Adiabatic burning velocity of H2-O2 mixtures diluted with CO2/N2/Ar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratna Kishore, V.; Muchahary, Ringkhang; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R.
2009-01-01
Global warming due to CO 2 emissions has led to the projection of hydrogen as an important fuel for future. A lot of research has been going on to design combustion appliances for hydrogen as fuel. This has necessitated fundamental research on combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuel. In this work, a combination of experiments and computational simulations was employed to study the effects of diluents (CO 2 , N 2 , and Ar) on the laminar burning velocity of premixed hydrogen/oxygen flames using the heat flux method. The experiments were conducted to measure laminar burning velocity for a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and temperature (300 K) with reactant mixtures containing varying concentrations of CO 2 , N 2 , and Ar as diluents. Measured burning velocities were compared with computed results obtained from one-dimensional laminar premixed flame code PREMIX with detailed chemical kinetics and good agreement was obtained. The effectiveness of diluents in reduction of laminar burning velocity for a given diluent concentration is in the increasing order of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide. This may be due to increased capabilities either to quench the reaction zone by increased specific heat or due to reduced transport rates. The lean and stoichiometric H 2 /O 2 /CO 2 flames with 65% CO 2 dilution exhibited cellular flame structures. Detailed three-dimensional simulation was performed to understand lean H 2 /O 2 /CO 2 cellular flame structure and cell count from computed flame matched well with the experimental cellular flame. (author)
Burning velocity measurements of nitrogen-containing compounds.
Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Kondo, Shigeo; Sekiya, Akira
2008-06-30
Burning velocity measurements of nitrogen-containing compounds, i.e., ammonia (NH3), methylamine (CH3NH2), ethylamine (C2H5NH2), and propylamine (C3H7NH2), were carried out to assess the flammability of potential natural refrigerants. The spherical-vessel (SV) method was used to measure the burning velocity over a wide range of sample and air concentrations. In addition, flame propagation was directly observed by the schlieren photography method, which showed that the spherical flame model was applicable to flames with a burning velocity higher than approximately 5 cm s(-1). For CH3NH2, the nozzle burner method was also used to confirm the validity of the results obtained by closed vessel methods. We obtained maximum burning velocities (Su0,max) of 7.2, 24.7, 26.9, and 28.3 cm s(-1) for NH3, CH3NH2, C2H5NH2, and C3H7NH2, respectively. It was noted that the burning velocities of NH3 and CH3NH2 were as high as those of the typical hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants difluoromethane (HFC-32, Su0,max=6.7 cm s(-1)) and 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, Su0,max=23.6 cm s(-1)), respectively. The burning velocities were compared with those of the parent alkanes, and it was found that introducing an NH2 group into hydrocarbon molecules decreases their burning velocity.
Measurements of the laminar burning velocity of hydrogen-air premixed flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pareja, Jhon; Burbano, Hugo J. [Science and Technology of Gases and Rational Use of Energy Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Antioquia, Calle 67 N 53, 108 Bloque 20, 447 Medellin (Colombia); Ogami, Yasuhiro [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)
2010-02-15
Experimental and numerical studies on laminar burning velocities of hydrogen-air mixtures were performed at standard pressure and room temperature varying the equivalence ratio from 0.8 to 3.0. The flames were generated using a contoured slot-type nozzle burner (4 mm x 10 mm). Measurements of laminar burning velocity were conducted using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) combined with Schlieren photography. This technique provides the information of instantaneous local burning velocities in the whole region of the flame front, and laminar burning velocities were determined using the mean value of local burning velocities in the region of non-stretch. Additionally, average laminar burning velocities were determined using the angle method and compared with the data obtained with the PTV method. Numerical calculations were also conducted using detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties. The experimental results from the PTV method are in good agreement with the numerical results at every equivalence ratio of the range of study. Differences between the results obtained with the angle method and those with the PTV method are reasonably small when the effects of flame stretch and curvature are reduced by using a contoured slot-type nozzle. (author)
Study on laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames in various mixing conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kee Man; Jeong, Byeong Gyu; Lee, Seung Ro
2015-01-01
The laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames was measured with various equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and a mole fraction of H 2 from 0.05 to 0.75. The laminar burning velocity was experimentally determined using a Bunsen flame according to the cone angle and surface area methods. A premixed code with a USC-II detailed reaction mechanism was used for the numerical calculations to predict the laminar burning velocity and to examine the relationship between the burning velocity enhancement and the hydrogen-related reactions. The results indicate that an appropriate method for the measurement of laminar burning velocity is necessary in the H 2 /CO/air syngas premixed flame. In addition, the burning velocity linearly increased with the increase of the H 2 mole fraction in the syngas mixture, although the burning velocity of H 2 was 10 times larger than that of CO. This result is attributed to the rapid production of H-radicals at the early stage of combustion. Furthermore, the predicted mole fractions of H and OH radicals increased with the increase of H 2 mole fraction for a lean syngas mixture. However, the mole fraction of OH radicals, an indicator of heat release rate, decreased for rich syngas mixture, resulting in a reduction of the laminar burning velocity, even with an increase of the H 2 mole fraction.
Measurement of the burning velocity of propane-air mixtures using soap bubbles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakai, Yukio
1988-12-20
By filling a soap bubble with propane-air mixture of spacified equivalence ratio and by igniting it at the center, the flame propagation velocity was measured applying multiplex exposure Schlieren method. And the flow velocity of the unburnt propane-air mixture was also measured by a hot-wire anemometer. From the differences of the above two velocities, the burning velocity was obtained. The values of the burning velocity agreed well with the highly accurate results of usual measurements. The maximum value of the burning velocity, which exists at an equivalence ratio of 1.1, was 50cm/s. This value agreed well with the theoretical calculation result on the on-dimensional flame by Warnatz. The burning velocity in the range of from 0.7 to 1.5 equivalence ratios decreases symmetrically with the maximum value at the center. The velocity decrease in the excessive concentration range of fuel is only a little and converges between 7 and 10 cm/s. To evade the influence of the flame-front instability, measurements were done from 2 to 5cm from the ignition center. Thus accurate values were obtained. 23 refs., 5 figs.
Study on laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames in various mixing conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kee Man; Jeong, Byeong Gyu [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Ro [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
The laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames was measured with various equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and a mole fraction of H{sub 2} from 0.05 to 0.75. The laminar burning velocity was experimentally determined using a Bunsen flame according to the cone angle and surface area methods. A premixed code with a USC-II detailed reaction mechanism was used for the numerical calculations to predict the laminar burning velocity and to examine the relationship between the burning velocity enhancement and the hydrogen-related reactions. The results indicate that an appropriate method for the measurement of laminar burning velocity is necessary in the H{sub 2}/CO/air syngas premixed flame. In addition, the burning velocity linearly increased with the increase of the H{sub 2} mole fraction in the syngas mixture, although the burning velocity of H{sub 2} was 10 times larger than that of CO. This result is attributed to the rapid production of H-radicals at the early stage of combustion. Furthermore, the predicted mole fractions of H and OH radicals increased with the increase of H{sub 2} mole fraction for a lean syngas mixture. However, the mole fraction of OH radicals, an indicator of heat release rate, decreased for rich syngas mixture, resulting in a reduction of the laminar burning velocity, even with an increase of the H{sub 2} mole fraction.
Laminar burning velocities of acetone in air at room and elevated temperatures
Nilsson, E.J.K.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Konnov, A.
2013-01-01
Laminar burning velocities of acetone + air mixtures at initial gas mixture temperatures of 298, 318, 338 and 358 K are reported. Non-stretched flames were stabilized on a perforated plate burner at 1 atm, and laminar burning velocities were determined using the heat flux method, at conditions where
Laminar burning velocities of near-flammability-limit H2-air-steam mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loesel Sitar, J.V.; Chan, C.K.; Torchia, F.; Guerrero, A.
1995-01-01
Laminar burning velocities of lean H 2 -air-steam mixtures near the flammability limit were measured by using the pressure-time history of an expanding flame kernel. Although flames in these mixtures are inherently unstable, this difficulty was avoided by using the early pressure rise of the burn. A comparison of results from that method with burning velocities determined from schlieren photographs of the expanding flame kernel gave good agreement. Despite the difficulties, it is believed that the pressure trace method gives results that are useful in modelling reactor accident scenarios. 8 refs., 4 figs
The Role of Molecule Clustering by Hydrogen Bond in Hydrous Ethanol on Laminar Burning Velocity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Made Suarta
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The role of hydrogen bond molecule clustering in laminar burning velocities was observed. The water in hydrous ethanol can change the interaction between water-ethanol molecules. A certain amount of water can become oxygenated which increases the burning velocity. The hydrogen bond interaction pattern of ethanol and water molecules was modeled. Based on the molecular model, azeotropic behavior emerges from ethanol-water hydrogen bond, which is at a 95.1%v composition. The interaction with water molecule causes the ethanol molecule to be clustered with centered oxygenated compound. So, it supplies extra oxygen and provides intermolecular empty spaces that are easily infiltrated by the air. In the azeotropic composition, the molecular bond chain is the shortest, so hypothetically the burning velocity is anticipated to increase. The laminar burning velocity of ethanol fuel was tested in a cylindrical explosion bomb in lean, stoichiometric, and rich mixtures. The experimental result showed that the maximum burning velocity occurred at hydrous ethanol of 95.5%v composition. This discrepancy is the result of the addition of energy from 7.7% free ethanol molecules that are not clustered. At the rich mixture, the burning velocity of this composition is higher than that of anhydrous ethanol.
Influence of the altitude on the burning velocity of the natural gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrieta, Andres Amell; Garcia Posada, Jorge Mario; Quilindo Valencia, Arvey; Henao Vallejo, Diego Alberto
2004-01-01
By the increasing use of natural gas in cities of Latin America located to high altitude, is necessary to study the effect of the altitude on the combustion, for example the burning velocity. This work is an experimental study of as it changes to the burning velocity with the altitude, being made test in sites with altitude of 40, 550, 1.020, 1.550, 2.040 and 2.550 meters. The result was that the variations are slight
Laminar burning velocities of near-flammability-limit H{sub 2}-air-steam mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loesel Sitar, J V; Chan, C K; Torchia, F; Guerrero, A
1996-12-31
Laminar burning velocities of lean H{sub 2}-air-steam mixtures near the flammability limit were measured by using the pressure-time history of an expanding flame kernel. Although flames in these mixtures are inherently unstable, this difficulty was avoided by using the early pressure rise of the burn. A comparison of results from that method with burning velocities determined from schlieren photographs of the expanding flame kernel gave good agreement. Despite the difficulties, it is believed that the pressure trace method gives results that are useful in modelling reactor accident scenarios. 8 refs., 4 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, Haiyan; Jiao, Qi; Huang, Zuohua; Jiang, Deming [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)
2009-01-15
The laminar flame characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen-air-diluent gas (nitrogen/CO{sub 2}) mixtures were studied in a constant volume combustion bomb at various diluent ratios, hydrogen fractions and equivalence ratios. Both unstretched laminar burning velocity and Markstein length were obtained. The results showed that hydrogen fraction, diluent ratio and equivalence ratio have combined influence on laminar burning velocity and flame instability. The unstretched laminar burning velocity is reduced at a rate that is increased with the increase of the diluent ratio. The reduction effect of CO{sub 2} diluent gas is stronger than that of nitrogen diluent gas. Hydrogen-enriched natural gas with high hydrogen fraction can tolerate more diluent gas than that with low hydrogen fraction. Markstein length can either increase or decrease with the increase of the diluent ratio, depending on the hydrogen fraction of the fuel. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Made Suarta
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The molecular structure of mixed hydrous and anhydrous ethanol with up to 10% v n-heptane had been studied. The burning velocity was examined in a cylindrical explosion combustion chamber. The result showed that the burning velocity of hydrous ethanol is higher than anhydrous ethanol and n-heptane at stoichiometric, rich, and very rich mixtures. The burning velocity of hydrous ethanol with n-heptane drops drastically compared to the burning velocity of anhydrous ethanol with n-heptane. It is caused by two reasons. Firstly, there was a composition change of azeotropic hydrous ethanol molecules within the mixture of fuel. Secondly, at the same volume the number of ethanol molecules in hydrous ethanol was less than in anhydrous ethanol at the same composition of the n-heptane in the mixture. At the mixture of anhydrous ethanol with n-heptane, the burning velocity decreases proportionally to the addition of the n-heptane composition. The burning velocity is between the velocities of anhydrous ethanol and n-heptane. It shows that the burning velocity of anhydrous ethanol mixed with n-heptane is only influenced by the mixture composition.
Bradley, Derek; Lawes, Malcolm; Liu, Kexin; Mansour, Morkous S.
2013-01-01
The implosion technique has been used to extend measurements of turbulent burning velocities over greater ranges of fuels and pressures. Measurements have been made up to 3.5 MPa and at strain rate Markstein numbers as low as 23. The implosion technique, with spark ignition at two opposite wall positions within a fan-stirred spherical bomb is capable of measuring turbulent burning velocities, at higher pressures than is possible with central ignition. Pressure records and schlieren high speed photography define the rate of burning and the smoothed area of the flame front. The first aim of the study was to extend the previous measurements with ethanol and propane-air, with further measurements over wider ranges of fuels and equivalence ratios with mixtures of hydrogen, methane, 10% hydrogen-90% methane, toluene, and i-octane, with air. The second aim was to study further the low turbulence regime in which turbulent burning co-exists with laminar flame instabilities. Correlations are presented of turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity acting on the flame front, ut=u0k , with the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, for different strain rate Markstein numbers, a decrease in which increases ut=u0k . Experimental correlations are presented for the present measurements, combined with previous ones. Different burning regimes are also identified, extending from that of mixed turbulence/laminar instability at low values of K to that at high values of K, in which ut=u0k is gradually reduced due to increasing localised flame extinctions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousif Alaeldeen Altag
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, experimental investigation on laminar combustion of iso-butane-air mixtures was conducted in constant volume explosion vessel. The experiments were conducted at wide range of equivalence ratios ranging between Ф = 0.6 and 1.4 and atmospheric pressure of 0.1 MPa and ambient temperature of 303K. Using spherically expanding flame method, flame parameters including stretched, unstretched flame propagation speeds, laminar burning velocities and Markstein length were calculated. For laminar burning velocities the method of error bars of 95% confidence level was applied. In addition, values of Markstein lengths were measured in wide range of equivalence ratios to study the influence of stretch rate on flame instability and burning velocity. It was found that the stretched flame speed and laminar burning velocities increased with equivalence ratios and the peak value was obtained at equivalence ratio of Ф = 1.1. The Markstein length decreased with the increases in equivalence ratios, which indicates that the diffusion thermal flame instability increased at high equivalence ratios in richer mixture side. However, the total deviations in the laminar burning velocities have discrepancies of 1.2-2.9% for all investigated mixtures.
Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G
2009-01-01
The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)
Mannaa, Ossama
2015-06-01
The development and validation of a new gasoline surrogate using laminar flame speed as a target parameter is presented. Laminar burning velocities were measured using a constant-volume spherical vessel with ignition at the center of the vessel. Tested fuels included iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, various mixtures of primary reference fuels (PRFs) and toluene reference fuels (TRFs) and three gasoline fuels of 70, 85 and 95 RON (FACE J, C and F) at the initial temperature of 358K and pressures up to 0.6MPa in the equivalence ratio ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Normalized laminar burning velocity data were mapped into a tri-component mixture space at different experimental conditions to allocate different gasoline surrogates for different gasoline fuels, having RON of 70, 85 and 95. The surrogates of TRF-70-4 (17.94% iso-C8H18 +42.06% n-C7H16 +40% C7H8), TRF-85-1 (77.4% iso-C8H18 +17.6% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8), and TRF-95-1 (88.47% iso-C8H18 +6.53% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8) of RON 70, 85 and 95, respectively, are shown to successfully emulate the burning rate characteristics of the gasoline fuels associated with these RONs under the various experimental conditions investigated. An empirical correlation was derived to obtain laminar burning velocities at pressures that are experimentally unattainable as high as 3.0MPa. Laminar burning velocities were comparable to the simulated values for lean and stoichiometric flames but they were relatively higher than the simulated values for rich flames. A flame instability assessment was conducted by determining Markstein length, critical Pecklet number, and critical Karlovitz number at the onset of flame instability.
A design study of non-adiabatic electron guns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, J.J.; Stellati, C.
1994-01-01
The design of a non-adiabatic gun capable of producing a 10 A, 50 KeV high-quality laminar electron beam is reported. In contrast to the magnetron injection gun with a conical cathode, where the beam is generated initially with a transverse velocity component, in the non-adiabatic gun electrons are extracted in a direction parallel to the axial guide magnetic field. The beam electrons acquire cyclotron motion as result of non-adiabatic processes in a strong non uniform electric field across the modulation anode. Such an extraction method gives rise to favourable features that are explored throughout the work. An extensive numerical simulation study has also been done to minimize velocity and energy spreads. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xuan; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jianjun; Yu, Wu; Jiang, Deming [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2009-06-15
The laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths for the dissociated methanol-air-diluent mixtures were measured at different equivalence ratios, initial temperatures and pressures, diluents (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) and dilution ratios by using the spherically outward expanding flame. The influences of these parameters on the laminar burning velocity and Markstein length were analyzed. The results show that the laminar burning velocity of dissociated methanol-air mixture increases with an increase in initial temperature and decreases with an increase in initial pressure. The peak laminar burning velocity occurs at equivalence ratio of 1.8. The Markstein length decreases with an increase in initial temperature and initial pressure. Cellular flame structures are presented at early flame propagation stage with the decrease of equivalence ratio or dilution ratio. The transition positions can be observed in the curve of flame propagation speed to stretch rate, indicating the occurrence of cellular structure at flame fronts. Mixture diluents (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) will decrease the laminar burning velocities of mixtures and increase the sensitivity of flame front to flame stretch rate. Markstein length increases with an increase in dilution ratio except for very lean mixture (equivalence ratio less than 0.8). CO{sub 2} dilution has a greater impact on laminar flame speed and flame front stability compared to N{sub 2}. It is also demonstrated that the normalized unstretched laminar burning velocity is only related to dilution ratio and is not influenced by equivalence ratio. (author)
Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.
Sobel, Michael I.
1980-01-01
Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)
Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy
Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao
2017-05-01
In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painlevé) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I_adia = \\oint p_i dq_i introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area.
Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)
2017-05-15
In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painleve) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I{sub adia} = circular integral p{sub i}dq{sub i} introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area. (orig.)
Extension of the heat flux method to liquid (bio-)fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meuwissen, R.
