heating conditions. The results demonstrate that the discharge temperature decreased and the mass flow rate increased, due to quality of the rising liquid droplets. It was also found that the heating capacity and power input of wet compression increased more than that of dry compression, with a superheat of 10 °C. The maximum COP (Coefficient of Performance exists at a specific quality of ca. 0.94 to 0.90, as the power input in the region of wet compression is proportionally larger than the increase in the heating capacity, according to the decreasing quality. When the Entering Water Temperature of the Outdoor Heat Exchanger was 10 °C, 5 °C, and 0 °C, the COP increased by a maximum of ca. 12.4%, 10.6%, and 10.2%, respectively, in comparison to the superheat of 10 °C. In addition, the superheat at the discharge line is proposed as a proper controlling parameter to adjust the quality at the suction line, by varying the opening of the expansion valve during wet compression.

  7. Efficient energy storage and conversion using adiabatic compression of relativistic-electron plasmas. Final report for 15 May 1986-31 December 1988

    Guest, G.E.; Dandl, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1989-01-17

    The Plasma Electron Microwave Source (PEMS) concept is a relativistic-electron plasma confined in a magnetic-mirror device. The stored energy is transformed into microwaves through amplification of whistler waves that can be launched externally for amplifier operation or generated spontaneously for oscillator operation. The anisotropy of the hot-electron temperature governs the maximum plasma energy density that can be stored, the amplification rates, and the saturated power level of the unstable whistler waves. This report summarizes the results of theoretical studies of (1) the critical aspects of hot-electron plasmas generated by ECH techniques, such as the Upper Off-Resonant Heating pioneered by Dandl in the ELMO series of experiments; and, (2) the spatial amplification rates of unstable whistler waves in these plasmas. It is shown that a substantial fraction of the energy stored in a hot-electron plasma can be transformed into repetitive pulses of microwave power by employing the PEMS approach, with typical values of gain, about 40db and bandwidth.

  8. Running Performance While Wearing a Heat Dissipating Compression Garment in Male Recreational Runners.

    Leoz-Abaurrea, Iker; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grobler, Lara; Engelbrecht, Louise; Aguado-Jiménez, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Leoz-Abaurrea, I, Santos-Concejero, J, Grobler, L, Engelbrecht, L, and Aguado-Jiménez, R. Running performance while wearing a heat dissipating compression garment in male recreational runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3367-3372, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a heat dissipating compression garment (CG) during a running performance test. Ten male recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 55.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min) completed 2 identical sessions wearing either CG or conventional t-shirt (CON). Each trial included a 45-minute run at 60% of the peak treadmill speed (PTS) followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) run at 80% of the PTS and a 10-minute recovery period. During the tests, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses were monitored. Participants wearing the CG displayed an impaired running performance (508 ± 281 vs. 580 ± 314 seconds, p = 0.046; effect size [ES] = 0.24). In addition, a higher respiratory exchange ratio (1.06 ± 0.04 vs. 1.02 ± 0.07, p = 0.01; ES = 0.70) was observed at TTE when wearing the CG in comparison to CON. Changes in core temperature did not differ between garments after the 45-minute run (p = 0.96; ES = 0.03) or TTE (1.97 ± 0.32 vs. 1.98 ± 0.38° C; p = 0.93; ES = 0.02) for CG and CON, respectively. During recovery, significantly higher heart rate and blood lactate values were observed when wearing CG (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the use of a heat dissipating CG may not improve running performance in male recreational runners during a running performance test to exhaustion.

  9. PROTON HEATING IN SOLAR WIND COMPRESSIBLE TURBULENCE WITH COLLISIONS BETWEEN COUNTER-PROPAGATING WAVES

    He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Chen, Christopher H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Lei [Sate Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Salem, Chadi S.; Bale, Stuart D., E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. As opposed to the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfvén waves (AWs), anti-sunward AWs are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond, respectively, to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Elsässer variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orthogonality between the possible oscillation direction of one wave and the possible propagation direction of the other. The associated protons are revealed to exhibit bi-directional asymmetric beams in their velocity distributions: sunward beams appear in short, narrow patterns and anti-sunward in broad extended tails. It is suggested that multiple types of wave–particle interactions, i.e., cyclotron and Landau resonances with AWs and SMWs at kinetic scales, are taking place to jointly heat the protons perpendicular and in parallel.

  10. An integral transform solution for unsteady compressible heat transfer in fluids near their thermodynamic critical point

    de B. Alves Leonardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical thermodynamic model for near critical heat transfer is an integral-differential equation with constant coefficients. It is similar to the heat equation, except for a source term containing the time derivative of the bulk temperature. Despite its simple form, analytical methods required the use of approximations to generate solutions for it, such as an approximate Fourier transformation or a numerical Laplace inversion. Recently, the Generalized Integral Transform Technique or GITT has been successfully applied to this problem, providing a highly accurate analytical solution for it and a new expression of its relaxation time. Nevertheless, very small temperature differences, on the order of mK, have to be imposed so that constant thermal properties can be assumed very close to the critical point. The present paper generalizes this study by relaxing its restriction and accounting for the strong dependence on temperature and pressure of supercritical fluid properties, demonstrating that a the GITT can be applied to realistic nonlinear unsteady compressible heat transfer in fluids with diverging thermal properties and b temperature and pressure have opposite effects on all properties, but their variation causes no additional thermo-acoustic effect, increasing the validity range of the constant property model.

  11. Constitutive Equation Models of Hot-Compressed T122 Heat Resistant Steel

    CA0Jin-rong; LIUZheng—dong; CHENGShi—chang; YANGGang; XIEJian-xin

    2012-01-01

    Based on dislocation reaction theory and Avrami equation, a constitutive equation model was developed to describe dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization during hot deformation of T122 heat resistant steel, which have taken the effect of dynamic strain aging into account. Uniaxial hot compression test had been carried out over a wide range of strain rate (0.01 to 10 s-1 ) and temperature (900 to 1 200 ~C) with the help of Gleeble 3500. Obtained experimental data was applied to determine the material parameters in proposed constitutive equations of T122 steel, by using the non-linear least square regress optimization method. The calculated constitutive equations are quantita- tively in good agreement with experimentally measured curves and microstructure observation. It shows that propose constitutive equation T122 steel is able to be used to predict flow stress of T122 steel during hot deformation in aus- tenite temperature scope.

  12. Experimental results of radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium implosions with adiabat-shaped drives at the National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Chen, K.-C.; Goyon, C.; Grim, G.; Dixit, S. N.; Eckart, M. J.; Edwards, M. J.; Farrell, M.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E.; Hatarik, R.; Havre, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Hoover, D.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Khan, S. F.; Knauer, J. P.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Mauldin, M.; Merrill, F. E.; Moore, A. S.; Nagel, S.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Velikovich, A. L.; Volegov, P. L.; Weber, C. R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions were carried out using 3-shock and 4-shock "adiabat-shaped" drives and plastic ablators on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The purpose of these shots was to gain further understanding on the relative performance of the low-foot implosions of the National Ignition Campaign [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] versus the subsequent high-foot implosions [T. Döppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. The neutron yield performance in the experiment with the 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive was improved by factors ˜3 to ˜10, compared to five companion low-foot shots despite large low-mode asymmetries of DT fuel, while measured compression was similar to its low-foot companions. This indicated that the dominant degradation source for low-foot implosions was ablation-front instability growth, since adiabat shaping significantly stabilized this growth. For the experiment with the low-power 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive, the DT fuel compression was significantly increased, by ˜25% to ˜36%, compared to its companion high-foot implosions. The neutron yield increased by ˜20%, lower than the increase of ˜50% estimated from one-dimensional scaling, suggesting the importance of residual instabilities and asymmetries. For the experiment with the high-power, 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive, the DT fuel compression was slightly increased by ˜14% compared to its companion high-foot experiments. However, the compression was reduced compared to the lower-power 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive, correlated with the increase of hot electrons that hypothetically can be responsible for reduced compression in high-power adiabat-shaped experiments as well as in high-foot experiments. The total neutron yield in the high-power 3-shock adiabat-shaped shot N150416 was 8.5 × 1015 ± 0.2 × 1015, with the fuel areal density of 0.90 ± 0.07 g/cm2

  13. Heat Analysis of Liquid piston Compressor for Hydrogen Applications

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    is developed based on the mass and energy balance of the hydrogen, liquid and the wall of the compression chamber at each time step and positional node with various compression ratios to calculate the temperature distribution of the system. The amount of heat extracted from hydrogen, directly at the interface......A new hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model...... of hydrogen temperature from adiabatic case is very small, due to large wall resistance and small contact area at the interface. Moreover, the results illustrates that the increasing of the total heat transfer coefficient at the interface and the wall will play a key role in reducing the hydrogen temperature...

  14. Adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-02-01

    The research and development of an adiabatic turbocompound engine have shown that the concept is feasible. The ability to meet the performance and sociability goals of the future power plants has been demonstrated. Low brake specific fuel consumption, low smoke and particulates, better NO /SUB x/ -BSFC trade-off, excellent multifuel capability, white smoke suppression, and potentially lower maintenance and greater reliability and durability are some of the attributes. The absence of the water cooling system adds to its attractiveness because of lower installed weight, cost, and reduction in parasitic losses. The operating environment of an adiabatic engine is shown as the basis for analysis and designing of adiabatic components. The types of material which can satisfy the needs of an adiabatic engine are presented. These materials include high temperature metals, high performance ceramics, and glass ceramics. The use of a turbocompound system to utilize the increased exhaust energy of an adiabatic engine is covered. A minimum fuel consumption of 0.285 lb/bhp-hr was achieved at 200 psi BMEP. Although the technical feasibility and viability of an adiabatic engine was demonstrated, the adiabatic diesel engine has problems which must be solved before it becomes a commercially viable product. These problem areas where more work is required are discussed.

  15. Global strong solution to compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density dependent viscosity and temperature dependent heat conductivity

    Duan, Ran; Guo, Ai; Zhu, Changjiang

    2017-04-01

    We obtain existence and uniqueness of global strong solution to one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for ideal polytropic gas flow, with density dependent viscosity and temperature dependent heat conductivity under stress-free and thermally insulated boundary conditions. Here we assume viscosity coefficient μ (ρ) = 1 +ρα and heat conductivity coefficient κ (θ) =θβ for all α ∈ [ 0 , ∞) and β ∈ (0 , + ∞).

  16. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    Pudenz, Kristen L

    2011-01-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation.

  17. Same Recovery Level of Compressed Chinese Fir Wood Can Be Obtained Through Different Heating Fixation Pathways

    Xiaoshu Tang; Zhao Guangjie; Nakao Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of compression set (RS) of wood after dry heating or steam treatment mainly depends on the temperature and time of treatment. For quantitative elucidation, a graph of intermediate RS was built with temperature (T) and time (t) as coordinates. In this graph (abbreviated as T-t planum), a series of curves of RS were created. This leads to a conclusion that same RS can be obtained by numerous different pathways. Further research on pathway equivalency based on T-t planum indicates that a low RS of 10% can be achieved definitely by different combinations of time and temperature. However, the fixation mechanism varies at different temperatures. On the equivalent pathways of higher recovery, the influence of temperature must be taken into consideration. The actual routes must be somewhat modified to achieve an expected result. This makes it possible for us to work out a best fixation pathway among all the possibilities, to eliminate the impact of heat on the mechanical properties of wood.

  18. Assessing Energy Efficiency of Compression Heat Pumps in Drying Processes when Zeotropic Hydrocarbon Mixtures are Used as Working Agents

    Shurayts Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of renewable energy.The paper proposes a design and a formula for assessing energy efficiency of the heat pump air dryer, which uses zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons as a working agent and applies the principle of a counter-current heat exchanger with a variable temperature of both the working and the drying agents. Energy efficiency of the heat pump is achieved by means of obtaining a greater part of heat from renewable energy sources, in this case by cooling the air and condensing the water vapors in the heat pump. A conducted analysis identified correlations in establishing the marginal real coefficient of performance of the compression heat pump dryer running on zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures and operating a cycle with variable temperatures of both the working and the drying agent in the evaporator and the condenser of the heat pump. According to the established correlations, the marginal real coefficient of performance of the compression heat pump dryers running on zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of 40 mol% of R600a and 60 mol% of R601 is 1.92 times higher than that of the same dryers running on only R600 (n-butane.

  19. Adiabatic markovian dynamics.

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Calsamiglia, John

    2010-07-30

    We propose a theory of adiabaticity in quantum markovian dynamics based on a decomposition of the Hilbert space induced by the asymptotic behavior of the Lindblad semigroup. A central idea of our approach is that the natural generalization of the concept of eigenspace of the Hamiltonian in the case of markovian dynamics is a noiseless subsystem with a minimal noisy cofactor. Unlike previous attempts to define adiabaticity for open systems, our approach deals exclusively with physical entities and provides a simple, intuitive picture at the Hilbert-space level, linking the notion of adiabaticity to the theory of noiseless subsystems. As two applications of our theory, we propose a general framework for decoherence-assisted computation in noiseless codes and a dissipation-driven approach to holonomic computation based on adiabatic dragging of subsystems that is generally not achievable by nondissipative means.

  20. Adiabatic quantum computing

    Lobe, Elisabeth; Stollenwerk, Tobias; Tröltzsch, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, the field of adiabatic quantum computing has gained importance due to the advances in the realisation of such machines, especially by the company D-Wave Systems. These machines are suited to solve discrete optimisation problems which are typically very hard to solve on a classical computer. Due to the quantum nature of the device it is assumed that there is a substantial speedup compared to classical HPC facilities. We explain the basic principles of adiabatic ...

  1. Internal heat exchange in an ejector-compression solar refrigeration system with R142b

    Hernandez, Joge I; Estrada, Claudio A; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Dorantes Ruben, J [Departamento de Energia, UNAM Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One way to use more efficiently the actual energy transfer in the ejector-compression system, is the use of heat exchangers between some of the components. The inclusion of two heat exchangers, preheater and precooler, is considered in a basic ejector-compression refrigeration system with refrigerant 142b. This study accounts for the energy and exergy efficiencies. COP and {epsilon}, according to parameter variations such as ejector efficiency, generation temperature with different superheating, condensation temperature and heat exchangers effectiveness. As known, the most important parameters in ejector-compression system analysis are the entrain-ment ratio U and system efficiencies COP and {epsilon}. The highest system COP and {epsilon}, as the entrainment ratio U, correspond to the highest exchangers effectiveness, highest superheating generator temperatures, highest ejector efficiency and lowest condenser temperature. For the COP and {epsilon} ratios, their maxima correspond to the same independent variables aforementioned for one of the higher superheating generator temperatures. In this case, this result indicates that the exergy efficiency {epsilon} does not contradict the information given by energy efficiency COP. So, to select correctly and optimum design condition, is enough to employ the COP ratio, which maximum value for the data shown corresponds to a superheating generator temperature of about 110 Celsius degrees, that can only be reached by evacuated tubular collectors or CPC solar concentrators. [Spanish] Una forma de usar mas eficientemente la transferencia real de energia en el sistema eyector-compresion es el uso de intercambiadores de calor entre algunos de los componentes. La inclusion de dos intercambiadores de calor precalentador y pre-enfriador se considera en un sistema de refrigeracion eyector-compresion con refrigerante 142b. Este estudio toma en cuenta las eficiencias de energia y exergia, COP y {epsilon}, de acuerdo con las variaciones

  2. Adiabatic quantum computation along quasienergies

    Tanaka, Atushi

    2009-01-01

    The parametric deformations of quasienergies and eigenvectors of unitary operators are applied to the design of quantum adiabatic algorithms. The conventional, standard adiabatic quantum computation proceeds along eigenenergies of parameter-dependent Hamiltonians. By contrast, discrete adiabatic computation utilizes adiabatic passage along the quasienergies of parameter-dependent unitary operators. For example, such computation can be realized by a concatenation of parameterized quantum circuits, with an adiabatic though inevitably discrete change of the parameter. A design principle of adiabatic passage along quasienergy is recently proposed: Cheon's quasienergy and eigenspace anholonomies on unitary operators is available to realize anholonomic adiabatic algorithms [Tanaka and Miyamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 160407 (2007)], which compose a nontrivial family of discrete adiabatic algorithms. It is straightforward to port a standard adiabatic algorithm to an anholonomic adiabatic one, except an introduction of...

  3. Interplay between electric and magnetic effect in adiabatic polaritonic systems

    Alabastri, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report on the possibility of realizing adiabatic compression of polaritonic wave on a metallic conical nano-structure through an oscillating electric potential (quasi dynamic regime). By comparing this result with an electromagnetic wave excitation, we were able to relate the classical lighting-rod effect to adiabatic compression. Furthermore, we show that while the magnetic contribution plays a marginal role in the formation of adiabatic compression, it provides a blue shift in the spectral region. In particular, magnetic permeability can be used as a free parameter for tuning the polaritonic resonances. The peculiar form of adiabatic compression is instead dictated by both the source and the metal permittivity. The analysis is performed by starting from a simple electrostatic system to end with the complete electromagnetic one through intermediate situations such as the quasi-electrostatic and quasi-dynamic regimes. Each configuration is defined by a particular set of equations which allows to clearly determine the individual role played by the electric and magnetic contribution in the generation of adiabatic compression. We notice that these findings can be applied for the realization of a THz nano-metric generator. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  4. Isobar gas and steam. Compressed air storage plant with heat storage; Isobares GuD. Druckluftspeicherkraftwrk mit Waermespeicher

    Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard; Nielsen, Lasse [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik

    2008-07-01

    Due to the worldwide increasing energy consumption the unfavourable aspects of the today's power supply structure are strengthened continuously. There are two compressed air energy storage power stations existing. However, these power stations exhibit worse efficiencies of storage in comparison to existing pumped-storage power plants. In order to avoid this disadvantage, a concept of a isobaric gas and steam compressed air storage plant was developed at the institute for heat and fuel technology at the technical university of Braunschweig. This concept is presented in the contribution under consideration.

  5. Scaling of Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Fast Solar Wind

    Banerjee, S.; Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.

    2016-10-01

    The role of compressible fluctuations in the energy cascade of fast solar wind turbulence is studied using a reduced form of an exact law derived recently for compressible isothermal magnetohydrodynamics and in situ observations from the THEMIS B/ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft. A statistical survey of the data revealed a turbulent energy cascade over a range of two decades of scales that is broader than the previous estimates made from an exact incompressible law. A term-by-term analysis of the compressible model reveals new insight into the role played by the compressible fluctuations in the energy cascade. The compressible fluctuations are shown to amplify by two to four times the turbulent cascade rate with respect to the incompressible model in ∼ 10 % of the analyzed samples. This new estimated cascade rate is shown to provide the adequate energy dissipation required to account for the local heating of the non-adiabatic solar wind.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of compression and opposite wood of Black pine

    Türker Dündar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of commercial heat treatment on physical and mechanical properties of compression wood (CW and opposite wood (OW of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold was investigated. Black pine logs containing CW were cut parallel to the pith and separated into CW and OW sections. A commercial heat treatment process was applied to pine lumber at 180 and 210 ºC for 3 hours. Water absorption (WA, contact angle (CA, swelling, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, and impact bending strength (IBS were measured. The results showed that heat treatment decreased water absorption and swelling of the CW and OW of black pine. Heat treatment at 210 °C temperature decreased the longitudinal swelling of CW by 51.4%. Higher immersion time lowered the effect of heat treatment on the WA values. The CA values of the CW and OW increased due to heat treatment. Heat treatment reduced the MOR, MOE, and IBS values. The results indicated that MOR, MOE, and CA values were highly affected in the CW; on the other hand, the IBS value was highly affected in the OW by heat treatment compared to control groups. The results indicate that heat-stabilized CW can be used more widely and effectively in the forest products industry.

  7. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  8. Diagnosing Direct-Drive, Shock-Heated, and Compressed Plastic Planar Foils with Noncollective Spectrally Resolved X-Ray Scattering

    Sawada, H.; Regan, S.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Goncharov, V.N.; Boehly, T.R.; Epstein, R.; Sangster, T.C.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Gregori, G.; Glenzer, S.H.; Landen, O.L.

    2007-12-14

    The electron temperature (Te) and average ionization (Z) of nearly Fermi-degenerate, direct-drive, shock-heated, and compressed plastic planar foils were investigated using noncollective spectrally resolved x-ray scattering on the OMEGA Laser System. Plastic (CH) and Br-doped CH foils were driven with six beams, having an overlapped intensity of ~1 × 10^14 W/cm^2 and generating ~15-Mbar pressure in the foil.

  9. Experimental Study of Inducing Compressive Stress by Anti-welding Heating Treatment in a Thin Plate Weldment with Variant Temperatures

    2002-01-01

    Significant compressive stress may be induced in thin plate weldment by anti-welding heating treatment (AWHT)with a temperature difference above 350℃, and an interesting phenomenon of obvious residual stress reduction on non-treated surface was discovered. The method of AWHT has no great effect on the mechanical properties including hardness, strength and toughness of the metal material. The results in the paper prompt a possibility application in shipbuilding industry.

  10. ZERO DISSIPATION LIMIT OF THE COMPRESSIBLE HEAT-CONDUCTING NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS IN HE PRESENCE OF THE SHOCK

    Wang Yi

    2008-01-01

    The zero dissipation limit of the compressible heat-conducting Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of the shock is investigated. It is shown that when the heat ε→ 0 (see (1.3)), if the solution of the corresponding Euler equations is piecewise smooth with shock wave satisfying the Lax entropy condition, then there exists a smooth solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which converges to the piecewise smooth shock solution of the Euler equations away from the shock discontinuity at a rate of ε. The proof is given by a combination of the energy estimates and the matched asymptotic analysis introduced in [3].

  11. Nickel Bubble Expansion in Type Ia Supernovae: Adiabatic Solutions

    Wang, C Y

    2006-01-01

    We examine the expansion properties of the Nickel bubble in SNe Ia due to the radioactive heating from the 56Ni->56Co->56Fe decay sequence, under adiabatic, spherically symmetric approximation. We consider an exponentially -declining medium for the ejecta substrate, allowing for the density gradient as expected in a Type Ia supernova. The heating gives rise to an inflated Ni bubble, which induces a forward shock that compresses the outer ambient gas into a shell. As the heating saturates, the flow tends toward a freely-expanding state with the structure frozen into the ejecta. The thickness of the shell takes up ~ 100 in a narrow region limited by numerical resolution. The structure of the shell can be approximately described by a self-similar solution determined by its expansion rate and ambient density gradient. Compared to the case using a uniform-density medium, the density contrast of the inferred ejecta clumps is enhanced, while the interaction of the clumps with the remnant is deferred to a more advanc...

  12. Analysis of a Vertical Flat Heat Pipe Using Potassium Working Fluid and a Wick of Compressed Nickel Foam

    Geir Hansen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat at high temperatures, in this work 400–650 °C, can be recovered by use of cooling panels/heat pipes in the walls of aluminum electrolysis cells. For this application a flat vertical heat pipe for heat transfer from a unilateral heat source was analyzed theoretically and in the laboratory, with special emphasis on the performance of the wick. In this heat pipe a wick of compressed nickel foam covered only the evaporator surface, and potassium was used as the working fluid. The magnitudes of key thermal resistances were estimated analytically and compared. Operating temperatures and wick performance limits obtained experimentally were compared to predictions. Thermal deformation due to unilateral heat flux was analyzed by the use of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The consequences of hot spots at different locations on the wick were analyzed by use of a numerical 2D model. A vertical rectangular wick was shown to be most vulnerable to hot spots at the upper corners.

  13. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  14. Quantum Lubrication: Suppression of Friction in a First Principle Four Stroke Heat Engine

    Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    A quantum model of a heat engine resembling the Otto cycle is employed to explore strategies to suppress frictional losses. These losses are caused by the inability of the engine's working medium to follow adiabatically the change in the Hamiltonian during the expansion and compression stages. By adding external noise to the engine, frictional losses can be suppressed.

  15. Scaling of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the fast solar wind

    Sahraoui, F.; Banerjee, S.; Galtier, S.; Hadid, L.

    2015-12-01

    The role of compressible uctuations in the energy cascade of fast solar wind turbulence is studiedusing an exact law derived recently for compressible isothermal magnetohydrodynamics and in-situobservations of the THEMIS spacecraft. For the first time, a direct turbulent energy cascade isevidenced over three decades of scales which is signicantly broader than the previous estimatesmade from an exact incompressible law or from a compressible heuristic model. Unlike previousworks, our evaluation gives an energy ux which keeps a constant sign over the inertial range. Aterm-by-term analysis reveals that the dominant contribution to the energy ux comes from purecompressible uctuations. Furthermore, the compressible turbulent cascade rate is shown to providethe adequate energy dissipation required to account for the local heating of the non-adiabatic solarwind.

  16. Adiabatic Quantum Simulators

    Biamonte, J D; Whitfield, J D; Fitzsimons, J; Aspuru-Guzik, A

    2010-01-01

    In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be error resistant, easily controllable, and built using existing technology. Moving away from gate-model and projective measurement based implementations of quantum computing may offer a less resource-intensive, and consequently a more feasible solution. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-body interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-body interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes...

  17. Semiconductor adiabatic qubits

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; Witzel, Wayne; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Ganti, Anand; Landahl, Andrew J.; Lilly, Michael; Nguyen, Khoi Thi; Bishop, Nathaniel; Carr, Stephen M.; Bussmann, Ezra; Nielsen, Erik; Levy, James Ewers; Blume-Kohout, Robin J.; Rahman, Rajib

    2016-12-27

    A quantum computing device that includes a plurality of semiconductor adiabatic qubits is described herein. The qubits are programmed with local biases and coupling terms between qubits that represent a problem of interest. The qubits are initialized by way of a tuneable parameter, a local tunnel coupling within each qubit, such that the qubits remain in a ground energy state, and that initial state is represented by the qubits being in a superposition of |0> and |1> states. The parameter is altered over time adiabatically or such that relaxation mechanisms maintain a large fraction of ground state occupation through decreasing the tunnel coupling barrier within each qubit with the appropriate schedule. The final state when tunnel coupling is effectively zero represents the solution state to the problem represented in the |0> and |1> basis, which can be accurately read at each qubit location.

  18. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 1 - single stage vapour compression heat pumps

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering...... the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment. Six heat pump systems were considered, corresponding to an upper limit of the sink temperature of 120 °C. For each set of heat sink and source temperatures the best available technology...... was determined. The results showed that four different heat pump systems propose the best available technology at different parts of the complete domain. Ammonia systems presented the best available technology at low sink outlet temperature. At high temperature difference between sink in- and outlet...

  19. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  20. GLOBAL EXISTENCE AND CONVERGENCE RATES OF SMOOTH SOLUTIONS FOR THE 3-D COMPRESSIBLE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS WITHOUT HEAT CONDUCTIVITY

    Zhensheng GAO; Zhong TAN; Guochun WU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the global existence and convergence rates of the smooth solutions for the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations without heat conductivity, which is a hyperbolic-parabolic system. The global solutions are obtained by combining the local existence and a priori estimates if H3-norm of the initial perturbation around a constant states is small enough and its L1-norm is bounded. A priori decay-in-time estimates on the pressure, velocity and magnetic field are used to get the uniform bound of entropy. Moreover, the optimal convergence rates are also obtained.

  1. Mini-channel evaporator/heat pipe assembly for a chip cooling vapor compression refrigeration system

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Barbosa, Jader R. Jr.; Prata, Alvaro T. [Polo - Research Laboratories for Emerging Technologies in Cooling and Thermophysics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario, Trindade, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate a novel evaporator design for a small-scale refrigeration system whose function is to assist the existing heat pipe technology currently used in chip cooling of portable computers. A heat transfer model for the evaporator/heat pipe assembly was devised specifically for sizing the evaporator in order to keep the chip surface temperature below a certain value. A prototype was tested with R-600a at saturation temperatures of 45 and 55 C, mass flow rates between 0.5 and 1.5 kg h{sup -1} and heat transfer rates between 30 and 60 W. The experimental results demonstrated that the average refrigerant-side heat transfer coefficient is more sensitive to a change in the refrigerant mass flux than to changes in the saturation temperature and heat transfer rate. The agreement between the calculated heat transfer coefficient and the data was within {+-}10% for the conditions evaluated. (author)

  2. ENTROPY-VORTEX WAVES IN NON-ADIABATIC FLOWS

    Ibáñez S, Miguel H., E-mail: mhibanez@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Caribe, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2016-02-20

    The Ertel theorem on the vorticity along the flow of adiabatic fluids is generalized for non-adiabatic flows. Several limiting cases are analyzed and the results are applied to flows behind different hydrodynamics fronts, particularly to thermal fronts (heat and cooling fronts). An important conclusion of the present analysis is that vorticity is inherent in the condensation’s (or hot spots) formation by thermal instabilities in plasma flows. Implications for several astrophysical plasmas are outlined.

  3. Economics of compressed air energy storage employing thermal energy storage

    Schulte, S.C.; Reilly, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The approach taken in this study is to adopt system design and capital cost estimates from three independent CAES studies (eight total designs) and, by supplying a common set of fuel/energy costs and economic assumptions in conjunction with a common methodology, to arrive at a series of levelized energy costs over the system's lifetime. In addition, some analyses are provided to gauge the sensitivity of these levelized energy costs to fuel and compression energy costs and to system capacity factors. The systems chosen for comparison are of four generic types: conventional CAES, hybrid CAES, adiabatic CAES, and an advanced-design gas turbine (GT). In conventional CAES systems the heat of compression generated during the storage operation is rejected to the environment, and later, during the energy-generation phase, turbine fuel must be burned to reheat the compressed air. In the hybrid systems some of the heat of compression is stored and reapplied later during the generation phase, thereby reducing turbine fuel requirements. The adiabatic systems store adequate thermal energy to eliminate the need for turbine fuel entirely. The gas turbine is included within the report for comparison purposes; it is an advanced-design turbine, one that is expected to be available by 1985.

  4. Modeling of Compressive Strength Parallel to Grain of Heat Treated Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Wood by Using Artificial Neural Network

    Fatih Yapıcı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the compressive strength of heat treated Scotch Pine was modeled using artificial neural network. The compressive strength (CS value parallel to grain was determined after exposing the wood to heat treatment at temperature of 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205ºC for 3, 6, 9, 12 hours. The experimental data was evaluated by using multiple variance analysis. Secondly, the effect of heat treatment on the CS of samples was modeled by using artificial neural network (ANN.

  5. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  6. Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap

    Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.

  7. Composition of Bamboo Walls and Compressed Earth Block Walls in a Simple House that Produces Energy Efficient to Heat and Embodied Energy in Indonesia

    Vincentius Totok NOERWASITO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Building materials have a major effect on the depletion of natural resources and energy in the world. Local raw materials are some of the best building materials, which can be found in every location; for example, compressed earth block and bamboo. This study adds to previous studies on compressed earth blocks without using combustion in the same location. The study focused on how to obtain a rural housing design by using compressed earth block walls and bamboo walls, which are adaptive to local materials and climate. Moreover, the ratio of the use of the compressed earth block walls with the walls is also examined to produce optimum embodied energy and heat energy buildings. The method used in this study was to analyze the characteristics of the compressed earth block and bamboo materials used as wall construction. While embodied energy and heat energy were calculated by using simulation model building, the heat energy calculation was found using the Archipak program. The results of the study shows that the optimum wall materials for the embodied energy and heat energy was compressed earth block with an area of 11 m2 and bamboo walls with an area of 19 m2.

  8. The heat-compression technique for the conversion of platelet-rich fibrin preparation to a barrier membrane with a reduced rate of biodegradation.