2009-01-15
The adiabatic burning velocity S{sub L} of a fuel/oxidizer mixture is a key parameter governing many properties of combustion, such as the shape and stabilization of the flame. It can be applied as an input parameter for many combustion models. Furthermore, kinetic schemes can be validated by the use of this parameter. A great extend of research has been performed on determining the adiabatic burning velocities of gaseous fuels. Liquid fuels however, have been examined far less extensive. Literature available shows eminent scatter amongst the data of independent groups and distinctive techniques. The methods used for measuring burning velocities need certain corrections for flame properties which cause additional uncertainties and make the scattering of data not completely unexpected. The heat flux burner used in this work, previously developed at the TU/e, creates a flat flame coherently no corrections for stretch are necessary. Instead, the heat exchange with the burner is considered; by measuring the temperature distribution over the burner plate, the net heat flux of the flame to the burner can be determined. By tuning the unburnt gas velocity until there is no net heat flux, the adiabatic burning velocity is found by interpolation. An extension to the original design, using a vaporized fluid in a carrier gas flow, enables to measure burning velocities of liquid fuels. In the present research, burning velocity measurements have been performed on vaporized ethanol/air flames in order to validate the setup. Similarities with the latest experimental research have been evaluated and good agreement has been found. Furthermore, temperature dependencies have been elucidated and compared to power law correlations stated by this external research. Again, good resemblance can be claimed, although the expanding of certain input parameters on mixture composition could give more solid confirmation. Subsequently, comparison with numerically performed calculations has been
Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarzynski, C.
1994-01-01
Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the open-quotes goodnessclose quotes of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees)
Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)
2012-07-01
Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.
Silicon Burning. II. Quasi-Equilibrium and Explosive Burning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hix, W.R.; Thielemann, F.
1999-01-01
Having examined the application of quasi-equilibrium to hydrostatic silicon burning in Paper I of this series, we now turn our attention to explosive silicon burning. Previous authors have shown that for material that is heated to high temperature by a passing shock and then cooled by adiabatic expansion, the results can be divided into three broad categories, incomplete burning, normal freezeout, and α-rich freezeout, with the outcome depending on the temperature, density, and cooling timescale. In all three cases, we find that the important abundances obey quasi-equilibrium for temperatures greater than approximately 3x10 9 K, with relatively little nucleosynthesis occurring following the breakdown of quasi-equilibrium. We will show that quasi-equilibrium provides better abundance estimates than global nuclear statistical equilibrium, even for normal freezeout, and particularly for α-rich freezeout. We will also examine the accuracy with which the final nuclear abundances can be estimated from quasi-equilibrium. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society
ADIABATIC HEATING OF CONTRACTING TURBULENT FLUIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter
2012-01-01
Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases 'adiabatically heat', experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.
An Adiabatic Phase-Matching Accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemery, Francois [DESY; Floettmann, Klaus [DESY; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.; Kaertner, Franz X. [Hamburg U.; Assmann, Ralph [DESY
2017-12-22
We present a general concept to accelerate non-relativistic charged particles. Our concept employs an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide which supports accelerating phase velocities for synchronous acceleration. We propose an ansatz for the transient field equations, show it satisfies Maxwell's equations under an adiabatic approximation and find excellent agreement with a finite-difference time-domain computer simulation. The fields were implemented into the particle-tracking program {\\sc astra} and we present beam dynamics results for an accelerating field with a 1-mm-wavelength and peak electric field of 100~MV/m. The numerical simulations indicate that a $\\sim 200$-keV electron beam can be accelerated to an energy of $\\sim10$~MeV over $\\sim 10$~cm. The novel scheme is also found to form electron beams with parameters of interest to a wide range of applications including, e.g., future advanced accelerators, and ultra-fast electron diffraction.
Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2009-04-15
Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, A.; Law, C.K.
1995-01-01
The combustion behavior of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process has been the subject of many analytical and experimental investigations. Recently, a theory based on spray combustion was proposed for the SHS flame structure and propagation. In contrast to previous studies based on the homogeneous premixed flame, this theory accounts for the premixed-mode of propagation of the bulk flame and the non-premixed reaction of the dispersed nonmetal (or higher melting-point metal) particles which supports the bulk flame. Finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and the temperature-dependent, Arrhenius nature of mass diffusion are both incorporated. The heterogeneous nature of the theory has satisfactorily captured the effects of particle size on the flame propagation speed. The final solution of Makino and Law was obtained numerically and hence presented parametrically. The authors have since then derived an approximate analytical expression for the burning velocity, which explicitly displays the functional dependence of the burning velocity on the various system parameters. This result is presented herein. Applicability of this expression is examined by comparing it with the numerical results for Ti-C, Ti-B, Zr-B, Hf-B, and Co-Ti systems. A fair degree of agreement has been shown as far as the general trend and approximate magnitude are concerned
A theory of burn-out in heated channels at low mass velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randles, J.
1963-01-01
At low coolant mass velocities the fraction by weight of vapour flowing out of heated channels can become extremely large (∼ 90%). Consequently, the dominating feature of burn-out at small flow rates is that it occurs at high vapour qualities. For such a high degree of evaporation, the induced turbulence is very strong and the liquid phase is dispersed into a spray of droplets. By the application of the first law of thermodynamics and some basic relationships of turbulence theory to this spray, it is shown how an expression for the critical heat flux can be derived. By comparing this expression with the data from burn-out measurements on uniformly heated channels, reasonably good agreement is obtained. It is demonstrated that eddy slip and channel geometry are extremely important in the determination of the level of turbulence in the droplet motion. Having thus established a reasonable degree of plausibility for the theory, it is applied to channels heated by a chopped cosine form of power distribution. The results indicate that the effect of the axial variation of the power on the burnout heat flux can be described in a simple manner. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China); Institute of High Performance Computing, A-star (Singapore); Ji, Min; Jiao, Qi; Huang, Qian; Huang, Zuohua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)
2009-04-15
Flame propagation of premixed nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures was studied in a constant volume combustion bomb under various initial pressures. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained for the diluted stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures with different hydrogen fractions and diluent ratios under various initial pressures. The results showed that both unstretched flame speed and unstretched burning velocity are reduced with the increase in initial pressure (except when the hydrogen fraction is 80%) as well as diluent ratio. The velocity reduction rate due to diluent addition is determined mainly by hydrogen fraction and diluent ratio, and the effect of initial pressure is negligible. Flame stability was studied by analyzing Markstein length. It was found that the increase of initial pressure and hydrogen fraction decreases flame stability and the flame tends to be more stable with the addition of diluent gas. Generally speaking, Markstein length of a fuel with low hydrogen fraction is more sensitive to the change of initial pressure than that of a one with high hydrogen fraction. (author)
Ohmic ignition of Neo-Alcator tokamak with adiabatic compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi
1992-01-01
Ohmic ignition condition on axis of the DT tokamak plasma heated by minor radius and major radius adiabatic compression is studied assuming parabolic profiles for plasma parameters, elliptic plasma cross section, and Neo-Alcator confinement scaling. It is noticeable that magnetic compression reduces the necessary total plasma current for Ohmic ignition device. Typically in compact ignition tokamak of the minor radius of 0.47 m, major radius of 1.5 m and on-axis toroidal field of 20 T, the plasma current of 6.8 MA is sufficient for compression plasma, while that of 11.7 MA is for no compression plasma. Another example with larger major radius is also described. In such a device the large flux swing of Ohmic transformer is available for long burn. Application of magnetic compression saves the flux swing and thereby extends the burn time. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barban C.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler measurements reveal us that the amplitudes of solar-like oscillations detected in red giant stars scale from stars to stars in a characteristic way. This observed scaling relation is not yet fully understood but constitutes potentially a powerful diagnostic about mode physics. Quasi-adiabatic theoretical scaling relations in terms of mode amplitudes result in systematic and large differences with the measurements performed for red giant stars. The use of a non-adiabatic intensity-velocity relation derived from a non-adiabatic pulsation code significantly reduces the discrepancy with the CoRoT measurements. The origin of the remaining difference is still unknown. Departure from adiabatic eigenfunction is a very likely explanation that is investigated in the present work using a 3D hydrodynamical model of the surface layers of a representative red giant star.
Acoustic solitary waves in dusty and/or multi-ion plasmas with cold, adiabatic, and hot constituents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Kourakis, Ioannis
2008-01-01
Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a four-component plasma, made up of two superhot isothermal species, and two species with lower thermal velocities, being, respectively, adiabatic and cold. First a model is considered in which the isothermal species are electrons and ions, while the cooler species are positive and/or negative dust. Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, large dust-acoustic structures have been studied in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which they can be found, without restrictions on the charges and masses of the dust species and their charge signs. Solitary waves can only occur for nonlinear structure velocities smaller than the adiabatic dust thermal velocity, leading to a novel dust-acoustic-like mode based on the interplay between the two dust species. If the cold and adiabatic dust are oppositely charged, only solitary waves exist, having the polarity of the cold dust, their parameter range being limited by infinite compression of the cold dust. However, when the charges of the cold and adiabatic species have the same sign, solitary structures are limited for increasing Mach numbers successively by infinite cold dust compression, by encountering the adiabatic dust sonic point, and by the occurrence of double layers. The latter have, for smaller Mach numbers, the same polarity as the charged dust, but switch at the high Mach number end to the opposite polarity. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented. Finally, the analysis has nowhere used the assumption that the dust would be much more massive than the ions and hence, one or both dust species can easily be replaced by positive and/or negative ions and the conclusions will apply to that plasma model equally well. This would cover a number of different scenarios, such as, for example, very hot electrons and ions, together with a mix of adiabatic ions and dust (of either polarity) or a very hot electron
Inhomogeneous quasi-adiabatic driving of quantum critical dynamics in weakly disordered spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rams, Marek M; Mohseni, Masoud; Campo, Adolfo del
2016-01-01
We introduce an inhomogeneous protocol to drive a weakly disordered quantum spin chain quasi-adiabatically across a quantum phase transition and minimize the residual energy of the final state. The number of spins that simultaneously reach the critical point is controlled by the length scale in which the magnetic field is modulated, introducing an effective size that favors adiabatic dynamics. The dependence of the residual energy on this length scale and the velocity at which the magnetic field sweeps out the chain is shown to be nonmonotonic. We determine the conditions for an optimal suppression of the residual energy of the final state and show that inhomogeneous driving can outperform conventional adiabatic schemes based on homogeneous control fields by several orders of magnitude. (paper)
An adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory of collective motion in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranger, M.; Veneroni, M.
1977-11-01
It is shown how to derive the parameters of a phenomenological collective model from a microscopic theory. The microscopic theory is Hartree-Fock, and one starts from the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation. To this, the adiabatic approximation is added, and the energy in powers of an adiabatic parameter is expanded, which results in a collective kinetic energy quadratic in the velocities, with coefficients depending on the coordinates, as in the phenomenological models. The adiabatic equations of motion are derived in different ways and their analogy with classical mechanics is stressed. The role of the adiabatic hypothesis and its range of validity, are analyzed in detail. It assumes slow motion, but not small amplitude, and is therefore suitable for large-amplitude collective motion. The RPA is obtained as the limiting case where the amplitude is also small. The translational mass is correctly given and the moment of inertia under rotation is that of Thouless and Valatin
Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor
Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer
2018-01-01
Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...
Fast fracture: an adiabatic restriction on thermally activated crack propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burns, S.J.
1978-01-01
Slow, isothermal, crack propagation is widely suspected to be rate controlled by thermally activated plastic deformation in the crack tip region. Adiabatic conditions are generally established in the fracture modified material at the tip of a crack during fast fracture. The temperature of this material is not the temperature of the specimen and is generally not measured during fast fracture. Thus, a complete thermodynamic description of adiabatic crack propagation data can not be made. When the slow, isothermal, crack propagation mechanisms are assumed to be operative during adiabatic crack propagation then certain predictions can be made. For example: the changes in the driving force due to temperature and rate are always in the opposite sense; there is no minimum in the driving force versus crack velocity without a change in mechanism; the temperature rise in the crack tip fracture modified material is determined mainly by the activation enthalpy for crack propagation; the interpretation of fast fracture structural steel data from simple plastic models is suspect since these materials have dissimilar isothermal temperature dependencies.
Adiabatic theory of Wannier threshold laws and ionization cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y.
1994-01-01
Adiabatic energy eigenvalues of H 2 + are computed for complex values of the internuclear distance R. The infinite number of bound-state eigenenergies are represented by a function ε(R) that is single valued on a multisheeted Riemann surface. A region is found where ε(R) and the corresponding eigenfunctions exhibit harmonic-oscillator structure characteristic of electron motion on a potential saddle. The Schroedinger equation is solved in the adiabatic approximation along a path in the complex R plane to compute ionization cross sections. The cross section thus obtained joins the Wannier threshold region with the keV energy region, but the exponent near the ionization threshold disagrees with well-accepted values. Accepted values are obtained when a lowest-order diabatic correction is employed, indicating that adiabatic approximations do not give the correct zero velocity limit for ionization cross sections. Semiclassical eigenvalues for general top-of-barrier motion are given and the theory is applied to the ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact. The theory with a first diabatic correction gives the Wannier threshold law even for this case
Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Lewis, David P.; Moffat, Bradford; Branch, Craig A.
2007-01-01
Continuous arterial spin labeling experiments typically use flow-driven adiabatic fast passage (AFP) inversion of the arterial blood water protons. In this article, we measure the effect of magnetization transfer in blood and how it affects the inversion label. We use modified Bloch equations to model flow-driven adiabatic inversion in the presence of magnetization transfer in blood flowing at velocities from 1 to 30 cm/s in order to explain our findings. Magnetization transfer results in a r...
PIV Measurements of Gas Flow Fields from Burning End
Huang, Yifei; Wu, Junzhang; Zeng, Jingsong; Tang, Darong; Du, Liang
2017-12-01
To study the influence of cigarette gas on the environment, it is necessary to know the cigarette gas flow fields from burning end. By using PIV technique, in order to reveal velocity characteristics of gas flow fields, the velocities of cigarette gas flow fields was analyzed with different stepping motor frequencies corresponding to suction pressures, and the trend of velocity has been given with image fitting. The results shows that the velocities of the burning end increased with suction pressures; Between velocities of the burning end and suction pressures, the relations present polynomial rule; The cigarette gas diffusion in combustion process is faster than in the smoldering process.
Wang, Qun-Zhen
2003-01-01
Four erosive burning models, equations (11) to (14). are developed in this work by using a power law relationship to correlate (1) the erosive burning ratio and the local velocity gradient at propellant surfaces; (2) the erosive burning ratio and the velocity gradient divided by centerline velocity; (3) the erosive burning difference and the local velocity gradient at propellant surfaces; and (4) the erosive burning difference and the velocity gradient divided by centerline velocity. These models depend on the local velocity gradient at the propellant surface (or the velocity gradient divided by centerline velocity) only and, unlike other empirical models, are independent of the motor size. It was argued that, since the erosive burning is a local phenomenon occurring near the surface of the solid propellant, the erosive burning ratio should be independent of the bore diameter if it is correlated with some local flow parameters such as the velocity gradient at the propellant surface. This seems to be true considering the good results obtained by applying these models, which are developed from the small size 5 inch CP tandem motor testing, to CFD simulations of much bigger motors.
Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelaziz Almostafa
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Sangchul, E-mail: soh@qf.org.qa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Kais, Sabre, E-mail: kais@purdue.edu [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2014-12-14
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.
Mannaa, Ossama
2016-05-04
Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
Mannaa, Ossama; Mansour, Morkous S.; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
A many-particle adiabatic invariant of strongly magnetized pure electron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hjorth, P.G.
1988-01-01
A pure electron plasma is said to be strongly magnetized if the cyclotron radius of the electrons is much smaller than the classical distance of closest approach. In this parameter regime a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional dynamics. For the case of a uniform magnetic field, the adiabatic invariant is the total kinetic energy associated with the electron velocity components that are perpendicular to the magnetic field (i.e., Σ j mv 2 j perpendicular/2). Were the adiabatic invariant an exact constant of the motion, no exchange of energy would be possible between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and the plasma could develop and maintain two different temperatures T parallel and T perpendicular. An adiabatic invariant, however, is not strictly conserved. In the present case, each collision produces an exponentially small exchange of energy between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and these act cumulatively in such a way that T parallel and T perpendicular eventually relax to a common value. The rate of equilibrium is calculated, both in the case where the collisions are described by classical mechanics and in the case where the collisions are described by quantum mechanics, the two calculations giving essentially the same result. A molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out, verifying the existence of this unusual invariant, and verifying the theoretically predicted rate equation
Hydrodynamics of adiabatic inverted annular flow: an experimental study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.
1983-01-01
For low-quality film boiling in tubes or rod bundles, the flow pattern may consist of a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus, i.e., inverted annular flow. The stability, shape, and break-up mechanisms of this liquid core must be understood in order to model correctly this regime and to develop appropriate interfacial transfer correlations. This paper reports on a study in which inverted annular flow was simulated in an adiabatic system. Turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long-aspect nozzles were enclosed within cocurrent gas annuli. Jet-core diameter and velocity, and gas-annulus diameter, velocity, and species were varied, yielding liquid Reynolds numbers up to 33,000, void fractions from 0.29 to 0.95, and relative velocities from near zero to over 80 m/s. Jet-core break-up lengths and secondarily, core break-up mechanisms, were observed visually, using strobe lighting
Interacting adiabatic quantum motor
Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix
2018-05-01
We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.
Babajanova, Gulmira; Matrasulov, Jasur; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2018-04-01
With use of the scheme of fast forward which realizes quasistatic or adiabatic dynamics in shortened timescale, we investigate a thermally isolated ideal quantum gas confined in a rapidly dilating one-dimensional (1D) cavity with the time-dependent size L =L (t ) . In the fast-forward variants of equation of states, i.e., Bernoulli's formula and Poisson's adiabatic equation, the force or 1D analog of pressure can be expressed as a function of the velocity (L ˙) and acceleration (L ̈) of L besides rapidly changing state variables like effective temperature (T ) and L itself. The force is now a sum of nonadiabatic (NAD) and adiabatic contributions with the former caused by particles moving synchronously with kinetics of L and the latter by ideal bulk particles insensitive to such a kinetics. The ratio of NAD and adiabatic contributions does not depend on the particle number (N ) in the case of the soft-wall confinement, whereas such a ratio is controllable in the case of hard-wall confinement. We also reveal the condition when the NAD contribution overwhelms the adiabatic one and thoroughly changes the standard form of the equilibrium equation of states.
Topology hidden behind the breakdown of adiabaticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, L.-B.; Chen, S.-G.
2005-01-01
For classical Hamiltonian systems, the adiabatic condition may fail at some critical points. However, the breakdown of the adiabatic condition does not always cause the adiabatic evolution to be destroyed. In this paper, we suggest a supplemental condition of the adiabatic evolution for the fixed points of classical Hamiltonian systems when the adiabatic condition breaks down at the critical points. As an example, we investigate the adiabatic evolution of the fixed points of a classical Hamiltonian system which has a number of applications
Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3600 (United States); Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2015-02-15
We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.
Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.
2015-01-01
We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results
Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat
Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Cheng, B.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.
2015-02-01
We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.
Decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2015-06-01
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master-equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit T2 time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary cancellation methods, designed to improve the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computing in the closed-system setting, remain beneficial in the open-system setting. To address the high computational cost of master-equation simulations, we also demonstrate that a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that explicitly accounts for a thermal bosonic bath can be used to interpolate between classical and quantum annealing. Our study highlights and clarifies the significantly different role played by decoherence in the adiabatic and circuit models of quantum computing.
Non-adiabatic pumping in an oscillating-piston model
Chuchem, Maya; Dittrich, Thomas; Cohen, Doron
2012-05-01
We consider the prototypical "piston pump" operating on a ring, where a circulating current is induced by means of an AC driving. This can be regarded as a generalized Fermi-Ulam model, incorporating a finite-height moving wall (piston) and non-trivial topology (ring). The amount of particles transported per cycle is determined by a layered structure of phase space. Each layer is characterized by a different drift velocity. We discuss the differences compared with the adiabatic and Boltzmann pictures, and highlight the significance of the "diabatic" contribution that might lead to a counter-stirring effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennankore, K.N.; Kumar, R.K.; Razzaghi, M.
1987-01-01
One-dimensional flame models are often used to predict the pressure transients caused by hydrogen combustion in containments during postulated severe accidents. In the absence of data, these models account for prevailing flame acceleration mechanisms, such as initial turbulence, venting and obstacle-induced turbulence, by using arbitrarily large burning velocities that are much higher than laminar burning velocities. Using an intermediate-scale test facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment we have obtained necessary data on the effects of flame acceleration mechanisms, to estimate the safety margin in the buring velocities used in the models. So far, data have been analyzed, with a one-dimensional model, to determine effective burning velocities and burning-rate enhancement factors. The results of the analyses indicate that the effect of initial turbulence on the burning rate can be bounded only if the effect of flame-generated turbulence is included. The effect of venting can be accounted for by using two burning velocities, one for the pre-vent duration and a second increased value during the vented-combustion stage. The enhancement factors due to these two mechanisms, for the different conditions analyzed, varied up to 5.4, and the effective burning velocities varied up to 8.4 m/s
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others
2015-08-15
Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium plastic capsule implosions were carried out using a new, 3-shock “adiabat-shaped” drive on the National Ignition Facility. The purpose of adiabat shaping is to use a stronger first shock, reducing hydrodynamic instability growth in the ablator. The shock can decay before reaching the deuterium-tritium fuel leaving it on a low adiabat and allowing higher fuel compression. The fuel areal density was improved by ∼25% with this new drive compared to similar “high-foot” implosions, while neutron yield was improved by more than 4 times, compared to “low-foot” implosions driven at the same compression and implosion velocity.
Adiabatic capture and debunching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, K.Y.
2012-01-01
In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.
Wireless adiabatic power transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.
Lobe, Elisabeth; Stollenwerk, Tobias; Tröltzsch, Anke
2015-01-01
In the recent years, the field of adiabatic quantum computing has gained importance due to the advances in the realisation of such machines, especially by the company D-Wave Systems. These machines are suited to solve discrete optimisation problems which are typically very hard to solve on a classical computer. Due to the quantum nature of the device it is assumed that there is a substantial speedup compared to classical HPC facilities. We explain the basic principles of adiabatic ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dave Bacon
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We describe a many-body quantum system that can be made to quantum compute by the adiabatic application of a large applied field to the system. Prior to the application of the field, quantum information is localized on one boundary of the device, and after the application of the field, this information propagates to the other side of the device, with a quantum circuit applied to the information. The applied circuit depends on the many-body Hamiltonian of the material, and the computation takes place in a degenerate ground space with symmetry-protected topological order. Such “adiabatic quantum transistors” are universal adiabatic quantum computing devices that have the added benefit of being modular. Here, we describe this model, provide arguments for why it is an efficient model of quantum computing, and examine these many-body systems in the presence of a noisy environment.
Derivation of an adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock formalism from a variational principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, D.M.; Giannoni, M.J.; Veneroni, M.
1975-10-01
A derivation of the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock formalism is given, which is based on a variational principle analogous to Hamilton's principle in classical mechanics. The method leads to a Hamiltonian for collective motion which separates into a potential and a kinetic energy and gives mass and potential parameters in terms of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The adiabatic approximation assumes slow motion but not small amplitudes and can therefore describe anharmonic effects. The RPA is a limiting case where both amplitudes and velocities are small. The variational approach provides a consistent way of extracting coordinated and momenta from the density matrix and of obtaining equations of motion when particular trial forms for this density matrix are chosen. One such choice leads to Thouless-Valatin formula. An other choice leads to irrotational hydrodynamics [fr
Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao; Gong, Jiangbin
2014-01-01
Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau–Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory. (paper)
Ion Motion in the Adiabatic Focuser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.
2006-01-01
In this paper we numerically study the effect of ion motion in an adiabatic focuser, motivated by a recent suggestion that ion motion in an adiabatic focuser might be significant and even preclude operation of the focuser as previously envisioned. It is shown that despite ion motion the adiabatic focuser should work as well as originally envisioned
Helioseismic measurements in the solar envelope using group velocities of surface waves
Vorontsov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Ayukov, S. V.; Gryaznov, V. K.
2014-07-01
At intermediate- and high-degree l, solar p and f modes can be considered as surface waves. Using variational principle, we derive an integral expression for the group velocities of the surface waves in terms of adiabatic eigenfunctions of normal modes, and address the benefits of using group-velocity measurements as a supplementary diagnostic tool in solar seismology. The principal advantage of using group velocities, when compared with direct analysis of the oscillation frequencies, comes from their smaller sensitivity to the uncertainties in the near-photospheric layers. We address some numerical examples where group velocities are used to reveal inconsistencies between the solar models and the seismic data. Further, we implement the group-velocity measurements to the calibration of the specific entropy, helium abundance Y, and heavy-element abundance Z in the adiabatically stratified part of the solar convective envelope, using different recent versions of the equation of state. The results are in close agreement with our earlier measurements based on more sophisticated analysis of the solar oscillation frequencies. These results bring further support to the downward revision of the solar heavy-element abundances in recent spectroscopic measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, H.; Tayebi, B.; Galizzi, C.; Escudie, D.
2009-01-01
Hydrogen (H 2 ) is a clean burning component, but relatively expensive. Mixing a small amount of hydrogen with other fuels is an effective way to use H 2 . H 2 enriched combustion significantly improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollutant (nitrogen oxide and particulate matter) emissions. This presentation discussed the effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames. The presentation discussed flame configuration; the experimental methodology using laser tomography; and results for typical images, burning velocity, ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocities, flame surface density, curvature, flame brush thickness, and integrated flame surface area. It was concluded that the increase of turbulent burning velocity was faster than that of laminar burning velocity, which contradicted traditional theory. figs.
Adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Carvalho, A.M.G.; Mejía, C.S.; Ponte, C.A.; Silva, L.E.L.; Kaštil, Jiří; Kamarád, Jiří; Gomes, A.M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 246. ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * adiabatic temperature change * calorimetric device * gadolinium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016
Experimental study of inverted-annular-flow hydrodynamics utilizing an adiabatic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Jarlais, G.
1983-03-01
In experiments, inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long aspect nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed-core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow was observed to develop into inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and into dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of the above transitions from inverted annular flow, correlations for core jet length were developed by extending work done on free liquid jets to include this new, coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. Jet break-up length is correlated as a function of jet diameter, jet Reynolds number, jet Weber number, void fraction, and gas Weber number. Correlations for core shape, break-up mechanisms and dispersed core droplet size for the case of transition to inverted slug flow were developed
Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.; Linehan, J.
1986-01-01
Inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from large aspect ratio nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, breakup mode, and dispersed core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow destabilization led to inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and to dispersed droplet flow, core breakup length correlations were developed by extending work on free liquid jets to include this coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The results show length dependence upon D/sub J/, Re/sub J/, We/sub J/, α, and We/sub G/,rel. Correlations for core shape, breakup mechanisms, and dispersed core droplet size were also developed, by extending the results of free jet stability, roll wave entrainment, and churn turbulent droplet stability studies
Adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Northrop, T.G.; Hill, J.R.
1983-01-01
Dust grains in the ring systems and rapidly rotating magnetospheres of the outer planets such as Jupiter and Saturn may be sufficiently charged that the magnetic and electric forces on them are comparable with the gravitational force. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion has previously been applied to electrons and atomic size particles. But it is also applicable to these charged dust grains in the micrometer and smaller size range. We derive here the guiding center equation of motion, drift velocity, and parallel equation of motion for these grains in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of periodic grain charge-discharge have not been treated previously and have been included in this analysis. Grain charge is affected by the surrounding plasma properties and by the grain plasma velocity (among other factors), both of which may vary over the gyrocircle. The resulting charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency destroys the invariance of the magnetic moment and causes a grain to move radially. The magnetic moment may increase or decrease, depending on the gyrophase of the charge variation. If it decreases, the motion is always toward synchronous radius for an equatorial grain. But the orbit becomes circular before the grain reaches synchronous radius, a conclusion that follows from an exact constant of the motion. This circularization can be viewed as a consequence of the gradual reduction in the magnetic moment. This circularization also suggests that dust grains leaving Io could not reach the region of the Jovian ring, but several effects could change that conclusion. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained between adiabatic theory and detailed numerical orbit integrations
Piecewise adiabatic following in non-Hermitian cycling
Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Qing-hai
2018-05-01
The time evolution of periodically driven non-Hermitian systems is in general nonunitary but can be stable. It is hence of considerable interest to examine the adiabatic following dynamics in periodically driven non-Hermitian systems. We show in this work the possibility of piecewise adiabatic following interrupted by hopping between instantaneous system eigenstates. This phenomenon is first observed in a computational model and then theoretically explained, using an exactly solvable model, in terms of the Stokes phenomenon. In the latter case, the piecewise adiabatic following is shown to be a genuine critical behavior and the precise phase boundary in the parameter space is located. Interestingly, the critical boundary for piecewise adiabatic following is found to be unrelated to the domain for exceptional points. To characterize the adiabatic following dynamics, we also advocate a simple definition of the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) phase for nonunitary cyclic dynamics, which always yields real AA phases. In the slow driving limit, the AA phase reduces to the Berry phase if adiabatic following persists throughout the driving without hopping, but oscillates violently and does not approach any limit in cases of piecewise adiabatic following. This work exposes the rich features of nonunitary dynamics in cases of slow cycling and should stimulate future applications of nonunitary dynamics.
Velocity Spread Reduction for Axis-encircling Electron Beam Generated by Single Magnetic Cusp
Jeon, S. G.; Baik, C. W.; Kim, D. H.; Park, G. S.; Sato, N.; Yokoo, K.
2001-10-01
Physical characteristics of an annular Pierce-type electron gun are investigated analytically. An annular electron gun is used in conjunction with a non-adiabatic magnetic reversal and an adiabatic compression to produce an axis-encircling electron beam. Velocity spread close to zero is realized with an initial canonical angular momentum spread at the cathode when the beam trajectory does not coincide with the magnetic flux line. Both the analytical calculation and the EGUN code simulation confirm this phenomenon.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-01-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models
Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem
Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas
2012-01-01
We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…
Quantum adiabatic Markovian master equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albash, Tameem; Zanardi, Paolo; Boixo, Sergio; Lidar, Daniel A
2012-01-01
We develop from first principles Markovian master equations suited for studying the time evolution of a system evolving adiabatically while coupled weakly to a thermal bath. We derive two sets of equations in the adiabatic limit, one using the rotating wave (secular) approximation that results in a master equation in Lindblad form, the other without the rotating wave approximation but not in Lindblad form. The two equations make markedly different predictions depending on whether or not the Lamb shift is included. Our analysis keeps track of the various time and energy scales associated with the various approximations we make, and thus allows for a systematic inclusion of higher order corrections, in particular beyond the adiabatic limit. We use our formalism to study the evolution of an Ising spin chain in a transverse field and coupled to a thermal bosonic bath, for which we identify four distinct evolution phases. While we do not expect this to be a generic feature, in one of these phases dissipation acts to increase the fidelity of the system state relative to the adiabatic ground state. (paper)
Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-12-06
A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.
Adiabatic evolution of decoherence-free subspaces and its shortcuts
Wu, S. L.; Huang, X. L.; Li, H.; Yi, X. X.
2017-10-01
The adiabatic theorem and shortcuts to adiabaticity for time-dependent open quantum systems are explored in this paper. Starting from the definition of dynamical stable decoherence-free subspace, we show that, under a compact adiabatic condition, the quantum state remains in the time-dependent decoherence-free subspace with an extremely high purity, even though the dynamics of the open quantum system may not be adiabatic. The adiabatic condition mentioned here in the adiabatic theorem for open systems is very similar to that for closed quantum systems, except that the operators required to change slowly are the Lindblad operators. We also show that the adiabatic evolution of decoherence-free subspaces depends on the existence of instantaneous decoherence-free subspaces, which requires that the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems be engineered according to the incoherent control protocol. In addition, shortcuts to adiabaticity for adiabatic decoherence-free subspaces are also presented based on the transitionless quantum driving method. Finally, we provide an example that consists of a two-level system coupled to a broadband squeezed vacuum field to show our theory. Our approach employs Markovian master equations and the theory can apply to finite-dimensional quantum open systems.
Approximations to the non-adiabatic particle response in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schep, T.J.; Braams, B.J.
1981-08-01
The non-adiabatic part of the particle response to low-frequency electromagnetic modes with long parallel wavelengths is discussed. Analytic approximations to the kernels of the integrals that relate the amplitudes of the perturbed potentials to the non-adiabatic part of the perturbed density in an axisymmetric toroidal configuration are presented and the results are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that both in the plane slab and in toroidal geometry the kernel contains a logarithmic singularity. This singularity is associated with particles with vanishing parallel velocity so that, in toroidal geometry, it is related with the behaviour of trapped particles near their turning points. In contrast to the plane slab, in toroidal geometry this logarithmic singularity is mainly real and associated with non-resonant particles. Apart from this logarithmic term, the kernel contains a complex regular part arising from resonant as well as from non-resonant particles. The analytic approximations that will be presented make the dispersion relation of drift-type modes in toroidal geometry amenable to analytic as well as to simpler numerical calculation of the growth rate and of the spatial mode structure
Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti
2012-01-01
We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included
Ignition and burn in inertially confined magnetized fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.
1991-01-01
At the third International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, we presented computational results which suggested that ''breakeven'' experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) may be possible with existing driver technology. We recently used the ICF simulation code LASNEX to calculate the performance of an idealized magnetized fuel target. The parameter space in which magnetized fuel operates is remote from that of both ''conventional'' ICF and magnetic confinement fusion devices. In particular, the plasma has a very high β and is wall confined, not magnetically confined. The role of the field is to reduce the electron thermal conductivity and to partially trap the DT alphas. The plasma is contained in a pusher which is imploded to compress and adiabatically heat the plasma from an initial condition of preheat and pre-magnetization to the conditions necessary for fusion ignition. The initial density must be quite low by ICF standards in order to insure that the electron thermal conductivity is suppressed and to minimize the generation of radiation from the plasma. Because the energy loss terms are effectively suppressed, the implosion may proceed at a relatively slow rate of about 1 to 3 cm/μs. Also, the need for low density fuel dictates a much larger target, so that magnetized fuel can use drivers with much lower power and power density. Therefore, magnetized fuel allows the use of efficient drivers that are not suitable for laser or particle beam fusion due to insufficient focus or too long pulse length. The ignition and burn of magnetized fuel involves very different dominant physical processes than does ''conventional'' ICF. The fusion time scale becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic time scale, but other processes that limit the burn in unmagnetized fuel are of no consequence. The idealized low gain magnetized fuel target presented here is large and requires a very low implosion velocity. 11 refs
Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.
2011-01-01
This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…
Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity
Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.
2017-08-01
Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.
Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines
Mitianiec, W.
2016-09-01
The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.
Cosmological streaming velocities and large-scale density maxima
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, J.A.; Lumsden, S.L.; Heavens, A.F.
1987-01-01
The statistical testing of models for galaxy formation against the observed peculiar velocities on 10-100 Mpc scales is considered. If it is assumed that observers are likely to be sited near maxima in the primordial field of density perturbations, then the observed filtered velocity field will be biased to low values by comparison with a point selected at random. This helps to explain how the peculiar velocities (relative to the microwave background) of the local supercluster and the Rubin-Ford shell can be so similar in magnitude. Using this assumption to predict peculiar velocities on two scales, we test models with large-scale damping (i.e. adiabatic perturbations). Allowed models have a damping length close to the Rubin-Ford scale and are mildly non-linear. Both purely baryonic universes and universes dominated by massive neutrinos can account for the observed velocities, provided 0.1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1. (author)
Experimental and modelling study of the effect of elevated pressure on ethane and propane flames
Goswami, M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Konnov, A.A.
2016-01-01
Laminar burning velocities, SL, of ethane + air and propane + air flames within an equivalence ratio range between 0.8 and 1.3 were determined at atmospheric and elevated pressures up to 4 atm. Measurements were performed in non-stretched flames, stabilized on a perforated plate burner at adiabatic
The effect of laser pulse shape variations on the adiabat of NIF capsule implosions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robey, H. F.; MacGowan, B. J.; Landen, O. L.; LaFortune, K. N.; Widmayer, C.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Ralph, J.; LePape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Spears, B. K.; Haan, S. W.; Clark, D.; Lindl, J. D.; Edwards, M. J. [LLNL, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2013-05-15
Indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are being performed with the goal of compressing a layer of cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel to a sufficiently high areal density (ρR) to sustain the self-propagating burn wave that is required for fusion power gain greater than unity. These implosions are driven with a temporally shaped laser pulse that is carefully tailored to keep the DT fuel on a low adiabat (ratio of fuel pressure to the Fermi degenerate pressure). In this report, the impact of variations in the laser pulse shape (both intentionally and unintentionally imposed) on the in-flight implosion adiabat is examined by comparing the measured shot-to-shot variations in ρR from a large ensemble of DT-layered ignition target implosions on NIF spanning a two-year period. A strong sensitivity to variations in the early-time, low-power foot of the laser pulse is observed. It is shown that very small deviations (∼0.1% of the total pulse energy) in the first 2 ns of the laser pulse can decrease the measured ρR by 50%.
Accuracy versus run time in an adiabatic quantum search
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezakhani, A. T.; Pimachev, A. K.; Lidar, D. A.
2010-01-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: The error decreases exponentially for short times and then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well-known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graefe, E. M.; Korsch, H. J.; Witthaut, D.