    Kawase, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Mana; Kobayashi, Mito; Tanaka, Takaaki; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2015-05-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was developed as an advanced form of platelet-rich plasma to eliminate xenofactors, such as bovine thrombin, and it is mainly used as a source of growth factor for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, although a minor application, PRF in a compressed membrane-like form has also been used as a substitute for commercially available barrier membranes in guided-tissue regeneration (GTR) treatment. However, the PRF membrane is resorbed within 2 weeks or less at implantation sites; therefore, it can barely maintain sufficient space for bone regeneration. In this study, we developed and optimized a heat-compression technique and tested the feasibility of the resulting PRF membrane. Freshly prepared human PRF was first compressed with dry gauze and subsequently with a hot iron. Biodegradability was microscopically examined in vitro by treatment with plasmin at 37°C or in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Compared with the control gauze-compressed PRF, the heat-compressed PRF appeared plasmin-resistant and remained stable for longer than 10 days in vitro. Additionally, in animal implantation studies, the heat-compressed PRF was observed at least for 3 weeks postimplantation in vivo whereas the control PRF was completely resorbed within 2 weeks. Therefore, these findings suggest that the heat-compression technique reduces the rate of biodegradation of the PRF membrane without sacrificing its biocompatibility and that the heat-compressed PRF membrane easily could be prepared at chair-side and applied as a barrier membrane in the GTR treatment.

  9. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.

    2009-05-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r \\ge 1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values.

  10. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  11. Adiabatic quantum simulators

    J. D. Biamonte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be controllable, and built using existing technology. In some cases, moving away from gate-model-based implementations of quantum computing may offer a more feasible solution for particular experimental implementations. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-local interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-local interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes free evolution until measured. This allows one to recover e.g. the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian being simulated. Given a ground state, this scheme can be used to verify the QMA-complete problem LOCAL HAMILTONIAN, and is therefore likely more powerful than classical computing.

  12. Compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity of CH4 and CO2 hydrate mixtures using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Ning, F L; Glavatskiy, K; Ji, Z; Kjelstrup, S; H Vlugt, T J

    2015-01-28

    Understanding the thermal and mechanical properties of CH4 and CO2 hydrates is essential for the replacement of CH4 with CO2 in natural hydrate deposits as well as for CO2 sequestration and storage. In this work, we present isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat capacity of fully occupied single-crystal sI-CH4 hydrates, CO2 hydrates and hydrates of their mixture using molecular dynamics simulations. Eight rigid/nonpolarisable water interaction models and three CH4 and CO2 interaction potentials were selected to examine the atomic interactions in the sI hydrate structure. The TIP4P/2005 water model combined with the DACNIS united-atom CH4 potential and TraPPE CO2 rigid potential were found to be suitable molecular interaction models. Using these molecular models, the results indicate that both the lattice parameters and the compressibility of the sI hydrates agree with those from experimental measurements. The calculated bulk modulus for any mixture ratio of CH4 and CO2 hydrates varies between 8.5 GPa and 10.4 GPa at 271.15 K between 10 and 100 MPa. The calculated thermal expansion and specific heat capacities of CH4 hydrates are also comparable with experimental values above approximately 260 K. The compressibility and expansion coefficient of guest gas mixture hydrates increase with an increasing ratio of CO2-to-CH4, while the bulk modulus and specific heat capacity exhibit the opposite trend. The presented results for the specific heat capacities of 2220-2699.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for any mixture ratio of CH4 and CO2 hydrates are the first reported so far. These computational results provide a useful database for practical natural gas recovery from CH4 hydrates in deep oceans where CO2 is considered to replace CH4, as well as for phase equilibrium and mechanical stability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The computational schemes also provide an appropriate balance between computational accuracy and cost for predicting

  13. Transient, compressible heat and mass transfer in porous media using the strongly implicit iteration procedure.

    Curry, D. M.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing heat and mass transfer in a porous matrix are solved in finite difference form with the aid of a new iterative technique (the strongly implicit procedure). Example numerical results demonstrate the characteristics of heat and mass transport in a porous matrix such as a charring ablator. It is emphasized that multidimensional flow must be considered when predicting the thermal response of a porous material subjected to nonuniform boundary conditions.

  14. Adiabatic paths and pseudoholomorphic curves

    Armen; G.; Sergeev

    2005-01-01

    We consider the (2+1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model, governed by the Ginzburg-Landau action functional and describe the adiabatic limit construction for this model. Then we switch to the 4-dimensional case and Show that the Taubes correspondence may be considered as a (2+2)-dimensional analogue of the adiabatic limit construction.

  15. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  16. Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    Pinski, Sebastian D

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Quantum Computing (AQC) is a relatively new subject in the world of quantum computing, let alone Physics. Inspiration for this project has come from recent controversy around D-Wave Systems in British Columbia, Canada, who claim to have built a working AQC which is now commercially available and hope to be distributing a 1024 qubit chip by the end of 2008. Their 16 qubit chip was demonstrated online for the Supercomputing 2007 conference within which a few small problems were solved; although the explanations that journalists and critics received were minimal and very little was divulged in the question and answer session. This 'unconvincing' demonstration has caused physicists and computer scientists to hit back at D-Wave. The aim of this project is to give an introduction to the historic advances in classical and quantum computing and to explore the methods of AQC. Through numerical simulations an algorithm for the Max Independent Set problem is empirically obtained.

  17. Design Point for a Spheromak Compression Experiment

    Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; O'Bryan, John; Stuber, James; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    Two principal issues for the spheromak concept remain to be addressed experimentally: formation efficiency and confinement scaling. We are therefore developing a design point for a spheromak experiment that will be heated by adiabatic compression, utilizing the CORSICA and NIMROD codes as well as analytic modeling with target parameters R_initial =0.3m, R_final =0.1m, T_initial =0.2keV, T_final =1.8keV, n_initial =1019m-3 and n_final = 1021m-3, with radial convergence of C =3. This low convergence differentiates the concept from MTF with C =10 or more, since the plasma will be held in equilibrium throughout compression. We present results from CORSICA showing the placement of coils and passive structure to ensure stability during compression, and design of the capacitor bank needed to both form the target plasma and compress it. We specify target parameters for the compression in terms of plasma beta, formation efficiency and energy confinement. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  18. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

    George Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.

  19. Effect of the trapped mass and its composition on the heat transfer in the compression cycle of a reciprocating engine

    Armas, Octavio; Rodriguez, Jose [Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ave. Camilo Jose Cela, s/n. Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain); Payri, Francisco; Martin, Jaime [Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. de los Naranjos, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Agudelo, John R. [Grupo Ciencia y Tecnologia del Gas y Uso Racional de la Energia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2005-12-01

    The use of the polytropic coefficient calculation during the compression process in the thermodynamic cycle of a reciprocating internal combustion engine is an interesting tool to minimize errors in the synchronization of pressure and volume signals, and to determine heat flux transferred to the cylinder walls. The accuracy of this calculation depends on the instantaneous values for pressure, volume, trapped mass and its composition, as well as on their variations. In this work the effect of the errors in blow-by, trapped mass and its composition have been studied in detail, specially the effect of errors in the composition estimation, owing to the use of exhaust gas recirculation in typical diesel engines. (author)

  20. Smart intermittency-friendly cogeneration: Techno-economic performance of innovative double storage concept for integrating compression heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    Blarke, Morten

    2011-01-01

    recovered from flue gasses as the only low-temperature heat source, furthermore applying an intermediate cold storage allowing for non-concurrent operation of heat pump and cogeneration unit. The novel concept is subject to a detailed techno-economic comparative modelling and analysis, hich finds...... plants may adapt their plant design and operational strategy to improve the co-existence between cogeneration and intermittent renewables. A novel intermittency-friendly and super-efficient concept in cogeneration is presented that involves integrating a high-pressure compression heat pump using heat...... the concept to be the most cost-effective option for increasing intermittency-friendliness....

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility

    Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.

  2. Phenomenon of transformed adiabatic shear band surrounded by deformed adiabatic shear band of ductile metal

    WANG Xue-bin

    2008-01-01

    The coexistent phenomenon of deformed and transformed adiabatic shear bands(ASBs) of ductile metal was analyzed using the JOHNSON-COOK model and gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP). The effects of melting point, density, heat capacity and work to heat conversion factor were investigated. Higher work to heat conversion factor, lower density, lower heat capacity and higher melting point lead to wider transformed ASB and higher local plastic shear deformation between deformed and transformed ASBs. Higher work to heat conversion factor, lower density, lower heat capacity and lower melting point cause higher local plastic shear deformation in the deformed ASB. Three reasons for the scatter in experimental data on the ASB width were pointed out and the advantages of the work were discussed. If the transformed ASB width is used to back-calculate the internal length parameter in the GDP, undoubtedly, the parameter will be extremely underestimated.

  3. Analysis of Energy Consumption of "Compression Heat" Pressure Heat Dryer%“压缩热”干燥机能耗分析

    李申

    2015-01-01

    作为典型的热质交换设备,吸附干燥器再生能量是被吸水量锁定的。总耗能受到吸附剂本身物理性质的制约,可用“质量守恒”与“能量守恒”两大定律来解释其能耗过程。各类吸附干燥器能耗量都要通过“能量衡算”来确定。“压缩热”干燥器与其他一切加热干燥器一样采取了“长周期”工作循环制,解吸环节无效热损很大。无热再生干燥器则采用了“短周期”工作制,为实际耗气量减少留有了较大的空间。%As the typical heat and mass transfer equipment, the energy of regenerative desiccant dryers is limited by water absorption. The total energy consumption is restricted by the physical properties of the adsorbent, which can be explained through two laws of conservation of mass and energy conservation. The energy consumption in each absorption dryers should be determined by“energy balance”.“Compression heat”dryer adopts“long-period”working cycle system as other heating dryers, in which invalid heat losses are great in desorption process. However, regenerated dryer without heat adopts“short-period”working cycle system, which provides greater space for actual gas consumption reduction.

  4. ELECTRON HEATING BY THE ION CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION FLOWS. I. COMPRESSION-DRIVEN INSTABILITIES AND THE ELECTRON HEATING MECHANISM

    Sironi, Lorenzo [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States); Narayan, Ramesh, E-mail: lsironi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rnarayan@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    In systems accreting well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the innermost regions of the disk is believed to be collisionless and have two temperatures, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. However, whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is still an open question. We study the physics of electron heating during the growth of ion velocity-space instabilities by means of multidimensional, fully kinetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A background large-scale compression—embedded in a novel form of the PIC equations—continuously amplifies the field. This constantly drives a pressure anisotropy P > P {sub ∥} because of the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. We find that, for ion plasma beta values β{sub 0i} ∼ 5-30 appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows (here, β{sub 0i} is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), mirror modes dominate if the electron-to-proton temperature ratio is T {sub 0e}/T {sub 0i} ≳ 0.2, whereas for T {sub 0e}/T {sub 0i} ≲ 0.2 the ion cyclotron instability triggers the growth of strong Alfvén-like waves, which pitch-angle scatter the ions to maintain marginal stability. We develop an analytical model of electron heating during the growth of the ion cyclotron instability, which we validate with PIC simulations. We find that for cold electrons (β{sub 0e} ≲ 2 m{sub e} /m{sub i} , where β{sub 0e} is the ratio of electron thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), the electron energy gain is controlled by the magnitude of the E-cross-B velocity induced by the ion cyclotron waves. This term is independent of the initial electron temperature, so it provides a solid energy floor even for electrons starting with extremely low temperatures. On the other hand, the electron energy gain for β{sub 0e} ≳ 2 m{sub e} /m{sub i}

  5. Numerical solution of non-isothermal non-adiabatic flow of real gases in pipelines

    Bermúdez, Alfredo; López, Xián; Vázquez-Cendón, M. Elena

    2016-10-01

    A finite volume scheme for the numerical solution of a mathematical model for non-isothermal non-adiabatic compressible flow of a real gas in a pipeline is introduced. In order to make an upwind discretization of the flux, the Q-scheme of van Leer is used. Unlike standard Euler equations, the model takes into account wall friction, variable height and heat transfer between the pipe and the environment. Since all these terms are sources, in order to get a well-balanced scheme they are discretized by making a similar upwinding to the one in the flux term. The performance of the overall method has been shown for some usual numerical tests. The final goal, which is beyond the scope of this paper, is to consider a network including several pipelines connected at junctions, as those employed for natural gas transport.

  6. Reversible compression of an optical piston through Kramers dynamics

    Schnoering, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    We study the reversible crossover between stable and bistable phases of an over-damped Brownian bead inside an optical piston. The interaction potentials are solved developing a method based on Kramers' theory that exploits the statistical properties of the stochastic motion of the bead. We evaluate precisely the energy balance of the crossover. We show that the deformation of the optical potentials induced by the compression of the piston is related to a production of heat which measures the non-adiabatic character of the crossover. This reveals how specific thermodynamic processes can be designed and controlled with a high level of precision by tailoring the optical landscapes of the piston.

  7. Multiplicity features of adiabatic autothermal reactors

    Lovo, M.; Balakotaiah, V. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper singularity theory, large activation energy asymptotic, and numerical methods are used to present a comprehensive study of the steady-state multiplicity features of three classical adiabatic autothermal reactor models: tubular reactor with internal heat exchange, tubular reactor with external heat exchange, and the CSTR with external heat exchange. Specifically, the authors derive the exact uniqueness-multiplicity boundary, determine typical cross-sections of the bifurcation set, and classify the different types of bifurcation diagrams of conversion vs. residence time. Asymptotic (limiting) models are used to determine analytical expressions for the uniqueness boundary and the ignition and extinction points. The analytical results are used to present simple, explicit and accurate expressions defining the boundary of the region of autothermal operation in the physical parameter space.

  8. The density variance - Mach number relation in isothermal and non-isothermal adiabatic turbulence

    Nolan, Chris A; Sutherland, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    The density variance - Mach number relation of the turbulent interstellar medium is relevant for theoretical models of the star formation rate, efficiency, and the initial mass function of stars. Here we use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations with grid resolutions of up to 1024^3 cells to model compressible turbulence in a regime similar to the observed interstellar medium. We use Fyris Alpha, a shock-capturing code employing a high-order Godunov scheme to track large density variations induced by shocks. We investigate the robustness of the standard relation between the logarithmic density variance (sigma_s^2) and the sonic Mach number (M) of isothermal interstellar turbulence, in the non-isothermal regime. Specifically, we test ideal gases with diatomic molecular (gamma = 7/5) and monatomic (gamma = 5/3) adiabatic indices. A periodic cube of gas is stirred with purely solenoidal forcing at low wavenumbers, leading to a fully-developed turbulent medium. We find that as the gas heats in adiabatic comp...

  9. Accumulating energy effect of airflow under flying plate after adiabatic compression%平面飞片下气体绝热压缩后的聚能效应——两次不寻常的爆炸实验结果

    张凯; 张路青

    2011-01-01

    揭示了可以展现垂直高速飞行的飞片在碰撞目的物的瞬间会产生极高速气流的聚能效应现象.在一般的爆炸压实实验中,飞片下的空间都是大气状态下的空气,空气量都很少,不会超过1 g,但在飞片高速飞行状态下,大多数气体很难向四周排出,最后形成绝热压缩气体,气流以万米/秒以上高速向四周喷射在出能量可切断很厚的钢板.这是从未被注意过的、可能也是不寻常的重要实验结果.%This paper reveals the phenomenon of the accumulating energy effect of high velocity airflow which is emerged by shooting practice from a vertical flying plate in twinkling of attack. In general experiments of explosive compression, the air space under the flying plate is atmospherical air, its quantity is a little, not more than one gram. But in the high velocity fling state of the flying plate, the vast majority of air is difficult to exhaust towards all around, at last to form the adiabatic compression air spurt out around with the velocity more than ten kilometers per second, it may cut off a much thick steel plate. This is an unusual experimental result which is not yet noticed by majority of research scholars.

  10. Adiabatic plasma buncher

    Ferrario, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Katsouleas, T.C. [Los Angeles Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Serafini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Ben Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is presented a new scheme of injection into a plasma accelerator, aimed at producing a high quality beam while relaxing the demands on the bunch length of the injected beam. The beam dynamics in the injector, consisting of a high voltage pulsed photo-diode, is analyzed and optimized to produce a {lambda}{sub p}/20 long electron bunch at 2.5 MeV. This bunch is injected into a plasma wave in which it compresses down to {lambda}{sub p}/100 while simultaneously accelerating up to 250 MeV. This simultaneous bunching and acceleration of a high quality beam requires a proper combination of injection energy and injection phase. Preliminary results from simulations are shown to assess the potentials of the scheme.

  11. Non-adiabatic primordial fluctuations

    Noller, Johannes; Magueijo, Joao, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-21

    We consider general mixtures of isocurvature and adiabatic cosmological perturbations. With a minimal assumption set consisting of the linearized Einstein equations and a primordial perfect fluid we derive the second-order action and its curvature variables. We also allow for varying equation of state and speed of sound profiles. The derivation is therefore carried out at the same level of generality that has been achieved for adiabatic modes before. As a result we find a new conserved super-horizon quantity and relate it to the adiabatically conserved curvature perturbation. Finally we demonstrate how the formalism can be applied by considering a Chaplygin gas-like primordial matter model, finding two scale-invariant solutions for structure formation.

  12. Adiabatic theory for the bipolaron

    Lakhno, V.D. (Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino Moscow Region, 142292 (Russian Federation))

    1995-02-01

    A translation-invariant adiabatic theory is constructed for the bipolaron. It is shown that motions in the bipolaron are divided: the relative electron coordinates describe fast electron oscillations in the induced polarization well and the center of mass coordinates represent slow electron movement followed by polarization. Nonlinear differential bipolaron equations are derived which are asymptotically exact in the adiabatic limit. Particlelike solutions of these equations correspond to the bipolaron bound state. The exact solution yields the value of the ion critical parameter [eta]=0.31 for which the bipolaron state is stable, where [eta]=[epsilon][sub [infinity

  13. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  14. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and

  15. Global existence and asymptotic behavior for the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations without heat conductivity in a bounded domain

    Wu, Guochun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem for the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations without heat conductivity in a bounded domain with slip boundary. The global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions are obtained when the initial data is near its equilibrium in H2 (Ω). Furthermore, the exponential convergence rates of the pressure and velocity are also proved by delicate energy methods.

  16. Analytical calculation of adiabatic processes in real gases

    Amarskaja, I. B.; Belousov, V. S.; Filippov, P. S.

    2016-10-01

    The impact of gases nonideality in the compression and expansion processes on the specific heat ratio and the heat capacity is analyzed. The specific heat ratio variation leads to temperature variation during compression in the compressor and expansion in the turbine and, consequently, the gas turbine cycle efficiency factor variation. It is also essential to consider the gases nonideality in the compression and expansion processes in the compression processes in compressor. Generally it is assumed during calculations that the heat capacities depend only on temperature, in this case the reference data presented by various authors differs markedly. In the real processes the heat capacity and the specific heat ratio depend on temperature and within the particular temperatures and pressures range depend on pressure. Consequently, the operating fluid nonideality in the gas turbine cycle should be considered.

  17. Heat recovery from the compressed air of activation tanks at Herdorf sewage plant. Final report; Waermerueckgewinnung aus der Druckluft von Belebungsanlagen am Beispiel der Verbandsklaeranlage Herdorf. Abschlussbericht

    Witte, H.; Strunkheide, J.; Eckhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Heat is removed from the compressed air of the activation tanks via a separate air cooler installed in the compressed-air line leading to the activation tank. The heat recovered will heat up the sludge in the digestion tank or will be fed into the heating system of the plant. The following goals are defined: Savings of heating oil; Saving of digestion gas as completely as possible; Power generation from the saved gas in a cogeneration unit; Power supply to the public grid. [German] Zielsetzung des Pilotprojektes ist die Nutzung der Druckluftwaerme von Belebungsanlagen als eine Moeglichkeit der Energieeinsparung auf Klaeranlagen. Die Nutzung der Verlustwaerme soll durch Abgriff der Waerme ueber einen separaten Luftkuehler erfolgen, der direkt in der Druckluftleitung zum Belebungsbecken installiert ist. Die auf diese Weise zurueckgewonnene Waerme soll zur Rohschlammaufheizung im Faulungsprozess dienen bzw. in das Betriebsheizungssystem eingespeist werden. Somit koennen folgende Ziele der Waermerueckgewinnungsanlage ins Auge gefasst werden: - Einsparung von Heizoel zu Heizzwecken in den Betriebsanlagen der Klaeranlage - Moeglichst komplette Einsparung von Faulgas im Heizkessel daraus folgend: - Mehrverstromung der im Heizkessel weniger verbrauchten Gasmengen im Blockheizkraftwerk (BHKW) mit dem Ergebnis: - Wirtschaftlicher Ertrag durch Einspeisung dieser Mehrmengen an Strom in das oeffentliche Versorgungsnetz. (orig.)

  18. Elementary examples of adiabatic invariance

    Crawford, F.S. (Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Simple classical one-dimensional systems subject to adiabatic (gradual) perturbations are examined. The first examples are well known: the adiabatic invariance of the product {ital E}{tau} of energy {ital E} and period {tau} for the simple pendulum and for the simple harmonic oscillator. Next, the adiabatic invariants of the vertical bouncer are found---a ball bouncing elastically from the floor of a rising elevator having slowly varying velocity and acceleration. These examples lead to consideration of adiabatic invariance for one-dimensional systems with potentials of the form {ital V}={ital ax}{sup {ital n}}, with {ital a}={ital a}({ital t}) slowly varying in time. Then, the horizontal bouncer is considered---a mass sliding on a smooth floor, bouncing back and forth between two impenetrable walls, one of which is slowly moving. This example is generalized to a particle in a bound state of a general potential with one slowly moving turning point.'' Finally, circular motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field slowly varying in time under three different configurations is considered: (a) a free particle in a uniform field; (b) a free particle in a nonuniform betatron'' field; and (c) a particle constrained to a circular orbit in a uniform field.

  19. A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    1999-01-01

    For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon...

  20. On the thermodynamic derivation of differential equations for turbulent flow transfer in a compressible heat-conducting fluid

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.

    2010-08-01

    This paper considers the modern approach to the thermodynamic modeling of developed turbulent flows of a compressible fluid based on the systematic application of the formalism of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) that goes beyond the local equilibrium hypothesis, which is an inseparable attribute of classical nonequilibrium thermodynamics (CNT). In addition to the classical thermodynamic variables, EIT introduces new state parameters—dissipative flows and the means to obtain the respective evolutionary equations consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. The paper presents a detailed discussion of a number of physical and mathematical postulates and assumptions used to build a thermodynamic model of turbulence. A turbulized liquid is treated as an indiscrete continuum consisting of two thermodynamic sub-systems: an averaged motion subsystem and a turbulent chaos subsystem, where turbulent chaos is understood as a conglomerate of small-scale vortex bodies. Under the above formalism, this representation enables the construction of new models of continual mechanics to derive cause-and-effect differential equations for turbulent heat and impulse transfer, which describe, together with the averaged conservations laws, turbulent flows with transverse shear. Unlike gradient (noncausal) relationships for turbulent flows, these differential equations can be used to investigate both hereditary phenomena, i.e., phenomena with history or memory, and nonlocal and nonlinear effects. Thus, within EIT, the second-order turbulence models underlying the so-called invariant modeling of developed turbulence get a thermodynamic explanation. Since shear turbulent flows are widespread in nature, one can expect the given modification of the earlier developed thermodynamic approach to developed turbulence modeling (see Kolesnichenko, 1980; 1998; 2002-2004; Kolesnichenko and Marov, 1985; Kolesnichenko and Marov, 2009) to be used in research on a broad class of dissipative

  1. Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 1: Theory

    Vaitkus, Jesse A; Greentree, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Spatial adiabatic passage represents a new way to design integrated photonic devices. In conventional adiabatic passage designs require smoothly varying waveguide separations. Here we show modelling of adiabatic passage devices where the waveguide separation is varied digitally. Despite digitisation, our designs show robustness against variations in the input wavelength and refractive index contrast of the waveguides relative to the cladding. This approach to spatial adiabatic passage opens new design strategies and hence the potential for new photonics devices.

  2. Adiabatic scaling relations of galaxy clusters

    Ascasibar, Y; Yepes, G; Müller, V; Gottlöber, S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to show that, contrary to popular belief, galaxy clusters are **not** expected to be self-similar, even when the only energy sources available are gravity and shock-wave heating. In particular, we investigate the scaling relations between mass, luminosity and temperature of galaxy groups and clusters in the absence of radiative processes. Theoretical expectations are derived from a polytropic model of the intracluster medium and compared with the results of high-resolution adiabatic gasdynamical simulations. It is shown that, in addition to the well-known relation between the mass and concentration of the dark matter halo, the effective polytropic index of the gas also varies systematically with cluster mass, and therefore neither the dark matter nor the gas profiles are exactly self-similar. It is remarkable, though, that the effects of concentration and polytropic index tend to cancel each other, leading to scaling relations whose logarithmic slopes roughly match the predictio...

  3. Parametric Erosion Investigation: Propellant Adiabatic Flame Temperature

    P. J. Conroy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of quasi-independent parameters and their potential influence on erosion in guns have been investigated. Specifically, the effects of flame temperature and the effect of assuming that the Lewis number (ratio of mass-to-heat transport to the surface, Le = 1, has been examined. The adiabatic flame temperature for a propellant was reduced by the addition of a diluent from a high temperature of 3843 K (similar to that of M9 down to 3004 K, which is near the value for M30A1 propellant. Mass fractions of critical species at the surface with and without the assumption of Le = 1 are presented, demonstrating that certain species preferentially reach the surface providing varied conditions for the surface reactions. The results for gun tube bore surface regression qualitatively agree with previous studies and with current experimental data.

  4. Improved Refrigerant Characteristics Flow Predictions in Adiabatic Capillary Tube

    Shodiya Sulaimon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents improved refrigerant characteristics flow predictions using homogenous flow model in adiabatic capillary tube, used in small vapor compression refrigeration system. The model is based on fundamental equations of mass, momentum and energy. In order to improve the flow predictions, the inception of vaporization in the capillary tube is determined by evaluating initial vapor quality using enthalpy equation of refrigerant at saturation point and the inlet entrance effect of the capillary tube is also accounted for. Comparing this model with experimental data from open literature showed a reasonable agreement. Further comparison of this new model with earlier model of Bansal showed that the present model could be use to improve the performance predictions of refrigerant flow in adiabatic capillary tube.

  5. Linear response of galactic halos to adiabatic gravitational perturbations

    Murali, C; Murali, Chigurupati; Tremaine, Scott

    1997-01-01

    We determine the response of a self-similar isothermal stellar system to small adiabatic gravitational perturbations. For odd spherical harmonics, the response is identical to the response of the analogous isothermal fluid system. For even spherical harmonics, the response can be regarded as an infinite series of wavetrains in $\\log r$, implying alternating compression and rarefaction in equal logarithmic radius intervals. Partly because of the oscillatory nature of the solutions, tidal fields from external sources are not strongly amplified by an intervening isothermal stellar system, except at radii can even screen the external tidal field in a manner analogous to Debye screening. As Weinberg has pointed out, individual resonances in a stellar system can strongly amplify external tidal fields over a limited radial range, but we cannot address this possibility because we examine only adiabatic perturbations. We also discuss the application of our method to the halo response caused by the slow growth of an em...

  6. From Free Expansion to Abrupt Compression of an Ideal Gas

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.

    2009-01-01

    Using macroscopic thermodynamics, the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas was studied. It was shown that the process reversibility is characterized by the adiabatic reversibility coefficient r, in the range 0 [less than or equal] r [less than or equal] 1 for expansions and r [greater than or equal] 1 for compressions.…

  7. Boiling heat-transfer coefficient variation for R407C inside horizontal tubes of a refrigerating vapour-compression plant's shell-and-tube evaporator

    Torrella, Enrique [Department of Applied Thermodynamics, Camino de Vera, 14, Polytechnic University of Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Navarro-Esbri, Joaquin; Cabello, Ramon [Department of Technology, Campus de Riu Sec,University Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2006-03-01

    The present paper presents experimental results obtained from a refrigerating vapour-compression plant's shell-and-tube (1-2) evaporator working with R407C. Several tests have been carried out to study the influence of the evaporating pressure and the refrigerant's mass flow rate on the refrigerant's boiling heat-transfer coefficient inside horizontal tubes. This work has been performed by analyzing the variations of the evaporator's overall thermal-resistance, computed using the effectiveness-NTU method, considering the influence of pressure drops and glide at the evaporator, and finally transferring the results and conclusions to the boiling heat-transfer coefficient. It has been observed that the variations of the boiling heat-transfer coefficient show a dependence on the evaporating temperature and the refrigerant's mass-flow rate, which has been analyzed in the test range. [Author].

  8. Performance of indirectly driven capsule implosions on NIF using adiabat-shaping

    Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Baker, K. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Gharibyan, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatarik, R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Marinak, M. M.; MacGowan, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, M.; Patel, P. K.; Perkins, L. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Weber, C. R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C.; Giraldez, E.; Hoover, D.; Nikroo, A.; Hohenberger, M.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    A series of indirectly driven capsule implosions has been performed on the National Ignition Facility to assess the relative contributions of ablation-front instability growth vs. fuel compression on implosion performance. Laser pulse shapes for both low and high-foot pulses were modified to vary ablation-front growth & fuel adiabat, separately and controllably. Two principal conclusions are drawn from this study: 1) It is shown that an increase in laser picket energy reduces ablation-front instability growth in low-foot implosions resulting in a substantial (3-10X) increase in neutron yield with no loss of fuel compression. 2.) It is shown that a decrease in laser trough power reduces the fuel adiabat in high-foot implosions results in a significant (36%) increase in fuel compression together with no reduction in neutron yield. These results taken collectively bridge the space between the higher compression low-foot results and the higher yield high-foot results.

  9. Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.

  10. Compressed air storage concept BOP-B - Heat-exchanger and motor-generator; Machbarkeit des Druckluftspeicherkonzeptes BOP-B. Waermetauscher und Motgen

    Brueckmann, P. [Brueckmann Elektronik, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Cyphelly, I. [Cyphelly and Cie, Les Brenets (Switzerland); Lindegger, M. [Circle Motor AG, Guemligen (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with project concerning a compressed-air energy storage system. The authors state that the BOP-B is a highly efficient compressor or air motor and can work efficiently if the compression or expansion of the air takes place in a mostly isothermal way. First tests made on the heat-exchanger unit are reported on and conclusions are drawn. A second part of the paper deals with the motor-generator unit (Motgen). The mechanical and electrical construction of the Motgen is described along with the results of tests performed on the unit. The results of measurements made are presented and discussed.

  11. Invalidity of the quantitative adiabatic condition and general conditions for adiabatic approximations

    Li, Dafa

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.

  12. Dark Energy and Dark Matter from an additional adiabatic fluid

    Dunsby, Peter K S; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent $\\gamma$ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general $\\gamma$ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with $\\gamma = $ constant in a FLRW universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like non-relativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both Dark Energy and Dark Matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The $\\Lambda$CDM model is included in this family of theories when $\\gamma = 0$. We fit our model to SNIa, $H(z)$ and BAO data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early-universe and the growth of small per...

  13. Dark energy and dark matter from an additional adiabatic fluid

    Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    The dark sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the Universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent γ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general γ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with γ =constant in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like nonrelativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both dark energy and dark matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The Λ CDM model is included in this family of theories when γ =0 . We fit our model to supernovae Ia, H (z ) and baryonic acoustic oscillation data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early Universe and the growth of small perturbations in this model are also discussed.

  14. Exhaust heat recovery in internal combustion engine; Netsukokan ni yoru nainen kikan no hainetsu kaishu no kento

    Goto, E.; Kase, S.; Dong, D. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    Discussions were given as measures to solve thermal efficiency and environmental problems on recovery of waste heat from an internal combustion engine by means of heat exchange. Means are used to increase the thermal efficiency and the output without changing any of the compression ratio, maximum temperature and maximum pressure in the internal combustion engine. The means consist of nearly isothermal compression of suction air and simultaneous exchange of heat in the compressed suction air with that in high-temperature exhaust gas to recover the heat. Since the isothermal compression and simultaneous heat exchange with the exhaust gas are carried out in place of adiabatic compression, the thermal efficiency increases by 4% to 11% in the compression ratio ranging from 10 to 20, and the output per working fluid unit flow rate increases by 19% to 37%. If the heat generated in catalytically purifying exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is recovered by means of heat exchange, the thermal efficiency in an automotive engine may improve by more than 10%, serving for reducing pollutant production and saving the fuel consumption. Such concepts may also be conceivable as recovering vehicle braking energy as air pressure to be re-utilized for accelerating the restarting, and recovering the backpressure of exhaust gas by converting it into mechanical energy through expansion. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  16. Simulation of the Operating Performance for Supplementing-compressing Heat-pump%补气增焓热泵机组运行性能模拟研究

    李艳; 王强

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operating characteristics of air-source-heat-pump in low temperatures, a single-stage air source heat pump and a supplementing-compressing air source heat pump was simulated and calculated. A calculation of heat pump with a process of refilling was presented and the most appropriate pressures in different evaporation temperatures were obtained, which would do a lot of help to improving the operating performance of air-source-heat-pump in low temperatures.%基于空气源热泵机组在低温工况下的运行特性,对单级空气源热泵机组及补气增焓热泵机组进行仿真模拟计算,提出一种带补气的热泵机组运行性能的计算方法,得出不同蒸发温度下最佳补气压力值,对改善低温环境下空气源热泵机组的运行性能具有重要意义。

  17. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  18. Theory of Adiabatic Fountain Resonance

    Williams, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of "Adiabatic Fountain Resonance" with superfluid ^4{He} is clarified. In this geometry a film region between two silicon wafers bonded at their outer edge opens up to a central region with a free surface. We find that the resonance in this system is not a Helmholtz resonance as claimed by Gasparini et al., but in fact is a fourth sound resonance. We postulate that it occurs at relatively low frequency because the thin silicon wafers flex appreciably from the pressure oscillations of the sound wave.

  19. On the topology of adiabatic passage

    Yatsenko, L P; Jauslin, H R

    2002-01-01

    We examine the topology of eigenenergy surfaces characterizing the population transfer processes based on adiabatic passage. We show that this topology is the essential feature for the analysis of the population transfers and the prediction of its final result. We reinterpret diverse known processes, such as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), frequency-chirped adiabatic passage and Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP). Moreover, using this picture, we display new related possibilities of transfer. In particular, we show that we can selectively control the level which will be populated in STIRAP process in Lambda or V systems by the choice of the peak amplitudes or the pulse sequence.

  20. Production of AA2124/MoSi{sub 2}/25p composites and effect of heat treatment on their microstructure, hardness and compression properties

    Piyadeh, F.; Abdollah-Pour, H.; Lieblich, M.

    2014-07-01

    AA2124/25vol%MoSi{sub 2} composites were processed by two powder metallurgy routes: high energy ball milling of the reinforcement and alloy powder (B composite) and wet blending with cyclohexane (W composite), both followed by extrusion to achieve full consolidation. As-extruded and heat treated composite bars were studied microstructurally and mechanically (hardness and compression tests under quasistatic loading). Microstructure and fracture profiles were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the reaction products formed in the matrix were identified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results show that for both composites, the hardness of the specimens in solution and aged condition was higher than in the as-extruded condition. The hardness of the B composite was higher than that of the W composite whereas the age-harden ability of the B composite was significantly lower than that of the W composite. After heat treatments, small diffusion reaction phases appeared at the interface between matrix and reinforcements. Compressive yield strength and the ultimate strength of both composites improved considerably after the artificial ageing. The composite fracture surfaces exhibited microscopically a ductile appearance that consisted of dimples in the matrix and a fragile fracture of the MoS{sub i}2 particulates. (Author)

  1. Modeling of heat release and emissions from droplet combustion of multi component fuels in compression ignition engines

    Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This PhD dissertation was carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in Department of Mechanical Engineering and supervised by Associate Professor Jesper Schramm. The PhD project was funded by the Technical University of Denmark. Demands on reducing the fuel consumption and harmful emissions from the compression ignition engines (CI engines or diesel engines) are continuously increased. To comply with this, better modeling tools for the diesel combustion process are desired from the e...

  2. (Hybrid) Baryons Quantum Numbers and Adiabatic Potentials

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and indicate the flavour, spin, chirality and J^P of (hybrid) baryons. The adiabatic potential is calculated as a function of the quark positions.

  3. Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Evolution

    Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Sipser, M; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam; Sipser, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We give a quantum algorithm for solving instances of the satisfiability problem, based on adiabatic evolution. The evolution of the quantum state is governed by a time-dependent Hamiltonian that interpolates between an initial Hamiltonian, whose ground state is easy to construct, and a final Hamiltonian, whose ground state encodes the satisfying assignment. To ensure that the system evolves to the desired final ground state, the evolution time must be big enough. The time required depends on the minimum energy difference between the two lowest states of the interpolating Hamiltonian. We are unable to estimate this gap in general. We give some special symmetric cases of the satisfiability problem where the symmetry allows us to estimate the gap and we show that, in these cases, our algorithm runs in polynomial time.

  4. On a Nonlinear Model in Adiabatic Evolutions

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Song-Feng

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution in quantum search problem. As will be seen here, for this problem, there always exists a possibility that this nonlinear model can successfully solve the problem, while the linear model can not. Also in the same setting, when the overlap between the initial state and the final stare is sufficiently large, a simple linear adiabatic evolution can achieve O(1) time efficiency, but infinite time complexity for the nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution is needed. This tells us, it is not always a wise choice to use nonlinear interpolations in adiabatic algorithms. Sometimes, simple linear adiabatic evolutions may be sufficient for using. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61402188 and 61173050. The first author also gratefully acknowledges the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M552041

  5. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines...... were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency...... of the storage significantly. The efficiency of CAES as an electricity storage may be defined in several ways, we discuss these and find that the exergetic efficiency of compression, storage and production together determine the efficiency of CAES. In the paper we find that the efficiency of the practical CAES...

  6. 3D MHD Simulations of Spheromak Compression

    Stuber, James E.; Woodruff, Simon; O'Bryan, John; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    The adiabatic compression of compact tori could lead to a compact and hence low cost fusion energy system. The critical scientific issues in spheromak compression relate both to confinement properties and to the stability of the configuration undergoing compression. We present results from the NIMROD code modified with the addition of magnetic field coils that allow us to examine the role of rotation on the stability and confinement of the spheromak (extending prior work for the FRC). We present results from a scan in initial rotation, from 0 to 100km/s. We show that strong rotational shear (10km/s over 1cm) occurs. We compare the simulation results with analytic scaling relations for adiabatic compression. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  7. Non-adiabatic oscillations of compact stars in general relativity

    Gualtieri, L; Miniutti, G

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a formalism to study non-adiabatic, non-radial oscillations of compact stars in the frequency domain including the effects of thermal diffusion in a general relativistic framework. When a general equation of state depending on temperature is used, the perturbations of the fluid result in heat flux which is coupled with the spacetime geometry through the Einstein field equations. Our results show that the frequency of the first pressure (p) and gravity (g) oscillation modes is significantly affected by thermal diffusion, while that of the fundamental (f) mode is basically unaltered due to the global nature of that oscillation. The damping time of the oscillations is generally much smaller than in the adiabatic case (more than two orders of magnitude for the p- and g-modes) reflecting the effect of thermal dissipation. Both the isothermal and adiabatic limits are recovered in our treatment and we study in more detail the intermediate regime. Our formalism finds its natural astrophysical applic...

  8. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  9. A decoupled scheme based on the Hermite expansion to construct lattice Boltzmann models for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary specific heat ratio

    Hu, Kainan; Geng, Shaojuan

    2016-01-01

    A decoupled scheme based on the Hermite expansion to construct lattice Boltzmann models for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary specific heat ratio is proposed. The local equilibrium distribution function including the rotational velocity of particle is decoupled into two parts, i.e. the local equilibrium distribution function of the translational velocity of particle and that of the rotational velocity of particle. From these two local equilibrium functions, two lattice Boltzmann models are derived via the Hermite expansion, namely one is in relation to the translational velocity and the other is connected with the rotational velocity. Accordingly, the distribution function is also decoupled. After this, the evolution equation is decoupled into the evolution equation of the translational velocity and that of the rotational velocity. The two evolution equations evolve separately. The lattice Boltzmann models used in the scheme proposed by this work are constructed via the Hermite expansion...

  10. Electron-ion and ion-ion potentials for modeling warm-dense-matter: applications to laser-heated or shock-compressed Al and Si

    Dharma-wardana, M W C

    2012-01-01

    The pair-interactions U_{ij}(r) determine the thermodynamics and linear transport properties of matter via the pair-distribution functions (PDFs), i.e., g_{ij}(r). Great simplicity is achieved if U_{ij}(r) could be directly used to predict material properties via classical simulations, avoiding many-body wavefunctions. Warm dense matter (WDM) is encountered in quasi-equilibria where the electron temperature $T_e$ differs from the ion temperature T_i, as in laser-heated or in shock-compressed matter. The electron PDFs g_{ee}(r) as perturbed by the ions are used to evaluate fully non-local exchange-correlation corrections to the free energy, using Hydrogen as an example. Electron-ion potentials for ions with a bound core are discussed with Al and Si as examples, for WDM with T_e \

  11. Boundary-layer phenomena for the cylindrically symmetric Navier-Stokes equations of compressible heat-conducting fluids with large data at vanishing shear viscosity

    Ye, Xia; Zhang, Jianwen

    2016-08-01

    This paper concerns the asymptotic behavior of the solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the cylindrically symmetric Navier-Stokes equations with large data for compressible heat-conducting ideal fluids, as the shear viscosity μ goes to zero. A suitable corrector function (the so-called boundary-layer type function) is constructed to eliminate the disparity of boundary values. As by-products, the convergence rates of the derivatives in L 2 are obtained and the boundary-layer thickness (BL-thickness) of the value O≤ft({μα}\\right) with α \\in ≤ft(0,1/2\\right) is shown by an alternative method, compared with the results proved in Jiang and Zhang (2009 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 41 237-68) and Qin et al (2015 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 216 1049-86).

  12. Partial evolution based local adiabatic quantum search

    Sun Jie; Lu Song-Feng; Liu Fang; Yang Li-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Recently,Zhang and Lu provided a quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution,which beats the time bound of local adiabatic search when the number of marked items in the unsorted database is larger than one.Later,they found that the above two adiabatic search algorithms had the same time complexity when there is only one marked item in the database.In the present paper,following the idea of Roland and Cerf [Roland J and Cerf N J 2002Phys.Rev.A 65 042308],if within the small symmetric evolution interval defined by Zhang et al.,a local adiabatic evolution is performed instead of the original “global” one,this “new” algorithm exhibits slightly better performance,although they are progressively equivalent with M increasing.In addition,the proof of the optimality for this partial evolution based local adiabatic search when M =1 is also presented.Two other special cases of the adiabatic algorithm obtained by appropriately tuning the evolution interval of partial adiabatic evolution based quantum search,which are found to have the same phenomenon above,are also discussed.

  13. Scalar arguments of the mathematical functions defining molecular and turbulent transport of heat and mass in compressible fluids

    Kowalski, Andrew S.; Argüeso, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The advection-diffusion equations defining control volume conservation laws in micrometeorological research are analysed to resolve discrepancies in their appropriate scalar variables for heat and mass transport. A scalar variable that is conserved during vertical motions enables the interpretation of turbulent mixing as ‘diffusion’. Gas-phase heat advection is shown to depend on gradients in the potential temperature (θ), not the temperature (T). Since conduction and radiation depend on T, advection-diffusion of heat depends on gradients of both θ and T. Conservation of θ (the first Law of Thermodynamics) requires including a pressure covariance term in the definition of the turbulent heat flux. Mass advection and diffusion are universally agreed to depend directly on gradients in the gas ‘concentration’ (c), a nonetheless ambiguous term. Depending upon author, c may be defined either as a dimensionless proportion or as a dimensional density, with non-trivial differences for the gas phase. Analyses of atmospheric law, scalar conservation and similarity theory demonstrate that mass advection-diffusion in gases depends on gradients, not in density but rather in a conserved proportion. Flux-tower researchers are encouraged to respect the meteorological tradition of writing conservation equations in terms of scalar variables that are conserved through simple air motions.

  14. Optical pulse compression using a nonlinear optical loop mirror constructed from dispersion decreasing fiber

    CAO; Wenhua; LIU; Songhao

    2004-01-01

    A novel scheme to compress optical pulses is proposed and demonstrated numerically, which is based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror constructed from dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF). We show that, in contrast to the conventional soliton-effect pulse compression in which compressed pulses are always accompanied by pedestals and frequency chirps owning to nonlinear effects, the proposed scheme can completely suppress pulse pedestals and frequency chirps. Unlike the adiabatic compression technique in which DDF length must increase exponentially with input pulsewidth, the proposed scheme does not require adiabatic condition and therefore can be used to compress long pulses by using reasonable fiber lengths. For input pulses with peak powers higher than a threshold value, the compressed pulses can propagate like fundamental solitons. Furthermore, the scheme is fairly insensitive to small variations in the loop length and is more robust to higher-order nonlinear effects and initial frequency chirps than the adiabatic compression technique.

  15. Feasibility of using phase change materials to control the heat of hydration in massive concrete structures.

    Choi, Won-Chang; Khil, Bae-Soo; Chae, Young-Seok; Liang, Qi-Bo; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results that can be applied to select a possible phase change material (PCM), such as a latent heat material (LHM), to control the hydration heat in mass concrete structures. Five experimental tests (microconduction, simplified adiabatic temperature rise, heat, and compressive strength tests) were conducted to select the most desirable LHM out of seven types of inorganic PCM used in cement mortar and to determine the most suitable mix design. The results of these experimental tests were used to assess the feasibility of using PCM to reduce hydration heat in mass concrete that was examined. The experimental results show that cement mortar containing barium- [Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O] based PCM has the lowest amount of total hydration heat of the cement pastes. The barium-based PCM provides good latent heat properties that help to prevent volume change and microcracks caused by thermal stress in mass concrete.

  16. Feasibility of Using Phase Change Materials to Control the Heat of Hydration in Massive Concrete Structures

    Won-Chang Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results that can be applied to select a possible phase change material (PCM, such as a latent heat material (LHM, to control the hydration heat in mass concrete structures. Five experimental tests (microconduction, simplified adiabatic temperature rise, heat, and compressive strength tests were conducted to select the most desirable LHM out of seven types of inorganic PCM used in cement mortar and to determine the most suitable mix design. The results of these experimental tests were used to assess the feasibility of using PCM to reduce hydration heat in mass concrete that was examined. The experimental results show that cement mortar containing barium- [Ba(OH2·8H2O] based PCM has the lowest amount of total hydration heat of the cement pastes. The barium-based PCM provides good latent heat properties that help to prevent volume change and microcracks caused by thermal stress in mass concrete.

  17. Adiabatic theorems for generators of contracting evolutions

    Avron, J E; Graf, G M; Grech, P

    2011-01-01

    We develop an adiabatic theory for generators of contracting evolution on Banach spaces. This provides a uniform framework for a host of adiabatic theorems ranging from unitary quantum evolutions through quantum evolutions of open systems generated by Lindbladians all the way to classically driven stochastic systems. In all these cases the adiabatic evolution approximates, to lowest order, the natural notion of parallel transport in the manifold of instantaneous stationary states. The dynamics in the manifold of instantaneous stationary states and transversal to it have distinct characteristics: The former is irreversible and the latter is transient in a sense that we explain. Both the gapped and gapless cases are considered. Some applications are discussed.

  18. Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 2: Experiment

    Ng, Vincent; Chaboyer, Zachary J; Nguyen, Thach; Dawes, Judith M; Withford, Michael J; Greentree, Andrew D; Steel, M J

    2016-01-01

    Using a femtosecond laser writing technique, we fabricate and characterise three-waveguide digital adiabatic passage devices, with the central waveguide digitised into five discrete waveguidelets. Strongly asymmetric behaviour was observed, devices operated with high fidelity in the counter-intuitive scheme while strongly suppressing transmission in the intuitive. The low differential loss of the digital adiabatic passage designs potentially offers additional functionality for adiabatic passage based devices. These devices operate with a high contrast ($>\\!90\\%$) over a 60~nm bandwidth, centered at $\\sim 823$~nm.

  19. Electron-ion and ion-ion potentials for modeling warm dense matter: Applications to laser-heated or shock-compressed Al and Si.

    Dharma-wardana, M W C

    2012-09-01

    The pair interactions Uij(r) determine the thermodynamics and linear transport properties of matter via the pair-distribution functions (PDFs), i.e., gij(r). Great simplicity is achieved if Uij(r) could be directly used to predict material properties via classical simulations, avoiding many-body wave functions. Warm dense matter (WDM) is encountered in quasiequilibria where the electron temperature Te differs from the ion temperature Ti, as in laser-heated or in shock-compressed matter. The electron PDFs gee(r) as perturbed by the ions are used to evaluate fully nonlocal exchange-correlation corrections to the free energy, using hydrogen as an example. Electron-ion potentials for ions with a bound core are discussed with Al and Si as examples, for WDM with Te≠Ti, and valid for times shorter than the electron-ion relaxation time. In some cases the potentials develop attractive regions and then become repulsive and "Yukawa-like" for higher Te. These results clarify the origin of initial phonon hardening and rapid release. Pair potentials for shock-heated WDM show that phonon hardening would not occur in most such systems. Defining meaningful quasiequilibrium static transport coefficients consistent with the dynamic values is addressed. There seems to be no meaningful "static conductivity" obtainable by extrapolating experimental or theoretical σ(ω,Ti,Te) to ω→0, unless Ti→Te as well. Illustrative calculations of quasistatic resistivities R(Ti,Te) of laser-heated as well as shock-heated aluminum and silicon are presented using our pseudopotentials, pair potentials, and classical integral equations. The quasistatic resistivities display clear differences in their temperature evolutions, but are not the strict ω→0 limits of the dynamic values.

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation of Adiabatic Cooling and Nuclear Magnetism

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Viertiö, H. E.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    in experimental studies of nuclear magnetism using adiabatic demagnetization methods. It is found that, although fluctuations reduce the transition temperatures by 40%, the isentropes are reduced by less than 10% relative to those calculated by mean-field theory. The dynamics of the ordering process following...... constant-temperature or constant-magnetic-field quenches into the antiferromagnetic phase is found at late times to obey the classical Allen-Cahn growth law. The qualitative features of isentropic quenches and the nonequilibrium ordering phenomena during controlled heating treatments at constant rate...

  1. Computational program to design heat pumps by compression (ciclo 1.0); Programa computacional para diseno de bombas de calor por compresion (ciclo 1.0)

    De Alba Rosano, Mauricio [CIE, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new computational program has been developed in order to design single stage compression heat pumps. This software, named CICLO 1.0 allows the design of water-water, water-air, air-water and air-air heat pumps, for industrial and residential applications. CICLO 1.0 simulates three types of compressors: reciprocating, screw and scroll. Also has a data base created with REFPROP software which includes eleven refrigerants. The condenser and evaporator simulation includes global conductance (UA) determination, and when one or both are shell and tube's type, this software shows the even number of tube passes by shell. The software determines the best compressor and refrigerant setup taking the COP as a parameter; in order to obtain this, is necessary to know the inlet/outlet conditions of the fluid to be heated, the inlet conditions of the fluid that gives heat, and the electric motor efficiency that drives the compressor. The afforded results by CICLO 1.0 are: operation conditions from compression cycle, that means, pressures and temperatures at the inlet/outlet from every heat pump component are determined: as well as refrigerant mass flux, COP, power required by compressor, volumetric and isentropic efficiencies, heat exchangers global conductance and more data. CICLO 1.0 has been executed with heat pump data that nowadays are operating, and the results from the simulation have been very similar each other with data reported from operational facilities. [Spanish] Se ha desarrollado un nuevo programa computacional para el diseno de bombas de calor por compresion de vapor de una sola etapa. Este programa, CICLO 1.0, permite el diseno de bombas de calor de tipo: agua-agua, agua-aire, aire-agua y aire-aire, que se utilicen para aplicaciones industriales, de servicios y residenciales. CICLO 1.0 simula tres tipos de compresores: reciprocante, de tornillo y scroll: cuenta con una base de datos de refrigerantes creada con el programa REFPROP la cual incluye once

  2. The thermo-valve: a device for expanding compressed liquids and simultaneously gaining heat; Die Thermodrossel: Eine Anlage zur Entspannung komprimierter Fluessigkeiten unter Waermeabgabe

    Keller, J.U. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik; Goebel, M.U. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik

    1997-02-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) of compression refrigeration cycles and heat pumps can be increased by substituting the expansion valve (throttle) by a so-called thermo-valve of heating vortex tube. This is a device in which compressed liquid working fluid coming in at ambient temperature is partly expanded. The saturated steam generated is superheated by liquid working fluid coming in subsequently. Then the steam is sent to a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube to be expanded to evaporator`s pressure level. The hot end flow of gas leaving the vortex tube is cooled down in another heat exchanger and after this either recombined with the cold end flow leaving the tube and the fully expanded liquid stream or directly sent back to the compressor of the cycle. Due to the cooling of the hot end flow, the liquid portion in the liquid-gas mixture of the working fluid entering the evaporator of the cycle is increased, and so is the cooling capacity of the fluid and hence the cycle`s COP. For refrigeration cycles and heat pumps using R 22 or R 134a this increase can be about 5% and 10% respectively. However, if CO{sub 2} is used as working fluid the increase may be about 15% for refrigerators and 25% for room heating only heat pumps. In this paper the basic principles of the thermo-valve will be presented. Also several of its modifications will be discussed. A simple thermodynamic model to calculate the heat released is given. The design of and experiments with a prototype, using R 22 as working fluid will be discussed, the measurements performed so far verifying the figures given above. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entspannung komprimierter fluessiger Arbeitsstoffe der Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik erfolgt normalerweise in einer sog. Drossel isenthalp und stark irreversible, d.h. mit Exergieverlusten. Zur Nutzung der Exergie stehen grundsaetzlich zwei Wege offen, naemlich der Einsatz von Entspannungsmaschinen oder Thermodrosseln. Erstere koennen unter besonderen Umstaenden

  3. Analysis of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields

    Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; Raparia, Deepak; Ritter, John

    2016-11-01

    Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode. The relatively high magnetic compression of the electron beam achieved by this method is important for producing electron beams with high current density. A similar result can be obtained by inducing a strong variation of the magnetic field in a cathode-anode gap. It was observed that creating a dip in the axial magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap of an adiabatic electron gun has an optical effect similar to guns with strong variation of radial electric field. By analyzing the electron trajectories angles and presenting the results in a gun performance map, different geometries of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields are compared with each other and with a more traditional adiabatic electron gun. Some advantages and limitations of guns with non-adiabatic fields are outlined. The tests' results of a non-adiabatic electron gun with modified magnetic field are presented.

  4. Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems.

    Wild, Dominik S; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-10-07

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.

  5. Adiabatic hydrodynamics: The eightfold way to dissipation

    Haehl, Felix M; Rangamani, Mukund

    2015-01-01

    We provide a complete solution to hydrodynamic transport at all orders in the gradient expansion compatible with the second law constraint. The key new ingredient we introduce is the notion of adiabaticity, which allows us to take hydrodynamics off-shell. Adiabatic fluids are such that off-shell dynamics of the fluid compensates for entropy production. The space of adiabatic fluids is quite rich, and admits a decomposition into seven distinct classes. Together with the dissipative class this establishes the eightfold way of hydrodynamic transport. Furthermore, recent results guarantee that dissipative terms beyond leading order in the gradient expansion are agnostic of the second law. While this completes a transport taxonomy, we go on to argue for a new symmetry principle, an Abelian gauge invariance that guarantees adiabaticity in hydrodynamics. We suggest that this symmetry is the macroscopic manifestation of the microscopic KMS invariance. We demonstrate its utility by explicitly constructing effective ac...

  6. Adiabatic quantum gates and Boolean functions

    Andrecut, M; Ali, M K [Department of Physics, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2004-06-25

    We discuss the logical implementation of quantum gates and Boolean functions in the framework of quantum adiabatic method, which uses the language of ground states, spectral gaps and Hamiltonians instead of the standard unitary transformation language. (letter to the editor)

  7. Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems

    Wild, Dominik S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2016-10-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.

  8. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  9. An Experimental Parametric Study of Geometric, Reynolds Number, and Ratio of Specific Heats Effects in Three-Dimensional Sidewall Compression Scramjet Inlets at Mach 6

    Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    1993-01-01

    Since mission profiles for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane include single-stage-to-orbit requirements, real gas effects may become important with respect to engine performance. The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane (where gamma=1.22) and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air (where gamma=1.4). In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment Upon the Compression Strength of Black Pine and Spruce – A Comparison Between Wood Originating From Mature Trees Vs. Thinnings

    Cristina OLARESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freetest boards were cut into standard 20x20x60mmsamples for the compression test. The compressionstrength was measured and the rupture mode incompression was analyzed.Therefore, the sampleswere first dried to oven-dry state, then heat-treated athigh temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2, 3 and 4hours. Sets of 10 samples from each wood species,wood assortment and treating regime were tested.The obtained results were comparativelyanalyzed for the two species (pine vs. spruce and forthe two wood assortments (mature wood vs, thinwood. Then they were also expressed relatively tothe mass loss, considered to be the main indiactor ofthe degradation suffered by wood during the heattreatment.A graph was drawn for each species andassortment in order to establish the optimum treatingregime, considering the correlated influence of theheat treatment conditions upon all three analyzedproperties (mass loss, dimensional stability andcompression strength.The results of the present research are to bevalorized at the manufacturing of solid wood panelsmade from heat-treated lamellas.

  11. NOVEL CONCEPTS FOR THE COMPRESSION OF LARGE VOLUMES OF CARBON DIOXIDE-PHASE III

    Moore, J. Jeffrey; Allison, Timothy; Evans, Neal; Moreland, Brian; Hernandez, Augusto; Day, Meera; Ridens, Brandon

    2014-06-30

    successfully demonstrated good performance and mechanical behavior. In Phase III, a pilot compression plant consisting of a multi-stage centrifugal compressor with cooled diaphragm technology has been designed, constructed, and tested. Comparative testing of adiabatic and cooled tests at equivalent inlet conditions shows that the cooled diaphragms reduce power consumption by 3-8% when the compressor is operated as a back-to-back unit and by up to 9% when operated as a straight-though compressor with no intercooler. The power savings, heat exchanger effectiveness, and temperature drops for the cooled diaphragm were all slightly higher than predicted values but showed the same trends.

  12. Faster computation of adiabatic EMRIs using resonances

    Grossman, Rebecca; Perez-Giz, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the prohibitive computational cost of producing adiabatic extreme mass ratio inspirals, we explain how a judicious use of resonant orbits can dramatically expedite both that calculation and the generation of snapshot gravitational waves from geodesic sources. In the course of our argument, we clarify the resolution of a lingering debate on the appropriate adiabatic averaging prescription in favor of torus averaging over time averaging.

  13. Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithms versus Simulated Annealing

    Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam

    2002-01-01

    We explain why quantum adiabatic evolution and simulated annealing perform similarly in certain examples of searching for the minimum of a cost function of n bits. In these examples each bit is treated symmetrically so the cost function depends only on the Hamming weight of the n bits. We also give two examples, closely related to these, where the similarity breaks down in that the quantum adiabatic algorithm succeeds in polynomial time whereas simulated annealing requires exponential time.

  14. Flux Limiter Lattice Boltzmann Scheme Approach to Compressible Flows with Flexible Specific-Heat Ratio and Prandtl Number

    甘延标; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏

    2011-01-01

    We further develop the lattice Boltzmann (LB) model [Physica A 382 (2007) 502] for compressible flows from two aspects. Firstly, we modify the Bhatnagar Gross Krook (BGK) collision term in the LB equation, which makes the model suitable for simulating flows with different Prandtl numbers. Secondly, the flux limiter finite difference (FLFD) scheme is employed to calculate the convection term of the LB equation, which makes the unphysical oscillations at discontinuities be effectively suppressed and the numerical dissipations be significantly diminished. The proposed model is validated by recovering results of some well-known benchmarks, including (i) The thermal Couette flow; (ii) One- and two-dlmenslonal FLiemann problems. Good agreements are obtained between LB results and the exact ones or previously reported solutions. The flexibility, together with the high accuracy of the new model, endows the proposed model considerable potential for tracking some long-standing problems and for investigating nonlinear nonequilibrium complex systems.

  15. Adiabatic nanofocusing: Spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    Giugni, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  16. Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution

    Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Wu, Biao

    2014-12-01

    Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau-Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory.

  17. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch

    2011-05-27

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  18. On criterion of modal adiabaticity

    WANG; Ning(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Pierce, A. D., Extension of the method of normal modes to sound propagation in an almost-stratified medium, J. Acoust.Soc. Am., 1965, 37: 19-27.[2]Wang, D. Z. , Shang, E. C., Underwater Acoustics (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1981.[3]Zhang Renhe, Li Fenghua, Beam-displacement rya-mode theory of sound propagation in shallow water, Science in China, Ser.A, 1999, 42(7): 739-749.[4]Zhou Jixun, Zhang Xuezhen, Rogers P., Resonance interaction of sound waves with internal solitons in coastal zone, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1991, 90: 2042-2054.[5]Shang, E. C., Wang, Y. Y., The impact of mesoscale oceanic structure on global-scale acoustic propagation, in Theoretical and Computational Acoustics (ed. Ding Lee et al. ), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. , 1996, 409-431.[6]Milder, D. M., Ray and wave invariants for SOFAR channel propagation, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1969, 46: 1259-1263.[7]Nag l, A., Milder, D. M., Adiabatic mode theory of underwater sound propagation in a range-dependent environment, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1978, 63: 739-749.[8]Brekhovskikh, L. M., Waves in Layered Media, 2nd ed., New York: Academic Press Inc., 1973.[9]Brekhovskikh, L. M., Lysanov, Yu., Fundamental of Ocean Acoustics, Ch. 7, Sec. 7.2, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982.[10]Evans, R. B., A coupled mode solution for acoustic propagation in a wave-guide with stepwise depth variations of a penerable bottom, J. Acoust. Soc. A.m., 1983, 74: 188-195.[11]Jensen, F. B., Kuperman, W. A., Porter, M. B. et al., Computational Ocean Acoustics, New York: Springer-Verlag,1992.[12]Wang Ning, Inverse scattering problem for the coupled second order ODE, Journal of The Physical Society of Japan, 1995, 64(12): 4907-4915.

  19. Decoupled scheme based on the Hermite expansion to construct lattice Boltzmann models for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary specific heat ratio

    Hu, Kainan; Zhang, Hongwu; Geng, Shaojuan

    2016-10-01

    A decoupled scheme based on the Hermite expansion to construct lattice Boltzmann models for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary specific heat ratio is proposed. The local equilibrium distribution function including the rotational velocity of particle is decoupled into two parts, i.e., the local equilibrium distribution function of the translational velocity of particle and that of the rotational velocity of particle. From these two local equilibrium functions, two lattice Boltzmann models are derived via the Hermite expansion, namely one is in relation to the translational velocity and the other is connected with the rotational velocity. Accordingly, the distribution function is also decoupled. After this, the evolution equation is decoupled into the evolution equation of the translational velocity and that of the rotational velocity. The two evolution equations evolve separately. The lattice Boltzmann models used in the scheme proposed by this work are constructed via the Hermite expansion, so it is easy to construct new schemes of higher-order accuracy. To validate the proposed scheme, a one-dimensional shock tube simulation is performed. The numerical results agree with the analytical solutions very well.