2006-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a triple-well trap in a three-level approximation. The interatomic interactions are taken into account in a mean-field approximation (Gross-Pitaevskii equation), leading to a nonlinear three-level model. Additional eigenstates emerge due to the nonlinearity, depending on the system parameters. Adiabaticity breaks down if such a nonlinear eigenstate disappears when the parameters are varied. The dynamical implications of this loss of adiabaticity are analyzed for two important special cases: A three-level Landau-Zener model and the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) scheme. We discuss the emergence of looped levels for an equal-slope Landau-Zener model. The Zener tunneling probability does not tend to zero in the adiabatic limit and shows pronounced oscillations as a function of the velocity of the parameter variation. Furthermore we generalize the STIRAP scheme for adiabatic coherent population transfer between atomic states to the nonlinear case. It is shown that STIRAP breaks down if the nonlinearity exceeds the detuning
Effect of hole imperfection on adiabatic film cooling effectiveness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jovanovic, M.B.; Lange, H.C.; Steenhoven, A.A. van
2008-01-01
The influence of a discrete imperfection on film cooling is studied by means of thermochromic liquid crystals measurements of the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness. As a benchmark, the effect of a jet ejected through a perfect hole is used. The film cooling effectiveness achieved with an imperfect hole is compared to the benchmark. A half torus plays the role of the discrete imperfection. The influence of the presence of the imperfection, its position and the turbulence intensity of the free stream are analyzed. The measurement data are depicted as two-dimensional plots but also as integral values. It is found that the imperfection, placed one diameter from the hole leading edge, deteriorates the effectiveness at moderate velocity ratios. Under the same conditions, the same imperfection fixed at the hole exit improves the effectiveness. At the velocity ratio of 1.50, the exit imperfection improves the integral effectiveness relatively for more than two times. The turbulence intensity and imperfections placed deeper in the hole do not have a significant influence
Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)
2017-12-15
Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Kallenbach, Reinald
2009-01-01
Interstellar neutral gas enters the inner heliosphere where it is ionized and becomes the pickup ion population of the solar wind. It is often assumed that this population will subsequently cool adiabatically, like an expanding ideal gas due, to the divergent flow of the solar wind. Here, we report the first independent measure of the effective adiabatic cooling index in the inner heliosphere from SOHO CELIAS measurements of singly charged helium taken during times of perpendicular interplanetary magnetic field. We use a simple adiabatic transport model of interstellar pickup helium ions, valid for the upwind region of the inner heliosphere. The time averaged velocity spectrum of helium pickup ions measured by CELIAS/CTOF is fit to this model with a single free parameter which indicates an effective cooling rate with a power-law index of γ = 1.35 ± 0.2. While this average is consistent with the 'ideal-gas' assumption of γ = 1.5, the analysis indicates that such an assumption will not apply in general, and that due to observational constraints further measurements are necessary to constrain the cooling process. Implications are discussed for understanding the transport processes in the inner heliosphere and improving this measurement technique.
Fast-forward of quantum adiabatic dynamics in electro-magnetic field
Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2010-01-01
We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wavefunctions under electro-magnetic field by developing the previous theory (Masuda & Nakamura 2008 and 2010). Firstly we investigate the orbital dynamics of a charged particle. We derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states except for the spatially uniform phase such as the adiabatic phase in any desired short time. Fast-forward of adiabatic squeezing and tran...
Quantum theory of NMR adiabatic pulses and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ke, Y.
1993-01-01
Recently explosive developments of in vivo NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) and imaging (NMRI) in biological and medical sciences have resulted in the establishment of NMR as one of the most advanced major technique in life sciences. These developments have created huge demands for a variety of NMR adiabatic pulses with play a very important role in NMR experiments in vivo. In order to develop new NMR adiabatic pulses, a rigorous systematical quantum theory for this kind of pulses is greatly needed. Providing such a theory is one of the important goals of this dissertation. Quantum density matrix theory and product operator method have been used throughout this dissertation. Another goal, which is the major goal of this thesis research, is to use the quantum theory as a guide to develop new NMR adiabatic pulses and their applications. To fill this goal, a technique to construct a new type of adiabatic pulses, narrow band selective adiabatic pulses, has been invented, which is described through the example of constructing an adiabatic DANTE inversion pulse. This new adiabatic pulse is the first narrow band selective adiabatic pulses: Adiabatic homonuclear and heteronuclear spectral editing sequences. Unique to the first pulse sequence is a B 1 -field filter which is built by using two non-refocusing adiabatic full passage pulses to refocus the wanted signal and dephase unwanted signals. This extra filter greatly enhance the editing efficiency. Unlike commonly used heteronuclear spectral editing sequences which depend on the polarization transfer or spectral subtraction by phase cycling techniques, the second pulse sequences accomplishes the editing of heteronuclear J-coupled signals based on the fact that this sequence is transparent to the uncoupled spins and is equivalent a 90 degrees excitation pulse to the heteronuclear J-coupled spins. Experimental results have confirmed the ability of spectral editing with these two new sequences
Quantum entangling power of adiabatically connected Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamma, Alioscia; Zanardi, Paolo
2004-01-01
The space of quantum Hamiltonians has a natural partition in classes of operators that can be adiabatically deformed into each other. We consider parametric families of Hamiltonians acting on a bipartite quantum state space. When the different Hamiltonians in the family fall in the same adiabatic class, one can manipulate entanglement by moving through energy eigenstates corresponding to different values of the control parameters. We introduce an associated notion of adiabatic entangling power. This novel measure is analyzed for general dxd quantum systems, and specific two-qubit examples are studied
Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective
Teichmann, Philip
2012-01-01
Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...
Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng
2009-01-01
Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)
Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna
2011-01-01
Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory
Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei
2011-10-01
Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki
2009-01-01
A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up core in a feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is of importance to obtain the flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. A 2.5 times enlarged 7-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in an inner subchannel surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consisted of a hexagonal acrylic duct tube and fluorinated resin pins which had nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. The velocity distribution in an inner subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through the front and lateral sides of the duct tube. In the vertical velocity distribution in a narrow space between the pins, the wrapping wire decreased the velocity downstream of the wire and asymmetric flow distribution was formed between the pin and wire. In the horizontal velocity distribution, swirl flow around the wrapping wire was obviously observed. The measured velocity data are useful for code validation of pin bundle thermalhydraulics. (author)
Adiabatic theory in regions of strong field gradients. [in magnetosphere
Whipple, E. C.; Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.
1986-01-01
The theory for the generalized first invariant for adiabatic motion of charged particles in regions where there are large gradients in magnetic or electric fields is developed. The general condition for an invariant to exist in such regions is that the potential well in which the particle oscillates change its shape slowly as the particle drifts. It is shown how the Kruskal (1962) procedure can be applied to obtain expressions for the invariant and for drift velocities that are asymptotic in a smallness parameter epsilon. The procedure is illustrated by obtaining the invariant and drift velocities for particles traversing a perpendicular shock, and the generalized invariant is compared with the magnetic moment, and the drift orbits with the actual orbits, for a particular case. In contrast to the magnetic moment, the generalized first invariant is better for large gyroradii (large kinetic energies) than for small gyroradii. Expressions for the invariant when an electrostatic potential jump is imposed across the perpendicular shock, and when the particle traverses a rotational shear layer with a small normal component of the magnetic field are given.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in cutting a spin chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Feng-Hua [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); School of Computer Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Zhao-Ming, E-mail: mingmoon78@126.com [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gu, Yong-Jian, E-mail: yjgu@ouc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)
2017-01-15
“Shortcuts to adiabaticity” represents a strategy for accelerating a quantum adiabatic process, is useful for preparing or manipulating a quantum state. In this paper, we investigate the adiabaticity in the dynamics of an XY spin chain. During the process of cutting one long chain into two short chains, a “shortcut” can be obtained by applying a sequence of external pulses. The fidelity which measures the adiabaticity can be dramatically enhanced by increasing the pulse strength or pulse duration time. This reliability can be kept for different types of pulses, such as random pulse time interval or random strength. The free choice of the pulse can be explained by the adiabatic representation of the Hamiltonian, and it shows that the control effects are determined by the integral of the control function in the time domain. - Highlights: • “Shortcuts to adiabaticity” is proposed by applying external pulses. • The adiabaticity can be accelerated by increasing pulse strength or duration time. • Control effects are determined by the integral of the control function with respect to time.
Dynamical constraints and adiabatic invariants in chemical reactions.
Lorquet, J C
2007-08-23
For long-range electrostatic potentials and, more generally, when the topography of the potential energy surface is locally simple, the reaction path coordinate is adiabatically separable from the perpendicular degrees of freedom. For the ion-permanent dipole and ion-quadrupole interactions, the Poisson bracket of the adiabatic invariant decreases with the interfragment distance more rapidly than the electrostatic potential. The smaller the translational momentum, the moment of inertia of the neutral fragment, and the dipole or quadrupole moments are, the more reliable the adiabatic approximation is, as expected from the usual argumentation. Closed-form expressions for an effective one-dimensional potential in an adiabatic Hamiltonian are given. Connection with a model where the decoupling is exact is obtained in the limit of an infinitely heavy dipole. The dynamics is also constrained by adiabatic invariance for a harmonic valley about a curved reaction path, as shown by the reaction path Hamiltonian method. The maximum entropy method reveals that, as a result of the invariance properties of the entropy, constraints whose validity has been demonstrated locally only subsist in all parts of phase space. However, their form varies continuously, and they are not necessarily expressed in simple terms as they are in the asymptotic region. Therefore, although the influence of adiabatic invariance has been demonstrated at asymptotically large values of the reaction coordinate only, it persists in more interesting ranges.
Generalized shortcuts to adiabaticity and enhanced robustness against decoherence
Santos, Alan C.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2018-01-01
Shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a general approach to mimic adiabatic quantum processes via arbitrarily fast evolutions in Hilbert space. For these counter-diabatic evolutions, higher speed comes at higher energy cost. Here, the counter-diabatic theory is employed as a minimal energy demanding scheme for speeding up adiabatic tasks. As a by-product, we show that this approach can be used to obtain infinite classes of transitionless models, including time-independent Hamiltonians under certain conditions over the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian. We apply these results to investigate shortcuts to adiabaticity in decohering environments by introducing the requirement of a fixed energy resource. In this scenario, we show that generalized transitionless evolutions can be more robust against decoherence than their adiabatic counterparts. We illustrate this enhanced robustness both for the Landau-Zener model and for quantum gate Hamiltonians.
Adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory of collective motion in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranger, M.; Veneroni, M.
1978-01-01
We show how to derive the parameters of a phenomenological collective model from a microscopic theory. The microscopic theory is Hartree-Fock, and we start from the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation. To this we add the adiabatic approximation, which results in a collective kinetic energy quadratic in the velocities, with coefficients depending on the coordinates, as in the phenomenological models. The crucial step is the decomposition of the single-particle density matrix p in the form exp(i/sub chi/) rho/sub omicron/exp(-i/sub chi/), where rho/sub omicron/ represents a time-even Slater determinant and plays the role of coordinate. Then chi plays the role of momentum, and the adiabatic assumption is that chi is small. The energy is expanded in powers of chi, the zeroth-order being the collective potential energy. The analogy with classical mechanics is stressed and studied. The same adiabatic equations of motion are derived in three different ways (directly, from the Lagrangian, from the Hamiltonian), thus proving the consistency of the theory. The dynamical equation is not necessary for writing the energy or for the subsequent quantization which leads to a Schroedinger equation, but it must be used to check the validity of various approximation schemes, particularly to reduce the problem to a few degrees of freedom. The role of the adiabatic hypothesis, its definition, and range of validity, are analyzed in great detail. It assumes slow motion, but not small amplitude, and is therefore suitable for large-amplitude collective motion. The RPA is obtained as the limiting case where the amplitude is also small. The translational mass is correctly given, and the moment of inertia under rotation is that of Thouless and Valatin. For a quadrupole two-body force, the Baranger-Kumar formalism is recovered. The self-consistency brings additional terms to the Inglis cranking formula. Comparison is also made with generator coordinate methods
Diabatic and adiabatic representations for atomic collision processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delos, J.B.; Thorson, W.R.
1979-01-01
A consistent general definition of diabatic representations has not previously been given, even though many practical examples of such representations have been constructed for specific problems. Such a definition is provided in this paper. Beginning with a classical trajectory formulation, we describe the form and behavior of velocity-dependent couplings in slow collisions, including the effects of electron-translation factors (ETF's). We compare the couplings arising from atomic representations and atomic ETF's with those arising from molecular representations and ''switching function'' ETF's. We show that a unique set of switching functions makes the two descriptions identical in their effects. We then show that an acceptable general definition of a diabatic representation is provided by the condition P+A=0, where P is the usual nonadiabatic coupling matrix and A represents corrections to it arising from electron translation factors (ETF's). Two distinct types of diabatic representation result, depending on the definition taken for A. States that undergo no deformation are called F diabatic; those that have no velocity-dependent couplings are called M diabatic. Finally, we discuss the properties of representations that are partially diabatic and partially adiabatic, and we give some rules for the construction of representations that should be nearly optimal for describing many types of collision processes
Quantum adiabatic approximation and the geometric phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostafazadeh, A.
1997-01-01
A precise definition of an adiabaticity parameter ν of a time-dependent Hamiltonian is proposed. A variation of the time-dependent perturbation theory is presented which yields a series expansion of the evolution operator U(τ)=summation scr(l) U (scr(l)) (τ) with U (scr(l)) (τ) being at least of the order ν scr(l) . In particular, U (0) (τ) corresponds to the adiabatic approximation and yields Berry close-quote s adiabatic phase. It is shown that this series expansion has nothing to do with the 1/τ expansion of U(τ). It is also shown that the nonadiabatic part of the evolution operator is generated by a transformed Hamiltonian which is off-diagonal in the eigenbasis of the initial Hamiltonian. This suggests the introduction of an adiabatic product expansion for U(τ) which turns out to yield exact expressions for U(τ) for a large number of quantum systems. In particular, a simple application of the adiabatic product expansion is used to show that for the Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a magnetic dipole in an arbitrarily changing magnetic field, there exists another Hamiltonian with the same eigenvectors for which the Schroedinger equation is exactly solvable. Some related issues concerning geometric phases and their physical significance are also discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonio, B; Anders, J; Markham, D
2014-01-01
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)
Plasma heating by adiabatic compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.A. Jr.
1972-01-01
These two lectures will cover the following three topics: (i) The application of adiabatic compression to toroidal devices is reviewed. The special case of adiabatic compression in tokamaks is considered in more detail, including a discussion of the equilibrium, scaling laws, and heating effects. (ii) The ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) device which was completed in May 1972, is described in detail. Compression of a tokamak plasma across a static toroidal field is studied in this device. The device is designed to produce a pre-compression plasma with a major radius of 17 cm, toroidal field of 20 kG, and current of 90 kA. The compression leads to a plasma with major radius of 38 cm and minor radius of 10 cm. Scaling laws imply a density increase of a factor 6, temperature increase of a factor 3, and current increase of a factor 2.4. An additional feature of ATC is that it is a large tokamak which operates without a copper shell. (iii) Data which show that the expected MHD behavior is largely observed is presented and discussed. (U.S.)
Magnus approximation in the adiabatic picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klarsfeld, S.; Oteo, J.A.
1991-01-01
A simple approximate nonperturbative method is described for treating time-dependent problems that works well in the intermediate regime far from both the sudden and the adiabatic limits. The method consists of applying the Magnus expansion after transforming to the adiabatic basis defined by the eigenstates of the instantaneous Hamiltonian. A few exactly soluble examples are considered in order to assess the domain of validity of the approximation. (author) 32 refs., 4 figs
Semi adiabatic theory of seasonal Markov processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talkner, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The dynamics of many natural and technical systems are essentially influenced by a periodic forcing. Analytic solutions of the equations of motion for periodically driven systems are generally not known. Simulations, numerical solutions or in some limiting cases approximate analytic solutions represent the known approaches to study the dynamics of such systems. Besides the regime of weak periodic forces where linear response theory works, the limit of a slow driving force can often be treated analytically using an adiabatic approximation. For this approximation to hold all intrinsic processes must be fast on the time-scale of a period of the external driving force. We developed a perturbation theory for periodically driven Markovian systems that covers the adiabatic regime but also works if the system has a single slow mode that may even be slower than the driving force. We call it the semi adiabatic approximation. Some results of this approximation for a system exhibiting stochastic resonance which usually takes place within the semi adiabatic regime are indicated. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs.
Adiabatic quantum search algorithm for structured problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roland, Jeremie; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2003-01-01
The study of quantum computation has been motivated by the hope of finding efficient quantum algorithms for solving classically hard problems. In this context, quantum algorithms by local adiabatic evolution have been shown to solve an unstructured search problem with a quadratic speedup over a classical search, just as Grover's algorithm. In this paper, we study how the structure of the search problem may be exploited to further improve the efficiency of these quantum adiabatic algorithms. We show that by nesting a partial search over a reduced set of variables into a global search, it is possible to devise quantum adiabatic algorithms with a complexity that, although still exponential, grows with a reduced order in the problem size
Approximability of optimization problems through adiabatic quantum computation
Cruz-Santos, William
2014-01-01
The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is l
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taioli, Simone [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Garberoglio, Giovanni [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Simonucci, Stefano [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Beccara, Silvio a [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Nardi, Marco [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Verucchi, Roberto [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, FBK-CNR, Trento (Italy); Iannotta, Salvatore [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy); Dapor, Maurizio [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); and others
2013-01-28
In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.
Are the reactions of quinones on graphite adiabatic?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luque, N.B.; Schmickler, W.
2013-01-01
Outer sphere electron transfer reactions on pure metal electrodes are often adiabatic and hence independent of the electrode material. Since it is not clear, whether adiabatic electron transfer can also occur on a semi-metal like graphite, we have re-investigated experimental data presented in a recent communication by Nissim et al. [Chemical Communications 48 (2012) 3294] on the reactions of quinones on graphite. We have supplemented their work by DFT calculations and conclude, that these reactions are indeed adiabatic. This contradicts the assertion of Nissim et al. that the rates are proportional to the density of states at the Fermi level
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Makoto Kohga
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.
Improving the positive feedback adiabatic logic familiy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Fischer
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Positive Feedback Adiabatic Logic (PFAL shows the lowest energy dissipation among adiabatic logic families based on cross-coupled transistors, due to the reduction of both adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses. The dissipation primarily depends on the resistance of the charging path, which consists of a single p-channel MOSFET during the recovery phase. In this paper, a new logic family called Improved PFAL (IPFAL is proposed, where all n- and pchannel devices are swapped so that the charge can be recovered through an n-channel MOSFET. This allows to decrease the resistance of the charging path up to a factor of 2, and it enables a significant reduction of the energy dissipation. Simulations based on a 0.13µm CMOS process confirm the improvements in terms of power consumption over a large frequency range. However, the same simple design rule, which enables in PFAL an additional reduction of the dissipation by optimal transistor sizing, does not apply to IPFAL. Therefore, the influence of several sources of dissipation for a generic IPFAL gate is illustrated and discussed, in order to lower the power consumption and achieve better performance.
Adiabatic invariants of the extended KdV equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karczewska, Anna [Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Rozmej, Piotr, E-mail: p.rozmej@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Infeld, Eryk [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Rowlands, George [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7A (United Kingdom)
2017-01-30
When the Euler equations for shallow water are taken to the next order, beyond KdV, momentum and energy are no longer exact invariants. (The only one is mass.) However, adiabatic invariants (AI) can be found. When the KdV expansion parameters are zero, exact invariants are recovered. Existence of adiabatic invariants results from general theory of near-identity transformations (NIT) which allow us to transform higher order nonintegrable equations to asymptotically equivalent (when small parameters tend to zero) integrable form. Here we present a direct method of calculations of adiabatic invariants. It does not need a transformation to a moving reference frame nor performing a near-identity transformation. Numerical tests show that deviations of AI from constant values are indeed small. - Highlights: • We suggest a new and simple method for calculating adiabatic invariants of second order wave equations. • It is easy to use and we hope that it will be useful if published. • Interesting numerics included.
Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes
Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk
2015-01-01
Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406
Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.
2010-01-01
We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1983-01-01
The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas
Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Roscilde, T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (Canada); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)
2006-06-01
We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results.
Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric A Hendricks
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2018-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) started as an approach to solving optimization problems and has evolved into an important universal alternative to the standard circuit model of quantum computing, with deep connections to both classical and quantum complexity theory and condensed matter physics. This review gives an account of the major theoretical developments in the field, while focusing on the closed-system setting. The review is organized around a series of topics that are essential to an understanding of the underlying principles of AQC, its algorithmic accomplishments and limitations, and its scope in the more general setting of computational complexity theory. Several variants are presented of the adiabatic theorem, the cornerstone of AQC, and examples are given of explicit AQC algorithms that exhibit a quantum speedup. An overview of several proofs of the universality of AQC and related Hamiltonian quantum complexity theory is given. Considerable space is devoted to stoquastic AQC, the setting of most AQC work to date, where obstructions to success and their possible resolutions are discussed.
Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siu, M. Stewart
2007-01-01
We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied 'straight line' adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev's toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm
Dependence of adiabatic population transfer on pulse profile
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Control of population transfer by rapid adiabatic passage has been an established technique wherein the exact amplitude profile of the shaped pulse is considered to be insignificant. We study the effect of ultrafast shaped pulses for two-level systems, by density-matrix approach. However, we find that adiabaticity depends ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buechner, J.M.
1989-01-01
For a number of problems in the Plasma Astrophysics it is necessary to know the laws, which govern the non adiabatic charged particle dynamics in strongly curves magnetic field reversals. These are, e.q., the kinetic theory of the microscopic and macroscopicstability of current sheets in collionless plasma, of microturbulence, causing anomalous resistivity and dissipating currents, the problem of spontaneous reconnection, the formation of non Maxwellian distribution functions, particle acceleration and the use of particles as a diagnostic tool ('tracers'). To find such laws we derived from the differential equations of motion discrete mappings. These mappings allow an investigation of the motion after the break down of the adiabaticity of the magnetic moment. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab
Recent developments in trapping and manipulation of atoms with adiabatic potentials
Garraway, Barry M.; Perrin, Hélène
2016-09-01
A combination of static and oscillating magnetic fields can be used to ‘dress’ atoms with radio-frequency (RF), or microwave, radiation. The spatial variation of these fields can be used to create an enormous variety of traps for ultra-cold atoms and quantum gases. This article reviews the type and character of these adiabatic traps and the applications which include atom interferometry and the study of low-dimensional quantum systems. We introduce the main concepts of magnetic traps leading to adiabatic dressed traps. The concept of adiabaticity is discussed in the context of the Landau-Zener model. The first bubble trap experiment is reviewed together with the method used for loading it. Experiments based on atom chips show the production of double wells and ring traps. Dressed atom traps can be evaporatively cooled with an additional RF field, and a weak RF field can be used to probe the spectroscopy of the adiabatic potentials. Several approaches to ring traps formed from adiabatic potentials are discussed, including those based on atom chips, time-averaged adiabatic potentials and induction methods. Several proposals for adiabatic lattices with dressed atoms are also reviewed.
Muonic molecules as three-body Coulomb problem in adiabatic approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, M.
1994-04-01
The three-body Coulomb problem is treated within the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach. The surface functions are expanded into Faddeev-type components in order to ensure the equivalent representation of all possible two-body contributions. It is shown that this decomposition reduces the numerical effort considerably. The remaining radial equations are solved both in the extreme and the uncoupled adiabatic approximation to determine the binding energies of the systems (dtμ) and (d 3 Heμ). Whereas the ground state is described very well in the uncoupled adiabatic approximation, the excited states should be treated within the coupled adiabatic approximation to obtain good agreement with variational calculations. (orig.)
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1983-06-01
The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas.
Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E
2015-07-01
Brand for their technical expertise and guidance. He also wishes to thank Mr. Stephen McKim from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for his assistance...Wilson, D. B., and Stoltzfus, J. M. "Adiabatic Compression of Oxygen: Real Fluid Temperatures," 2000. 10Ismail, I. M. K., and Hawkins , T. W. "Adiabatic
A model for the interfacial shear in vertical, adiabatic, annular-mist flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cappiello, M.W.
1992-01-01
A model is developed for the interfacial shear in upward, vertical, adiabatic, annular-mist flow. The model accounts for the momentum of both the droplet and film components and is applicable to the two-fluid approximation. Three computer programs are developed to evaluate the sensitivity of the droplet drag coefficient on the droplet velocity calculation, to solve the two-fluid set of equations by iteration, and to evaluate the required film friction factor from the data. The results of the sensitivity calculation show that a constant drag coefficient of 0.44 for the droplet is sufficient for estimating the droplet velocity over a typical range of gas velocities. Several film friction factor correlations from the literature were tested against the existing data of Hossfeld and Barathan. It was found that a modified effective roughness correlation proposed by Wallis performs the best overall in predicting the data for both small- and large-diameter pipes. The Electrical Power Research Institute drift-flux correlation and the Barathan correlation consistently underpredict the data. The use of the Henstock and Hanratty correlation predicts an incorrect trend. A new correlation is developed that better predicts the data over the entire range of gas injection rates. 17 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hokin, S.A.
1987-09-01
An experimental study of the velocity-space diffusion of electrons in an electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) mirror plasma, in the presence of micro-unstable whistler rf emission, is presented. It is found that the dominant loss mechanism for hot electrons is endloss produced by rf diffusion into the mirror loss cone. In a standard case with 4.5 kW of ECRH power, this loss limits the stored energy to 120 J with an energy confinement time of 40 ms. The energy confinement time associated with collisional scattering is 350 ms in this case. Whistler microinstability rf produces up to 25% of the rf-induced loss. The hot electron temperature is not limited by loss of adiabaticity, but by rf-induced loss of high energy electrons, and decreases with increasing rf power in strong diffusion regimes. Collisional loss is in agreement with standard scattering theory. No super-adiabatic effects are clearly seen. Experiments in which the vacuum chamber walls are lined with microwave absorber reveal that single pass absorption is limited to less than 60%, whereas experiments with reflecting walls exhibit up to 90% absorption. Stronger diffusion is seen in the latter, with a hot electron heating rate which is twice that of the absorber experiments. This increase in diffusion can be produced by two distinct aspects of wall-reflected rf: the broader spatial rf profile, which enlarges the resonant region in velocity space, or a reduction in super-adiabatic effects due to randomization of the electron gyrophase. Since no other aspects of super-adiabaticity are observed, the first mechanism appears more likely. 39 refs., 54 figs
Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron oscillations in a static electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wahlberg, C.
1977-03-01
The influence of a static electric field on the oscillations of a one-dimensional stream of electrons is investigated. In the weak field limit the oscillations are adiabatic and mode coupling negligible, but becomes significant if the field is tronger. The latter effect is believed to be of importance for the stability of e.g. potential double layers
Quasi-adiabatic Switching for Metal-Island Quantum-dot Cellular Automata
Toth, Geza; Lent, Craig S.
2000-01-01
Recent experiments have demonstrated a working cell suitable for implementing the Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) paradigm. These experiments have been performed using metal island clusters. The most promising approach to QCA operation involves quasi-adiabatically switching the cells. This has been analyzed extensively in gated semiconductor cells. Here we present a metal island cell structure that makes quasi-adiabatic switching possible. We show how this permits quasi-adiabatic clocking...
Non-adiabatic effect on Laughlin's argument of the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, I; Hatsugai, Y
2009-01-01
We have numerically studied a non-adiabatic charge transport in the quantum Hall system pumped by a magnetic flux, as one of the simplest theoretical realizations of non-adiabatic Thouless pumping. In the adiabatic limit, a pumped charge is quantized, known as Laughlin's argument in a cylindrical lattice. In a uniform electric field, we obtained a formula connecting quantized pumping in the adiabatic limit and no-pumping in the sudden limit. The intermediate region between the two limits is determined by the Landau gap. A randomness or impurity effect is also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleshin, V.S.
1980-01-01
Presented are calculated dependences for adiabatic compressibility, isoentropy coefficient and thermodynamic sound velocity of a two-phase media with homogeneous disperse structure being in a state of equilibrium. The character of the change of the values mentioned for vapor water media at the change of vapor mass composition in the mixture from zero to 1 is shown. Comparison of the calculated data as to dependences obtained with the experimental ones for critical regimes of vapor-water flow outflow through short and long cylindrical channels with sharp entrance rims. The calculation error does not exceed approximately 12%. Analysis of the results obtained showed that at outflow through short channels of metastable vapor liquid flow the main characteristics, like at outflow through long channels, are determined by the pressure in the exit cross section, mass vapor content and specific volume of the mixture, which are calculated with account for real overheating of the liquid to the exit cross section. At critical regime of outflow through the very long channels, when one can not neglect hydraulic resistance in the channel and the process is not isoentropic, the pressure and mass vapor content in the exit cross section also unambiguously determine the value of adiabatic compressibility of two-phase media, sound velocity and isoentropy coefficient in the cross section. Conclusion is made that the dependences obtained can be used with sufficient for practical purposes accuracy when solving different engineering problems, as well as for the calculations of the mixture consumption at flow of the reactor contours NAI with WWR
Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders
2010-01-01
The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second...
Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Affouard, J.
1984-07-01
Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. D. Biamonte
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be controllable, and built using existing technology. In some cases, moving away from gate-model-based implementations of quantum computing may offer a more feasible solution for particular experimental implementations. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-local interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-local interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes free evolution until measured. This allows one to recover e.g. the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian being simulated. Given a ground state, this scheme can be used to verify the QMA-complete problem LOCAL HAMILTONIAN, and is therefore likely more powerful than classical computing.
Choi, Sangkyu
2013-09-01
The characteristics of laminar lifted flames of pre-vaporized n-heptane in coflow jets were investigated under both non-autoignited and autoignited conditions by varying the initial temperature. The fuel tested was n-heptane considering the importance as a primary reference fuel for gasoline and its low temperature ignition behavior at relatively low pressure. The results showed that the lifted flame edge in the non-autoignited regime had a tribrachial structure with lean and rich premixed flame wings together with a trailing diffusion flame. The liftoff heights correlated reasonably well with the fuel jet velocity scaled by the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity regardless of the initial temperature and the nitrogen dilution. The liftoff velocity multiplied by the buoyancy-induced velocity and the blowout velocity scaled by the mole fraction of the fuel correlated well with the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity. When the initial temperature was above 900. K, flames were autoignited without any external ignition source. Autoignited lifted flames with both tribrachial edges and mild combustion characteristics were observed. The correlation of the liftoff height with the calculated adiabatic ignition delay time was weak, unlike in cases with gaseous fuels of C1-C4 hydrocarbons in which the liftoff height of the autoignited flames correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. When the mole fraction of the fuel was small, mild combustion behaviors were exhibited with edge flames without distinct tribrachial structures. The liftoff height was correlated with the fuel jet velocity scaled by the initial fuel mass fraction, while the dependence on the ignition delay time was weak when compared with the gaseous fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Modeling non-adiabatic photoexcited reaction dynamics in condensed phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coker, D.F.
2003-01-01
Reactions of photoexcited molecules, ions, and radicals in condensed phase environments involve non-adiabatic dynamics over coupled electronic surfaces. We focus on how local environmental symmetries can effect non-adiabatic coupling between excited electronic states and thus influence, in a possibly controllable way, the outcome of photo-excited reactions. Semi-classical and mixed quantum-classical non-adiabatic molecular dynamics methods, together with semi-empirical excited state potentials are used to probe the dynamical mixing of electronic states in different environments from molecular clusters, to simple liquids and solids, and photo-excited reactions in complex reaction environments such as zeolites
Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishman, R.S.
1989-01-01
The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester
Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.
Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.
Barbara, Thomas M
2016-04-01
A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Estimation of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foote, J.H.
1976-01-01
Several estimates of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II are summarized, and the calculational methods used to obtain them are described. Some estimates are based on analytic expressions; for others, particle orbits are calculated, magnetic-moment jumps are inspected, and adiabatic limits then derived. The results are sensitive to the assumed variation of the combined vacuum-plus-plasma magnetic field. The calculated adiabatic energy limit falls rapidly with beta, even for a gradual magnetic-field variation. If we assume a sharp depression in the axial profile of the combined magnetic field for a finite-beta plasma, the adiabatic limit can be further markedly reduced
Adiabatic passage and ensemble control of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leghtas, Z; Sarlette, A; Rouchon, P
2011-01-01
This paper considers population transfer between eigenstates of a finite quantum ladder controlled by a classical electric field. Using an appropriate change of variables, we show that this setting can be set in the framework of adiabatic passage, which is known to facilitate ensemble control of quantum systems. Building on this insight, we present a mathematical proof of robustness for a control protocol-chirped pulse-practised by experimentalists to drive an ensemble of quantum systems from the ground state to the most excited state. We then propose new adiabatic control protocols using a single chirped and amplitude-shaped pulse, to robustly perform any permutation of eigenstate populations, on an ensemble of systems with unknown coupling strengths. These adiabatic control protocols are illustrated by simulations on a four-level ladder.
Laminar Flame Velocity and Temperature Exponent of Diluted DME-Air Mixture
Naseer Mohammed, Abdul; Anwar, Muzammil; Juhany, Khalid A.; Mohammad, Akram
2017-03-01
In this paper, the laminar flame velocity and temperature exponent diluted dimethyl ether (DME) air mixtures are reported. Laminar premixed mixture of DME-air with volumetric dilutions of carbon dioxides (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) are considered. Experiments were conducted using a preheated mesoscale high aspect-ratio diverging channel with inlet dimensions of 25 mm × 2 mm. In this method, flame velocities are extracted from planar flames that were stabilized near adiabatic conditions inside the channel. The flame velocities are then plotted against the ratio of mixture temperature and the initial reference temperature. A non-linear power law regression is observed suitable. This regression analysis gives the laminar flame velocity at the initial reference temperature and temperature exponent. Decrease in the laminar flame velocity and increase in temperature exponent is observed for CO2 and N2 diluted mixtures. The addition of CO2 has profound influence when compared to N2 addition on both flame velocity and temperature exponent. Numerical prediction of the similar mixture using a detailed reaction mechanism is obtained. The computational mechanism predicts higher magnitudes for laminar flame velocity and smaller magnitudes of temperature exponent compared to experimental data.
Topological structures of adiabatic phase for multi-level quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zhengxin; Zhou Xiaoting; Liu Xin; Liu Xiongjun; Chen Jingling
2007-01-01
The topological properties of adiabatic gauge fields for multi-level (three-level in particular) quantum systems are studied in detail. Similar to the result that the adiabatic gauge field for SU(2) systems (e.g. two-level quantum system or angular momentum systems, etc) has a monopole structure, the curvature 2-forms of the adiabatic holonomies for SU(3) three-level and SU(3) eight-level quantum systems are shown to have monopole-like (for all levels) or instanton-like (for the degenerate levels) structures
On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level
A, Michaud
2016-01-01
Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.
BurnMan: A lower mantle mineral physics toolkit
Cottaar, Sanne; Heister, Timo; Rose, Ian; Unterborn, Cayman
2014-01-01
We present BurnMan, an open-source mineral physics toolbox to determine elastic properties for specified compositions in the lower mantle by solving an Equation of State (EoS). The toolbox, written in Python, can be used to evaluate seismic velocities of new mineral physics data or geodynamic models, and as the forward model in inversions for mantle composition. The user can define the composition from a list of minerals provided for the lower mantle or easily include their own. BurnMan provides choices in methodology, both for the EoS and for the multiphase averaging scheme. The results can be visually or quantitatively compared to observed seismic models. Example user scripts show how to go through these steps. This paper includes several examples realized with BurnMan: First, we benchmark the computations to check for correctness. Second, we exemplify two pitfalls in EoS modeling: using a different EoS than the one used to derive the mineral physical parameters or using an incorrect averaging scheme. Both pitfalls have led to incorrect conclusions on lower mantle composition and temperature in the literature. We further illustrate that fitting elastic velocities separately or jointly leads to different Mg/Si ratios for the lower mantle. However, we find that, within mineral physical uncertainties, a pyrolitic composition can match PREM very well. Finally, we find that uncertainties on specific input parameters result in a considerable amount of variation in both magnitude and gradient of the seismic velocities. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
BurnMan: A lower mantle mineral physics toolkit
Cottaar, Sanne
2014-04-01
We present BurnMan, an open-source mineral physics toolbox to determine elastic properties for specified compositions in the lower mantle by solving an Equation of State (EoS). The toolbox, written in Python, can be used to evaluate seismic velocities of new mineral physics data or geodynamic models, and as the forward model in inversions for mantle composition. The user can define the composition from a list of minerals provided for the lower mantle or easily include their own. BurnMan provides choices in methodology, both for the EoS and for the multiphase averaging scheme. The results can be visually or quantitatively compared to observed seismic models. Example user scripts show how to go through these steps. This paper includes several examples realized with BurnMan: First, we benchmark the computations to check for correctness. Second, we exemplify two pitfalls in EoS modeling: using a different EoS than the one used to derive the mineral physical parameters or using an incorrect averaging scheme. Both pitfalls have led to incorrect conclusions on lower mantle composition and temperature in the literature. We further illustrate that fitting elastic velocities separately or jointly leads to different Mg/Si ratios for the lower mantle. However, we find that, within mineral physical uncertainties, a pyrolitic composition can match PREM very well. Finally, we find that uncertainties on specific input parameters result in a considerable amount of variation in both magnitude and gradient of the seismic velocities. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Interplay between electric and magnetic effect in adiabatic polaritonic systems
Alabastri, Alessandro; Toma, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Giugni, Andrea; De Angelis, Francesco De; Das, Gobind; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo
2013-01-01
We report on the possibility of realizing adiabatic compression of polaritonic wave on a metallic conical nano-structure through an oscillating electric potential (quasi dynamic regime). By comparing this result with an electromagnetic wave excitation, we were able to relate the classical lighting-rod effect to adiabatic compression. Furthermore, we show that while the magnetic contribution plays a marginal role in the formation of adiabatic compression, it provides a blue shift in the spectral region. In particular, magnetic permeability can be used as a free parameter for tuning the polaritonic resonances. The peculiar form of adiabatic compression is instead dictated by both the source and the metal permittivity. The analysis is performed by starting from a simple electrostatic system to end with the complete electromagnetic one through intermediate situations such as the quasi-electrostatic and quasi-dynamic regimes. Each configuration is defined by a particular set of equations which allows to clearly determine the individual role played by the electric and magnetic contribution in the generation of adiabatic compression. We notice that these findings can be applied for the realization of a THz nano-metric generator. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krovi, Hari; Ozols, Maris; Roland, Jeremie
2010-01-01
We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P ' where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP ' and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.
Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure
Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.
2017-11-01
We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.
Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boss, A.P.
1980-01-01
A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand
Phase transformations in an ascending adiabatic mixed-phase cloud volume
Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.; Korolev, A.
2015-04-01
Regimes of liquid-ice coexistence that may form in an adiabatic parcel ascending at constant velocity at freezing temperatures are investigated. Four zones with different microphysical structures succeeding one another along the vertical direction have been established. On the basis of a novel balance equation, analytical expressions are derived to determine the conditions specific for each of these zones. In particular, the necessary and sufficient conditions for formation of liquid water phase within an ascending parcel containing only ice particles are determined. The results are compared to findings reported in earlier studies. The role of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism in the phase transformation is analyzed. The dependence of the phase relaxation time on height in the four zones is investigated on the basis of a novel analytical expression. The results obtained in the study can be instrumental for analysis and interpretation of observed mixed-phase clouds.
Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient of Comic Rays: The Presence of Weak Adiabatic Focusing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, J. F.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B. [Research Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Qin, G., E-mail: wangjunfang@mail.iee.ac.cn, E-mail: qingang@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China)
2017-08-20
The influence of adiabatic focusing on particle diffusion is an important topic in astrophysics and plasma physics. In the past, several authors have explored the influence of along-field adiabatic focusing on the parallel diffusion of charged energetic particles. In this paper, using the unified nonlinear transport theory developed by Shalchi and the method of He and Schlickeiser, we derive a new nonlinear perpendicular diffusion coefficient for a non-uniform background magnetic field. This formula demonstrates that the particle perpendicular diffusion coefficient is modified by along-field adiabatic focusing. For isotropic pitch-angle scattering and the weak adiabatic focusing limit, the derived perpendicular diffusion coefficient is independent of the sign of adiabatic focusing characteristic length. For the two-component model, we simplify the perpendicular diffusion coefficient up to the second order of the power series of the adiabatic focusing characteristic quantity. We find that the first-order modifying factor is equal to zero and that the sign of the second order is determined by the energy of the particles.
Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient of Comic Rays: The Presence of Weak Adiabatic Focusing
Wang, J. F.; Qin, G.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B.
2017-08-01
The influence of adiabatic focusing on particle diffusion is an important topic in astrophysics and plasma physics. In the past, several authors have explored the influence of along-field adiabatic focusing on the parallel diffusion of charged energetic particles. In this paper, using the unified nonlinear transport theory developed by Shalchi and the method of He and Schlickeiser, we derive a new nonlinear perpendicular diffusion coefficient for a non-uniform background magnetic field. This formula demonstrates that the particle perpendicular diffusion coefficient is modified by along-field adiabatic focusing. For isotropic pitch-angle scattering and the weak adiabatic focusing limit, the derived perpendicular diffusion coefficient is independent of the sign of adiabatic focusing characteristic length. For the two-component model, we simplify the perpendicular diffusion coefficient up to the second order of the power series of the adiabatic focusing characteristic quantity. We find that the first-order modifying factor is equal to zero and that the sign of the second order is determined by the energy of the particles.
Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient of Comic Rays: The Presence of Weak Adiabatic Focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J. F.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B.; Qin, G.
2017-01-01
The influence of adiabatic focusing on particle diffusion is an important topic in astrophysics and plasma physics. In the past, several authors have explored the influence of along-field adiabatic focusing on the parallel diffusion of charged energetic particles. In this paper, using the unified nonlinear transport theory developed by Shalchi and the method of He and Schlickeiser, we derive a new nonlinear perpendicular diffusion coefficient for a non-uniform background magnetic field. This formula demonstrates that the particle perpendicular diffusion coefficient is modified by along-field adiabatic focusing. For isotropic pitch-angle scattering and the weak adiabatic focusing limit, the derived perpendicular diffusion coefficient is independent of the sign of adiabatic focusing characteristic length. For the two-component model, we simplify the perpendicular diffusion coefficient up to the second order of the power series of the adiabatic focusing characteristic quantity. We find that the first-order modifying factor is equal to zero and that the sign of the second order is determined by the energy of the particles.
Calculation of a hydrogen molecule in the adiabatic approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vukajlovich, F.R.; Mogilevskij, O.A.; Ponomarev, L.I.
1979-01-01
The adiabatic approximation js used for calculating the energy levels of a hydrogen molecule, i.e. of the simplest four-body system with a Coulomb interaction. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the possible use of the adiabatic method in the molecular problems. The most effective regions of its application are discussed. An infinite system of integro-differential equations is constructed, which describes the hydrogen molecule in the adiabatic approximation with the effective potentials taking into account the corrections to the nuclear motion. The energy of the first three vibrational states of the hydrogen molecule is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The convergence of the method is discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy; Champion, Paul M., E-mail: champ@neu.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems,Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical “gating” distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working
Narrow-line laser cooling by adiabatic transfer
Norcia, Matthew A.; Cline, Julia R. K.; Bartolotta, John P.; Holland, Murray J.; Thompson, James K.
2018-02-01
We propose and demonstrate a novel laser cooling mechanism applicable to particles with narrow-linewidth optical transitions. By sweeping the frequency of counter-propagating laser beams in a sawtooth manner, we cause adiabatic transfer back and forth between the ground state and a long-lived optically excited state. The time-ordering of these adiabatic transfers is determined by Doppler shifts, which ensures that the associated photon recoils are in the opposite direction to the particle’s motion. This ultimately leads to a robust cooling mechanism capable of exerting large forces via a weak transition and with reduced reliance on spontaneous emission. We present a simple intuitive model for the resulting frictional force, and directly demonstrate its efficacy for increasing the total phase-space density of an atomic ensemble. We rely on both simulation and experimental studies using the 7.5 kHz linewidth 1S0 to 3P1 transition in 88Sr. The reduced reliance on spontaneous emission may allow this adiabatic sweep method to be a useful tool for cooling particles that lack closed cycling transitions, such as molecules.
Simulating a topological transition in a superconducting phase qubit by fast adiabatic trajectories
Wang, Tenghui; Zhang, Zhenxing; Xiang, Liang; Gong, Zhihao; Wu, Jianlan; Yin, Yi
2018-04-01
The significance of topological phases has been widely recognized in the community of condensed matter physics. The well controllable quantum systems provide an artificial platform to probe and engineer various topological phases. The adiabatic trajectory of a quantum state describes the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates with the momentum, and this adiabatic simulation method is however practically limited due to quantum dissipation. Here we apply the "shortcut to adiabaticity" (STA) protocol to realize fast adiabatic evolutions in the system of a superconducting phase qubit. The resulting fast adiabatic trajectories illustrate the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. A sharp transition is experimentally determined for the topological invariant of a winding number. Our experiment helps identify the topological Chern number of a two-dimensional toy model, suggesting the applicability of the fast adiabatic simulation method for topological systems.
Adiabatic approximation with exponential accuracy for many-body systems and quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lidar, Daniel A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Hamma, Alioscia
2009-01-01
We derive a version of the adiabatic theorem that is especially suited for applications in adiabatic quantum computation, where it is reasonable to assume that the adiabatic interpolation between the initial and final Hamiltonians is controllable. Assuming that the Hamiltonian is analytic in a finite strip around the real-time axis, that some number of its time derivatives vanish at the initial and final times, and that the target adiabatic eigenstate is nondegenerate and separated by a gap from the rest of the spectrum, we show that one can obtain an error between the final adiabatic eigenstate and the actual time-evolved state which is exponentially small in the evolution time, where this time itself scales as the square of the norm of the time derivative of the Hamiltonian divided by the cube of the minimal gap.
Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaw M.S.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.
Mahmoudinezhad, S.; Rezania, A.; Yousefi, T.; Shadloo, M. S.; Rosendahl, L. A.
2018-02-01
A steady state and two-dimensional laminar free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity with horizontal adiabatic and isothermal side walls is investigated using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments and numerical simulations are carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a finite volume code, respectively. A horizontal and adiabatic partition, with angle of θ is adjusted such that it separates the cavity into two identical parts. Effects of this angel as well as Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the side-heated walls are investigated in this study. The results are performed for the various Rayleigh numbers over the cavity side length, and partition angles ranging from 1.5 × 105 to 4.5 × 105, and 0° to 90°, respectively. The experimental verification of natural convective flow physics has been done by using FLUENT software. For a given adiabatic partition angle, the results show that the average Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer enhance as the Rayleigh number increases. However, for a given Rayleigh number the maximum and the minimum heat transfer occurs at θ = 45°and θ = 90°, respectively. Two responsible mechanisms for this behavior, namely blockage ratio and partition orientation, are identified. These effects are explained by numerical velocity vectors and experimental temperatures contours. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation that fairly represents the average Nusselt number of the heated walls as functions of Rayleigh number and the angel of θ for the aforementioned ranges of data is proposed.
Landahl, Andrew
2012-10-01
Quantum computers promise to exploit counterintuitive quantum physics principles like superposition, entanglement, and uncertainty to solve problems using fundamentally fewer steps than any conventional computer ever could. The mere possibility of such a device has sharpened our understanding of quantum coherent information, just as lasers did for our understanding of coherent light. The chief obstacle to developing quantum computer technology is decoherence--one of the fastest phenomena in all of physics. In principle, decoherence can be overcome by using clever entangled redundancies in a process called fault-tolerant quantum error correction. However, the quality and scale of technology required to realize this solution appears distant. An exciting alternative is a proposal called ``adiabatic'' quantum computing (AQC), in which adiabatic quantum physics keeps the computer in its lowest-energy configuration throughout its operation, rendering it immune to many decoherence sources. The Adiabatic Quantum Architectures In Ultracold Systems (AQUARIUS) Grand Challenge Project at Sandia seeks to demonstrate this robustness in the laboratory and point a path forward for future hardware development. We are building devices in AQUARIUS that realize the AQC architecture on up to three quantum bits (``qubits'') in two platforms: Cs atoms laser-cooled to below 5 microkelvin and Si quantum dots cryo-cooled to below 100 millikelvin. We are also expanding theoretical frontiers by developing methods for scalable universal AQC in these platforms. We have successfully demonstrated operational qubits in both platforms and have even run modest one-qubit calculations using our Cs device. In the course of reaching our primary proof-of-principle demonstrations, we have developed multiple spinoff technologies including nanofabricated diffractive optical elements that define optical-tweezer trap arrays and atomic-scale Si lithography commensurate with placing individual donor atoms with
Pulsed adiabatic structure and complete population transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.
1992-10-01
Population can be transferred between atomic or molecular energy states in a variety of ways. The basic idea of adiabatic transfer, discussed in many textbooks, is as follows. One begins with an atom that is in some single energy state (an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian). This energy state is one of many possible states, known variously as the unperturbed states or basis states or diabatic states. Next one begins to change the Hamiltonian very slowly. The changes may occur in either the diagonal elements (the basis state energies) or in the off-diagonal elements (interactions between basis states). If there are off-diagonal elements then the Hamiltonian will no longer commute with the original one. Because the Hamiltonian is no longer the one that was used to define the original basis states, it will cause these states to become mixed. However, if the change is sufficiently slow, the system can remain in a single eigenstate of the changing Hamiltonian -- an adiabatic state, composed of a combination of basis states. Finally, at some later time, one examines the system once again in the original basis. One finds that the population has undergone a change, and now resides in a different unperturbed state. One has produced population transfer. There are many illustrative examples of adiabatic passage, both theory and experiment. The author mentions briefly two common examples, inelastic collisions between atoms, and the static Stark effect in Rydberg atoms, before continuing with the main objective, a discussion of adiabatic passage induced by laser pulses
Interpolation approach to Hamiltonian-varying quantum systems and the adiabatic theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R.; Miao, Zibo; Amini, Nina H.; Ugrinovskii, Valery
2015-01-01
Quantum control could be implemented by varying the system Hamiltonian. According to adiabatic theorem, a slowly changing Hamiltonian can approximately keep the system at the ground state during the evolution if the initial state is a ground state. In this paper we consider this process as an interpolation between the initial and final Hamiltonians. We use the mean value of a single operator to measure the distance between the final state and the ideal ground state. This measure resembles the excitation energy or excess work performed in thermodynamics, which can be taken as the error of adiabatic approximation. We prove that under certain conditions, this error can be estimated for an arbitrarily given interpolating function. This error estimation could be used as guideline to induce adiabatic evolution. According to our calculation, the adiabatic approximation error is not linearly proportional to the average speed of the variation of the system Hamiltonian and the inverse of the energy gaps in many cases. In particular, we apply this analysis to an example in which the applicability of the adiabatic theorem is questionable. (orig.)
Non-adiabatic generator-coordinate calculation of H2+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tostes, J.G.R.; Para Univ., Belem; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de
1982-10-01
A non-adiabatic calculation of the few lowest J=O states in the H 2+ molecule done within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method is reported. Substantial accuracy is achivied with the diagonalization of matrices of very modest dimensions. The resulting wavefunctions are strongly dominated by just a few basis states. The computational scheme is set up so as to take the best advantage of good analytical approximations to existing adiabatic molecular wavefunctions. (Author) [pt
Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.
1987-01-01
We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and adiabatic magnetization dynamics in molecular magnets
De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Michielsen, K; Machida, M
A microscopic model of the molecular magnet V-15 is used to study mechanisms for the adiabatic change of the magnetization in time-dependent magnetic fields. The effects of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the most plausible source for the energy-level repulsions that lead to adiabatic changes
Diffusion Monte Carlo approach versus adiabatic computation for local Hamiltonians
Bringewatt, Jacob; Dorland, William; Jordan, Stephen P.; Mink, Alan
2018-02-01
Most research regarding quantum adiabatic optimization has focused on stoquastic Hamiltonians, whose ground states can be expressed with only real non-negative amplitudes and thus for whom destructive interference is not manifest. This raises the question of whether classical Monte Carlo algorithms can efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization with stoquastic Hamiltonians. Recent results have given counterexamples in which path-integral and diffusion Monte Carlo fail to do so. However, most adiabatic optimization algorithms, such as for solving MAX-k -SAT problems, use k -local Hamiltonians, whereas our previous counterexample for diffusion Monte Carlo involved n -body interactions. Here we present a 6-local counterexample which demonstrates that even for these local Hamiltonians there are cases where diffusion Monte Carlo cannot efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization. Furthermore, we perform empirical testing of diffusion Monte Carlo on a standard well-studied class of permutation-symmetric tunneling problems and similarly find large advantages for quantum optimization over diffusion Monte Carlo.
Study on small long-life LBE cooled fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up. Part 1. Steady state research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Mingyu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi
2008-01-01
Small long-life reactor is required for some local areas. CANDLE small long-life fast reactor which does not require control rods, mining, enrichment and reprocessing plants can satisfy this demand. In a CANDLE reactor, the shapes of neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power density distributions remain constant and only shift in axial direction. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is used as coolant. From steady state analysis, we obtained the burn-up velocity, output power distribution, core temperature distribution, etc. The burn-up velocity is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long-life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40%. (author)
Dynamic and Thermodynamic Properties of a CA Engine with Non-Instantaneous Adiabats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo T. Paéz-Hernández
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a Curzon and Alhborn thermal engine model where both internal irreversibilities and non-instantaneous adiabatic branches are considered, operating with maximum ecological function and maximum power output regimes. Its thermodynamic properties are shown, and an analysis of its local dynamic stability is performed. The results derived are compared throughout the work with the results obtained previously for a case in which the adiabatic branches were assumed as instantaneous. The results indicate a better performance for thermodynamic properties in the model with instantaneous adiabatic branches, whereas there is an improvement in robustness in the case where non-instantaneous adiabatic branches are considered.
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2012-01-06
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.
Probing Entanglement in Adiabatic Quantum Optimization with Trapped Ions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philipp eHauke
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Adiabatic quantum optimization has been proposed as a route to solve NP-complete problems, with a possible quantum speedup compared to classical algorithms. However, the precise role of quantum effects, such as entanglement, in these optimization protocols is still unclear. We propose a setup of cold trapped ions that allows one to quantitatively characterize, in a controlled experiment, the interplay of entanglement, decoherence, and non-adiabaticity in adiabatic quantum optimization. We show that, in this way, a broad class of NP-complete problems becomes accessible for quantum simulations, including the knapsack problem, number partitioning, and instances of the max-cut problem. Moreover, a general theoretical study reveals correlations of the success probability with entanglement at the end of the protocol. From exact numerical simulations for small systems and linear ramps, however, we find no substantial correlations with the entanglement during the optimization. For the final state, we derive analytically a universal upper bound for the success probability as a function of entanglement, which can be measured in experiment. The proposed trapped-ion setups and the presented study of entanglement address pertinent questions of adiabatic quantum optimization, which may be of general interest across experimental platforms.
In-situ burning of spilled oil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennyson, E.J.
1992-01-01
This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above
A note on the geometric phase in adiabatic approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, D.M.; Singh, K.; Kwek, L.C.; Fan, X.J.; Oh, C.H.
2005-01-01
The adiabatic theorem shows that the instantaneous eigenstate is a good approximation of the exact solution for a quantum system in adiabatic evolution. One may therefore expect that the geometric phase calculated by using the eigenstate should be also a good approximation of exact geometric phase. However, we find that the former phase may differ appreciably from the latter if the evolution time is large enough
Encke-Beta Predictor for Orion Burn Targeting and Guidance
Robinson, Shane; Scarritt, Sara; Goodman, John L.
2016-01-01
The state vector prediction algorithm selected for Orion on-board targeting and guidance is known as the Encke-Beta method. Encke-Beta uses a universal anomaly (beta) as the independent variable, valid for circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits. The variable, related to the change in eccentric anomaly, results in integration steps that cover smaller arcs of the trajectory at or near perigee, when velocity is higher. Some burns in the EM-1 and EM-2 mission plans are much longer than burns executed with the Apollo and Space Shuttle vehicles. Burn length, as well as hyperbolic trajectories, has driven the use of the Encke-Beta numerical predictor by the predictor/corrector guidance algorithm in place of legacy analytic thrust and gravity integrals.
Super-adiabatic combustion in Al2O3 and SiC coated porous media for thermoelectric power conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, Kyle T.; Waters, Oliver; Bubnovich, Valeri; Orlovskaya, Nina; Chen, Ruey-Hung
2013-01-01
The combustion of ultra-lean fuel/air mixtures provides an efficient way to convert the chemical energy of hydrocarbons and low-calorific fuels into useful power. Matrix-stabilized porous medium combustion is an advanced technique in which a solid porous medium within the combustion chamber conducts heat from the hot gaseous products in the upstream direction to preheat incoming reactants. This heat recirculation extends the standard flammability limits, allowing the burning of ultra-lean and low-calorific fuel mixtures and resulting a combustion temperature higher than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture (i.e., super-adiabatic combustion). The heat generated by this combustion process can be converted into electricity with thermoelectric generators, which is the goal of this study. The design of a porous media burner coupled with a thermoelectric generator and its testing are presented. The combustion zone media was a highly-porous alumina matrix interposed between upstream and downstream honeycomb structures with pore sizes smaller than the flame quenching distance, preventing the flame from propagating outside of the central section. Experimental results include temperature distributions inside the combustion chamber and across a thermoelectric generator; along with associated current, voltage and power output values. Measurements were obtained for a catalytically inert Al 2 O 3 medium and a SiC coated medium, which was tested for the ability to catalyze the super-adiabatic combustion. The combustion efficiency was obtained for stoichiometric and ultra-lean (near the lean flammability limit) mixtures of CH 4 and air. - Highlights: • Design of a porous burner coupled with a thermoelectric module. • Super-adiabatic combustion in a highly-porous ceramic matrix was investigated. • Both alumina and silicon carbide ceramic surfaces were used as porous media. • Catalytic properties of Al 2 O 3 and SiC ceramic surfaces were studied
Atomic beam formed by the vaporization of a high velocity pellet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, C.A.; Hendricks, C.D.