  20. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Adiabatic optimization versus diffusion Monte Carlo methods

    Jarret, Michael; Jordan, Stephen P.; Lackey, Brad

    2016-10-01

    Most experimental and theoretical studies of adiabatic optimization use stoquastic Hamiltonians, whose ground states are expressible using only real nonnegative amplitudes. This raises a question as to whether classical Monte Carlo methods can simulate stoquastic adiabatic algorithms with polynomial overhead. Here we analyze diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. We argue that, based on differences between L1 and L2 normalized states, these algorithms suffer from certain obstructions preventing them from efficiently simulating stoquastic adiabatic evolution in generality. In practice however, we obtain good performance by introducing a method that we call Substochastic Monte Carlo. In fact, our simulations are good classical optimization algorithms in their own right, competitive with the best previously known heuristic solvers for MAX-k -SAT at k =2 ,3 ,4 .

  2. Fast forward to the classical adiabatic invariant

    Jarzynski, Christopher; Patra, Ayoti; Subaşı, Yiğit

    2016-01-01

    We show how the classical action, an adiabatic invariant, can be preserved under non-adiabatic conditions. Specifically, for a time-dependent Hamiltonian $H = p^2/2m + U(q,t)$ in one degree of freedom, and for an arbitrary choice of action $I_0$, we construct a "fast-forward" potential energy function $V_{\\rm FF}(q,t)$ that, when added to $H$, guides all trajectories with initial action $I_0$ to end with the same value of action. We use this result to construct a local dynamical invariant $J(q,p,t)$ whose value remains constant along these trajectories. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations. Finally, we sketch how our classical results may be used to design approximate quantum shortcuts to adiabaticity.

  3. Rapid adiabatic passage without level crossing

    Rangelov, A A; Shore, B W

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for achieving complete population transfer in a two-state quantum system via adiabatic time evolution in which, contrary to conventional rapid adiabatic passage produced by chirped pulses, there occurs no crossing of diabatic energy curves: there is no sign change of the detuning. Instead, we use structured pulses, in which, in addition to satisfying conditions for adiabatic evolution, there occurs a sign change of the Rabi frequency when the detuning is zero. We present simulations that offer simple geometrical interpretation of the two-dimensional motion of the Bloch vector for this system, illustrating how both complete population inversion and complete population return occur for different choices of structured pulses.

  4. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  5. "Compressed" Compressed Sensing

    Reeves, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The field of compressed sensing has shown that a sparse but otherwise arbitrary vector can be recovered exactly from a small number of randomly constructed linear projections (or samples). The question addressed in this paper is whether an even smaller number of samples is sufficient when there exists prior knowledge about the distribution of the unknown vector, or when only partial recovery is needed. An information-theoretic lower bound with connections to free probability theory and an upper bound corresponding to a computationally simple thresholding estimator are derived. It is shown that in certain cases (e.g. discrete valued vectors or large distortions) the number of samples can be decreased. Interestingly though, it is also shown that in many cases no reduction is possible.

  6. Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm

    Hen, Itay

    2013-01-01

    The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.

  7. On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is useful in estimating the expansion law of the universe and also the particle production rate due to the oscillation of the Hubble parameter.

  8. Adiabatic Quantum Computation: Coherent Control Back Action

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Though attractive from scalability aspects, optical approaches to quantum computing are highly prone to decoherence and rapid population loss due to nonradiative processes such as vibrational redistribution. We show that such effects can be reduced by adiabatic coherent control, in which quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways is used to cancel coupling to the unwanted, non-radiative channels. We focus on experimentally demonstrated adiabatic controlled population transfer experiments wherein the details on the coherence aspects are yet to be explored theoretically but are important for quantum computation. Such quantum computing schemes also form a back-action connection to coherent control developments. PMID:23788822

  9. Markovian quantum master equation beyond adiabatic regime

    Yamaguchi, Makoto; Yuge, Tatsuro; Ogawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    By introducing a temporal change time scale τA(t ) for the time-dependent system Hamiltonian, a general formulation of the Markovian quantum master equation is given to go well beyond the adiabatic regime. In appropriate situations, the framework is well justified even if τA(t ) is faster than the decay time scale of the bath correlation function. An application to the dissipative Landau-Zener model demonstrates this general result. The findings are applicable to a wide range of fields, providing a basis for quantum control beyond the adiabatic regime.

  10. Adiabatic Improved Efficient Charge Recovery Logic for Low Power CMOS Logic

    Prof. Mukesh Tiwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Power dissipation becoming a limiting factor in VLSI circuits and systems. Due to relatively high complexity of VLSI systems used in various applications, the power dissipation in CMOS inverter, arises from its switching activity, which is mainly influenced by the supply voltage and effective capacitance. The low-power requirements of present electronic systems have challenged the scientific research towards the study of technological, architectural and circuital solutions that allow a reduction of the energy dissipated by an electronic circuit. One of the main causes of energy dissipation in CMOS circuits is due to the charging and discharging of the node capacitances of the circuits, present both as a load and as parasitic. Such part of the total power dissipated by a circuit is called dynamic power. In order to reduce the dynamic power, an alternative approach to the traditional techniques of power consumption reduction, named adiabatic switching technique is use. Adiabatic switching is an approach to low-power digital circuits that differs fundamentally from other practical low-power techniques. The term adiabatic comes from thermodynamics, used to describe a process in which there is no exchange of heat with the environment. When adiabatic switching is used, the signal energies stored on circuit capacitances may be recycled instead of dissipated as heat. The adiabatic switching technique can achieve very low power dissipation, but at the expense of circuit complexity. Adiabatic logic offers a way to reuse the energy stored in the load capacitors rather than the traditional way of discharging the load capacitors to the ground and wasting this energy. Power reduction is achieved by recovering the energy in the recover phase of the supply clock.

  11. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  12. Linear analysis on the onset of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids: implications for the mantle convection of super-Earths

    Kameyama, Masanori; Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Ogawa, Masaki

    2015-02-01

    A series of linear analysis was performed on the onset of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids, in order to deepen the fundamental insights into the mantle convection of massive super-Earths in the presence of strong adiabatic compression. We consider the temporal evolution (growth or decay) of an infinitesimal perturbation superimposed to a highly compressible fluid which is in a hydrostatic (motionless) and conductive state in a basally heated horizontal layer. As a model of pressure-dependence in material properties, we employed an exponential decrease in thermal expansivity α and exponential increase in (reference) density ρ with depth. The linearized equations for conservation of mass, momentum and internal (thermal) energy are numerically solved for the critical Rayleigh number as well as the vertical profiles of eigenfunctions for infinitesimal perturbations. The above calculations are repeatedly carried out by systematically varying (i) the dissipation number (Di), (ii) the temperature at the top surface and (iii) the magnitude of pressure-dependence in α and ρ. Our analysis demonstrated that the onset of thermal convection is strongly affected by the adiabatic compression, in response to the changes in the static stability of thermal stratification in the fluid layer. For sufficiently large Di where a thick sublayer of stable stratification develops in the layer, for example, the critical Rayleigh number explosively increases with Di, together with drastic decreases in the length scales of perturbations both in vertical and horizontal directions. In particular, for very large Di, a thick `stratosphere' occurs in the fluid layer where the vertical motion is significantly suppressed, resulting in a shrink of the incipient convection in a thin sublayer of unstable thermal stratification. In addition, when Di exceeds a threshold value above which a thermal stratification becomes stable in the entire layer, no perturbation is allowed to grow

  13. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  14. Semi adiabatic theory of seasonal Markov processes

    Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dynamics of many natural and technical systems are essentially influenced by a periodic forcing. Analytic solutions of the equations of motion for periodically driven systems are generally not known. Simulations, numerical solutions or in some limiting cases approximate analytic solutions represent the known approaches to study the dynamics of such systems. Besides the regime of weak periodic forces where linear response theory works, the limit of a slow driving force can often be treated analytically using an adiabatic approximation. For this approximation to hold all intrinsic processes must be fast on the time-scale of a period of the external driving force. We developed a perturbation theory for periodically driven Markovian systems that covers the adiabatic regime but also works if the system has a single slow mode that may even be slower than the driving force. We call it the semi adiabatic approximation. Some results of this approximation for a system exhibiting stochastic resonance which usually takes place within the semi adiabatic regime are indicated. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs.

  15. Quantum Pumping and Adiabatic Transport in Nanostructures

    Wakker, G.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of a theoretical exploration of quantum transport phenomena and quantum dynamics in nanostructures. Specifically, we investigate adiabatic quantum pumping of charge in several novel types of nanostructures involving open quantum dots or graphene. For a bilayer of graphene we fin

  16. Improving the positive feedback adiabatic logic familiy

    J. Fischer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive Feedback Adiabatic Logic (PFAL shows the lowest energy dissipation among adiabatic logic families based on cross-coupled transistors, due to the reduction of both adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses. The dissipation primarily depends on the resistance of the charging path, which consists of a single p-channel MOSFET during the recovery phase. In this paper, a new logic family called Improved PFAL (IPFAL is proposed, where all n- and pchannel devices are swapped so that the charge can be recovered through an n-channel MOSFET. This allows to decrease the resistance of the charging path up to a factor of 2, and it enables a significant reduction of the energy dissipation. Simulations based on a 0.13µm CMOS process confirm the improvements in terms of power consumption over a large frequency range. However, the same simple design rule, which enables in PFAL an additional reduction of the dissipation by optimal transistor sizing, does not apply to IPFAL. Therefore, the influence of several sources of dissipation for a generic IPFAL gate is illustrated and discussed, in order to lower the power consumption and achieve better performance.

  17. Adiabatic limits,vanishing theorems and the noncommutative residue

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we compute the adiabatic limit of the scalar curvature and prove several vanishing theorems by taking adiabatic limits.As an application,we give a Kastler-Kalau-Walze type theorem for foliations.

  18. Adiabatic and Non-adiabatic quenches in a Spin-1 Bose Einstein Condensate

    Boguslawski, Matthew; Hebbe Madhusudhana, Bharath; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce; Barrios, Maryrose; Hoang, Thai; Chapman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is observed in a wide range of phenomena. We have studied the dynamics of a spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic quenches through a QPT. At the quantum critical point (QCP), finite size effects lead to a non-zero gap, which makes an adiabatic quench possible through the QPT. We experimentally demonstrate such a quench, which is forbidden at the mean field level. For faster quenches through the QCP, the vanishing energy gap causes the reaction timescale of the system to diverge, preventing the system from adiabatically following the ground state. We measure the temporal evolution of the spin populations for different quench speeds and determine the exponents characterizing the scaling of the onset of excitations, which are in good agreement with the predictions of Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  19. Production of AA2124/MoSi2/25p composites and effect of heat treatment on their microstructure, hardness and compression properties

    Piyadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AA2124/25vol%MoSi2 composites were processed by two powder metallurgy routes: high energy ball milling of the reinforcement and alloy powder (B composite and wet blending with cyclohexane (W composite, both followed by extrusion to achieve full consolidation. As-extruded and heat treated composite bars were studied microstructurally and mechanically (hardness and compression tests under quasistatic loading. Microstructure and fracture profiles were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the reaction products formed in the matrix were identified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results show that for both composites, the hardness of the specimens in solution and aged condition was higher than in the as-extruded condition. The hardness of the B composite was higher than that of the W composite whereas the age-hardenability of the B composite was significantly lower than that of the W composite. After heat treatments, small diffusion reaction phases appeared at the interface between matrix and reinforcements. Compressive yield strength and the ultimate strength of both composites improved considerably after the artificial ageing. The composite fracture surfaces exhibited microscopically a ductile appearance that consisted of dimples in the matrix and a fragile fracture of the MoSi2 particulates.En este trabajo se procesaron materiales compuestos AA2124/25vol% MoSi2 mediante dos rutas pulvimetalúrgicas: mezcla de refuerzo y matriz mediante molino de bolas de alta energía (compuesto B y mezcla húmeda con ciclohexano (compuesto W. Ambos polvos compuestos se consolidaron por extrusión. Los materiales recién extruidos y después de tratados térmicamente se estudiaron desde el punto de vista microestructural y mecánico (dureza y compresión bajo carga cuasiestática. Las microestructuras y los perfiles de fractura se observaron por microscopía electrónica de barrido y los productos de reacci

  20. Fixed-point adiabatic quantum search

    Dalzell, Alexander M.; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-01-01

    Fixed-point quantum search algorithms succeed at finding one of M target items among N total items even when the run time of the algorithm is longer than necessary. While the famous Grover's algorithm can search quadratically faster than a classical computer, it lacks the fixed-point property—the fraction of target items must be known precisely to know when to terminate the algorithm. Recently, Yoder, Low, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 210501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.210501] gave an optimal gate-model search algorithm with the fixed-point property. Previously, it had been discovered by Roland and Cerf [Phys. Rev. A 65, 042308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.042308] that an adiabatic quantum algorithm, operating by continuously varying a Hamiltonian, can reproduce the quadratic speedup of gate-model Grover search. We ask, can an adiabatic algorithm also reproduce the fixed-point property? We show that the answer depends on what interpolation schedule is used, so as in the gate model, there are both fixed-point and non-fixed-point versions of adiabatic search, only some of which attain the quadratic quantum speedup. Guided by geometric intuition on the Bloch sphere, we rigorously justify our claims with an explicit upper bound on the error in the adiabatic approximation. We also show that the fixed-point adiabatic search algorithm can be simulated in the gate model with neither loss of the quadratic Grover speedup nor of the fixed-point property. Finally, we discuss natural uses of fixed-point algorithms such as preparation of a relatively prime state and oblivious amplitude amplification.

  1. The Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of a Mn- and Cr-Containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy During Hot Compression and Subsequent Heat Treatment

    Xu, Yi; Nagaumi, Hiromi; Han, Yi; Zhang, Gongwang; Zhai, Tongguang

    2017-01-01

    Hot compression tests on a newly developed Mn- and Cr-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy were carried out at temperatures ranging from 623 K (350 °C) to 823 K (550 °C) and strain rates between 0.001 and 1 s-1 after casting and subsequent homogenization heat treatment. The true stress-true strain curves of the alloy exhibited a peak stress at a small plastic strain followed by dynamic flow softening. Using the constitutive equation containing the strain rate, peak stress, and temperature, the activation energy for hot deformation in the alloy was determined to be 249.67 kJ/mol, much higher than that (143.4 kJ/mol) for self-diffusion in pure Al. Scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments revealed that Mn- and Cr-containing α-dispersoids formed during homogenization showed a strong pinning effect on dislocations and grain boundaries, which was responsible for the increase in activation energy for hot deformation in the alloy. A threshold stress was consequently introduced and determined in the constitutive equation to count for the dispersoid hardening effect on hot deformation in the alloy. Electron back-scatter diffraction measurements revealed that the softening occurred in the alloy was mainly due to dynamic recovery taking place at relatively large Z values, and that it was dominated by continuous dynamic recrystallization at relatively low Z. In subsequent annealing after hot deformation at large Z, abnormal grain growth could occur, as a result of the critical strain-annealing effect. After upsetting at higher temperatures, the alloy showed superior tensile properties due to a high non-recrystallized area fraction.

  2. The Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of a Mn- and Cr-Containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy During Hot Compression and Subsequent Heat Treatment

    Xu, Yi; Nagaumi, Hiromi; Han, Yi; Zhang, Gongwang; Zhai, Tongguang

    2017-03-01

    Hot compression tests on a newly developed Mn- and Cr-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy were carried out at temperatures ranging from 623 K (350 °C) to 823 K (550 °C) and strain rates between 0.001 and 1 s-1 after casting and subsequent homogenization heat treatment. The true stress-true strain curves of the alloy exhibited a peak stress at a small plastic strain followed by dynamic flow softening. Using the constitutive equation containing the strain rate, peak stress, and temperature, the activation energy for hot deformation in the alloy was determined to be 249.67 kJ/mol, much higher than that (143.4 kJ/mol) for self-diffusion in pure Al. Scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments revealed that Mn- and Cr-containing α-dispersoids formed during homogenization showed a strong pinning effect on dislocations and grain boundaries, which was responsible for the increase in activation energy for hot deformation in the alloy. A threshold stress was consequently introduced and determined in the constitutive equation to count for the dispersoid hardening effect on hot deformation in the alloy. Electron back-scatter diffraction measurements revealed that the softening occurred in the alloy was mainly due to dynamic recovery taking place at relatively large Z values, and that it was dominated by continuous dynamic recrystallization at relatively low Z. In subsequent annealing after hot deformation at large Z, abnormal grain growth could occur, as a result of the critical strain-annealing effect. After upsetting at higher temperatures, the alloy showed superior tensile properties due to a high non-recrystallized area fraction.

  3. Similarity Solution for a Cylindrical Shock Wave in a Self-gravitating, Rotating Axisymmetric Dusty Gas with Heat Conduction and Radiation Heat Flux

    Ruchi Bajargaan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarity solutions are obtained for unsteady adiabatic propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a self gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux in which variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. Azimuthal fluid velocity and axial fluid velocity in the ambient medium are taken to be variable. The equilibrium flow conditions are assumed to be maintained. The initial density is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is taken to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and the heat transfer parameters on the shock strength and the flow variables such as radial velocity, azimuthal velocity, axial velocity, density, pressure, total heat flux, mass behind the shock front, azimuthal vorticity vector, axial vorticity vector, isothermal speed of sound and adiabatic compressibility are studied. It is found that the presence of gravitation effect in the medium modify the radiation and conduction effect on the flow variables.

  4. Hojman Exact Invariants and Adiabatic Invariants of Hamilton System

    2007-01-01

    The perturbation to Lie symmetry and adiabatic invariants are studied. Based on the concept of higherorder adiabatic invariants of mechanical systems with action of a small perturbation, the perturbation to Lie symmetry is studied, and Hojman adiabatic invariants of Hamilton system are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  5. Thermodynamic efficiency of pumped heat electricity storage.

    Thess, André

    2013-09-13

    Pumped heat electricity storage (PHES) has been recently suggested as a potential solution to the large-scale energy storage problem. PHES requires neither underground caverns as compressed air energy storage (CAES) nor kilometer-sized water reservoirs like pumped hydrostorage and can therefore be constructed anywhere in the world. However, since no large PHES system exists yet, and theoretical predictions are scarce, the efficiency of such systems is unknown. Here we formulate a simple thermodynamic model that predicts the efficiency of PHES as a function of the temperature of the thermal energy storage at maximum output power. The resulting equation is free of adjustable parameters and nearly as simple as the well-known Carnot formula. Our theory predicts that for storage temperatures above 400 °C PHES has a higher efficiency than existing CAES and that PHES can even compete with the efficiencies predicted for advanced-adiabatic CAES.

  6. 3D-CFD Design Study And Optimization Of A Centrifugal Turbo Compressor For The Operation In A Hybrid Sorption/ Compression Heat Pump Cycle

    Eckert, Thomas; Dostal, Leo; Helm, Martin; Schweigler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In various applications the use of sorption chillers and heat pumps is limited by the available temperature level of the driving heat source or the heat sink for export of reject heat. These constraints can be overcome by integrating an efficient high-speed transonic turbo-compressor into the internal cycle of a thermally driven water/lithium bromide absorption heat pump. The operation in a hybrid heat pump with the refrigerant water implies specific challenges for the design of the compresso...

  7. Properties of a two stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    Fukuda, H.; Ueda, S.; Arai, R.; Li, J.; Saito, A. T.; Nakagome, H.; Numazawa, T.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, many space missions using cryogenic temperatures are being planned. In particular, high resolution sensors such as Transition Edge Sensors need very low temperatures, below 100 mK. It is well known that the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is one of most useful tools for producing ultra-low temperatures in space because it is gravity independent. We studied a continuous ADR system consisting of 4 stages and demonstrated it could provide continuous temperatures around 100 mK. However, there was some heat leakage from the power leads which resulted in reduced cooling power. Our efforts to upgrade our ADR system are presented. We show the effect of using the HTS power leads and discuss a cascaded Carnot cycle consisting of 2 ADR units.

  8. Research on High-Specific-Heat Dielectrics.

    1987-05-11

    spinels have been the magnetocaloric measurements at T<TN/ 2 . Both spinels display adiabatic-demagnetization cooling and adiabatic-magnetization heating ...resulting in anomolously large specific heats and magnetocaloric effects. Furthermore, distortions of the lattice, which remove the frustration, can...A w - 0 U -$ 0 Lqn C >~ CL ’-4D -~CD L4.H* mo IV. SPECIFIC HEAT , MAGNETOCALORIC , AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANT MEASUREMENTS AT LOW TEMPERATURES This Section

  9. Quantum-Classical Correspondence of Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    We formulate the theory of shortcuts to adiabaticity in classical mechanics. For a reference Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is constructed from the dispersionless Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy. Then the adiabatic theorem holds exactly for an arbitrary choice of time-dependent parameters. We use the Hamilton-Jacobi theory to define the generalized action. The action is independent of the history of the parameters and is directly related to the adiabatic invariant. The dispersionless KdV hierarchy is obtained from the classical limit of the KdV hierarchy for the quantum shortcuts to adiabaticity. This correspondence suggests some relation between the quantum and classical adiabatic theorems.

  10. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  11. Comment on ``Adiabatic theory for the bipolaron''

    Smondyrev, M. A.; Devreese, J. T.

    1996-05-01

    Comments are given on the application of the Bogoliubov-Tyablikov approach to the bipolaron problem in a recent paper by Lakhno [Phys. Rev. B 51, 3512 (1995)]. This author believes that his model (1) is the translation-invariant adiabatic theory of bipolarons and (2) gives asymptotically exact solutions in the adiabatic limit while the other approaches are considered as either phenomenological or variational in nature. Numerical results by Lakhno are in contradiction with all other papers published on the subject because his model leads to much lower energies. Thus, the author concludes that bipolarons ``are more stable than was considered before.'' We prove that both the analytical and the numerical results presented by Lakhno are wrong.

  12. Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2012-01-06

    The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.

  13. Ehrenfest's adiabatic hypothesis in Bohr's quantum theory

    Pérez, Enric

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that Paul Ehrenfest formulated and applied his adiabatic hypothesis in the early 1910s. Niels Bohr, in his first attempt to construct a quantum theory in 1916, used it for fundamental purposes in a paper which eventually did not reach the press. He decided not to publish it after having received the new results by Sommerfeld in Munich. Two years later, Bohr published "On the quantum theory of line-spectra." There, the adiabatic hypothesis played an important role, although it appeared with another name: the principle of mechanical transformability. In the subsequent variations of his theory, Bohr never suppressed this principle completely. We discuss the role of Ehrenfest's principle in the works of Bohr, paying special attention to its relation to the correspondence principle. We will also consider how Ehrenfest faced Bohr's uses of his more celebrated contribution to quantum theory, as well as his own participation in the spreading of Bohr's ideas.

  14. Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry.

    Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-10-13

    We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.

  15. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  16. Limitations of some simple adiabatic quantum algorithms

    Ioannou, L M; Ioannou, Lawrence M.; Mosca, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Let $H(t)=(1-t/T)H_0 + (t/T)H_1$, $t\\in [0,T]$, be the Hamiltonian governing an adiabatic quantum algorithm, where $H_0$ is diagonal in the Hadamard basis and $H_1$ is diagonal in the computational basis. We prove that $H_0$ and $H_1$ must each have at least two large mutually-orthogonal eigenspaces if the algorithm's running time is to be subexponential in the number of qubits. We also reproduce the optimality proof of Farhi and Gutmann's search algorithm in the context of this adiabatic scheme; because we only consider initial Hamiltonians that are diagonal in the Hadamard basis, our result is slightly stronger than the original.

  17. Finding cliques by quantum adiabatic evolution

    Childs, A M; Goldstone, J; Gutmann, S; Childs, Andrew M.; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam

    2002-01-01

    Quantum adiabatic evolution provides a general technique for the solution of combinatorial search problems on quantum computers. We present the results of a numerical study of a particular application of quantum adiabatic evolution, the problem of finding the largest clique in a random graph. An n-vertex random graph has each edge included with probability 1/2, and a clique is a completely connected subgraph. There is no known classical algorithm that finds the largest clique in a random graph with high probability and runs in a time polynomial in n. For the small graphs we are able to investigate (n <= 18), the quantum algorithm appears to require only a quadratic run time.

  18. How AGN Jets Heat the Intracluster Medium—Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-10-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to prevent catastrophic cooling in galaxy clusters. However, how the feedback energy is transformed into heat, and how the AGN jets heat the intracluster medium (ICM) isotropically, still remain elusive. In this work, we gain insights into the relative importance of different heating mechanisms using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including cold gas accretion and momentum-driven jet feedback, which are the most successful models to date in terms of reproducing the properties of cool cores. We find that there is net heating within two “jet cones” (within ∼30° from the axis of jet precession) where the ICM gains entropy by shock heating and mixing with the hot thermal gas within bubbles. Outside the jet cones, the ambient gas is heated by weak shocks, but not enough to overcome radiative cooling, therefore, forming a “reduced” cooling flow. Consequently, the cluster core is in a process of “gentle circulation” over billions of years. Within the jet cones, there is significant adiabatic cooling as the gas is uplifted by buoyantly rising bubbles; outside the cones, energy is supplied by the inflow of already-heated gas from the jet cones as well as adiabatic compression as the gas moves toward the center. In other words, the fluid dynamics self-adjusts such that it compensates and transports the heat provided by the AGN, and hence no fine-tuning of the heating profile of any process is necessary. Throughout the cluster evolution, turbulent energy is only at the percent level compared to gas thermal energy, and thus turbulent heating is not the main source of heating in our simulation.

  19. Magnetic compression of an FRC plasma

    Okada, S.; Kitano, K.; Matsumoto, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (JP)] [and others

    1999-04-01

    Confinement of a plasma with field-reversed configuration (FRC) is predicted to be improved if it is compressed only axially, keeping the magnetic flux between the separatrix and the confining chamber (flux conserver) wall unchanged, while allowing the plasma to expand radially. The prediction is based on an empirical scaling law of FRC confinement and on the assumption that the compression is done adiabatically. The apparatus for this axial compression was developed and the axial compression experiment was actually carried out by decreasing the distance of the mirror fields between which the FRC plasma is confined by 30% and the plasma life time of about 500 {mu}s was increased by about 50 {mu}s. (author)

  20. Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation

    Verhagen, Ewold; Spasenović, Marko; Polman, Albert; Kuipers, L. (Kobus)

    2009-05-01

    We show with both experiment and calculation that highly confined surface plasmon polaritons can be efficiently excited on metallic nanowires through the process of mode transformation. One specific mode in a metallic waveguide is identified that adiabatically transforms to the confined nanowire mode as the waveguide width is reduced. Phase- and polarization-sensitive near-field investigation reveals the characteristic antisymmetric polarization nature of the mode and explains the coupling mechanism.

  1. Adiabatic calorimetric decomposition studies of 50 wt.% hydroxylamine/water.

    Cisneros, L O; Rogers, W J; Mannan, M S

    2001-03-19

    Calorimetric data can provide a basis for determining potential hazards in reactions, storage, and transportation of process chemicals. This work provides calorimetric data for the thermal decomposition behavior in air of 50wt.% hydroxylamine/water (HA), both with and without added stabilizers, which was measured in closed cells with an automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). Among the data provided are onset temperatures, reaction order, activation energies, pressures of noncondensable products, thermal stability at 100 degrees C, and the effect of HA storage time. Discussed also are the catalytic effects of carbon steel, stainless steel, stainless steel with silica coating, inconel, titanium, and titanium with silica coating on the reaction self-heat rates and onset temperatures. In borosilicate glass cells, HA was relatively stable at temperatures up to 133 degrees C, where the HA decomposition self-heat rate reached 0.05 degrees C/min. The added stabilizers appeared to reduce HA decomposition rates in glass cells and at ambient temperatures. The tested metals and metal surfaces coated with silica acted as catalysts to lower the onset temperatures and increase the self-heat rates.

  2. Progress in the Development of a Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; King, Todd; Tuttle, James; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the development of a continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (CADR). Continuous operation avoids the constraints of long hold times and short recycle times that lead to the generally large mass of single-shot ADRs, allowing us to achieve an order of magnitude larger cooling power per unit mass. Our current design goal is 10 micro W of cooling at 50 mK using a 6-10 K heat sink. The estimated mass is less than 10 kg, including magnetic shielding of each stage. The relatively high heat rejection capability allows it to operate with a mechanical cryocooler as part of a cryogen-free, low temperature cooling system. This has the advantages of long mission life and reduced complexity and cost. We have assembled a three-stage CADR and have demonstrated continuous cooling using a superfluid helium bath as the heat sink. The temperature stability is 8 micro K rms or better over the entire cycle, and the cooling power is 2.5 micro W at 60 mK rising to 10 micro W at 100 mK.

  3. First results of radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium implosions with a 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive at the National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-08-15

    Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium plastic capsule implosions were carried out using a new, 3-shock “adiabat-shaped” drive on the National Ignition Facility. The purpose of adiabat shaping is to use a stronger first shock, reducing hydrodynamic instability growth in the ablator. The shock can decay before reaching the deuterium-tritium fuel leaving it on a low adiabat and allowing higher fuel compression. The fuel areal density was improved by ∼25% with this new drive compared to similar “high-foot” implosions, while neutron yield was improved by more than 4 times, compared to “low-foot” implosions driven at the same compression and implosion velocity.

  4. Heat pumps

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  5. Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag

    S. Shaaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.

  6. Calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    王学滨

    2004-01-01

    A method for calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band is proposed in terms of gradient-dependent plasticity where the characteristic length describes the interactions and interplaying among microstructures. First, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution in adiabatic shear band is obtained based on gradient-dependent plasticity. Then, the plastic work distribution is derived according to the current flow shear stress and the obtained increment of plastic shear strain distribution. In the light of the well-known assumption that 90% of plastic work is converted into the heat resulting in increase in temperature in adiabatic shear band, the increment of the temperature distribution is presented. Next, the average temperature increment in the shear band is calculated to compute the change in flow shear stress due to the thermal softening effect. After the actual flow shear stress considering the thermal softening effect is obtained according to the Johnson-Cook constitutive relation, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution, the plastic work and the temperature in the next time step are recalculated until the total time is consumed. Summing the temperature distribution leads to rise in the total temperature distribution. The present calculated maximum temperature in adiabatic shear band in titanium agrees with the experimental observations. Moreover, the temperature profiles for different flow shear stresses are qualitatively consistent with experimental and numerical results. Effects of some related parameters on the temperature distribution are also predicted.

  7. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Salem M. Osta-Omar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  8. Non-adiabatic effects in near-adiabatic mixed-field orientation and alignment

    Maan, Anjali; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Prasad, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the impact of a pair of moderate electric fields tilted an angle with respect to one another on a molecule. As a prototype, we consider a molecule with large rotational constant (with corresponding small rotational period) and moderate dipole moment. Within rigid-rotor approximation, the time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We have analysed that lower rotational states are significantly influenced by variation in pulse durations, the tilt angle between the fields and also on the electric field strengths. We also suggest a control scheme of how the rotational dynamics, orientation and alignment of a molecule can be enhanced by a combination of near-adiabatic pulses in comparision to non-adiabatic or adiabatic pulses.

  9. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Adiabatic Processes of an Ideal Gas: Physics Teacher Candidates' Opinions

    Gonen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 46 teacher candidates taking the course of "Thermodynamics" in the Department of Physics Teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine the difficulties that teacher candidates experienced in explaining the heat, work and internal energy relationships in the processes of adiabatic compression…

  10. Adiabatic Regularization for Gauge Field and the Conformal Anomaly

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We construct and provide the adiabatic regularization method for a $U(1)$ gauge field in a conformally flat spacetime by quantizing in the canonical formalism the gauge fixed $U(1)$ theory with mass terms for the gauge fields and the ghost fields. We show that the adiabatic expansion for the mode functions and the adiabatic vacuum can be defined in a similar way using WKB-type solutions as the scalar fields. As an application of the adiabatic method, we compute the trace of the energy momentum tensor and reproduces the known result for the conformal anomaly obtained by the other regularization methods. The availability of the adiabatic expansion scheme for gauge field allows one to study the renormalization of the de-Sitter space maximal superconformal Yang-Mills theory using the adiabatic regularization method.

  11. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  12. Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise

    Noel, T; Kurz, N; Shu, G; Wright, J; Blinov, B B

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) in a trapped barium ion system. RAP is implemented on the transition from the $6S_{1/2}$ ground state to the metastable $5D_{5/2}$ level by applying a laser at 1.76 $\\mu$m. We focus on the interplay of laser frequency noise and laser power in shaping the effectiveness of RAP, which is commonly assumed to be a robust tool for high efficiency population transfer. However, we note that reaching high state transfer fidelity requires a combination of small laser linewidth and large Rabi frequency.

  13. Shortcuts to adiabaticity for quantum annealing

    Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2017-01-01

    We study the Ising Hamiltonian with a transverse field term to simulate the quantum annealing. Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we design the time dependence of the Hamiltonian. The dynamical invariant is obtained by the mean-field ansatz, and the Hamiltonian is designed by the inverse engineering. We show that the time dependence of physical quantities such as the magnetization is independent of the speed of the Hamiltonian variation in the infinite-range model. We also show that rotating transverse magnetic fields are useful to achieve the ideal time evolution.

  14. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.

    2010-02-01

    In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  15. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    Linde, A; Vikman, A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper arXiv:0910.2230, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in arXiv:0910.2230 are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  16. Adiabatic Wave-Particle Interaction Revisited

    Dewar, R L; 10.1585/pfr.4.001

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we calculate and visualize the dynamics of an ensemble of electrons trapping in an electrostatic wave of slowly increasing amplitude, illustrating that, despite disordering of particles in angle during the trapping transition as they pass close to X-points, there is still an adiabatic invariant for the great majority of particles that allows the long-time distribution function to be predicted. Possible application of this approach to recent work on the nonlinear frequency shift of a driven wave is briefly discussed.

  17. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking

    Garnerone, Silvano; Lidar, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm to evaluate the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this quantum algorithm outputs any component of the PageRank vector-and thus the ranking of the corresponding webpage-in a time which scales polylogarithmically in the number of webpages. This would constitute an exponential speed-up with respect to all known classical algorithms designed to evaluate the PageRank.

  18. Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithms with Different Paths

    Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam

    2002-01-01

    In quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms, the quantum computer follows the ground state of a slowly varying Hamiltonian. The ground state of the initial Hamiltonian is easy to construct; the ground state of the final Hamiltonian encodes the solution of the computational problem. These algorithms have generally been studied in the case where the "straight line" path from initial to final Hamiltonian is taken. But there is no reason not to try paths involving terms that are not linear combinations of the initial and final Hamiltonians. We give several proposals for randomly generating new paths. Using one of these proposals, we convert an algorithmic failure into a success.

  19. Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization

    Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r( G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8, most of which were previously unknown.

  20. Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum phase transitions

    Latorre, J I; Latorre, Jose Ignacio; Orus, Roman

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the ground state entanglement in a quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm designed to solve the NP-complete Exact Cover problem. The entropy of entanglement seems to obey linear and universal scaling at the point where the mass gap becomes small, suggesting that the system passes near a quantum phase transition. Such a large scaling of entanglement suggests that the effective connectivity of the system diverges as the number of qubits goes to infinity and that this algorithm cannot be efficiently simulated by classical means. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's algorithm is bounded by a constant.

  1. Potential and Evolution of Compressed Air Energy Storage: Energy and Exergy Analyses

    Young-Min Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems are increasingly gaining importance with regard to their role in achieving load levelling, especially for matching intermittent sources of renewable energy with customer demand, as well as for storing excess nuclear or thermal power during the daily cycle. Compressed air energy storage (CAES, with its high reliability, economic feasibility, and low environmental impact, is a promising method for large-scale energy storage. Although there are only two large-scale CAES plants in existence, recently, a number of CAES projects have been initiated around the world, and some innovative concepts of CAES have been proposed. Existing CAES plants have some disadvantages such as energy loss due to dissipation of heat of compression, use of fossil fuels, and dependence on geological formations. This paper reviews the main drawbacks of the existing CAES systems and presents some innovative concepts of CAES, such as adiabatic CAES, isothermal CAES, micro-CAES combined with air-cycle heating and cooling, and constant-pressure CAES combined with pumped hydro storage that can address such problems and widen the scope of CAES applications, by energy and exergy analyses. These analyses greatly help us to understand the characteristics of each CAES system and compare different CAES systems.

  2. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K., E-mail: asivan@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  3. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter.

    Venkata Krishnan, R; Jogeswararao, G; Parthasarathy, R; Premalatha, S; Prabhakar Rao, J; Gunasekaran, G; Ananthasivan, K

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  4. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  5. Exact invariants and adiabatic invariants of the singular Lagrange system

    陈向炜; 李彦敏

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of symmetries and conserved quantities of the singular Lagrange system,the perturbations to the symmetries and adiabatic invariants of the singular Lagrange systems are discussed.Firstly,the concept of higher-order adiabatic invariants of the singular Lagrange system is proposed.Then,the conditions for the existence of the exact invariants and adiabatic invariants are proved,and their forms are given.Finally,an example is presented to illustrate these results.

  6. Generating shortcuts to adiabaticity in quantum and classical dynamics

    Jarzynski, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Transitionless quantum driving achieves adiabatic evolution in a hurry, using a counter-diabatic Hamiltonian to stifle non-adiabatic transitions. Here this strategy is cast in terms of a generator of adiabatic transport, leading to a classical analogue: dissipationless classical driving. For the single-particle piston, this approach yields simple and exact expressions for both the classical and quantal counter-diabatic terms. These results are further generalized to even-power-law potentials in one degree of freedom.

  7. Correlated mixtures of adiabatic and isocurvature cosmological perturbations

    Langlois, D; Langlois, David; Riazuelo, Alain

    2000-01-01

    We examine the consequences of the existence of correlated mixtures of adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations on the CMB and large scale structure. In particular, we consider the four types of ``elementary'' totally correlated hybrid initial conditions, where only one of the four matter species (photons, baryons, neutrinos, CDM) deviates from adiabaticity. We then study the height and position of the acoustic peaks with respect to the large angular scale plateau as a function of the isocurvature to adiabatic ratio.

  8. A quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution

    Zhang Ying-Yu; Hu He-Ping; Lu Song-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and implements a specified partial adiabatic search algorithm on a quantum circuit. It studies the minimum energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state of the system Hamiltonian and it finds that, in the case of M=1, the algorithm has the same performance as the local adiabatic algorithm. However, the algorithm evolves globally only within a small interval, which implies that it keeps the advantages of global adiabatic algorithms without losing the speedup of the local adiabatic search algorithm.

  9. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) in space applications, it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density...

  10. Effect of Post-Heat Treatment on Dimensional Stability of Compressed Wood%后期热处理对压缩木尺寸稳定性的影响

    陈太安; 蒋明; 王昌命; 高力勇

    2011-01-01

    The timber of Pinus armandii and Alnus cremastogyne was experimented to evaluate the dimensional stability by taking thickness swelling ( TS) as the major evaluation index after the compressed wood was individually treated under 170℃ and 210℃ for 2 h with the heated air or conductive oil heat transfer media. The results showed that both of the moisture-uptake and water-uptake of the compressed wood could be reduced by post heat-treating, so the dimensional stability of the compressed wood was improved. The conductive oil treatment had better effect than that of the hot air, while the treatment effect under 210℃ was better than that of under 170℃. The best technological condition was conductive oil treatment under 210℃, which could reduce moisture uptake TS index by 50% while reduce TS value after 24 h water uptake by 85%. The results also showed that the effect of heat treatment varied with tree species, The heat treatment effect on Pinus armandii wood was better than that of on Alnus cremastogyne wood.%以华山松和西南桤木为研究试材,以热空气和导热油为加热介质,在温度为170℃和210℃时分别对2种压缩木进行2 h的热处理,以厚度膨胀率为主要指标评价其尺寸稳定性.结果表明:后期热处理可以降低压缩木吸湿率和吸水率,改善压缩木的尺寸稳定性,油浴处理的效果优于热空气处理,210℃处理效果优于170℃;在所有工艺条件中,以210℃油浴处理效果最佳,可使吸湿厚度膨胀率下降50%左右,使24h吸水厚度膨胀率减小85%左右;热处理对树种具有一定的选择性,对西南桤木的效果略优于华山松.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Autoignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixture in Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition Engine Using Elementary Reactions

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Iida, Norimasa

    The present study focuses on clarifying the combustion mechanism of the homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine in order to control ignition and combustion as well as to reduce HC and CO emissions and to maintain high combustion efficiency by calculating the chemical kinetics of elementary reactions. For the calculations, n-butane was selected as fuel since it is a fuel with the smallest carbon number in the alkane family that shows two-stage autoignition (heat release with low-temperature reaction (LTR) and with high-temperature reaction (HTR)) similarly to higher hydrocarbons such as gasoline. The CHEMKIN code was used for the calculations assuming zero dimensions in the combustion chamber and adiabatic change. The results reveal the heat release mechanism of the LTR and HTR, the control factor of ignition timing and combustion speed, and the condition need to reduce HC and CO emissions and to maintain high combustion efficiency.

  12. Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.

  13. The genesis of adiabatic shear bands

    Landau, P.; Osovski, S.; Venkert, A.; Gärtnerová, V.; Rittel, D.

    2016-11-01

    Adiabatic shear banding (ASB) is a unique dynamic failure mechanism that results in an unpredicted catastrophic failure due to a concentrated shear deformation mode. It is universally considered as a material or structural instability and as such, ASB is hardly controllable or predictable to some extent. ASB is modeled on the premise of stability analyses. The leading paradigm is that a competition between strain (rate) hardening and thermal softening determines the onset of the failure. It was recently shown that microstructural softening transformations, such as dynamic recrystallization, are responsible for adiabatic shear failure. These are dictated by the stored energy of cold work, so that energy considerations can be used to macroscopically model the failure mechanism. The initial mechanisms that lead to final failure are still unknown, as well as the ASB formation mechanism(s). Most of all - is ASB an abrupt instability or rather a gradual transition as would be dictated by microstructural evolutions? This paper reports thorough microstructural characterizations that clearly show the gradual character of the phenomenon, best described as a nucleation and growth failure mechanism, and not as an abrupt instability as previously thought. These observations are coupled to a simple numerical model that illustrates them.

  14. Buoyancy Instabilities in Galaxy Clusters: Convection Due to Adiabatic Cosmic Rays and Anisotropic Thermal Conduction

    Sharma, P; Quataert, E; Parrish, I J

    2009-01-01

    Using a linear stability analysis and two and three-dimensional nonlinear simulations, we study the physics of buoyancy instabilities in a combined thermal and relativistic (cosmic ray) plasma, motivated by the application to clusters of galaxies. We argue that cosmic ray diffusion is likely to be slow compared to the buoyancy time on large length scales, so that cosmic rays are effectively adiabatic. If the cosmic ray pressure $p_{cr}$ is $\\gtrsim 25 %$ of the thermal pressure, and the cosmic ray entropy ($p_{\\rm cr}/\\rho^{4/3}$; $\\rho$ is the thermal plasma density) decreases outwards, cosmic rays drive an adiabatic convective instability analogous to Schwarzschild convection in stars. Global simulations of galaxy cluster cores show that this instability saturates by reducing the cosmic ray entropy gradient and driving efficient convection and turbulent mixing. At larger radii in cluster cores, the thermal plasma is unstable to the heat flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), a convective instability genera...

  15. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  16. Performance of Indirectly-Driven Capsule Implosions on NIF Using Adiabat-Shaping

    Robey, Harry

    2015-11-01

    Indirectly-driven capsule implosions are being conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Early experiments conducted during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) were driven by a laser pulse with a relatively low-power initial foot (``low-foot''), which was designed to keep the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel on a low adiabat to achieve a high fuel areal density (ρR). These implosions were successful in achieving high ρR, but fell significantly short of the predicted neutron yield. A leading candidate to explain this degraded performance was ablation front instability growth, which can lead to the mixing of ablator material with the DT fuel layer and in extreme cases into the central DT hot spot. A subsequent campaign employing a modified laser pulse with increased power in the foot (``high-foot'') was designed to reduce the adverse effects of ablation front instability growth. These implosions have been very successful, increasing neutron yields by more than an order of magnitude, but at the expense of reduced fuel compression. To bridge these two regimes, a series of implosions have been designed to simultaneously achieve both high stability and high ρR. These implosions employ adiabat-shaping, where the driving laser pulse is high in the initial picket similar to the high-foot to retain the favorable stability properties at the ablation front. The remainder of the foot is similar to that of the low-foot, driving a lower velocity shock into the DT fuel to keep the adiabat low and compression high. This talk will present results and analysis of these implosions and will discuss implications for improved implosion performance. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Smart intermittency-friendly cogeneration: Techno-economic performance of innovative double storage concept for integrating compression heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    Blarke, Morten

    2011-01-01

    recovered from flue gasses as the only low-temperature heat source, furthermore applying an intermediate cold storage allowing for non-concurrent operation of heat pump and cogeneration unit. The novel concept is subject to a detailed techno-economic comparative modelling and analysis, hich finds...

  18. Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter

    Jhu, Can-Yong [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Yih-Wen, E-mail: g9410825@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, 79-9, Sha-Luen-Hu, Xi-Zhou-Li, Houlong, Miaoli 35664, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shu, Chi-Min [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Rm. 222, Bldg. 77, 2F, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-08-15

    Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO{sub 2}) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2 V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T{sub 0}), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T{sub max}) and pressure (P{sub max}). The T{sub max} and P{sub max} of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0 {sup o}C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO{sub 2} batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology.

  19. Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter.

    Jhu, Can-Yong; Wang, Yih-Wen; Shu, Chi-Min; Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun

    2011-08-15

    Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO(2)) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO(2) cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T(0)), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T(max)) and pressure (P(max)). The T(max) and P(max) of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0°C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO(2) batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology.

  20. Wellhead compression

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  1. Compressive beamforming

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex...

  2. Sufficient Condition for Validity of Quantum Adiabatic Theorem

    TAO Yong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to give a sufficient condition of guaranteeing the validity of the proof of the quantum adiabatic theorem. The new sufficient condition can clearly remove the inconsistency and the counterexample of the quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408].

  3. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second...

  4. High Fidelity Adiabatic Quantum Computation via Dynamical Decoupling

    Quiroz, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    We introduce high-order dynamical decoupling strategies for open system adiabatic quantum computation. Our numerical results demonstrate that a judicious choice of high-order dynamical decoupling method, in conjunction with an encoding which allows computation to proceed alongside decoupling, can dramatically enhance the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computation in spite of decoherence.

  5. Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation.

    Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-11-28

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size.

  6. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  7. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  8. Isotropic polarization of compressible flows

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The helical absolute equilibrium of a compressible adiabatic flow presents not only the polarization between the two purely helical modes of opposite chiralities but also that between the vortical and acoustic modes, deviating from the equipartition predicted by {\\sc Kraichnan, R. H.} [1955 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America {\\bf 27}, 438--441.] Due to the existence of the acoustic mode, even if all Fourier modes of one chiral sector in the sharpened Helmholtz decomposition [{\\sc Moses, H. E.} 1971 SIAM ~(Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Appl. Math. {\\bf 21}, 114--130] are thoroughly truncated, negative temperature and the corresponding large-scale concentration of vortical modes are not allowed, unlike the incompressible case.

  9. Entropy in adiabatic regions of convection simulations

    Tanner, Joel D; Demarque, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models is caused by the treatment of convection in stellar envelopes. One dimensional stellar models often make use of the mixing length or equivalent approximations to describe convection, all of which depend on various free parameters. There have been attempts to rectify this by using 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulations of stellar convection, and in trying to extract an equivalent mixing length from the simulations. In this paper we show that the entropy of the deeper, adiabatic layers in these simulations can be expressed as a simple function of og g and log T_{eff} which holds potential for calibrating stellar models in a simple and more general manner.

  10. Conformal Symmetries of Adiabatic Modes in Cosmology

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    We remark on the existence of non-linearly realized conformal symmetries for scalar adiabatic perturbations in cosmology. These conformal symmetries are present for any cosmological background, beyond any slow-roll or quasi-de Sitter approximation. The dilatation transformation shifts the curvature perturbation by a constant, and corresponds to the well-known symmetry under spatial rescaling. We argue that the scalar sector is also invariant under special conformal transformations, which shift the curvature perturbation by a term linear in the spatial coordinates. We discuss whether these conformal symmetries can be extended to include tensor perturbations. Tensor modes introduce their own set of non-linearly realized symmetries. We identify an infinite set of large gauge transformations which maintain the transverse, traceless gauge condition, while shifting the tensor mode non-trivially.

  11. Sliding seal materials for adiabatic engines

    Lankford, J.

    1985-01-01

    The sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Microhardness tests were performed on the candidate materials at elevated temperatures, and in atmospheres relevant to the piston seal application, and optical and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing. X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Electrical effects in the friction and wear processes were explored in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of such effects in modifying the friction and wear rates in service. However, this factor was found to be of negligible significance in controlling friction and wear.

  12. Adiabatic perturbations in coupled scalar field cosmologies

    Beyer, Joschka

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and gauge invariant treatment of perturbations around cosmological scaling solutions for two canonical scalar fields coupled through a common potential in the early universe, in the presence of neutrinos, photons and baryons, but excluding cold dark matter. This setup is relevant for analyzing cosmic perturbations in scalar field models of dark matter with a coupling to a quintessence field. We put strong restrictions on the shape of the common potential and adopt a matrix-eigensystem approach to determine the dominant perturbations modes in such models. Similar to recent results in scenarios where standard cold dark matter couples to quintessence, we show that the stability of the adiabatic perturbation mode can be an issue for this class of scalar field dark matter models, but only for specific choices of the common potential. For an exponential coupling potential, a rather common shape arising naturally in many instances, this problem can be avoided. We explicitly calculate the d...

  13. Adiabatic density-functional perturbation theory

    Gonze, Xavier

    1995-08-01

    The treatment of adiabatic perturbations within density-functional theory is examined, at arbitrary order of the perturbation expansion. Due to the extremal property of the energy functional, standard variation-perturbation theorems can be used. The different methods (Sternheimer equation, extremal principle, Green's function, and sum over state) for obtaining the perturbation expansion of the wave functions are presented. The invariance of the Hilbert space of occupied wave functions with respect to a unitary transformation leads to the definition of a ``parallel-transport-gauge'' and a ``diagonal-gauge'' perturbation expansion. Then, the general expressions are specialized for the second, third, and fourth derivative of the energy, with an example of application of the method up to third order.

  14. Investigating the Performance of an Adiabatic Quantum Optimization Processor

    Rose, Geordie; Dickson, Neil G; Hamze, Firas; Amin, M H S; Drew-Brook, Marshall; Chudak, Fabian A; Bunyk, Paul I; Macready, William G

    2010-01-01

    We calculate median adiabatic times (in seconds) of a specific superconducting adiabatic quantum processor for an NP-hard Ising spin glass instance class with up to N=128 binary variables. To do so, we ran high performance Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a large-scale Internet-based computing platform. We compare the median adiabatic times with the median running times of two classical solvers and find that, for problems with up to 128 variables, the adiabatic times for the simulated processor architecture are about 4 and 6 orders of magnitude shorter than the two classical solvers' times. This performance difference shows that, even in the potential absence of a scaling advantage, adiabatic quantum optimization may outperform classical solvers.

  15. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  16. An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Klymko, Christine F [ORNL; Seddiqi, Hadayat [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.

  17. How detrimental is decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation?

    Albash, Tameem

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time-scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit $T_2$ time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary canc...

  18. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in cutting a spin chain

    Ren, Feng-Hua; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Gu, Yong-Jian

    2017-01-01

    "Shortcuts to adiabaticity" represents a strategy for accelerating a quantum adiabatic process, is useful for preparing or manipulating a quantum state. In this paper, we investigate the adiabaticity in the dynamics of an XY spin chain. During the process of cutting one long chain into two short chains, a "shortcut" can be obtained by applying a sequence of external pulses. The fidelity which measures the adiabaticity can be dramatically enhanced by increasing the pulse strength or pulse duration time. This reliability can be kept for different types of pulses, such as random pulse time interval or random strength. The free choice of the pulse can be explained by the adiabatic representation of the Hamiltonian, and it shows that the control effects are determined by the integral of the control function in the time domain.

  19. A measurement method and system of the thermal properties of rocks under high pressure without heat source

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Lin, Weiren; Tadai, Osamu; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Ziying; Shi, Xiaobin; Yu, Chuanhai

    2016-04-01

    Thermal properties of rocks under high pressure are very important for us to understand the thermal structure and state of earth. Basing on the classical thermo-elastic theory, we can know that the temperature of an elastic substance will change when it is compressed or stretched under adiabatic condition. Our measurement results show that the adiabatic stress derivative of temperature (dT/dP) of rocks ranges from 1 to 6 mK/MPa. But the result of silicone oil is up to about 140 mK/MPa. So, we developed a measurement method and system of the thermal properties of rocks under high pressure. In the hydrostatic compression system, the confining pressure can rapidly increase to high pressure within 1~2 s by controlling the value. By monitoring the temperature changes in center and on surface of rock sample during the rapidly loading process, the thermal properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity, can be resolved by our finite element numerical inversion method. We measured several representative rocks from Longmenshan Fault Zone and Chelungpu Fault Zone (TCDP Hole-A), such as sandstone, siltstone, limestone, granite, basalt, tuff and so on. The results indicate that this method and system is suitable for thermal properties measurement under high pressure even though there is without heat source.

  20. Adiabatic & non-adiabatic perturbation theory for coherence vector description of neutrino oscillations

    Hollenberg, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The standard wave function approach for the treatment of neutrino oscillations fails in situations where quantum ensembles at a finite temperature with or without an interacting background plasma are encountered. As a first step to treat such phenomena in a novel way, we propose a unified approach to both adiabatic and non-adiabatic two-flavor oscillations in neutrino ensembles with finite temperature and generic (e.g. matter) potentials. Neglecting effects of ensemble decoherence for now we study the evolution of a neutrino ensemble governed by the associated Quantum Kinetic Equations, which apply to systems with finite temperature. The Quantum Kinetic Equations are solved formally using the Magnus expansion and it is shown that a convenient choice of the quantum mechanical picture (e.g. the interaction picture) reveals suitable parameters to characterize the physics of the underlying system (e.g. an effective oscillation length). It is understood that this method also provides a promising starting point for...

  1. Adiabatic vs. non-adiabatic determination of specific absorption rate of ferrofluids

    Natividad, Eva [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Sede Campus Rio Ebro, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Castro, Miguel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Sede Campus Rio Ebro, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: mcastro@unizar.es; Mediano, Arturo [Grupo de Electronica de Potencia y Microelectronica (GEPM), Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza), Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The measurement of temperature variations in adiabatic conditions allows the determination of the specific absorption rate of magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids from the correct incremental expression, SAR=(1/m{sub MNP})C({delta}T/{delta}t). However, when measurements take place in non-adiabatic conditions, one must approximate this expression by SAR{approx}C{beta}/m{sub MNP}, where {beta} is the initial slope of the temperature vs. time curve during alternating field application. The errors arising from the use of this approximation were estimated through several experiments with different isolating conditions, temperature sensors and sample-sensor contacts. It is concluded that small to appreciable errors can appear, which are difficult to infer or control.

  2. Comparisons of Heat Transfer Performance of a Closed-looped Oscillating Heat Pipe and Closed-looped Oscillating Heat Pipe with Check Valves Heat Exchangers

    P. Meena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study the comparisons of heat transfer performance of closed-looped oscillating heat pipe and closed-looped oscillating heat pipe with check valves heat exchangers with R134a, Ethanol and water were used as the working fluids. A set of heat pipe heat exchanger (CLOHP and CLOHP/CV were made of copper tubes in combination of following dimension: 2.03 mm inside diameter: 40 turns, with 20, 10 and 20 cm for evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections lengths. The working fluid was filled in the tube at the filling ratio of 50%. The evaporator section was given heat by heater while the condenser section was cooled by air. The adiabatic section was properly insulated. In the test operation, it could be concluded as follows. It indicated that the heat transfer performance of closed-looped oscillating heat pipe with check valves heat exchanger better than closed-looped oscillating heat exchanger.

  3. Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerators for Future Sub-Millimetre Space Missions

    Hepburn, I. D.; Davenport, I.; Smith, A.

    1995-10-01

    Space worthy refrigeration capable of providing a 100 mK and below heat load sink for bolometric detectors will be required for the next generation of sub-millimetre space missions. Adiabatic demagnetisation refrigeration (ADR), being a gravity independent laboratory method for obtaining such temperatures, is a favourable technique for utilisation in space. We show that by considering a 3 salt pill refrigerator rather than the classic single salt pill design the space prohibitive laboratory ADR properties of high magnetic field (6 Tesla) and alow temperature hold time and short recycle time. The additional salt pills, composed of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) provide intermediate cooling stages, enabling operation from a 4 K environment provided by a single 4 K mechanical cooler, thereby providing consumable free operation. Such ADRs could operate with fields as low as 1 Tesla allowing the use of high temperature, mechanically cooled superconducting magnets and so effectively remove the risk of quenching. We discuss the possibility of increasing the hold time from 3 hours, for the model presented, to between 40 and 80 hours, plus reducing the number of salt pills to two, through the use of a more efficient Garnet. We believe the technical advances necessitated by the envisaged ADRs are minimal and conclude that such ADRs offer a long orbital life time, consumable free, high efficiency means of milli-Kelvin cooling, requiring relatively little laboratory development.

  4. Thermodynamic and spectral properties of adiabatic Peierls chains

    Weber, Manuel; Assaad, Fakher F.; Hohenadler, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We present exact numerical results for the effects of thermal fluctuations on the experimentally relevant thermodynamic and spectral properties of Peierls chains. To this end, a combination of classical Monte Carlo sampling and exact diagonalization is used to study adiabatic half-filled Holstein and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models. The classical nature of the lattice displacements in combination with parallel tempering permit simulations on large system sizes and a direct calculation of spectral functions in the frequency domain. Most notably, the long-range order and the associated Peierls gap give rise to a distinct low-temperature peak in the specific heat. The closing of the gap and suppression of order by thermal fluctuations involves in-gap excitations in the form of soliton-antisoliton pairs and is also reflected in the dynamic density and bond structure factors as well as in the optical conductivity. We compare our data to the widely used mean-field approximation and highlight relations to symmetry-protected topological phases and disorder problems.

  5. Nonequilibrium adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations of methane clathrate hydrate decomposition

    Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    Nonequilibrium, constant energy, constant volume (NVE) molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the decomposition of methane clathrate hydrate in contact with water. Under adiabatic conditions, the rate of methane clathrate decomposition is affected by heat and mass transfer arising from the breakup of the clathrate hydrate framework and release of the methane gas at the solid-liquid interface and diffusion of methane through water. We observe that temperature gradients are established between the clathrate and solution phases as a result of the endothermic clathrate decomposition process and this factor must be considered when modeling the decomposition process. Additionally we observe that clathrate decomposition does not occur gradually with breakup of individual cages, but rather in a concerted fashion with rows of structure I cages parallel to the interface decomposing simultaneously. Due to the concerted breakup of layers of the hydrate, large amounts of methane gas are released near the surface which can form bubbles that will greatly affect the rate of mass transfer near the surface of the clathrate phase. The effects of these phenomena on the rate of methane hydrate decomposition are determined and implications on hydrate dissociation in natural methane hydrate reservoirs are discussed.

  6. Heat pumps in industry. Pt. 2: Applications

    Lazzarin, R.M. [Padova Univ., Vicenza (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Gestionale

    1995-04-01

    A selection of applications of heat pumps in industry is described, reporting plant lay-outs and performances. The selection includes compression heat pumps at different temperatures, vapour recompression systems, absorption heat pumps and heat transformers. (author)

  7. Microstructural evolution of 2026 aluminum alloy during hot compression and subsequent heat treatment%2026铝合金热变形及热处理过程中的微观组织演变

    张辉; 陈容; 黄旭东; 陈江华

    2011-01-01

    研究2026铝合金在温度为300-450℃和应变速率为0.01-10 s-1的变形条件与固溶时效热处理后微观组织之间的关系.结果表明:热处理后的再结晶和析出特性与热变形时的温度补偿应变速率Z有关.在低Z条件下,热处理后会形成少量细小的再结晶晶粒,热变形过程产生的高角度亚晶粒和粗大析出物被保留下来;高Z条件下,热处理后会产生大量细小等轴晶再结晶晶粒,热变形过程产生的高密度晶胞和相对细小的动态析出物被热处理后完整的亚晶粒和相对粗化的析出物所替代.热处理后的平均再结晶晶粒尺寸随着Z值的增加而减小.建立两者的定量关系式.%2026 aluminum alloy was compressed in a temperature range of 300-450 ℃ and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The correlation between compression conditions and microstructural evolution after solution and aging heat treatment was investigated. It is found that the recrystallization and precipitation behavior after heat treatment are associated with the temperature compensated strain rate Z value during hot deformation. Under low Z parameter condition, a small quantity of fine recrystallized grains are formed, and the well formed subgrains with clean high-angle boundaries and coarse precipitates seem to be remained during heat treatment. Under high Z parameter condition, a large number of fine equiaxed recrystallized grains are produced, and a high dislocation density with poorly developed cellularity and considerable fine dynamic precipitates are replaced by the well formed subgrains and relatively coarse precipitates after heat treatment. The average recrystallized grain size after heat treatment decreases with increasing Z value and a quantitative relation between the average grain size and the Z value is obtained.

  8. Novel concepts for the compression of large volumes of carbon dioxide-phase III

    Moore, J. Jeffrey [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Allison, Timothy C. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Evans, Neal D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Moreland, Brian [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hernandez, Augusto J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Day, Meera [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Ridens, Brandon L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-06-30

    and tested in a closed loop compressor facility using CO2 . Both test programs successfully demonstrated good performance and mechanical behavior. In Phase III, a pilot compression plant consisting of a multi-stage centrifugal compressor with cooled diaphragm technology has been designed, constructed, and tested. Comparative testing of adiabatic and cooled tests at equivalent inlet conditions shows that the cooled diaphragms reduce power consumption by 3-8% when the compressor is operated as a back-to-back unit and by up to 9% when operated as a straight-though compressor with no intercooler. The power savings, heat exchanger effectiveness, and temperature drops for the cooled diaphragm were all slightly higher than predicted values but showed the same trends.

  9. An investigation of Newton-Krylov algorithms for solving incompressible and low Mach number compressible fluid flow and heat transfer problems using finite volume discretization

    McHugh, P.R.