1974-01-01
A description of an atomic beam formed by vaporizing an electrostatically accelerated high velocity pellet is given. Uniformly sized droplets of neon will be formed by the mechanical disintegration of liquid jet and frozen by adiabatic vaporization in vacuum. The pellets produced will be charged and accelerated by contacting a needle held at high potential. The accelerated pellets will be vaporized forming a pulse of mono-energetic atoms. The advantages are that a wide range of energies will be possible. The beam will be mono-energetic. The beam is inheretly pulsed, allowing a detailed time of flight velocity distribution measurement. The beam will have a high instantaneous intensity. The beam will be able to operate into an ultra high vacuum chamber
Adiabatic transfer of energy fluctuations between membranes inside an optical cavity
Garg, Devender; Chauhan, Anil K.; Biswas, Asoka
2017-08-01
A scheme is presented for the adiabatic transfer of average fluctuations in the phonon number between two membranes in an optical cavity. We show that by driving the cavity modes with external time-delayed pulses, one can obtain an effect analogous to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in the atomic systems. The adiabatic transfer of fluctuations from one membrane to the other is attained through a "dark" mode, which is robust against decay of the mediating cavity mode. The results are supported with analytical and numerical calculations with experimentally feasible parameters.
Convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion for helium-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrashkevich, A.G.; Abrashkevich, D.G.; Pojda, V.Yu.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Kaschiev, M.S.; Puzynin, I.V.
1988-01-01
The convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion has been studied numerically. The spectral problems arising after separation of variables are solved by the finite-difference and finite element methods. The energies of the ground and some doubly excited staes of a hydrogen ion are calculated in the six-channel approximation within the 10 -4 a.u. accuracy. Obtained results demonstrate a rapid convergence of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion. 14 refs.; 5 tabs
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-09
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neves Conti, T. das.
1983-01-01
A numerical method is developed to simulate adiabatic, transient, two-dimensional two-phase flow. The two-fluid model is used to obtain the mass and momentum conservation equations. These are solved by an iterative algorithm emphoying a time-marching scheme. Based on the corrective procedure of Hirt and Harlow a poisson equation is derived for the pressure field. This equation is finite-differenced and solved by a suitable matrix inversion technique. In the absence of experiment results several numerical tests were made in order to chec accuracy, convergence and stability of the proposed method. Several tests were also performed to check whether the behavior of void fraction and phasic velocities conforms with previous observations. (Author) [pt
Predicting the effect of relaxation during frequency-selective adiabatic pulses
Pfaff, Annalise R.; McKee, Cailyn E.; Woelk, Klaus
2017-11-01
Adiabatic half and full passages are invaluable for achieving uniform, B1-insensitive excitation or inversion of macroscopic magnetization across a well-defined range of NMR frequencies. To accomplish narrow frequency ranges with adiabatic pulses (computer-calculated data with experimental results demonstrates that, in non-viscous, small-molecule fluids, it is possible to model magnetization and relaxation by considering standard T1 and T2 relaxation in the traditional rotating frame. The proposed model is aimed at performance optimizations of applications in which these pulses are employed. It differs from previous reports which focused on short high-power adiabatic pulses and relaxation that is governed by dipole-dipole interactions, cross polarization, or chemical exchange.
Yozgatligil, Ahmet; Shafee, Sina
2016-11-01
Fire accidents in recent decades have drawn attention to safety issues associated with the design, construction and maintenance of tunnels. A reduced scale tunnel model constructed based on Froude scaling technique is used in the current work. Mixtures of n-heptane and ethanol are burned with ethanol volumetric fraction up to 30 percent and the longitudinal ventilation velocity varying from 0.5 to 2.5 m/s. The burning rates of the pool fires are measured using a precision load cell. The heat release rates of the fires are calculated according to oxygen calorimetry method and the temperature distributions inside the tunnel are also measured. Results of the experiments show that the ventilation velocity variation has a significant effect on the pool fire burning rate, smoke temperature and the critical ventilation velocity. With increased oxygen depletion in case of increased ethanol content of blended pool fires, the quasi-steady heat release rate values tend to increase as well as the ceiling temperatures while the combustion duration decreases.
Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.
2008-01-01
We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.
González, J. A.; Guzmán, F. S.
2018-03-01
We present a method for estimating the velocity of a wandering black hole and the equation of state for the gas around it based on a catalog of numerical simulations. The method uses machine-learning methods based on convolutional neural networks applied to the classification of images resulting from numerical simulations. Specifically we focus on the supersonic velocity regime and choose the direction of the black hole to be parallel to its spin. We build a catalog of 900 simulations by numerically solving Euler's equations onto the fixed space-time background of a black hole, for two parameters: the adiabatic index Γ with values in the range [1.1, 5 /3 ], and the asymptotic relative velocity of the black hole with respect to the surroundings v∞, with values within [0.2 ,0.8 ]c . For each simulation we produce a 2D image of the gas density once the process of accretion has approached a stationary regime. The results obtained show that the implemented convolutional neural networks are able to correctly classify the adiabatic index 87.78% of the time within an uncertainty of ±0.0284 , while the prediction of the velocity is correct 96.67% of the time within an uncertainty of ±0.03 c . We expect that this combination of a massive number of numerical simulations and machine-learning methods will help us analyze more complicated scenarios related to future high-resolution observations of black holes, like those from the Event Horizon Telescope.
Adiabatic perturbation theory in quantum dynamics
Teufel, Stefan
2003-01-01
Separation of scales plays a fundamental role in the understanding of the dynamical behaviour of complex systems in physics and other natural sciences. A prominent example is the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular dynamics. This book focuses on a recent approach to adiabatic perturbation theory, which emphasizes the role of effective equations of motion and the separation of the adiabatic limit from the semiclassical limit. A detailed introduction gives an overview of the subject and makes the later chapters accessible also to readers less familiar with the material. Although the general mathematical theory based on pseudodifferential calculus is presented in detail, there is an emphasis on concrete and relevant examples from physics. Applications range from molecular dynamics to the dynamics of electrons in a crystal and from the quantum mechanics of partially confined systems to Dirac particles and nonrelativistic QED.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2015-12-15
Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.
Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.
2005-01-01
We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size
Compact beam splitters in coupled waveguides using shortcuts to adiabaticity
Chen, Xi; Wen, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jie-Long; Tseng, Shuo-Yen
2018-04-01
There are various works on adiabatic (three) waveguide coupler devices but most are focused on the quantum optical analogies and the physics itself. We successfully apply shortcuts to adiabaticity techniques to the coupled waveguide system with a suitable length for integrated optics devices. Especially, the counter-diabatic driving protocol followed by unitary transformation overcomes the previously unrealistic implemention, and is used to design feasible and robust 1 × 2 and 1 × 3 beam splitters for symmetric and asymmetric three waveguide couplers. Numerical simulations with the beam propagation method demonstrate that these shortcut designs for beam splitters are shorter than the adiabatic ones, and also have a better tolerance than parallel waveguides resonant beam splitters with respect to spacing errors and wavelength variation.
The Detection of Burn-Through Weld Defects Using Noncontact Ultrasonics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeynab Abbasi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Nearly all manufactured products in the metal industry involve welding. The detection and correction of defects during welding improve the product reliability and quality, and prevent unexpected failures. Nonintrusive process control is critical for avoiding these defects. This paper investigates the detection of burn-through damage using noncontact, air-coupled ultrasonics, which can be adapted to the immediate and in-situ inspection of welded samples. The burn-through leads to a larger volume of degraded weld zone, providing a resistance path for the wave to travel which results in lower velocity, energy ratio, and amplitude. Wave energy dispersion occurs due to the increase of weld burn-through resulting in higher wave attenuation. Weld sample micrographs are used to validate the ultrasonic results.
Adiabatic Expansion of Electron Gas in a Magnetic Nozzle
Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Ando, Akira
2018-01-01
A specially constructed experiment shows the near perfect adiabatic expansion of an ideal electron gas resulting in a polytropic index greater than 1.4, approaching the adiabatic value of 5 /3 , when removing electric fields from the system, while the polytropic index close to unity is observed when the electrons are trapped by the electric fields. The measurements were made on collisionless electrons in an argon plasma expanding in a magnetic nozzle. The collision lengths of all electron collision processes are greater than the scale length of the expansion, meaning the system cannot be in thermodynamic equilibrium, yet thermodynamic concepts can be used, with caution, in explaining the results. In particular, a Lorentz force, created by inhomogeneities in the radial plasma density, does work on the expanding magnetic field, reducing the internal energy of the electron gas that behaves as an adiabatically expanding ideal gas.
The large-scale peculiar velocity field in flat models of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vittorio, N.; Turner, M.S.
1986-10-01
The inflationary Universe scenario predicts a flat Universe and both adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations with the Zel'dovich spectrum. The two simplest realizations, models dominated by hot or cold dark matter, seem to be in conflict with observations. Flat models are examined with two components of mass density, where one of the components of mass density is smoothly distributed and the large-scale (≥10h -1 MpC) peculiar velocity field for these models is considered. For the smooth component relativistic particles, a relic cosmological term, and light strings are considered. At present the observational situation is unsettled; but, in principle, the large-scale peculiar velocity field is very powerful discriminator between these different models. 61 refs
Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.
Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N
2014-08-01
Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2004-01-01
The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r 3 singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation
Simulation of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. J. Barton
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [K. R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou, and C. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 14, 103102 (2007PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.2779281; J. Zhou, K. R. Samokhvalova, and C. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 15, 023102 (2008PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.2837891]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope, the conservations of the rms thermal emittances, the adiabatic equation of state, and the Debye length are verified in the simulations. Furthermore, the adiabatic thermal beam is found be stable in the parameter regime where the simulations are performed.
Connection between optimal control theory and adiabatic-passage techniques in quantum systems
Assémat, E.; Sugny, D.
2012-08-01
This work explores the relationship between optimal control theory and adiabatic passage techniques in quantum systems. The study is based on a geometric analysis of the Hamiltonian dynamics constructed from Pontryagin's maximum principle. In a three-level quantum system, we show that the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique can be associated to a peculiar Hamiltonian singularity. One deduces that the adiabatic pulse is solution of the optimal control problem only for a specific cost functional. This analysis is extended to the case of a four-level quantum system.
Change of adiabatic invariant near the separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.
1995-10-01
The properties of particle motion in the vicinity of the separatrix in a phase plane are investigated. The change of adiabatic invariant value due to the separatrix crossing is evaluated as a function of a perturbation parameter magnitude and a phase of a particle for time dependent Hamiltonians. It is demonstrated that the change of adiabatic invariant value near the separatrix birth is much larger than that in the case of the separatrix crossing near the saddle point in a phase plane. The conditions of a stochastic regime to appear around the separatrix are found. The results are applied to study the longitudinal invariant behaviour of charged particles near singular lines of the magnetic field. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs
Perturbative treatment of possible failures in the adiabatic theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.
2005-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The adiabatic theorem (AT) is one of the oldest and basic results in quantum physics, and has been in widespread use ever since. The theorem concerns the evolution of systems subject to slowly varying Hamiltonians. Roughly, its content is that a system prepared in an instantaneous eigenstate of a time-dependent Hamiltonian H(t) will remain close to an instantaneous eigenstate at later times, provided the Hamiltonian changes sufficiently slowly. The role of the AT in the study of slowly varying quantum mechanical systems spans a vast array of fields and applications. In a recent application the adiabatic geometric phases have been proposed to perform various quantum computational tasks on a naturally fault-tolerant way. Additional interest has arisen in adiabatic processes in connection with the concept of adiabatic quantum computing, where the solution to a problem is encoded in the (unknown) ground state of a (known) Hamiltonian. The evolution of the quantum state is governed by a time-dependent Hamiltonian H(t), starting with an initial Hamiltonian H i with a known ground state and slowly (adiabatically) evolving to the final Hamiltonian H f with the unknown ground state, e.g., H(t) = (1 - t/T )H i + (t/T )H f , (1) where 0 ≤ t/T ≤ 1 and T controls the rate at which H(t) varies. Since the ground state of the system is very robust against external perturbations and decoherence, this scheme offers many advantages compared to the conventional quantum circuit model of quantum computation. The achievable speed-up of adiabatic quantum algorithms (compared to classical methods) depends on the value of the run-time T. The standard AT yields a general criterion to estimate the necessary run-time T, however recently Marzlin and Sanders have claimed that an inconsistency does exist for a particular class of Hamiltonians, so that the condition for the estimate of T may do not hold. Marzlin and Sanders start with a time
Burning Plastics Investigated in Space for Unique US/Russian Cooperative Project
Friedman, Robert
2000-01-01
It is well known that fires in the low-gravity environment of Earth-orbiting spacecraft are different from fires on Earth. The flames lack the familiar upward plume, which is the result of gravitational buoyancy. These flames, however, are strongly influenced by minor airflow currents. A recent study conducted in low gravity (microgravity) on the Russian orbital station Mir used burning plastic rods mounted in a small chamber with a controllable fan to expose the flame to airflows of different velocities. In this unique project, a Russian scientific agency, the Keldysh Research Center, furnished the apparatus and directed the Mir tests, while the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field provided the test materials and the project management. Reference testing and calibrations in ground laboratories were conducted jointly by researchers at Keldysh and at the NASA Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility. Multiple samples of three different plastics were burned in the tests: Delrin, a common material for valve bodies; PMMA, a plastic "glass"; and polyethylene, a familiar material for containers and films. Each burned with a unique spherical or egg-shaped flame that spread over the rod. The effect of varying the airflow was dramatic. At the highest airflow attainable in the combustion chamber, nearly 10 cm/sec (a typical ventilation breeze), the flames were bright and strong. As airflow velocity decreased, the flames became shorter but wider. In addition, the flames became less bright, and for PMMA and polyethylene, they showed two colors, a bright part decreasing in volume and a nearly invisible remainder (see the photographs). Finally, at a very low velocity, the flames extinguished. For the plastics tested, this minimum velocity was very low, around 0.3 to 0.5 cm/sec. This finding confirms that at least a slight airflow is required to maintain a flame in microgravity for these types of materials.
Design of low velocity-spread cusp guns for axis encircling beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.
1987-01-01
The design of a novel electron gun suitable for intense beam cyclotron resonance devices is introduced here. An annular Pierce-type gun is used in conjunction with an unbalanced nonadiabatic field reversal and an adiabatic compression region to produce an axis-encircling beam. This beam is ideally suited for interaction with electromagnetic waves that have strong on-axis electric fields (e.g., the TE 0 /sub 11/ mode). Low velocity spreads are achieved by utilizing the beam self-fields in the compression region and by focusing in the Pierce gun
Adiabatic analysis of collisions. III. Remarks on the spin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fano, U.
1979-01-01
Analysis of a spin-rotation model illustrates how transitions between adiabatic channel states stem from the second, rather than from the first, rate of change of these states, provided that appropriate identification of channels and scaling of the independent variable are used. These remarks, like the earlier development of a post-adiabatic approach, aim at elucidating the surprising success of approximate separation of variables in the treatment of complex mechanical systems
Non-Adiabatic Molecular Dynamics Methods for Materials Discovery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furche, Filipp [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Parker, Shane M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Muuronen, Mikko J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Roy, Saswata [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2017-04-04
The flow of radiative energy in light-driven materials such as photosensitizer dyes or photocatalysts is governed by non-adiabatic transitions between electronic states and cannot be described within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation commonly used in electronic structure theory. The non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) methods based on Tully surface hopping and time-dependent density functional theory developed in this project have greatly extended the range of molecular materials that can be tackled by NAMD simulations. New algorithms to compute molecular excited state and response properties efficiently were developed. Fundamental limitations of common non-linear response methods were discovered and characterized. Methods for accurate computations of vibronic spectra of materials such as black absorbers were developed and applied. It was shown that open-shell TDDFT methods capture bond breaking in NAMD simulations, a longstanding challenge for single-reference molecular dynamics simulations. The methods developed in this project were applied to study the photodissociation of acetaldehyde and revealed that non-adiabatic effects are experimentally observable in fragment kinetic energy distributions. Finally, the project enabled the first detailed NAMD simulations of photocatalytic water oxidation by titania nanoclusters, uncovering the mechanism of this fundamentally important reaction for fuel generation and storage.
Geometry of quantal adiabatic evolution driven by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Zhaoyan; Yu Ting; Zhou Hongwei
1994-01-01
It is shown by using a counter example, which is exactly solvable, that the quantal adiabatic theorem does not generally hold for a non-Hermitian driving Hamiltonian, even if it varies extremely slowly. The condition for the quantal adiabatic theorem to hold for non-Hermitian driving Hamiltonians is given. The adiabatic evolutions driven by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian provide examples of a new geometric structure, that is the vector bundle in which the inner product of two parallelly transported vectors generally changes. A new geometric concept, the attenuation tensor, is naturally introduced to describe the decay or flourish of the open quantum system. It is constructed in terms of the spectral projector of the Hamiltonian. (orig.)
Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.
2001-01-01
In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar
L. Sun; X. Zhou; S.M. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise
2005-01-01
We investigated a simultaneous temporally and spatially resolved 2-D velocity field above a burning circular pan of alcohol using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results obtained from PIV were used to assess a thermal particle image velocimetry (TPIV) algorithm previously developed to approximate the velocity field using the temperature field, simultaneously...
Adiabatic Theorem for Quantum Spin Systems
Bachmann, S.; De Roeck, W.; Fraas, M.
2017-08-01
The first proof of the quantum adiabatic theorem was given as early as 1928. Today, this theorem is increasingly applied in a many-body context, e.g., in quantum annealing and in studies of topological properties of matter. In this setup, the rate of variation ɛ of local terms is indeed small compared to the gap, but the rate of variation of the total, extensive Hamiltonian, is not. Therefore, applications to many-body systems are not covered by the proofs and arguments in the literature. In this Letter, we prove a version of the adiabatic theorem for gapped ground states of interacting quantum spin systems, under assumptions that remain valid in the thermodynamic limit. As an application, we give a mathematical proof of Kubo's linear response formula for a broad class of gapped interacting systems. We predict that the density of nonadiabatic excitations is exponentially small in the driving rate and the scaling of the exponent depends on the dimension.
Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility.
Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C
2015-04-10
Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.
Adiabatic invariance with first integrals of motion
Adib, Artur B.
2002-10-01
The construction of a microthermodynamic formalism for isolated systems based on the concept of adiabatic invariance is an old but seldom appreciated effort in the literature, dating back at least to P. Hertz [Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 225 (1910)]. An apparently independent extension of such formalism for systems bearing additional first integrals of motion was recently proposed by Hans H. Rugh [Phys. Rev. E 64, 055101 (2001)], establishing the concept of adiabatic invariance even in such singular cases. After some remarks in connection with the formalism pioneered by Hertz, it will be suggested that such an extension can incidentally explain the success of a dynamical method for computing the entropy of classical interacting fluids, at least in some potential applications where the presence of additional first integrals cannot be ignored.
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1982-01-01
The simplest model of plasma dynamics is the adiabatic model. In this model the plasma is assumed to be in MHD equilibrium at each instant of time. The equilibria are connected by the requirement that they all have the same entropy per unit flux, i.e., the equilibria form a sequence generated by adiabatic changes. The standard way of computing such a sequence of equilibria was developed by Grad, but its practical use requires a fairly complicated code. It would be helpful if approximately the same results could be gotten either with a much simpler code or by analytical techniques. In Sec. II a one-dimensional equilibrium code is described and its results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code; in Sec. III an even simpler analytic calculation is presented.