    1995-10-01

    Fully coupled, Newton-Krylov algorithms are investigated for solving strongly coupled, nonlinear systems of partial differential equations arising in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Primitive variable forms of the steady incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations that describe the flow of a laminar Newtonian fluid in two-dimensions are specifically considered. Numerical solutions are obtained by first integrating over discrete finite volumes that compose the computational mesh. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are linearized using Newton`s method. Preconditioned Krylov subspace based iterative algorithms then solve these linear systems on each Newton iteration. Selected Krylov algorithms include the Arnoldi-based Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) algorithm, and the Lanczos-based Conjugate Gradients Squared (CGS), Bi-CGSTAB, and Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (TFQMR) algorithms. Both Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization and domain-based additive and multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning strategies are studied. Numerical techniques such as mesh sequencing, adaptive damping, pseudo-transient relaxation, and parameter continuation are used to improve the solution efficiency, while algorithm implementation is simplified using a numerical Jacobian evaluation. The capabilities of standard Newton-Krylov algorithms are demonstrated via solutions to both incompressible and compressible flow problems. Incompressible flow problems include natural convection in an enclosed cavity, and mixed/forced convection past a backward facing step.

  10. On the General Class of Models of Adiabatic Evolution

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng; Liu, Fang

    2016-10-01

    The general class of models of adiabatic evolution was proposed to speed up the usual adiabatic computation in the case of quantum search problem. It was shown [8] that, by temporarily increasing the ground state energy of a time-dependent Hamiltonian to a suitable quantity, the quantum computation can perform the calculation in time complexity O(1). But it is also known that if the overlap between the initial and final states of the system is zero, then the computation based on the generalized models of adiabatic evolution can break down completely. In this paper, we find another severe limitation for this class of adiabatic evolution-based algorithms, which should be taken into account in applications. That is, it is still possible that this kind of evolution designed to deal with the quantum search problem fails completely if the interpolating paths in the system Hamiltonian are chosen inappropriately, while the usual adiabatic evolutions can do the same job relatively effectively. This implies that it is not always recommendable to use nonlinear paths in adiabatic computation. On the contrary, the usual simple adiabatic evolution may be sufficient for effective use.

  11. Experimental results and model calculations of a hybrid adsorption-compression heat pump based on a roots compressor and silica gel-water sorption

    van der Pal, Michel; De Boer, Robert; Wemmers, Anton; Smeding, Simon; Veldhuis, Jakobert; Lycklama A Nijeholt, Jan-Aiso

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Thermally driven heat pumps for heating and cooling. – Ed.: Annett Kühn – Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013 ISBN 978-3-7983-2686-6 (print) ISBN 978-3-7983-2596-8 (online) urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458] Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operatin...

  12. Approximability of optimization problems through adiabatic quantum computation

    Cruz-Santos, William

    2014-01-01

    The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is l

  13. EXACT AND ADIABATIC INVARIANTS OF FIRST-ORDER LAGRANGE SYSTEMS

    陈向炜; 尚玫; 梅凤翔

    2001-01-01

    A system of first-order differential equations is expressed in the form of first-order Lagrange equations. Based on the theory of symmetries and conserved quantities of first-order Lagrange systems, the perturbation to the symmetries and adiabatic invariants of first-order Lagrange systems are discussed. Firstly, the concept of higher-order adiabatic invariants of the first-order Lagrange system is proposed. Then, conditions for the existence of the exact and adiabatic invariants are proved, and their forms are given. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate these results.

  14. Adiabatic control of atomic dressed states for transport and sensing

    Cooper, N. R.; Rey, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    We describe forms of adiabatic transport that arise for dressed-state atoms in optical lattices. Focusing on the limit of weak tunnel-coupling between nearest-neighbor lattice sites, we explain how adiabatic variation of optical dressing allows control of atomic motion between lattice sites: allowing adiabatic particle transport in a direction that depends on the internal state, and force measurements via spectroscopic preparation and readout. For uniformly filled bands these systems display topologically quantized particle transport. An implementation of the dressing scheme using optical transitions in alkaline-earth atoms is discussed as well as its favorable features for precise force sensing.

  15. Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage for Improved Performance of a Cold Atom Electron and Ion Source

    Sparkes, B M; Taylor, R J; Spiers, R W; McCulloch, A J; Scholten, R E

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally implement high-efficiency coherent excitation to a Rydberg state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a cold atom electron and ion source, leading to a peak efficiency of 85%, a 1.7 times improvement in excitation probability relative to incoherent pulsed-laser excitation. Using streak measurements and pulsed electric field ionization of the Rydberg atoms we demonstrate electron bunches with duration of 250 ps. High-efficiency excitation will increase source brightness, crucial for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, while using coherent excitation to high-lying Rydberg states could allow for the reduction of internal bunch heating and the creation of a high-speed single ion source.

  16. Two-phase flow patterns in adiabatic and diabatic corrugated plate gaps

    Polzin, A.-E.; Kabelac, S.; de Vries, B.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations for two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop can be improved considerably, when they are adapted to specific flow patterns. As plate heat exchangers find increasing application as evaporators and condensers, there is a need for flow pattern maps for corrugated plate gaps. This contribution presents experimental results on flow pattern investigations for such a plate heat exchanger background, using an adiabatic visualisation setup as well as a diabatic setup. Three characteristic flow patterns were observed in the considered range of two-phase flow: bubbly flow, film flow and slug flow. The occurrence of these flow patterns is a function of mass flux, void fraction, fluid properties and plate geometry. Two different plate geometries having a corrugation angle of 27° and 63°, respectively and two different fluids (water/air and R365mfc liquid/vapor) have been analysed. A flow pattern map using the momentum flux is presented.

  17. Shock compression of nitrobenzene

    Kozu, Naoshi; Arai, Mitsuru; Tamura, Masamitsu; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Masatake; Kondo, Ken-Ichi

    1999-06-01

    The Hugoniot (4 - 30 GPa) and the isotherm (1 - 7 GPa) of nitrobenzene have been investigated by shock and static compression experiments. Nitrobenzene has the most basic structure of nitro aromatic compounds, which are widely used as energetic materials, but nitrobenzene has been considered not to explode in spite of the fact its calculated heat of detonation is similar to TNT, about 1 kcal/g. Explosive plane-wave generators and diamond anvil cell were used for shock and static compression, respectively. The obtained Hugoniot consists of two linear lines, and the kink exists around 10 GPa. The upper line agrees well with the Hugoniot of detonation products calculated by KHT code, so it is expected that nitrobenzene detonates in that area. Nitrobenzene solidifies under 1 GPa of static compression, and the isotherm of solid nitrobenzene was obtained by X-ray diffraction technique. Comparing the Hugoniot and the isotherm, nitrobenzene is in liquid phase under experimented shock condition. From the expected phase diagram, shocked nitrobenzene seems to remain metastable liquid in solid phase region on that diagram.

  18. Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm for Search Engine Ranking

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2012-06-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log⁡(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in “q-sampling” protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  19. Topological States and Adiabatic Pumping in Quasicrystals

    Kraus, Yaakov; Lahini, Yoav; Ringel, Zohar; Verbin, Mor; Zilberberg, Oded

    2012-02-01

    We find a connection between quasicrystals and topological matter, namely that quasicrystals exhibit non-trivial topological phases attributed to dimensions higher than their own [1]. Quasicrystals are materials which are neither ordered nor disordered, i.e. they exhibit only long-range order [2]. This long-range order is usually expressed as a projection from a higher dimensional ordered system. Recently, the unrelated discovery of Topological Insulators [3] defined a new type of materials classified by their topology. We show theoretically and experimentally using photonic lattices, that one-dimensional quasicrystals exhibit topologically-protected boundary states equivalent to the edge states of the two-dimensional Integer Quantum Hall Effect. We harness this property to adiabatically pump light across the quasicrystal, and generalize our results to higher dimensional systems. Hence, quasicrystals offer a new platform for the study of topological phases while their topology may better explain their surface properties.[4pt] [1] Y. E. Kraus, Y. Lahini, Z. Ringel, M. Verbin, and O. Zilberberg, arXiv:1109.5983 (2011).[0pt] [2] C. Janot, Quasicrystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1994), 2nd ed.[0pt] [3] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).

  20. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-06-08

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  1. Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei

    Jachimowicz, P; Skalski, J

    2016-01-01

    Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy we calculated static fission barriers $B_{f}$ for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei $98\\leq Z \\leq 126$, including even - even, odd - even, even - odd and odd - odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from the 10-th below to the 10-th above the Fermi level. The parameters of the model that have been fixed previously by a fit to masses of even-even heavy nuclei were kept unchanged. A search for saddle points has been performed by the "Imaginary Water Flow" method on a basic five-dimensional deformation grid, including triaxiality. Two auxiliary grids were used for checking the effects of the mass asymmetry and hexadecapole non-axiallity. The ground states were found by energy minimization over configurations and deformations...

  2. Non-adiabatic electron behaviour due to short-scale electric field structures at collisionless shock waves

    V. See

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under sufficiently high electric field gradients, electron behaviour within exactly perpendicular shocks is unstable to the so-called trajectory instability. We extend previous work paying special attention to short-scale, high-amplitude structures as observed within the electric field profile. Via test particle simulations, we show that such structures can cause the electron distribution to heat in a manner that violates conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. This is the case even if the overall shock width is larger than the upstream electron gyroradius. The spatial distance over which these structures occur therefore constitutes a new scale length relevant to the shock heating problem. Furthermore, we find that the spatial location of the short-scale structure is important in determining the total effect of non-adiabatic behaviour – a result that has not been previously noted.

  3. Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states

    Siu, M. Stewart

    2007-06-01

    We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied “straight line” adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev’s toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm.

  4. Adiabatic shear bands localization in materials undergoing deformations

    Ryabov, P. N.; Kudryashov, N. A.; Muratov, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic shear banding phenomenon in composite materials undergoing the high speed shear deformations. The mathematical model of adiabatic shear banding in thermo-visco-plastic material is given. New two step numerical algorithm which is based on the Courant-Isaacson-Rees scheme that allows one to simulate fully localized plastic flow from initial stage of localization is proposed. To test this numerical algorithm we use three benchmark problems. The testing results show the accuracy and efficiency of proposed algorithm. The features of adiabatic shear bands formation in composites are studied. The existence of characteristic depth of localization in composites is shown. Influence of initial temperature distribution on the processes of adiabatic shear bands formation in composites is considered.

  5. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators(ADR's) for space it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density superconducting wires...

  6. Low-power adiabatic 9T static random access memory

    Yasuhiro Takahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors propose a novel static random access memory (SRAM that employs the adiabatic logic principle. To reduce energy dissipation, the proposed adiabatic SRAM is driven by two trapezoidal-wave pulses. The cell structure of the proposed SRAM has two high-value resistors based on a p-type metal-oxide semiconductor transistor, a cross-coupled n-type metal-oxide semiconductor (NMOS pair and an NMOS switch to reduce the short-circuit current. The inclusion of a transmission-gate controlled by a write word line signal allows the proposed circuit to operate as an adiabatic SRAM during data writing. Simulation results show that the energy dissipation of the proposed SRAM is lower than that of a conventional adiabatic SRAM.

  7. Adiabaticity and diabaticity in strong-field ionization

    Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin

    2013-01-01

    If the photon energy is much less than the electron binding energy, ionization of an atom by a strong optical field is often described in terms of electron tunneling through the potential barrier resulting from the superposition of the atomic potential and the potential associated with the instantaneous electric component of the optical field. In the strict tunneling regime, the electron response to the optical field is said to be adiabatic, and nonadiabatic effects are assumed to be negligible. Here, we investigate to what degree this terminology is consistent with a language based on the so-called adiabatic representation. This representation is commonly used in various fields of physics. For electronically bound states, the adiabatic representation yields discrete potential energy curves that are connected by nonadiabatic transitions. When applying the adiabatic representation to optical strong-field ionization, a conceptual challenge is that the eigenstates of the instantaneous Hamiltonian form a continuu...

  8. Research of thermal processes in the soil during the development of oil fields in the Far North by the compression method with heating

    Filimonov, A. S.; Tarasov, V. A.; Komkov, M. A.; Moiseev, V. A.; Timofeev, M. P.; Boyarskaya, R. V.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the hazard of adverse heat effect on permafrost soil as a result of viscous oil production in the Far North is studied with the method of thermocompression supply of superheated water steam to the oil-bearing layer. It is found that, due to the divergent nature of heat transfer and convective complex movement of air in the space between the tubing and the casing, the temperature of the latter in the area of load-bearing elements heated to 130°C is about 70°C. The heterogeneity of the temperature field is leveled up to 4-5% at a distance of 400-420 mm from the axis of the tubing. The thickness of the melting layer of ground ice within 90 days of operation of the tubing depends on the percentage of water-filled pores in the soil. With the minimum (10%) percentage of water-filled pores in the soil layer, the thickness of the ground ice melting layer for 90 days of operation of the tubing does not exceed 2.6 m.

  9. Adiabatic invariants of the extended KdV equation

    Karczewska, Anna; Infeld, Eryk; Rowlands, George

    2015-01-01

    When the Euler equations for shallow water are taken to the next order, beyond KdV, $\\eta^2$ is no longer an invariant. (It would seem that $\\eta$ is the only one.) However, two adiabatic invariants akin to $\\eta^2$ can be found. Here we present and test them. When the KdV expansion parameters are zero, $\\eta^2$ is recovered from both adiabatic invariants.

  10. Preparation of Entangled States of Three Particles by Adiabatic Passage

    郭建友

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for the creation of entangled states of three particles, based upon an adiabatic passage induced by a suitably crafted time-dependent external field. We derive the corresponding adiabatic and bare conditions for the preparation of entangled states. We obtain the time evolutions of the energy of the system and the populations involving the initial state and target entangled state.

  11. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    Enqvist, Kari; Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations in the axion field can give rise to a nearly flat spectrum of adiabatic perturbations with a spectral tilt $\\Delta n$ in the range $-0.1 \\lesssim \\Delta n \\lesssim 0.3$.

  12. A Solved Model to Show Insufficiency of Quantitative Adiabatic Condition

    LIU Long-Jiang; LIU Yu-Zhen; TONG Dian-Min

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic theorem is a useful tool in processing quantum systems slowly evolving,but its practical application depends on the quantitative condition expressed by Hamiltonian's eigenvalues and eigenstates,which is usually taken as a sufficient condition.Recently,the sumciency of the condition was questioned,and several counterex amples have been reported.Here we present a new solved model to show the insufficiency of the traditional quantitative adiabatic condition.

  13. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations...... in the axion field can give rise to a nearly flat spectrum of adiabatic perturbations with a spectral tilt $\\Delta n$ in the range $-0.1 \\lesssim \\Delta n \\lesssim 1$....

  14. Dependence of adiabatic population transfer on pulse profile

    S Dasgupta; T kushwaha; D Goswami

    2006-06-01

    Control of population transfer by rapid adiabatic passage has been an established technique wherein the exact amplitude profile of the shaped pulse is considered to be insignificant. We study the effect of ultrafast shaped pulses for two-level systems, by density-matrix approach. However, we find that adiabaticity depends simultaneously on pulse profile as well as the frequency modulation under non-resonant conditions.

  15. New empirical correlations for sizing adiabatic capillary tubes in refrigeration systems

    Shodiya, S.; Aahar, A. A.; Henry, N.; Darus, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents new empirical correlations that have been developed for sizing adiabatic capillary tubes used in small vapor compression refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. A numerical model which is based on the basic equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy was developed. Colebrook's formulation was used to determine the single phase friction factor. The two-phase viscosity models - Cicchitti et al., Dukler et al. and McAdam et al. were used based on the recommendation from literature to determine the two-phase viscosity factor. The developed numerical model was validated using the experimental data from literature. The numerical model was used to study the effects of relevant parameters on capillary tube length and the results showed that the length of capillary tube increase with increase in condensing temperature, subcooling, and inner diameter of tube but decrease with increase in surface roughness and mass flow rate. Thereafter, empirical correlation of the capillary tube length with the five dependent variables was presented. The empirical models are validated using experimental data from literature. Different from the previous studies, the empirical models have a large set of refrigerants and wide operating conditions. The developed correlation can be used as an effective tool for sizing adiabatic capillary tube with system models working with alternative refrigerants.

  16. Research on mechanical compression heat pump applying to petroleum and chemical enterprise%机械压缩式热泵在石化企业的应用研究

    韩莉; 司继林; 项曙光

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical compression heat pump was simulated by a chemical process simulation software-Aspen Plus, and the temperature rise, superheating and supercooling degree, selection of working medium and the application of multistage pump were studied.The research results show that, the maximum temperature of single stage compression heat pump is 45 ℃. The optimal degree of superheat is 5 ℃. the optimum working fluid is R152a when the condensing temperature arranges from 60 ℃ to 80 ℃, while the comprehensive properties of R143 or R123 is the best when the temperature range is from 80 to 110 or 110 to 160, respectively. The comprehensive performance of cascade heat pump is better than other forms of multistage pump. The maximum temperature rise of multistage pump is limited by working fluids. Currently, the maximum temperature rise is up to 115 ℃.%应用化工流程模拟软件Aspen Plus对机械压缩式热泵进行模拟,并且对机械压缩式热泵温升、过热和过冷度、工质选取以及多级热泵的应用进行研究。研究结果表明:单级压缩式热泵的最大温升为45℃;最佳过热度为2℃,最佳过冷度为5℃;冷凝温度在60℃~80℃范围内最佳工质为R152 a,在80℃~110℃温度区间内R143综合性能最优,在110℃~160℃温度区间内 R123最优;复叠式热泵综合性能优于其它形式多级热泵;多级热泵的最大温升受工质的限制,在目前的工质范围内,最大温升可达115℃。

  17. Study on Jet-Compression Hybrid Refrigeration Cycle Driven by Heat and Power%热-电驱动喷射压缩复合制冷循环特性研究

    王林; 谈莹莹; 梁坤峰; 安方涛; 陈宁

    2014-01-01

    Autocascade refrigeration can achieve lower refrigeration temperature easily,but it totally consumes high grade energy and its COP is low.Jet refrigeration can achieve the refrigeration effect by utilizing low grade heat sources.However,its refrigeration temperature is high.In order to utilize low grade heat to the domain of cryogenic freezing,jet/compression hybrid refrigeration cycle with mixed refrigerants driven by low grade heat and power was presented.The new cycle contributes to improving the efficiency of refrigeration significantly and achieving lower refrigeration temperature.On a basis of its mathematical model,the influences of compression ratio of the ejector and compressor on mechanical and thermal coefficient of performance(COPme/COPth) were analyzed.The results indicate that refrigeration efficiency of the hybrid refrigeration cycle is much higher than that of the traditional autocascade refrigeration cycle.%自复叠制冷循环具有获得制冷温度低优点,但其完全消耗的是高品位电能或机械能;喷射制冷具有利用低品位低温热源(60~100℃)制取冷量、且制冷温度较高时制冷效率高等优点,但难以获得较低制冷温度.因此,为了实现低品位热在低温冷冻领域高效利用并节省高品位电能,本文提出一种由低品位低温热源与电能联合驱动的混合工质喷射/压缩复合制冷循环.建立组成新循环各部件热力学数学模型,分析喷射器压缩比和压缩机压缩比对复合式制冷循环的热性能系数和机械性能系数影响,并与传统的自复叠制冷循环特性进行比较分析.研究表明,低品位热源与电能联合驱动喷射/压缩复合制冷循环较传统自复叠制冷循环可显著提高制冷效率并获得更低制冷温度.

  18. Change of brightness, chromatism and infra red spectra of compressed China fir wood during heat treatment%热处理过程中杉木压缩木材的材色及红外光谱

    王洁瑛; 赵广杰; 中野隆人

    2001-01-01

    In this study the brightness, chromatism and infra red spectra ofcompressed China fir wood during heat treatment in air or heat treatment in vacuum are studied. The water-saturated and boiled specimens of China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) are hot pressed with the average compression rate of 50%. Then they are heat treated in a common oven or in a vacuum oven, with the temperatures of treatment of 140,160,180,200,220℃, respectively. Then the brightness, chromatism, infra red spectra of the specimens are measured and discussed. In addition, some relationships between brightness, chromatism and recovery, weight loss and anti-swelling efficiency are deduced and discussed. The results are: (1) The brightness of the specimens will decrease and the chromatism will increase with the prolongation of time of heat treatment. Compared to heat treatment in vacuum, the specimens have less brightness and more chromatism after being heat treated in air, under the conditions of same temperature and time of heat treatment. (2) As far as the relationships between brightness, chromatism and recovery are concerned, there is little difference between heat treatment in air and heat treatment in vacuum. The fixation degree of compression set is closely related to the change degree of color. (3) As far as the relationships between brightness, chromatism and weight loss, anti-swelling efficiency are concerned, the more the weight loss or anti-swelling efficiency is, the less the brightness is, or the more the chromatism is. (4) The infra red spectra of specimens show that there are evident changes of waves at the wavelength of 1743, 1660 and 1605cm-1 which are attributed to the change of C=O in wood. So it is clear that at least hemicellulose, even lignin in wood cell chemically changes during heat treatment of compressed wood of China fir.%为了探讨热处理过程中杉木压缩木材的材色变化规律,以及材色和木材化学主成分变化之间的关系,该

  19. Thermal battery with CO2 compression heat pump: Techno-economic optimization of a high-efficiency Smart Grid option for buildings

    Blarke, Morten; Yazawa, Kazuaki; Shakouri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Increasing penetration levels of wind and solar power in the energy system call for the development of Smart Grid enabling technologies. As an alternative to expensive electro-chemical and mechanical storage options, the thermal energy demand in buildings offers a cost-effective option for interm......Increasing penetration levels of wind and solar power in the energy system call for the development of Smart Grid enabling technologies. As an alternative to expensive electro-chemical and mechanical storage options, the thermal energy demand in buildings offers a cost-effective option...... for intermittency-friendly electricity consumption patterns. Combining hot and cold thermal storages with new high-pressure compressor technology that allows for flexible and simultaneous production of useful heat and cooling, the paper introduces and investigates the high-efficiency thermal battery (TB) concept....... In a proof-of-concept case study, the TB replaces an existing electric resistance heater used for hot water production and an electric compressor used for air refrigeration in a central air conditioning system. A mathematical model for least-cost unit dispatch is developed. Heat pump cycle components...

  20. Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems

    ZHANG Ming-Jiang; FANG Jian-Hui; LU Kai; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained.

  1. Performance of Non-Supplementary Fired Compressed Air Energy Storage with Molten Salt Heat Storage%采用熔融盐蓄热的非补燃压缩空气储能发电系统性能

    薛小代; 陈晓弢; 梅生伟; 陈来军; 林其友

    2016-01-01

    提出一种采用熔融盐蓄热的非补燃压缩空气储能发电系统,通过将熔融盐储热与压缩空气储能相结合,实现电能的大规模存储和高效转换。利用熔融盐作为蓄热介质,将低谷电、弃风电、弃光电等电能转换为高品位热能存储,同时利用压缩机将空气压缩至高压,存储在储气装置中,发电时利用熔融盐储存的热能加热高压空气驱动涡轮机发电。完成了系统的流程设计,采用热力学基本原理分析了系统的运行特性,探索影响系统储能效率的关键因素,分析了涡轮机进口温度、涡轮机进口压力等参数对压缩机功耗、储气室容积、储能密度、储能效率等系统性能的影响。研究结果表明通过提高储热温度和涡轮机进口压力,可以显著提高系统的储能效率。该系统可以广泛消纳大规模的波动性电能,为大规模储能提供了一种新的技术途径。该研究结果可以为压缩空气储能以及新能源消纳提供参考。%A non-supplementary fired compressed air energy storage (CAES) with molten salt thermal storage is proposed in this paper. Combined molten salt with compressed air energy storage, this system can achieve mass storage and efficient conversion of electrical energy. The off-peak power or abandoned wind and photoelectric power is converted into high-grade thermal energy, which is stored in the molten salt heat storage system. Meanwhile the air is compressed to high pressure and then stored in the gas storage device. The high pressure air heated by the molten salt can drive turbine to generate electricity when it is needed. The process design is completed with basic principle of thermodynamic analysis, and the key factors that affect the system efficiency are explored. The results show that the storage efficiency can be significantly improved by increasing the thermal storage temperature and turbine inlet pressure, which could provide a

  2. On the Navier-Stokes Equations for Exothermically Reacting Compressible Fluids

    Gui-Qiang Chen; David Hoff; Konstantina Trivisa

    2002-01-01

    We analyze mathematical models governing planar flow of chemical reaction from unburnt gases to burnt gases in certain physical regimes in which diffusive effects such as viscosity and heat conduction are significant. These models can be then formulated as the Navier-Stokes equations for exothermically reacting compressible fluids. We first establish the existence and dynamic behavior, including stability, regularity, and large-time behavior, of global discontinuous solutions of large oscillation to the Navier-Stokes equations with constant adiabatic exponent γ and specific heat Cv. Our approach for the existence and regularity is to combine the difference approximation techniques with the energy methods, total variation estimates, and weak convergence arguments to deal with large jump discontinuities; and for large-time behavior is an a posteriori argument directly from the weak form of the equations. The approach and ideas we develop here can be applied to solving a more complicated model where γ and Cv vary as the phase changes; and we then describe this model in detail and contrast the results on the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of these two different models. We also discuss other physical models describing dynamic combustion.

  3. Heat transfer and wall temperature effects in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions

    Bernardini, M.; Asproulias, I.; Larsson, J.; Pirozzoli, S.; Grasso, F.

    2016-12-01

    Direct numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the wall temperature on the behavior of oblique shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at free-stream Mach number 2.28 and shock angle of the wedge generator φ =8∘ . Five values of the wall-to-recovery-temperature ratio (Tw/Tr ) are considered, corresponding to cold, adiabatic, and hot wall thermal conditions. We show that the main effect of cooling is to decrease the characteristic scales of the interaction in terms of upstream influence and extent of the separation bubble. The opposite behavior is observed in the case of heating, which produces a marked dilatation of the interaction region. The distribution of the Stanton number shows that a strong amplification of the heat transfer occurs across the interaction, with the maximum thermal and dynamic loads found for the case of the cold wall. The analysis reveals that the fluctuating heat flux exhibits a strong intermittent behavior, characterized by scattered spots with extremely high values compared to the mean. Furthermore, the analogy between momentum and heat transfer, typical of compressible, wall-bounded, equilibrium turbulent flows, does not apply for most of the interaction domain. The premultiplied spectra of the wall heat flux do not show any evidence of the influence of the low-frequency shock motion, and the primary mechanism for the generation of peak heating is found to be linked with the turbulence amplification in the interaction region.

  4. Compressive Sensing Over Networks

    Feizi, Soheil; Effros, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. Our results provide an explicit trade-off between the rate and the decoding complexity. The key difference of compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic approaches is at their decoding side. Although optimal decoders to recover the original signal, compressed by source coding have high complexity, the compressive sensing decoder is a linear or convex optimization. First, we investigate applications of compressive sensing on distributed compression of correlated sources. Here, by using compressive sensing, we propose a compression scheme for a family of correlated sources with a modularized decoder, providing a trade-off between the compression rate and the decoding complexity. We call this scheme Sparse Distributed Compression. We use this compression scheme for a general multi...

  5. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  6. Satellite data compression

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  7. Specific absorption rate determination of magnetic nanoparticles through hyperthermia measurements in non-adiabatic conditions

    Coïsson, M.; Barrera, G.; Celegato, F.; Martino, L.; Vinai, F.; Martino, P.; Ferraro, G.; Tiberto, P.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental setup for magnetic hyperthermia operating in non-adiabatic conditions is described. A thermodynamic model that takes into account the heat exchanged by the sample with the surrounding environment is developed. A suitable calibration procedure is proposed that allows the experimental validation of the model. Specific absorption rate can then be accurately determined just from the measurement of the sample temperature at the equilibrium steady state. The setup and the measurement procedure represent a simplification with respect to other systems requiring calorimeters or crucial corrections for heat flow. Two families of magnetic nanoparticles, one superparamagnetic and one characterised by larger sizes and static hysteresis, have been characterised as a function of field intensity, and specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power have been obtained.

  8. Cosmological Simulations with Scale-Free Initial Conditions; 1, Adiabatic Hydrodynamics

    Owen, J M; Evrard, A E; Hernquist, L E; Katz, N; Weinberg, David H.; Evrard, August E.; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal

    1997-01-01

    We analyze hierarchical structure formation based on scale-free initial conditions in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, including a baryonic component. We present three independent, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, performed with two different SPH codes (TreeSPH and P3MSPH) at two resolutions. Each simulation is based upon identical initial conditions, which consist of Gaussian distributed initial density fluctuations that have an n=-1 power spectrum. The baryonic material is modeled as an ideal gas subject only to shock heating and adiabatic heating and cooling. The evolution is expected to be self-similar in time, and under certain restrictions we identify the expected scalings for many properties of the distribution of collapsed objects in all three realizations. The distributions of dark matter masses, baryon masses, and mass and emission weighted temperatures scale quite reliably. However, the density estimates in the central regions of these structures are determined by the degree of num...

  9. The Yang-Yang anomaly in liquid-liquid criticality: Experimental evidence from adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Tripathi, Chandra Shekhar Pati; Leys, Jan; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Using adiabatic scanning calorimetry, we have found the first experimental evidence of the Yang-Yang anomaly in liquid-liquid criticality from high-resolution two-phase isobaric heat capacity measurements for the binary mixture 3-pentanol + nitromethane. The results suggest a rather strong effect. The critical amplitude of the partial molar heat capacity is higher for the component with larger molecular volume, in accordance with the predictions of complete scaling as obtained from the customary observed asymmetric behavior of the coexistence-curve diameter. This consolidates complete scaling as the true formulation of fluid-fluid criticality. The quantitative analysis indicates that molecular size is not the only microscopic factor at play in asymmetric liquid-liquid criticality.

  10. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-01-01

    In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, $R_c$, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of $R_c$ holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of $R_c$ dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, $\\delta P_{nad}\\equiv\\delta P-c_w^2\\delta\\rho$ where $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$, usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of $R_c$ on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfies $\\d...

  11. Physics on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold and cosmology

    Lipovka, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    In present paper we confirm our previous result [4] that Planck constant is adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field propagating on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold. Direct calculation from cosmological parameters gives value h=6x10(-27) (erg s). We also confirm that Planck constant (and hence other fundamental constants which depend on h) is varied on time due to changing of geometry. As an example the variation of the fine structure constant is calculated. Its relative variation ((da/dt)/a) consist 1.0x10(-18) (1/s). We show that on the Finsler manifold characterized by adiabatically changed geometry, classical free electromagnetic field is quantized geometrically, from the properties of the manifold in such manner that adiabatic invariant of field is ET=6x10(-27)=h. Electrodynamic equations on the Finslerian manifold are suggested. It is stressed that quantization naturally appears from these equations and is provoked by adiabatically changed geometry of manifold. We consider in details tw...

  12. Finite element methods in incompressible, adiabatic, and compressible flows from fundamental concepts to applications

    Kawahara, Mutsuto

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the finite element method in fluid flows. It is targeted at researchers, from those just starting out up to practitioners with some experience. Part I is devoted to the beginners who are already familiar with elementary calculus. Precise concepts of the finite element method remitted in the field of analysis of fluid flow are stated, starting with spring structures, which are most suitable to show the concepts of superposition/assembling. Pipeline system and potential flow sections show the linear problem. The advection–diffusion section presents the time-dependent problem; mixed interpolation is explained using creeping flows, and elementary computer programs by FORTRAN are included. Part II provides information on recent computational methods and their applications to practical problems. Theories of Streamline-Upwind/Petrov–Galerkin (SUPG) formulation, characteristic formulation, and Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation and others are presented with practical results so...

  13. WELL-POSEDNESS OF INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM FOR EULER EQUATIONS OF INVISCID COMPRESSIBLE ADIABATIC FLUID

    WANG Yue-peng

    2005-01-01

    The well-posedness of the initial value problem of the Euler equations was mainly discussed based on the stratification theory, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of well-posedness are presented for some representative initial or boundary value problem, thus the structure of solution space for local (exact) solution of the Euler equations is determined. Moreover the computation formulas of the analytical solution of the well-posed problem are also given.

  14. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid $\\delta P_{nad}$, another is for a general matter field $\\delta P_{c,nad}$, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if $c_s^2=c_w^2$ where $c_s$ is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$. Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, $\\delta P_{c,nad}=0$, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing $A_c$ and $\\delta P_{nad}$ valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as $c_s\

  15. Adiabatic Quantum Computation is Equivalent to Standard Quantum Computation

    Aharonov, D; Kempe, J; Landau, Z; Lloyd, S; Regev, O; Aharonov, Dorit; Dam, Wim van; Kempe, Julia; Landau, Zeph; Lloyd, Seth; Regev, Oded

    2004-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation has recently attracted attention in the physics and computer science communities, but its computational power has been unknown. We settle this question and describe an efficient adiabatic simulation of any given quantum algorithm, which implies that the adiabatic computation model and the conventional quantum circuit model are polynomially equivalent. Our result can be extended to the physically realistic setting of particles arranged on a two-dimensional grid with nearest neighbor interactions. The equivalence between the models provides a new vantage point from which to tackle the central issues in quantum computation, namely designing new quantum algorithms and constructing fault tolerant quantum computers. In particular, by translating the main open questions in quantum algorithms to the language of spectral gaps of sparse matrices, the result makes quantum algorithmic questions accessible to a wider scientific audience, acquainted with mathematical physics, expander theory a...

  16. Analysis and Simulation of Adiabatic Bend Transitions in Optical Fibers

    YAO Lei; LOU Shu-Qin; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A low-loss criterion for bend transitions in optical fibers is proposed. An optical fiber can be tightly bent with low loss to be adiabatic for the fundamental mode, provided that an approximate upper bound on the rate of change of bend curvature for a given bend curvature is satisfied. Two typical adiabatic bend transition paths, the optimum profile and linear profile, are analyzed and studied numerically. A realizable adiabatic transition with an Archimedean spiral profile is introduced for low bend loss in tightly bent optical fibers. Design of the transitions is based on modeling of the propagation and coupling characteristics of the core and cladding modes,which clearly illustrate the physical processes involved.

  17. Semiclassical approximations for adiabatic slow-fast systems

    Teufel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we give a systematic derivation and justification of the semiclassical model for the slow degrees of freedom in adiabatic slow-fast systems first found by Littlejohn and Flynn [5]. The classical Hamiltonian obtains a correction due to the variation of the adiabatic subspaces and the symplectic form is modified by the curvature of the Berry connection. We show that this classical system can be used to approximate quantum mechanical expectations and the time-evolution of operators also in sub-leading order in the combined adiabatic and semiclassical limit. In solid state physics the corresponding semiclassical description of Bloch electrons has led to substantial progress during the recent years, see [1]. Here, as an illustration, we show how to compute the Piezo-current arising from a slow deformation of a crystal in the presence of a constant magnetic field.

  18. Nitrogen oxide reduction strategies for compression ignition engines

    Chapman, Elana M.

    2008-05-01

    The scope of this investigation is to explore strategies to reduce NOx emissions from compression ignition engines. Two methods are presented in this collection of studies: (1) NOx reduction accomplished through a change in fuel formulation, specifically through a change in the saturated fuel carbon chains of biodiesel; and (2) NOx reduction accomplished through a mixed mode combustion process utilizing a fumigated fuel and a pilot injection of diesel fuel. In the first study, a light duty diesel engine was used to investigate the change in saturation of a biodiesel fuel and its impact on NOx emissions. Previous studies have shown that a reduction in the iodine value of a biodiesel fuel produces a reduction in NOx emissions. The iodine value of the fuel is reduced through the saturation of the C18 molecules via hydrogenation of biodiesel fuel. Experiments were performed at several speeds and loads without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a NOx reduction with the hydrogenated diesel fuel was observed. For all the modes studied, the NOx emission was higher for the biodiesel and lower for the hydrogenated biodiesel in comparison to the ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Results from the calculation of the adiabatic flame temperature shows that the results could be explained by the difference in adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel, thus influencing the prompt NOx contribution in addition to the thermal contribution. Since the adiabatic flame temperatures are similar for the hydrogenated biodiesel and the ULSD, yet the NOx reduction with the hydrogenated biodiesel is much lower than the ULSD levels, another explanation for the reduction is suggested: the additional prompt NOx contribution from the change in fuel chemistry. The second study investigated the NOx reductions which could be achieved with a mixed mode combustion process utilizing a fumigated fuel and a pilot injection of diesel fuel. In this research, the fumigated fuel was dimethyl ether (DME) and

  19. Three-Dimensional Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Heat Propagation in Liquid Argon

    郭英奎; 过增元; 梁新刚

    2001-01-01

    The propagation behaviour of an initial thermal perturbation in liquid argon is simulated by the molecular dynamics method. The 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential and mirror boundary conditions are employed in the 32768particle three-dimensional simulation. Macroscopic characteristics such as the kinetic temperature, pressure and momentum profiles are monitored during the simulation in order to examine the heat propagation behaviour under a timescale comparable with the relaxation time. The results show that the behaviour is still diffusionlike; no features predicted by the Cattaneo-Vernotte model have been found. The wave-like front of the local temperature may be caused by the adiabatic compression and expansion by the pressure wave generated by the thermal expansion.

  20. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-10-01

    In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad ≡ δP - cw2 δρ where cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ , usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad = 0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA), which is guaranteed if cw2 = cs2 , where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR) inflation in which cw2 = cs2 = 1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2 = cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.

  1. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad≡δP−cw2δρ where cw2=P˙/ρ˙, usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad=0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA, which is guaranteed if cw2=cs2, where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR inflation in which cw2=cs2=1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2=cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.

  2. Quantum-statistical equation-of-state models of dense plasmas: high-pressure Hugoniot shock adiabats

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of two self-consistent equation-of-state models which differ from their electronic contribution: the atom in a spherical cell and the atom in a jellium of charges. It is shown that both models are well suited for the calculation of Hugoniot shock adiabats in the high pressure range (1 Mbar-10 Gbar), and that the atom-in-a-jellium model provides a better treatment of pressure ionization. Comparisons with experimental data are also presented. Shell effects on shock adiabats are reviewed in the light of these models. They lead to additional features not only in the variations of pressure versus density, but also in the variations of shock velocity versus particle velocity. Moreover, such effects are found to be responsible for enhancement of the electronic specific heat.

  3. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik;

    2016-01-01

    temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank, but its influence on the hydrogen peak temperature that occurs at the end of refueling is modest. The heat transfer from the gas...

  4. A compressed hydrogen gas storage system with an integrated phase change material

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Jørgensen, Jens Erik;

    2015-01-01

    below the critical temperature of 85 °C, while filling the hydrogen at ambient temperature. Results show that a 10-mm-thick layer of paraffin wax can absorb enough heat to reduce the adiabatic temperature by 20 K when compared to a standard Type IV tank. The heat transfer from the gas to the phase...

  5. Adiabatic hyperspherical approach to large-scale nuclear dynamics

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a fully microscopic approach to large-scale nuclear dynamics using a hyperradius as a collective coordinate. An adiabatic potential is defined by taking account of all possible configurations at a fixed hyperradius, and its hyperradius dependence plays a key role in governing the global nuclear motion. In order to go to larger systems beyond few-body systems, we suggest basis functions of a microscopic multicluster model, propose a method for calculating matrix elements of an adiabatic Hamiltonian with use of Fourier transforms, and test its effectiveness.

  6. Nanoscale resolution for fluorescence microscopy via adiabatic passage

    Rubio, Juan Luis; Ahufinger, Verònica; Mompart, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage technique for fluorescence microscopy with nanoscale resolution in the far field. This technique uses a {\\Lambda}-type medium coherently coupled to two laser pulses: the pump, with a node in its spatial profile, and the Stokes. The population of the {\\Lambda} system is adiabatically transferred from one ground state to the other except at the node position, yielding a narrow population peak. This coherent localization allows fluorescence imaging with nanometer lateral resolution. We derive an analytical expression to asses the resolution and perform a comparison with the coherent population trapping and the stimulated-emission-depletion techniques.

  7. Microstructure evolution mechanism in adiabatic shear band in TA2

    杨扬; 熊俊; 杨续跃

    2004-01-01

    The micro structure evolution mechanism in adiabatic shear band in commercial pure titanium (TA2) at high strain rates(γ≈105 - 106/s) were studied. The nanosized recrystallized grains (about 50 nm in diameter) within the center of adiabatic shear band (ASB) were observed by means of transmission electronic microscope (TEM). A Rotational Dynamic Recrystallization (RDR) mechanism can explain the microstructure evolution (i. e. nanosized grains were formed within 5 - 10μs) in ASB. Kinetics calculations indicate that the recrystallized small grains are formed during the deformation and don't undergo significant growth by grain boundary migration after deformation.

  8. How to Make the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm Fail

    Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Nagaj, D; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam; Nagaj, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The quantum adiabatic algorithm is a Hamiltonian based quantum algorithm designed to find the minimum of a classical cost function whose domain has size N. We show that poor choices for the Hamiltonian can guarantee that the algorithm will not find the minimum if the run time grows more slowly than square root of N. These poor choices are nonlocal and wash out any structure in the cost function to be minimized and the best that can be hoped for is Grover speedup. These failures tell us what not to do when designing quantum adiabatic algorithms.

  9. Energy-efficient miniature-scale heat pumping based on shape memory alloys

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Wendler, Frank; Gueltig, Marcel; Lambrecht, Franziska; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Cooling and thermal management comprise a major part of global energy consumption. The by far most widespread cooling technology today is vapor compression, reaching rather high efficiencies, but promoting global warming due to the use of environmentally harmful refrigerants. For widespread emerging applications using microelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical systems, thermoelectrics is the most advanced technology, which however hardly reaches coefficients of performance (COP) above 2.0. Here, we introduce a new approach for energy-efficient heat pumping using the elastocaloric effect in shape memory alloys. This development is mainly targeted at applications on miniature scales, while larger scales are envisioned by massive parallelization. Base materials are cold-rolled textured Ti49.1Ni50.5Fe0.4 foils of 30 μm thickness showing an adiabatic temperature change of +20/-16 K upon superelastic loading/unloading. Different demonstrator layouts consisting of mechanically coupled bridge structures with large surface-to-volume ratios are developed allowing for control by a single actuator as well as work recovery. Heat transfer times are in the order of 1 s, being orders of magnitude faster than for bulk geometries. Thus, first demonstrators achieve values of specific heating and cooling power of 4.5 and 2.9 W g-1, respectively. A maximum temperature difference of 9.4 K between heat source and sink is reached within 2 min. Corresponding COP on the device level are 4.9 (heating) and 3.1 (cooling).

  10. Trace element mass balance in hydrous adiabatic mantle melting: The Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    numerical mass balance calculation model for the adiabatic melting of a dry to hydrous peridotite has been programmed in order to simulate the trace element compositions of basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins, ocean islands, and large igneous provinces. The Excel spreadsheet-based calculator, Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1) uses (1) a thermodynamic model of fractional adiabatic melting of mantle peridotite, with (2) the parameterized experimental melting relationships of primitive to depleted mantle sources in terms of pressure, temperature, water content, and degree of partial melting. The trace element composition of the model basalt is calculated from the accumulated incremental melts within the adiabatic melting regime, with consideration for source depletion. The mineralogic mode in the primitive to depleted source mantle in adiabat is calculated using parameterized experimental results. Partition coefficients of the trace elements of mantle minerals are parameterized to melt temperature mostly from a lattice strain model and are tested using the latest compilations of experimental results. The parameters that control the composition of trace elements in the model are as follows: (1) mantle potential temperature, (2) water content in the source mantle, (3) depth of termination of adiabatic melting, and (4) source mantle depletion. HAMMS1 enables us to obtain the above controlling parameters using Monte Carlo fitting calculations and by comparing the calculated basalt compositions to primary basalt compositions. Additionally, HAMMS1 compares melting parameters with a major element model, which uses petrogenetic grids formulated from experimental results, thus providing better constraints on the source conditions.

  11. Optimization analysis of high temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system can make full use of heat released from the condenser of heat pump for DW regeneration without additional heat. In this study, DW operation in the HTHP&DW system was investigated experimentally, and the optimization analysis....... Compared to the isosteric heat, heat accumulation in the desiccant and matrix material and heat leakage from regeneration side to process side have greater influence on the adiabatic effectiveness. Higher regeneration temperature leads to lower adiabatic effectiveness that increases more cooling load...

  12. Large adiabatic temperature and magnetic entropy changes in EuTi O3

    Midya, A.; Mandal, P.; Rubi, Km.; Chen, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang-Sheng; Mahendiran, R.; Lorusso, G.; Evangelisti, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the magnetocaloric effect in single and polycrystalline samples of quantum paraelectric EuTi O3 by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. Single crystalline EuTi O3 shows antiferromagnetic ordering due to E u2 + magnetic moments below TN=5.6 K . This compound shows a giant magnetocaloric effect around its Néel temperature. The isothermal magnetic entropy change is 49 J kg-1K-1 , the adiabatic temperature change is 21 K, and the refrigeration capacity is 500 J kg-1 for a field change of 7 T at TN. The single crystal and polycrystalline samples show similar values of the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes. The large magnetocaloric effect is due to suppression of the spin entropy associated with the localized 4 f moment of E u2 + ions. The giant magnetocaloric effect, together with negligible hysteresis, suggest that EuTi O3 could be a potential material for magnetic refrigeration below 40 K.

  13. Adiabatic frequency conversion with a sign flip in the coupling

    Hristova, H. S.; Rangelov, A. A.; Montemezzani, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Adiabatic frequency conversion is a method recently developed in nonlinear optics [H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.063821], using ideas from the technique of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) via a level crossing in quantum physics. In this method, the coupling coefficients are constant and the phase mismatch is chirped adiabatically. In this work, we propose another method for adiabatic frequency conversion, in which the phase mismatch is constant and the coupling is a pulse-shaped function with a sign flip (i.e., a phase step of π ) at its maximum. Compared to the RAP method, our technique has comparable efficiency but it is simpler to implement for it only needs two bulk crystals with opposite χ(2 ) nonlinearity. Moreover, because our technique requires constant nonzero frequency mismatch and has zero conversion efficiency on exact frequency matching, it can be used as a frequency filter.

  14. On Models of Nonlinear Evolution Paths in Adiabatic Quantum Algorithms

    SUN Jie; LU Song-Feng; Samuel L.Braunstein

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study two different nonlinear interpolating paths in adiabatic evolution algorithms for solving a particular class of quantum search problems where both the initial and final Hamiltonian are one-dimensional projector Hamiltonians on the corresponding ground state.If the overlap between the initial state and final state of the quantum system is not equal to zero,both of these models can provide a constant time speedup over the usual adiabatic algorithms by increasing some another corresponding "complexity".But when the initial state has a zero overlap with the solution state in the problem,the second model leads to an infinite time complexity of the algorithm for whatever interpolating functions being applied while the first one can still provide a constant running time.However,inspired by a related reference,a variant of the first model can be constructed which also fails for the problem when the overlap is exactly equal to zero if we want to make up the "intrinsic" fault of the second model — an increase in energy.Two concrete theorems are given to serve as explanations why neither of these two models can improve the usual adiabatic evolution algorithms for the phenomenon above.These just tell us what should be noted when using certain nonlinear evolution paths in adiabatic quantum algorithms for some special kind of problems.

  15. A Kinetic Study of the Adiabatic Polymerization of Acrylamide.

    Thomson, R. A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses theory, procedures, and results for an experiment which demonstrates the application of basic physics to chemical problems. The experiment involves the adiabatic process, in which polymerization carried out in a vacuum flask is compared to the theoretical prediction of the model with the temperature-time curve obtained in practice. (JN)

  16. Flat FRW Cosmologies with Adiabatic Matter Creation Kinematic tests

    Lima, J A S

    1999-01-01

    Some observational consequences of a cosmological scenario driven by adiabatic matter creation are investigated. Exact expressions for the lookback time, age of the universe, luminosity distance, angular diameter, and galaxy number counts redshift relations are derived and their meaning discussed in detail. The expressions of the conventional FRW models are significantly modified and provide a powerful method to limit the parameters of the models.

  17. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit

    Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

  18. Perturbation to Noether Symmetries and Adiabatic Invariants for Birkhoffian Systems

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on El-Nabulsi dynamical model for a non-conservative system, the problem of perturbation to Noether symmetries and adiabatic invariants of a Birkhoffian system under the action of a small disturbance is proposed and studied. Firstly, the El-Nabulsi-Pfaff variational problem from extended exponentially fractional integral is presented and the El-Nabulsi-Birkhoff equations are established. Secondly, the definitions and the criterions criteria of the Noether symmetric transformations and quasisymmetric transformations of the Birkhoffian system are given, and the Noether theorems of the system are established, which reveal the inner relationship between the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities. Thirdly, the perturbation of Noether symmetries under a small disturbance is studied, and corresponding adiabatic invariants are obtained. As special cases, the deductions in nonconservative Hamiltonian system and nonconservative Lagrangian system and standard Birkhoffian system are given. At the end of the paper, the case known as Hojman-Urrutia problem is discussed to investigate the Noether symmetries and the adiabatic invariants, the perturbation to Noether symmetries and the adiabatic invariants under El-Nabulsi dynamical model.

  19. Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited

    Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.

    2012-01-01

    The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…

  20. High beta lasing in micropillar cavities with adiabatic layer design

    Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels; Lorke, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We report on lasing in optically pumped adiabatic micropillar cavities, based on the AlAs/GaAs material system. A detailed study of the threshold pump power and the spontaneous emission β factor in the lasing regime for different diameters dc is presented. We demonstrate a reduction of the thresh...

  1. Appearance of gauge fields and forces beyond the adiabatic approximation

    Gosselin, Pierre [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582 CNRS-UJF, UFR de Mathematiques, Universite Grenoble I, BP74, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France); Mohrbach, Herve, E-mail: mohrbach@univ-metz.f [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, ICPMB-FR CNRS 2843, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-09-03

    We investigate the origin of quantum geometric phases, gauge fields and forces beyond the adiabatic regime. In particular, we extend the notions of geometric magnetic and electric forces discovered in studies of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to arbitrary quantum systems described by matrix-valued quantum Hamiltonians. The results are illustrated by several physical relevant examples.

  2. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.

    Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M

    2016-06-09

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

  3. Adiabatic and diabatic aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch

    Lugauer, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Furger, M.; Jost, D.T.; Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Synoptic scale vertical motion, here detected by the geopotential height of the 500 hPa surface, mainly accounts for the aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch in winter. In summer, diabatic convection provides the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Nevertheless, synoptic scale adiabatic motion still determines whether diabatic convection can develop. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  4. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    QIAN Shang-Wu; GU Zhi-Yu

    2005-01-01

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the generaltime-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  5. Perturbation to Noether-Mei Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems in Phase Space

    ZHANG Ming-Jiang; FANG Jian-Hui; LU Kai

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to Noether-Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for nonholonomic mechanical systems in phase space are studied. The definition of the perturbation to Noether-Mei symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to Noether-Mei symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained.

  6. 稳态及非稳态传热条件下膨胀珍珠岩绝热性能的研究%THE STUDY ON THE ADIABATIC PERFORMANCE OF THE DILATED PERLITE IN THE HEAT TRANSFER UNDER STEADY OR UNSTEADY STATE

    焦安军; 厉彦忠; 张瑞; 陈纯正; 王忠建

    2001-01-01

    在低温系统工作过程中,绝热材料随工作过程的变化和外界温度的波动交替工作在稳态和非稳态两种传热情况下,绝热材料在非稳态传热条件下的绝热性能对低温系统的影响极为重要。本文以常用低温保温材料膨胀珍珠岩(珠光砂)为研究对象,实验测量了在稳态和非稳态传热条件下的导热性能、热扩散性能及其随温度的变化规律,并对两种传热条件下的绝热特性进行了分析和研究,为工程应用提供可靠的依据,也为低温绝热方案的选择及优化设计提供参考资料。%Thermal insulating material would work in either steady state or unsteady state while the environmental temperature varies in the cryogenic system.The effect on cryogenic system is serious due to the different adiabatic performance of thermal insulating material worked under unsteady state compared to that of steady state.Dilated perlite was used widely in cryogenic engineering,so that its thermal conductivity and thermal diffusibility had been measured under steady or unsteady state.The conclusion can be used in the design of cryogenic insulating system.

  7. Perturbation and Adiabatic Invariants of Mei Symmetry for Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems

    DING Ning; FANG Jian-Hui; WANG Peng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant,the perturbation and adiabatic invariants of the Mei symmetry for nonholonomic mechanical systems are studied.The exact invariants of the Mei symmetry for the system without perturbation are given,The perturbation to the Mei symmetry is discussed and the adiabatic invariants of the Mei symmetry for the perturbed system are obtained.

  8. Perturbation to Lie Symmetry and Lutzky Adiabatic Invariants for Lagrange Systems

    REN Ji-Rong; DING Ning; LI Ran; FANG Jian-Hui; DUAN Yi-Shi; WANG Peng; ZHANG Xiao-Ni

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, perturbation to Lie symmetry and Lutzky adiabatic invariants for Lagrange systems are studied by using different methods from those of previous works. Exact invariants induced from Lie symmetry of the system without perturbation are given. Perturbation to Lie symmetry is discussed and Lutzky adiabatic invariants of the system subject to perturbation are obtained.

  9. Computation of methodology-independent single-ion solvation properties from molecular simulations. III. Correction terms for the solvation free energies, enthalpies, entropies, heat capacities, volumes, compressibilities, and expansivities of solvated ions.

    Reif, Maria M; Hünenberger, Philippe H

    2011-04-14

    The raw single-ion solvation free energies computed from atomistic (explicit-solvent) simulations are extremely sensitive to the boundary conditions (finite or periodic system, system or box size) and treatment of electrostatic interactions (Coulombic, lattice-sum, or cutoff-based) used during these simulations. However, as shown by Kastenholz and Hünenberger [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224501 (2006)], correction terms can be derived for the effects of: (A) an incorrect solvent polarization around the ion and an incomplete or/and inexact interaction of the ion with the polarized solvent due to the use of an approximate (not strictly Coulombic) electrostatic scheme; (B) the finite-size or artificial periodicity of the simulated system; (C) an improper summation scheme to evaluate the potential at the ion site, and the possible presence of a polarized air-liquid interface or of a constraint of vanishing average electrostatic potential in the simulated system; and (D) an inaccurate dielectric permittivity of the employed solvent model. Comparison with standard experimental data also requires the inclusion of appropriate cavity-formation and standard-state correction terms. In the present study, this correction scheme is extended by: (i) providing simple approximate analytical expressions (empirically-fitted) for the correction terms that were evaluated numerically in the above scheme (continuum-electrostatics calculations); (ii) providing correction terms for derivative thermodynamic single-ion solvation properties (and corresponding partial molar variables in solution), namely, the enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity (including appropriate standard-state correction terms). The ability of the correction scheme to produce methodology-independent single-ion solvation free energies based on atomistic simulations is tested in the case of Na(+) hydration, and the nature and magnitude of the correction terms for

  10. Non-adiabatic radiative collapse of a relativistic star under different initial conditions

    Ranjan Sharma; Ramesh Tikekar

    2012-09-01

    We examine the role of space-time geometry in the non-adiabatic collapse of a star dissipating energy in the form of radial heat flow, studying its evolution under different initial conditions. The collapse of a star filled with a homogeneous perfect fluid is compared with that of a star filled with inhomogeneous imperfect fluid under anisotropic pressure. Both the configurations are spherically symmetric. However, in the latter case, the physical space = constant of the configurations endowed with spheroidal or pseudospheroidal geometry is assumed to be inhomogeneous. It is observed that as long as the collapse is shear-free, its evolution depends only on the mass and size of the star at the onset of collapse.

  11. Thermal characterization of starch-water system by photopyroelectric technique and adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Bentefour, E. H.; Jamée, P.; Chirtoc, M.; Glorieux, C.; Pitsi, G.; Thoen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important carbohydrate sources in human nutrition. For the thermal analysis of starch, techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry have been extensively used. As an alternative, we have applied a photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration and adiabatic scanning calorimetry (ASC) to study the thermal properties of starch-water systems. For this study we used nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch with different quantities of distilled water, in order to obtain samples with different moisture content. By using PPE and ASC methods we have measured, for each technique separately, the heat capacity by unit volume (ρcp) at room temperature for a corn flour sample at 90% moisture. The obtained values agree within experimental uncertainty. By using these techniques we also studied the thermal behavior of potato starch, at 80% moisture, in the temperature range where phase transitions occur. In this case the PPE signal phase could be used as a sensitive and versatile monitor for phase transitions.

  12. Non-adiabatic spin transfer torque investigated using thermally activated magnetic domain walls in permalloy wires

    Eltschka, Matthias; Krzyk, Stephen; Nowak, Ulrich; Klaeui, Mathias [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Woetzel, Mathias [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Rhensius, Jan [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Heyderman, Laura [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The understanding of the interplay between spin-polarized currents and magnetization as well as the determination of the spin torque terms are of scientific interest and essential for many proposed applications. Using transmission electron microscopy we investigate thermally activated domain walls (DWs) jumping back and forth between two pinning sites in permalloy wires at room temperature. The motion is of pure thermal origin without the influence of external magnetic fields or electron currents. Considering the DW as a quasi particle in a local potential with two metastable states we show that this DW movement can be described by an Arrhenius law. Subsequently, we investigate the change of the local potential by constant currents which are far below the threshold values needed for DW propagation and do not induce significant heating. Based on a 1D description of the spin transfer torque effect and the Arrhenius law we derive the non-adiabatic coefficient {beta} for a transverse and a vortex DW.

  13. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for improved performance of a cold-atom electron and ion source

    Sparkes, B. M.; Murphy, D.; Taylor, R. J.; Speirs, R. W.; McCulloch, A. J.; Scholten, R. E.

    2016-08-01

    We implement high-efficiency coherent excitation to a Rydberg state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a cold-atom electron and ion source. We achieve an efficiency of 60% averaged over the laser excitation volume with a peak efficiency of 82%, a 1.6 times improvement relative to incoherent pulsed-laser excitation. Using pulsed electric field ionization of the Rydberg atoms we create electron bunches with durations of 250 ps. High-efficiency excitation will increase source brightness, crucial for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and coherent excitation to high-lying Rydberg states could allow for the reduction of internal bunch heating and the creation of a high-speed single-ion source.

  14. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  15. Condensation of saturated vapours on isentropic compression: a simple criterion

    Patwardhan, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    A criterion is derived and tested for determining whether the isentropic compression of saturated vapours leads to superheat or condensation. This criterion needs only values of the critical temperature, the acentric factor and the liquid specific heat. The application of the criterion for selection of a working fluid both for heat pumps and heat engines is discussed.

  16. Microbunching and RF Compression

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-23

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  17. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  18. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  19. Hyperspectral data compression

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  20. Compressed gas manifold

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  1. Applications of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Single-Stage, Multi-Stage and Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    Shirron, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), based on the magnetocaloric effect, are solid-state coolers that were the first to achieve cooling well into the sub-kelvin regime. Although supplanted by more powerful dilution refrigerators in the 1960s, ADRs have experienced a revival due to the needs of the space community for cooling astronomical instruments and detectors to temperatures below 100 mK. The earliest of these were single-stage refrigerators using superfluid helium as a heat sink. Their modest cooling power (magnetocaloric effect and its application in single-stage systems, and then describing the challenges and capabilities of multi-stage and continuous ADRs.

  2. Broken space-time symmetries and mechanisms of rectification of ac fields by nonlinear (non)adiabatic response

    Denisov, S.; Flach, S.; Ovchinnikov, A. A.;

    2002-01-01

    We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response is em...... is employed to explain the effect. We consider a case of a particle in a periodic potential as an example and discuss the relevant symmetry breakings and the mechanisms of rectification of the current in such a system....

  3. Low-adiabat rugby hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility: Comparison with high-flux modeling and the potential for gas-wall interpenetration

    Amendt, Peter, E-mail: amendt1@llnl.gov; Ross, J. Steven; Milovich, Jose L.; Schneider, Marilyn; Storm, Erik; Callahan, Debra A.; Hinkel, Denise; Lasinski, Barbara; Meeker, Don; Michel, Pierre; Moody, John; Strozzi, David [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    hindered inner-beam propagation, due largely to the confluence of rugby shape and low ray angles relative to the hohlraum symmetry axis. A significant inward pointing shift of 500 μm in the outer cones for the third (full energy) shot of the series was used to improve the inner-beam propagation, resulting in a nearly symmetric x-ray self-emission image of the compressed core and reduced sensitivity to mix. Comparatively low time-dependent symmetry swings were also measured, and a significantly lower hot electron fraction was measured for potentially favorable fuel adiabat control. The outer cone stimulated Brillouin scatter levels jumped significantly, but remedial measures such as the use of a boron dopant in the Au wall are planned. A continuing trend of delayed implosion times is found in rugby hohlraums, suggesting levels of unaccounted hohlraum energy (∼150–200 kJ) similar to what is inferred in cylinder hohlraums. A mix-based physical scenario is described, based on suppressed channel heat flux to the dense gold wall from a temperature-gradient reversal induced by a multispecies plasma lapse rate [P. Amendt, C. Bellei, and S. C. Wilks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 075002 (2012)].

  4. Adiabatic theory of solitons fed by dispersive waves

    Pickartz, Sabrina; Bandelow, Uwe; Amiranashvili, Shalva

    2016-09-01

    We consider scattering of low-amplitude dispersive waves at an intense optical soliton which constitutes a nonlinear perturbation of the refractive index. Specifically, we consider a single-mode optical fiber and a group velocity matched pair: an optical soliton and a nearly perfectly reflected dispersive wave, a fiber-optical analog of the event horizon. By combining (i) an adiabatic approach that is used in soliton perturbation theory and (ii) scattering theory from quantum mechanics, we give a quantitative account of the evolution of all soliton parameters. In particular, we quantify the increase in the soliton peak power that may result in the spontaneous appearance of an extremely large, so-called champion soliton. The presented adiabatic theory agrees well with the numerical solutions of the pulse propagation equation. Moreover, we predict the full frequency band of the scattered dispersive waves and explain an emerging caustic structure in the space-time domain.

  5. Stellar oscillations. II The non-adiabatic case

    Samadi, R; Sonoi, T

    2015-01-01

    A leap forward has been performed due to the space-borne missions, MOST, CoRoT and Kepler. They provided a wealth of observational data, and more precisely oscillation spectra, which have been (and are still) exploited to infer the internal structure of stars. While an adiabatic approach is often sufficient to get information on the stellar equilibrium structures it is not sufficient to get a full understanding of the physics of the oscillation. Indeed, it does not permit one to answer some fundamental questions about the oscillations, such as: What are the physical mechanisms responsible for the pulsations inside stars? What determines the amplitudes? To what extent the adiabatic approximation is valid? All these questions can only be addressed by considering the energy exchanges between the oscillations and the surrounding medium. This lecture therefore aims at considering the energetical aspects of stellar pulsations with particular emphasis on the driving and damping mechanisms. To this end, the full non-...

  6. Multidimensional Study of High-Adiabat OMEGA Cryogenic Experiments

    Collins, T. J. B.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Christopherson, A. R.; Knauer, J. P.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Mora, A.; Radha, P. B.; Shang, W.; Shvydky, A.; Stoeckl, C.; Woo, K. M.; Varchas, G.

    2016-10-01

    Despite recent advances in modeling laser direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, there remains a predictability gap. This is particularly shown by the shortfall in hot-spot pressures inferred from OMEGA cryogenic implosions. To address this, a series of high-adiabat, cryogenic implosions were performed on OMEGA. These shots were performed with and without single-beam smoothing by spectral dispersion, at low and high drive intensities. These shots represent a regime where good agreement with simulation is expected because of the high adiabat. Multidimensional simulations of these shots will be presented with an emphasis on comparison with experimental indicators of departure from spherical symmetry (``1-D-ness''). The roles of short- and long-wavelength perturbations are considered. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. On some issues of gravitationally induced adiabatic particle productions

    Pan, Supriya; Pramanik, Souvik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the current accelerating universe driven by the gravitationally induced adiabatic matter creation process. To elaborate the underlying cognitive content, here we consider three models of adiabatic particle creation and constrain the model parameters by fitting the models with the Union 2.1 data set using $\\chi^2$ minimization technique. The models are analyzed by two geometrical and model independent tests, viz., cosmography and $Om$-diagnostic, which are widely used to distinguish the cosmological models from $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compared present values of those model independent parameters with that of the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model. Finally, the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics and the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium for the particle production models have been tested.

  8. DESIGN OF TERNARY COUNTER BASED ON ADIABATIC DOMINO CIRCUIT

    Yang Qiankun; Wang Pengjun; Zheng Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    By researching the ternary counter and low power circuit design method,a novel design of low power ternary Domino counter on switch-level is proposed.Firstly,the switch-level structure expression of ternary loop operation circuit with enable pin is derived according to the switch-signal theory,and the one bit ternary counter is obtained combining the ternary adiabatic Domino literal operation circuit and buffer.Then the switch-level structure expression of enable signal circuit is derived,and the four bits ternary counter is obtained by cascade connection.Finally,the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the output waveforms transform in proper order indicating that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the four bits ternary adiabatic Domino counter is 63% less than the conventional Domino counterpart.

  9. Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands

    Mendoza, I., E-mail: ivanmendozabravo@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Villalobos, D. [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Alexandrov, B.T. [The Ohio State University (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids.

  10. Some characteristics of the atmosphere during an adiabatic process

    GAO Li; LI Jianping; REN Hongli

    2006-01-01

    Some important characteristics of the atmosphere during an adiabatic process are investigated, which include the invariability of atmospheric entropy range and local surface potential temperature, the conservation of the atmospheric mass intervened between any isentropic surface and the ground, and the isentropic surface intersecting with the ground. The analysis shows that the atmospheric reference state (ARS) for investigation on available potential energy (APE) should be defined objectively as the state which could be approached from the existing atmosphere by adiabatic adjustment, and be related to initial atmospheric state before adjustment. For the initial atmosphere state at any time, its corresponding ARS is different from the one at another time. Based on the above-mentioned conclusions,the reference state proposed by Lorenz cannot be obtained physically, so a new conception, the conditional minimum total potential energy, is put forward in order to objectively investigate atmospheric APE.

  11. Particle creation and non-adiabatic transitions in quantum cosmology

    Massar, S

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compute transitions amplitudes in quantum cosmology, and in particular pair creation amplitudes and radiative transitions. To this end, we apply a double adiabatic development to the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation restricted to mini-superspace wherein gravity is described by the scale factor $a$. The first development consists in working with instantaneous eigenstates, in $a$, of the matter Hamiltonian. The second development is applied to the gravitational part of the wave function and generalizes the usual WKB approximation. We then obtain an exact equation which replaces the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and determines the evolution, i.e. the dependence in $a$, of the coefficients of this double expansion. When working in the gravitational adiabatic approximation, the simplified equation delivers the unitary evolution of transition amplitudes occurring among instantaneous eigenstates. Upon abandoning this approximation, one finds that there is an additional coupling among ma...

  12. Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy

    Berweger, Samuel; Atkin, Joanna M.; Olmon, Robert L.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2010-12-16

    True nanoscale optical spectroscopy requires the efficient delivery of light for a spatially nanoconfined excitation. We utilize adiabatic plasmon focusing to concentrate an optical field into the apex of a scanning probe tip of {approx}10 nm in radius. The conical tips with the ability for two-stage optical mode matching of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) grating-coupling and the adiabatic propagating SPP conversion into a localized SPP at the tip apex represent a special optical antenna concept for far-field transduction into nanoscale excitation. The resulting high nanofocusing efficiency and the spatial separation of the plasmonic grating coupling element on the tip shaft from the near-field apex probe region allows for true background-free nanospectroscopy. As an application, we demonstrate tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) of surface molecules with enhanced contrast and its extension into the near-IR with 800 nm excitation.

  13. Confinement loss in adiabatic photonic crystal fiber tapers

    Kuhlmey, Boris T.; Nguyen, Hong C.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2006-09-01

    We numerically study confinement loss in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) tapers and compare our results with previously published experimental data. Agreement between theory and experiment requires taking into account hole shrinkage during the tapering process, which we measure by using a noninvasive technique. We show that losses are fully explained within the adiabatic approximation and that they are closely linked to the existence of a fundamental core-mode cutoff. This cutoff is equivalent to the core-mode cutoff in depressed-cladding fibers, so that losses in PCF tapers can be obtained semiquantitatively from an equivalent depressed-cladding fiber model. Finally, we discuss the definition of adiabaticity in this open boundary problem.

  14. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.

  15. Adiabatic Evolution in XXX Spin Chain is Fast

    Korepin, V

    2004-01-01

    Adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics was used by E. Farhi, J. Goldstone, S. Gutmann and M. Sipser to design quantum algorithms of a new kind. A quantum computer evolves slowly enough, so that it remains in its instantaneous ground state, which tells the solution. We consider XXX Heisenberg spin chain. We rotate magnetic field and change its magnitude. The ground state evolves from a ferromagnetic one into a nontrivial ground state of XXX anti-ferromagnet. This adiabatic evolution goes very gently. Because of SU(2) symmetry and integrability only one mode get exited. We prove that the time of the evolution scales as a square root of number of qubits. This is faster then other known examples.

  16. Experimental Adiabatic Quantum Factorization under Ambient Conditions Based on a Solid-State Single Spin System.

    Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2017-03-31

    The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.

  17. Quantum state preparation in semiconductor dots by adiabatic rapid passage

    Wu, Yanwen; Piper, I.M.; Ediger, M.; Brereton, P.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Hugues, M.; Hopkinson, M.; Phillips, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of a specific quantum state is a required step for a variety of proposed practical uses of quantum dynamics. We report an experimental demonstration of optical quantum state preparation in a semiconductor quantum dot with electrical readout, which contrasts with earlier work based on Rabi flopping in that the method is robust with respect to variation in the optical coupling. We use adiabatic rapid passage, which is capable of inverting single dots to a specified upper level. We d...

  18. Adiabatic Shear Bands in Simple and Dipolar Viscoplastic Materials

    1991-08-01

    shear banding, especially from a materials point oi *iew Experimental studies dealing with adiabatic .hear Danding mciude those of Zener and Hollomon...and especially in the region surrounding the center of the block, alters. The nonhomogeneity of the deformation near the corners is now evident...describe ehe work-hardening of the material and accounts approxi- mately for the history of ehe deformation. The rate of evolucion of 4> is assumed

  19. High-Fidelity Entangled Bell States via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    Paul, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    We present a couple of protocols based on shortcut to adiabaticity techniques for rapid generation of robust entangled Bell states in a system of two two-state systems. Our protocols rely on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm and Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (LRI) method. Both TQD and LRI methods result in high fidelity in population transfer.Our study shows that it is possible to prepare an entangled state in infinitely short time without losing robustness and efficiency.

  20. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  1. Characterization of Adiabatic Noise in Charge-Based Coherent Nanodevices

    D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Mastellone, A.; Paladino, E.

    2008-10-01

    Low-frequency noise, often with 1/f spectrum, has been recognized as the main mechanism of decoherence in present-day solid state coherent nanodevices. The responsible degrees of freedom are almost static during the coherent time evolution of the device leading to effects analogous to inhomogeneous broadening in NMR. Here we present a characterization of the effects of adiabatic noise exploiting the tunability of nanodevices.

  2. Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves

    Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-03-15

    In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.

  3. Mapping the region of instability for adiabatic continuation method

    GUTIÉRREZHERNANDEZ, JUAN PABLO; Fontalvo Alzate, Javier; Gómez García, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    The pioneer schematic ideas of Kimura and Levenspiel (Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 16 (1977) 145 – 148) have been developed to find numerically the region of instability for adiabatic packed bed reactors. Three different cases of special industrial interest and complexity are presented. The highly exothermic gas-phase reactions: ammonia synthesis, methanol production from syn-gas, and SO₂ oxidation. Equations were parameterized and solved according to a continuation homotopy numerical met...

  4. Hypercomputability of quantum adiabatic processes: Fact versus Prejudices

    Kieu, T D

    2005-01-01

    We give an overview of a quantum adiabatic algorithm for Hilbert's tenth problem, including some discussions on its fundamental aspects and the emphasis on the probabilistic correctness of its findings. For the purpose of illustration, the numerical simulation results of some simple Diophantine equations are presented. We also discuss some prejudicial misunderstandings as well as some plausible difficulties faced by the algorithm in its physical implementation.

  5. Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection

    Rebolini, Elisa, E-mail: rebolini@lct.jussieu.fr; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr; Savin, Andreas, E-mail: savin@lct.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Teale, Andrew M. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Helgaker, Trygve [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-07-28

    We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connection links the non-interacting Kohn–Sham electronic system to the physical interacting system by progressively switching on the electron–electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting a one-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-state density constant. The interactions are introduced in a range-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range, and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached, as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where the interactions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction. Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H{sub 2} molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potential at the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb's Legendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron–electron interactions increases, the excitation energies, calculated for the partially interacting systems along the adiabatic connection, offer increasingly accurate approximations to the exact excitation energies. Importantly, the excitation energies calculated at an intermediate point of the adiabatic connection are much better approximations to the exact excitation energies than are the corresponding Kohn–Sham excitation energies. This is particularly evident in situations involving strong static correlation effects and states with multiple excitation character, such as the dissociating H{sub 2} molecule. These results highlight the utility of long-range interacting reference systems as a starting point for the calculation of excitation energies and are of interest for developing and analyzing practical approximate range-separated density-functional methodologies.

  6. A field theory characterization of interacting adiabatic particles in cosmology

    Arteaga, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We explore the adiabatic particle excitations of an interacting field in a cosmological background. By following the time-evolution of the quantum state corresponding to the particle excitation, we show how the basic properties characterizing the particle propagation can be recovered from the two-point propagators. As an application, we study the background-induced dissipative effects on the propagation of a two-level atom in an expanding universe.

  7. A field theory characterization of interacting adiabatic particles in cosmology

    Arteaga, Daniel [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: darteaga@ub.edu

    2008-08-07

    We explore the adiabatic particle excitations of an interacting field in a cosmological background. By following the time evolution of the quantum state corresponding to the particle excitation, we show how the basic properties characterizing the particle propagation can be recovered from the two-point propagators. As an application, we study the background-induced dissipative effects on the propagation of a two-level atom in an expanding universe.

  8. Adiabatic embedment of nanomechanical resonators in photonic microring cavities

    Xiong, Chi; Li, Mo; Rooks, Michael; Tang, Hong X

    2014-01-01

    We report a circuit cavity optomechanical system in which a nanomechanical resonator is adiabatically embedded inside an optical ring resonator with ultralow transition loss. The nanomechanical device forms part of the top layer of a horizontal silicon slot ring resonator, which enables dispersive coupling to the dielectric substrate via a tapered nanogap. Our measurements show nearly uncompromised optical quality factors (Q) after the release of the mechanical beam.

  9. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry and beyond

    Nikolay V. Vitanov; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 (Gaubatz \\emph{et al.}, J. Chem. Phys. \\textbf{92}, 5363, 1990). Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the ...

  10. Radiative heat conduction and the magnetorotational instability

    Araya-Gochez, R A; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08329.x

    2004-01-01

    A photon or a neutrino gas, semicontained by a non-diffusive particle species through scattering, comprises a rather peculiar magnetohydrodynamic fluid where the magnetic field is truly frozen only to the comoving volume associated with the mass density. Although radiative diffusion precludes a formal adiabatic treatment of compressive perturbations, we cast the energy equation in quasi- adiabatic form by assuming a negligible rate of energy exchange among species on the time-scale of the perturbation. This leads to a simplified dispersion relation for toroidal, non-axisymmetric magnetorotational modes when the accretion disc has comparable stress contributions from diffusive and non-diffusive components. The properties of the modes of fastest growth are shown to depend strongly on the compressibility of the mode, with a reduction in growth rate consistent with the results of Blaes & Socrates for axisymmetric modes. A clumpy disc structure is anticipated on the basis of the polarization properties of the ...

  11. Numerical study on the suppression of shock induced separation on the non-adiabatic wall

    Lee, Doug-Bong

    2000-12-01

    A numerical model is constructed to simulate the interaction of supersonic ( M=2.4) oblique shock wave / turbulent boundary layer on a strongly heated wall. The heated wall temperature is two times higher than the adiabatic wall temperature and the shock wave is strong enough to induce boundary layer separation. The turbulence model is Spalart-Allmaras model. The comparison of the wall pressure distribution with the experimental data ensures the validity of this numerical model. The effect of strong wall heating enlarges the separation region upstream and downstream. In order to eliminate the separation, wall bleeding is applied at the shock foot position. As a result of the parametric study, the best position of the bleeding slot is selected. The position of the bleeding is very important for the separation suppression. If the bleeding is applied upstream of shock foot, then separation reoccurs after the bleeding slot. If the bleeding is applied downstream of shock foot, the upstream boundary layer is little influenced and still separated. The bleeding vent width is about same as the upstream boundary layer thickness and suction mass flow is 20 to 80 % of the flow rate in the upstream boundary layer. The bleeding mass flow rate is very sensitive to the bleeding vent position if we fix the vent outlet pressure. The final configuration of the shock reflection pattern approaches to the non-viscous value when wall bleeding is applied at the shock impinging point.

  12. Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Joyee Ghosh; R Ghosh; Deepak Kumar

    2011-10-01

    A three-level atom in a configuration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efficient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high fidelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through the ‘dark state’ by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. We study the full quantum mechanics of this transfer process with a view to examine the non-adiabatic effects arising from inevitable excitations of the system to states involving the upper level of , which is radiative. We find that the fidelity of storage is better, the stronger the control field and the slower the rate of its switching off. On the contrary, unlike the adiabatic notion, retrieval is better with faster rates of switching on of an optimal control field. Also, for retrieval, the behaviour with dissipation is non-monotonic. These results lend themselves to experimental tests. Our exact computations, when applied to slow variations of the control intensity for strong atom–photon couplings, are in very good agreement with Berry’s superadiabatic transfer results without dissipation.

  13. Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning

    Smelyanskiy, Vadius; vonToussaint, Udo V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum exitation gap, gmin = O(n2(sup -n/2)), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.

  14. Adiabatic Shear Mechanisms for the Hard Cutting Process

    YUE Caixu; WANG Bo; LIU Xianli; FENG Huize; CAI Chunbin

    2015-01-01

    The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remalns some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high straln domaln caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.

  15. Adiabatic invariants for the regular region of the Dicke model

    Bastarrachea-Magnani, M. A.; Relaño, A.; Lerma-Hernández, S.; López-del-Carpio, B.; Chávez-Carlos, J.; Hirsch, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    Adiabatic invariants for the non-integrable Dicke model are introduced. They are shown to provide approximate second integrals of motion in the energy region where the system exhibits a regular dynamics. This low-energy region, present for any set of values of the Hamiltonian parameters is described both with a semiclassical and a full quantum analysis in a broad region of the parameter space. Peres lattices in this region exhibit that many observables vary smoothly with energy, along distinct lines which beg for a formal description. It is demonstrated how the adiabatic invariants provide a rationale to their presence in many cases. They are built employing the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, valid when a fast system is coupled to a much slower one. As the Dicke model has one bosonic and one fermionic degree of freedom, two versions of the approximation are used, depending on which one is the faster. In both cases a noticeably accord with exact numerical results is obtained. The employment of the adiabatic invariants provides a simple and clear theoretical framework to study the physical phenomenology associated to these regimes, far beyond the energies where a quadratic approximation around the minimal energy configuration can be used.

  16. Numerical study of polaron problem in the adiabatic limit

    Marsiglio, Frank; Li, Zhou; Blois, Cindy; Baillie, Devin

    2010-03-01

    We study the polaron problem in a one dimensional chain and on a two dimensional square lattice. The models we have used are the Holstein model and the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. By a variational procedure based on the Lanczos method, we are able to examine the polaron problem in the limit when the mass of the ion is very large, i.e. close to the adiabatic limit. It is known that for the Holstein model there is no phase transition [1] for any nonzero phonon energy. It is also known that for the one dimensional Holstein or SSH model there will be long range order [2] (e.g. dimerization) in the adiabatic limit at half-filling. It is then interesting to study the long range order on a two dimensional square lattice in and away from the adiabatic limit. Moreover, recent progress for the single polaron near an impurity (disorder) [3] make it an interesting problem for studying bond length disorder which can change the hopping energy in a specific direction in the Holstein model. Reference: [1] H. Lowen, Phys.Rev.B 37, 8661 (1988) [2] J.E.Hirsch and E. Frandkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 402 (1982) [3]A.S.Mishchenko et.al Phys.Rev.B 79(2009) 180301(R)

  17. Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms, Small Gaps, and Different Paths

    Farhi, Edward; Gosset, David; Gutmann, Sam; Meyer, Harvey B; Shor, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We construct a set of instances of 3SAT which are not solved efficiently using the simplest quantum adiabatic algorithm. These instances are obtained by picking random clauses all consistent with two disparate planted solutions and then penalizing one of them with a single additional clause. We argue that by randomly modifying the beginning Hamiltonian, one obtains (with substantial probability) an adiabatic path that removes this difficulty. This suggests that the quantum adiabatic algorithm should in general be run on each instance with many different random paths leading to the problem Hamiltonian. We do not know whether this trick will help for a random instance of 3SAT (as opposed to an instance from the particular set we consider), especially if the instance has an exponential number of disparate assignments that violate few clauses. We use a continuous imaginary time Quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in a novel way to numerically investigate the ground state as well as the first excited state of our system...

  18. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  19. Effect of low-temperature rolling on the propensity to adiabatic shear banding of commercial purity tungsten

    Wei, Q., E-mail: qwei@uncc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Kecskes, L.J. [WMRD US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Ramesh, K.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    In this work, we have investigated the effect of low-temperature rolling on the mechanical properties of commercial purity tungsten, particularly the high strain rate (dynamic) behavior of the cold-rolled samples vis-à-vis the as-received coarse-grained material. After rolling, the material was tested under both quasi-static and dynamic (Kolsky bar) uniaxial compression loading conditions. We have found that low-temperature rolling both improves the ductility and the strength of commercial purity tungsten. The rolled tungsten exhibits elastic-nearly perfectly plastic behavior under quasi-static loading, and a strong flow softening tendency with a precipitous stress drop under dynamic loading. Both in situ high speed movie snapshots and post-mortem examination of the dynamic samples suggest that the precipitous stress drop was caused by adiabatic shear banding in the cold-rolled material. The greatly enhanced susceptibility to adiabatic shear banding in the cold-rolled tungsten can either be explained semi-quantitatively based on a mechanistic model or from the rolling texture that leads to geometric softening under dynamic loading.

  20. Post-adiabatic supernova remnants in the interstellar magnetic field. Parallel and perpendicular shocks

    Petruk, O; Beshley, V

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-rays from hadronic collisions are expected from supernova remnants (SNRs) located near molecular clouds. The temperature on the shock interacting with the dense environment quickly reaches $10^5$ K. The radiative losses of plasma become essential in the evolution of SNRs. They decrease the thermal pressure and essentially increase the density behind the shock. The presence of ambient magnetic field may considerably alter the behavior of the post-adiabatic SNRs comparing to hydrodynamic scenario. In the present paper, the magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of radiative shocks in magnetic field are performed. High plasma compression due to the radiative losses results also in the prominent increase of the strength of the tangential component of magnetic field behind the shock and the decrease of the parallel one. If the strength of the tangential field before the shock is higher than about $3\\mathrm{\\mu G}$ it prevents formation of the very dense thin shell. The higher the strength of the tangential magneti...

  1. Developing a 3-shock, low-adiabat drive for high pressure material science experiments on NIF

    Wehrenberg, Christopher; Prisbrey, Shon; Graham, Peter; Park, Hye-Sook; Huntington, Channing; Maddox, Brian; Benedetti, Robin; Rudd, Robert; Arsenlis, Tom; Remington, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    We describe a series of experiments for basic materials science on NIF to develop a planar, 3-shock, low-adiabat drive to reach peak pressures of 5 Mbar, while keeping the physics samples well below their melt temperatures. The primary diagnostic is VISAR, which measures the compression waves as they travel through a Ta witness plate. X-ray ablation from an indirect drive launches a strong (>10 Mbar) shock through a precision fabricated ``reservoir,'' consisting of a CH ablator, followed by layers of Al, CH(18.75%I), 350 mg/cc CRF foam, and a final layer of 10-30 mg/cc foam. This reservoir releases as plasma across a 1.5 mm vacuum gap, then stagnates on the 15 micron thick Ta witness plate, which is backed by a LiF or quartz window. The lowest density reservoir layer sets the strength of the leading shock, which needs to be controlled to keep the physics samples solid, and to control the dislocation density created by this leading shock. We will describe an extensive series of experiments done on NIF to develop this drive. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  3. Stiffness of compression devices

    Giovanni Mosti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Veins and Lymphatics collects papers coming from the International Compression Club (ICC Meeting on Stiffness of Compression Devices, which took place in Vienna on May 2012. Several studies have demonstrated that the stiffness of compression products plays a major role for their hemodynamic efficacy. According to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, stiffness is defined as the pressure increase produced by medical compression hosiery (MCH per 1 cm of increase in leg circumference.1 In other words stiffness could be defined as the ability of the bandage/stockings to oppose the muscle expansion during contraction.

  4. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  5. Wavelet image compression

    Pearlman, William A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the stages necessary to create a wavelet compression system for images and describes state-of-the-art systems used in image compression standards and current research. It starts with a high level discussion of the properties of the wavelet transform, especially the decomposition into multi-resolution subbands. It continues with an exposition of the null-zone, uniform quantization used in most subband coding systems and the optimal allocation of bitrate to the different subbands. Then the image compression systems of the FBI Fingerprint Compression Standard and the JPEG2000 S

  6. Study of the heavy ion bunch compression in CSRm

    YIN Da-Yu; LIU Yong; YUAN You-Jing; YANG Jian-Cheng; LI Peng; LI Jie; CHAI Wei-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of attaining nanosecond pulse length heavy ion beam is studied in the main ring (CSRm)of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou.Such heavy ion beam can be produced by non-adiabatic compression,and it is implemented by a fast rotation in the longitudinal phase space.In this paper,the possible beam parameters during longitudinal bunch compression are studied with the envelope model and Particle in Cell simulation,and the results are compared.The result shows that the short bunch 238U28+ with the pulse duration of about 50 ns at the energy of 200 MeV/u can be obtained which can satisfy the research of high density plasma physics experiment.

  7. Bunch compression study using the envelope model in CSRm

    YIN Da-Yu; LIU Yong; YUAN You-Jin; YANG Jian-Cheng; LI Peng; MEI Li-Rong; CHAI Wei-Ping; ZHANG Xiao-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of attaining a short-pulse-duration heavy ion beam with a nanosecond pulse length is studied in the main ring of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL).Such a heavy ion beam can be produced by non-adiabatic compression,and it is implemented by fast rotation in the longitudinal phase space.In this paper,the possible beam parameters during longitudinal bunch compression are studied by using the envelope model.The result shows that a shortest heavy ion bunch 238U28+ of 29 ns with energy of 200 MeV/u can be obtained,which can satisfy high energy density physics research.

  8. Applications of Adiabatic Approximation to One- and Two-electron Phenomena in Strong Laser Fields

    Bondar, Denys

    2010-01-01

    The adiabatic approximation is a natural approach for the description of phenomena induced by low frequency laser radiation because the ratio of the laser frequency to the characteristic frequency of an atom or a molecule is a small parameter. Since the main aim of this work is the study of ionization phenomena, the version of the adiabatic approximation that can account for the transition from a bound state to the continuum must be employed. Despite much work in this topic, a universally accepted adiabatic approach of bound-free transitions is lacking. Hence, based on Savichev's modified adiabatic approximation [Sov. Phys. JETP 73, 803 (1991)], we first of all derive the most convenient form of the adiabatic approximation for the problems at hand. Connections of the obtained result with the quasiclassical approximation and other previous investigations are discussed. Then, such an adiabatic approximation is applied to single-electron ionization and non-sequential double ionization of atoms in a strong low fr...

  9. Shortcuts to Adiabaticity by Counterdiabatic Driving in Trapped-ion Transport

    An, Shuoming; del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic dynamics plays an essential role in quantum technologies. By driving a quantum system slowly, the quantum evolution can be engineered with suppressed excitation. Yet, environmentally-induced decoherence limits the implementation of adiabatic protocols. Shortcuts to adiabaticity (STA) have the potential to revolutionize quantum technologies by speeding up the time evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. These nonadiabatic protocols can be engineered by means an auxiliary control field is used to tailor excitations. Here we present the first experimental realization of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, implementing a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion, in which nonadiabatic transitions are suppressed during all stages of the process. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a "fast-motion video" of the adiabatic trajectory. We experimentally demonstrate the enhanced robustness of the protocol with respect to alternative approaches based on classical local ...

  10. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space

    An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; Del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-09-01

    The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a `fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies.

  11. Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.

    Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji

    2015-01-28

    A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.

  12. Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder

    Novomestský, Marcel; Smatanová, Helena; Kapjor, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable

  13. Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice

    McGeoch, Catherine C

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov

  14. Non-adiabatic study of the Kepler subgiant KIC 6442183

    Grosjean M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the precision of Kepler observations, [3] were able to measure the linewidth and amplitude of individual modes (including mixed modes in several subgiant power spectra. We perform a forward modelling of a Kepler subgiant based on surface properties and observed frequencies. Non-adiabatic computations including a time- dependent treatment of convection give the lifetimes of radial and non-radial modes. Next, combining the lifetimes and inertias with a stochastic excitation model gives the amplitudes of the modes. We can now directly compare theoretical and observed linewidths and amplitudes of mixed-modes to obtain new constraints on our theoretical models.

  15. Adiabatic Passage of Collective Excitations in Atomic Ensembles

    LIYong; MIAOYuan-Xiu; SUNChang-Pu

    2004-01-01

    We describe a theoretical scheme that allows for transfer of quantum states of atomic collective excitation between two macroscopic atomic ensembles localized in two spatially-separated domains. The conception is based on the occurrence of double-exciton dark states due to the collective destructive quantum interference of the emissions from the two atomic ensembles. With an adiabatically coherence manipulation for the atom-field couplings by stimulated Rmann scattering, the dark states will extrapolate from an exciton state of an ensemble to that of another. This realizes the transport of quantum information among atomic ensembles.

  16. Adiabatic Passage of Collective Excitations in Atomic Ensembles

    LI Yong; MIAO Yuan-Xiu; SUN Chang-Pu

    2004-01-01

    We describe a theoretical scheme that allows for transfer of quantum states of atomic collective excitation between two macroscopic atomic ensembles localized in two spatially-separated domains. The conception is based on the occurrence of double-exciton dark states due to the collective destructive quantum interference of the emissions from the two atomic ensembles. With an adiabatically coherence manipulation for the atom-field couplings by stimulated Ramann scattering, the dark states will extrapolate from an exciton state of an ensemble to that of another. This realizes the transport of quantum information among atomic ensembles.

  17. Fast CNOT gate via shortcuts to adiabatic passage

    Wang, Zhe; Xia, Yan; Chen, Ye-Hong; Song, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Based on the shortcuts to adiabatic passage, we propose a scheme for directly implementing a controlled-not (CNOT) gate in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. Moreover, we generalize the scheme to realize a CNOT gate in two separate cavities connected by an optical fiber. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the schemes are fast and insensitive to the decoherence caused by atomic spontaneous emission and photon leakage. In addition, the schemes can provide a theoretical basis for the manipulation of the multiqubit quantum gates in distant nodes of a quantum network.

  18. Adiabatic transport of qubits around a black hole

    Viennot, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider localized qubits evolving around a black hole following a quantum adiabatic dynamics. We develop a geometric structure (based on fibre bundles) permitting to describe the quantum states of a qubit and the spacetime geometry in a single framework. The quantum decoherence induced by the black hole on the qubit is analysed in this framework (the role of the dynamical and geometric phases in this decoherence is treated), especially for the quantum teleportation protocol when one qubit falls to the event horizon. A simple formula to compute the fidelity of the teleportation is derived. The case of a Schwarzschild black hole is analysed.

  19. Power comparison of CMOS and adiabatic full adder circuit

    Reddy, Sunil Gavaskar; 10.5121/vlsic.2011.2306

    2011-01-01

    Full adders are important components in applications such as digital signal processors (DSP) architectures and microprocessors. Apart from the basic addition adders also used in performing useful operations such as subtraction, multiplication, division, address calculation, etc. In most of these systems the adder lies in the critical path that determines the overall performance of the system. In this paper conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adiabatic adder circuits are analyzed in terms of power and transistor count using 0.18UM technology.

  20. Diabatic Versus Adiabatic Calculation of Torsion-Vibration Interactions

    Hougen, Jon T.

    2013-06-01

    The introductory part of this talk will deal briefly with two historical topics: (i) use of the words adiabatic, nonadiabatic, and diabatic in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, and (ii) application of diabatic and adiabatic ideas to vibrational energy level calculations for a pair of diatomic-molecule potential energy curves exhibiting an avoided crossing. The main part of the talk will be devoted to recent work with Li-Hong Xu and Ron Lees on how ab initio projected frequency calculations for small-amplitude vibrations along the large-amplitude internal rotation path in methanol can best be used to help guide experimental assignments and fits in the IR vibrational spectrum. The three CH stretching vibrations for CH_{3}OH can conveniently be represented as coefficients multiplying three different types of basis vibrations, i.e., as coefficients of: (i) the local mode C-H_i bond displacements δr_{i} for hydrogens H_{1}, H_{2} and H_{3} of the methyl top, (ii) symmetrized linear combinations of the three δr_{i} of species A_{1} oplus E in the permutation-inversion group G_{6} = C_{3v} appropriate for methanol, or (iii) symmetrized linear combinations of the three δr_{i} of species 2A_{1} oplus A_{2} in the permutation-inversion group G_{6}. In this talk, we will focus on diabatic and adiabatic computations for the A_{1} oplus E basis vibrations of case (ii) above. We will briefly explain how Jahn-Teller-like and Renner-Teller-like torsion-vibration interaction terms occurring in the potential energy expression in the diabatic calculation become torsion-vibration Coriolis interaction terms occurring in the kinetic energy expression of the adiabatic calculations, and also show how, for algebraically solvable parameter choices, the same energy levels are obtained from either calculation. A final conclusion as to which approach is computationally superior for the numerical data given in a quantum chemistry output file has not yet been arrived at.