RFDR with Adiabatic Inversion Pulses: Application to Internuclear Distance Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai
2004-01-01
In the context of the structural characterisation of biomolecular systems via MAS solid state NMR, the potential utility of homonuclear dipolar recoupling with adiabatic inversion pulses has been assessed via numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of internuclear distances via an analysis of the initial cross-peak intensity buildup curves generated from two-dimensional adiabatic inversion pulse driven longitudinal magnetisation exchange experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrashkevich, A.G.; Puzynin, I.V.; Vinitskij, S.I.
1997-01-01
A FORTRAN 77 program is presented which calculates asymptotics of potential curves and adiabatic potentials with an accuracy of O(ρ -2 ) in the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic (HSA) approach. It is shown that matrix elements of the equivalent operator corresponding to the perturbation ρ -2 have a simple form in the basis of the Coulomb parabolic functions in the body-fixed frame and can be easily computed for high values of total orbital momentum and threshold number. The second-order corrections to the adiabatic curves are obtained as the solutions of the corresponding secular equation. The asymptotic potentials obtained can be used for the calculation of the energy levels and radial wave functions of two-electron systems in the adiabatic and coupled-channel approximations of the HSA approach
Adiabatic out-of-equilibrium solutions to the Boltzmann equation in warm inflation
Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.
2018-02-01
We show that, in warm inflation, the nearly constant Hubble rate and temperature lead to an adiabatic evolution of the number density of particles interacting with the thermal bath, even if thermal equilibrium cannot be maintained. In this case, the number density is suppressed compared to the equilibrium value but the associated phase-space distribution retains approximately an equilibrium form, with a smaller amplitude and a slightly smaller effective temperature. As an application, we explicitly construct a baryogenesis mechanism during warm inflation based on the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles in such an adiabatically evolving state. We show that this generically leads to small baryon isocurvature perturbations, within the bounds set by the Planck satellite. These are correlated with the main adiabatic curvature perturbations but exhibit a distinct spectral index, which may constitute a smoking gun for baryogenesis during warm inflation. Finally, we discuss the prospects for other applications of adiabatically evolving out-of-equilibrium states.
Post-adiabatic analysis of atomic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klar, H.; Fano, U.
1976-01-01
The coupling between adiabatic channels can be partially transformed away. The transformation need not induce any transition between channnels; but it correlates the radial wave functions and their gradients with the channel functions and it depresses the lower effective potentials, as the energy increases, in accordance with empirical evidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Y.; Tan, G.Y.; Chen, P.X.; Zhang, Q.M.
2012-01-01
The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress–true strain curves and true stress–time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, G.Y., E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Chen, P.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Zhang, Q.M. [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
2012-06-01
The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress-true strain curves and true stress-time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.
Increased chromium uptake in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from burned patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.M.; Illner, H.; Dineen, P.
1984-01-01
Following thermal injury neutrophil function is severely impaired and thought to be hypometabolic; however, the host is considered to be hypermetabolic. To further investigate the metabolism and the function of neutrophils following thermal injury, neutrophil migration and chromium uptake were studied using radio-labelled neutrophils. Random and directed migration were found to be significantly reduced compared to control values. Neutrophil lysozyme content was also reduced in these burn cells while serum lysozyme from the same patients was significantly elevated over control values. These data suggest lysozyme is released by the neutrophil into the circulatory system. The influx of chromium in cells from burned patients was much greater than the influx in normal cells used in studies for chemotaxis. Influx of chromium over time and over varying concentrations of chromium was linear in cells from burned patients and normals. Cells from burned patients, however, took up more chromium than normals. Influx velocity of chromium was also determined and found to be greater in burn cells than normal cells. Since it has been shown that chromium influx is an energy-dependent reaction it is suggested that cellular energy stores are being depleted by the influx of chromium. Whether this is a response to an intracellular deficit or uncoupling of metabolic pathways is not known at this time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanungo, Jitendra; Dasgupta, S.
2014-01-01
We analyze the energy performance of a complete adiabatic circuit/system including the Power Clock Generator (PCG) at the 90 nm CMOS technology node. The energy performance in terms of the conversion efficiency of the PCG is extensively carried out under the variations of supply voltage, process corner and the driver transistor's width. We propose an energy-efficient singe cycle control circuit based on the two-stage comparator for the synchronous charge recovery sinusoidal power clock generator (PCG). The proposed PCG is used to drive the 4-bit adiabatic Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) and their simulation results are compared with the adiabatic RCA driven by the reported PCG. We have also simulated the logically equivalent static CMOS RCA circuit to compare the energy saving of adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic circuits. In the clock frequency range from 25 MHz to 1GHz, the proposed PCG gives a maximum conversion efficiency of 56.48%. This research work shows how the design of an efficient PCG increases the energy saving of adiabatic logic. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage plant configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, Niklas; Vöhringer, O.; Kruck, C.; Eltrop, L.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We modeled several configurations of an adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) plant. ► We analyzed changes in efficiency of these configurations under varying operating conditions. ► The efficiency of the adiabatic CAES plant can reach about 70% for the isentropic configuration. ► In the polytropic case, the efficiency is about 10% lower (at about 60%) than in the isentropic configuration. ► The efficiency is highest for a two-stage CAES configuration and highly dependent on the cooling and heating demand. - Abstract: In this paper, the efficiency of one full charging and discharging cycle of several adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) configurations are analyzed with the help of an energy balance. In the second step main driving factors for the efficiency of the CAES configurations are examined with the help of sensitivity analysis. The results show that the efficiency of the polytropic configuration is about 60%, which is considerable lower than literature values of an adiabatic CAES of about 70%. The high value of 70% is only reached for the isentropic (ideal) configuration. Key element to improve the efficiency is to develop high temperature thermal storages (>600 °C) and temperature resistant materials for compressors. The highest efficiency is delivered by the two-stage adiabatic CAES configuration. In this case the efficiency varies between 52% and 62%, depending on the cooling and heating demand. If the cooling is achieved by natural sources (such as a river), a realistic estimation of the efficiency of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storages (without any greenhouse gas emissions due to fuel consumption) is about 60%.
Adiabatic translation factors in slow ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaaben, J.; Taulbjerg, K.
1981-01-01
The general properties of translation factors in slow atomic collisions are discussed. It is emphasised that an acceptable form of translation factors must be conceptually consistent with the basic underlying assumption of the molecular model; i.e. translation factors must relax adiabatically at intermediate and small internuclear separations. A simple physical argument is applied to derive a general parameter-free expression for the translation factor pertinent to an electron in a two-centre Coulomb field. Within the present approach the adiabatic translation factor is considered to be a property of the two-centre field independently of the molecular state under consideration. The generalisation to many-electron systems is therefore readily made. (author)
Optimal control of the power adiabatic stroke of an optomechanical heat engine.
Bathaee, M; Bahrampour, A R
2016-08-01
We consider the power adiabatic stroke of the Otto optomechanical heat engine introduced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150602. We derive the maximum extractable work of both optomechanical normal modes in the minimum time while the system experiences quantum friction effects. We show that the total work done by the system in the power adiabatic stroke is optimized by a bang-bang control. The time duration of the power adiabatic stroke is of the order of the inverse of the effective optomechanical-coupling coefficient. The optimal phase-space trajectory of the Otto cycle for both optomechanical normal modes is also obtained.
Seismic Wave Velocity in Earth's Shallow Core
Alexandrakis, C.; Eaton, D. W.
2008-12-01
Studies of the outer core indicate that it is composed of liquid Fe and Ni alloyed with a ~10% fraction of light elements such as O, S or Si. Recently, unusual features, such as sediment accumulation, immiscible fluid layers or stagnant convection, have been predicted in the shallow core region. Secular cooling and compositional buoyancy drive vigorous convection that sustains the geodynamo, although critical details of light-element composition and thermal regime remain uncertain. Seismic velocity models can provide important constraints on the light element composition, however global reference models, such as Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), IASP91 and AK135 vary significantly in the 200 km below the core-mantle boundary. Past studies of the outermost core velocity structure have been hampered by traveltime uncertainties due to lowermost mantle heterogeneities. The recently published Empirical Transfer Function (ETF) method has been shown to reduce the uncertainty using a waveform stacking approach to improve global observations of SmKS teleseismic waves. Here, we apply the ETF method to achieve a precise top-of-core velocity measurement of 8.05 ± 0.03 km/s. This new model accords well with PREM. Since PREM is based on the adiabatic form of the Adams-Williamson equation, it assumes a well mixed (i.e. homogeneous) composition. This result suggests a lack of heterogeneity in the outermost core due to layering or stagnant convection.
Quantum trajectories for time-dependent adiabatic master equations
Yip, Ka Wa; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2018-02-01
We describe a quantum trajectories technique for the unraveling of the quantum adiabatic master equation in Lindblad form. By evolving a complex state vector of dimension N instead of a complex density matrix of dimension N2, simulations of larger system sizes become feasible. The cost of running many trajectories, which is required to recover the master equation evolution, can be minimized by running the trajectories in parallel, making this method suitable for high performance computing clusters. In general, the trajectories method can provide up to a factor N advantage over directly solving the master equation. In special cases where only the expectation values of certain observables are desired, an advantage of up to a factor N2 is possible. We test the method by demonstrating agreement with direct solution of the quantum adiabatic master equation for 8-qubit quantum annealing examples. We also apply the quantum trajectories method to a 16-qubit example originally introduced to demonstrate the role of tunneling in quantum annealing, which is significantly more time consuming to solve directly using the master equation. The quantum trajectories method provides insight into individual quantum jump trajectories and their statistics, thus shedding light on open system quantum adiabatic evolution beyond the master equation.
Tailorable Burning Behavior of Ti14 Alloy by Controlling Semi-Solid Forging Temperature.
Chen, Yongnan; Yang, Wenqing; Zhan, Haifei; Zhang, Fengying; Huo, Yazhou; Zhao, Yongqing; Song, Xuding; Gu, Yuantong
2016-08-16
Semi-solid processing (SSP) is a popular near-net-shape forming technology for metals, while its application is still limited in titanium alloy mainly due to its low formability. Recent works showed that SSP could effectively enhance the formability and mechanical properties of titanium alloys. The processing parameters such as temperature and forging rate/ratio, are directly correlated with the microstructure, which endow the alloy with different chemical and physical properties. Specifically, as a key structural material for the advanced aero-engine, the burn resistant performance is a crucial requirement for the burn resistant titanium alloy. Thus, this work aims to assess the burning behavior of Ti14, a kind of burn resistant alloy, as forged at different semi-solid forging temperatures. The burning characteristics of the alloy are analyzed by a series of burning tests with different burning durations, velocities, and microstructures of burned sample. The results showed that the burning process is highly dependent on the forging temperature, due to the fact that higher temperatures would result in more Ti₂Cu precipitate within grain and along grain boundaries. Such a microstructure hinders the transport of oxygen in the stable burning stage through the formation of a kind of oxygen isolation Cu-enriched layer under the burn product zone. This work suggests that the burning resistance of the alloy can be effectively tuned by controlling the temperature during the semi-solid forging process.
Adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolstikhin, Oleg I; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi
2009-01-01
As a first step towards the adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses, here we consider the simplest one-dimensional zero-range potential model. The asymptotic solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the adiabatic regime is obtained and the photoelectron spectrum is calculated. The factorization formula for the photoelectron spectrum in the back-rescattering region, first suggested by Morishita et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013903 (2008)] on the basis of ab initio calculations, is derived analytically.
On the adiabatic theorem when eigenvalues dive into the continuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Decebal Horia; Jensen, Arne; Knörr, Hans Konrad
2018-01-01
We consider a reduced two-channel model of an atom consisting of a quantum dot coupled to an open scattering channel described by a three-dimensional Laplacian. We are interested in the survival probability of a bound state when the dot energy varies smoothly and adiabatically in time. The initial...... in the adiabatic limit. At the end of the paper, we present a short outlook on how our method may be extended to cover other classes of Hamiltonians; details will be given elsewhere....
Development of a model for dimethyl ether non-adiabatic reactors to improve methanol conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasrollahi, Fatemeh [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakeri, Gholamreza; Rahimnejad, Mostafa [Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia); Imanian, Mahdi [Mohajer Technical University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-10-15
The modeling of adiabatic and non-adiabatic reactors, using three cooling mediums in the shell side of a shell and tube reactor in cocurrent and countercurrent flow regimes has been conducted. The cooling mediums used in this research are saturated water and methanol feed gas to a reactor which is preheated in the shell side and a special type of oil. The results of adiabatic reactor modeling show good compatibility with the data received from a commercial plant. The results of non-adiabatic reactor modeling showed that more methanol conversion can be achieved in a lower length of reactor, even though in some cases the maximum temperature in the tube side of the reactor is more than the deactivation temperature of the catalyst.
Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayant Kumar Dash
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.
Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangelov, A.A.; Vitanov, N.V.
2012-01-01
A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter–mediator (EM), mediator–receiver (MR) and emitter–receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter–mediator–receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: ► Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. ► The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.
Dynamics of ionizing shock waves on adiabatic motions of gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorev, N.N.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.
1982-01-01
Results are presented of an experimental investigation of free (adiabatic) motion of a spherical ionizing wave in deuterium produced by an expanding laser plasma. It is shown that the discrepancy between the free movement of shock waves (which lead to total ionization of the gas) and the Sedov-Taylor model of a spontaneous point explosion is not related to variations in the adiabat exponent γ and the motion occurs for a constant γ=5/3. The effect is ascribed to the influence of the shock wave front structure on the dynamics of its propagation. An analytic expression for the motion of symmetric ionizing shock waves is found which has an accuracy of better than 1%. As a result the adiabat exponent was determined experimentally. A method for determining the energy of a shock wave on the basis of its dynamics of motion is developed which has an accuracy of approximately 5% [ru
Accuracy of the adiabatic-impulse approximation for closed and open quantum systems
Tomka, Michael; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2018-03-01
We study the adiabatic-impulse approximation (AIA) as a tool to approximate the time evolution of quantum states when driven through a region of small gap. Such small-gap regions are a common situation in adiabatic quantum computing and having reliable approximations is important in this context. The AIA originates from the Kibble-Zurek theory applied to continuous quantum phase transitions. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism was developed to predict the power-law scaling of the defect density across a continuous quantum phase transition. Instead, here we quantify the accuracy of the AIA via the trace norm distance with respect to the exact evolved state. As expected, we find that for short times or fast protocols, the AIA outperforms the simple adiabatic approximation. However, for large times or slow protocols, the situation is actually reversed and the AIA provides a worse approximation. Nevertheless, we found a variation of the AIA that can perform better than the adiabatic one. This counterintuitive modification consists in crossing the region of small gap twice. Our findings are illustrated by several examples of driven closed and open quantum systems.
Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki
1998-08-01
To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is
Adiabatic theory of nonlinear electron cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotel'nikov, I.A.; Stupakov, G.V.
1989-01-01
Plasma heating at electron frequency by an ordinary wave propagating at right angle to unidirectional magnetic field is treated. Injected microwave power is assumed to be so large that relativistic change of electron gyrofrequency during one flight thorugh the wave beam is much greater than inverse time of flight. The electron motion in the wave field is described using Hamiltonian formalism in adiabatic approximation. It is shown that energy coupling from the wave to electrons is due to a bifurcation of electron trajectory which results in a jumpm of the adiabatic invariant. The probability of bifurcational transition from one trajectory to another is calculated analytically and is used for the estimation of the beam power absorbed in plasma. 6 refs.; 2 figs
[Surgical treatment of burns : Special aspects of pediatric burns].
Bührer, G; Beier, J P; Horch, R E; Arkudas, A
2017-05-01
Treatment of pediatric burn patients is very important because of the sheer frequency of burn wounds and the possible long-term ramifications. Extensive burns need special care and are treated in specialized burn centers. The goal of this work is to present current standards in burn therapy and important innovations in the treatment of burns in children so that the common and small area burn wounds and scalds in pediatric patients in day-to-day dermatological practice can be adequately treated. Analysis of current literature, discussion of reviews, incorporation of current guidelines. Burns in pediatric patients are common. Improvement of survival can be achieved by treatment in burn centers. The assessment of burn depth and area is an important factor for proper treatment. We give an overview for outpatient treatment of partial thickness burns. New methods may result in better long-term outcome. Adequate treatment of burn injuries considering current literature and guidelines improves patient outcome. Rational implementation of new methods is recommended.
On the adiabatic theorem in quantum statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1982-01-01
We show that with suitable assumptions the equilibrium states are exactly the states invariant under adiabatic local perturbations. The relevance of this fact to the problem of ergodicity is discussed. (Author)
Ignition and fusion burn in fast ignition scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takabe, Hideaki
1998-01-01
The target physics of fast ignition is briefly reviewed by focusing on the ignition and fusion burn in the off-center ignition scheme. By the use of a two dimensional hydrodynamic code with an alpha heating process, the ignition condition is studied. It is shown that the ignition condition of the off-center ignition scheme coincides with that of the the central isochoric model. After the ignition, a nuclear burning wave is seen to burn the cold main fuel with a velocity of 2 - 3 x 10 8 cm/s. The spark energy required for the off-center ignition is 2 - 3 kJ or 10 - 15 kJ for the core density of 400 g/cm 3 or 200 g/cm 3 , respectively. It is demonstrated that a core gain of more than 2,000 is possible for a core energy of 100 kJ with a hot spark energy of 13 kJ. The requirement for the ignition region's heating time is also discussed by modeling a heating source in the 2-D code. (author)
Aspects of hyperspherical adiabaticity in an atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushibe, Daisuke; Mutou, Masaki; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Michio
2004-01-01
Excitation of an atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the zeroth-order ground-state channel is studied with the hyperspherical adiabatic method of Bohn et al. [Bohn et al., Phys. Rev. A 58, 584 (1998)] suitably generalized to accommodate the anisotropic trapping potential. The method exploits the system's size as an adiabatic parameter so that the explicit size dependence is immediately conducive to the virial theorem. The oscillation frequencies associated with the monopole (breathing) and quadrupole modes thus emerge naturally and converge to the well-known Thomas-Fermi limits. Analysis of the single-particle density and the projected excitation wave function shows that the excitation in the single hyperspherical ground-state channel merely represents a progressive increase in occupancy of the first excited single-particle state. The work paves the way for applying the adiabatic picture to other BEC phenomena
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nenciu, G.
1981-01-01
The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru
Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.
2015-01-01
Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cady, W.A.; Clark, A.P.; Dickinson, A.S.
1975-01-01
Recently a near-adiabatic (perturbed stationary states) approximation was used in an investigation the collinear vibrational excitation of a harmonic oscillator. This approximation reduced the problem to that of obtaining transition probabilities for a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent forcing function. Cady derived an apparently exact solution for this problem. It is shown that this solution is not exact but that the solution results from making a further adiabatic approximation and a derivation is given that clearly shows the adiabatic character of this further approximation
On the theory of turbulent flame velocity
Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Petchenko, Arkady
2012-01-01
The renormalization ideas of self-similar dynamics of a strongly turbulent flame front are applied to the case of a flame with realistically large thermal expansion of the burning matter. In that case a flame front is corrugated both by external turbulence and the intrinsic flame instability. The analytical formulas for the velocity of flame propagation are obtained. It is demonstrated that the flame instability is of principal importance when the integral turbulent length scale is much large...
Adiabatic energization in the ring current and its relation to other source and loss terms
Liemohn, M. W.; Kozyra, J. U.; Clauer, C. R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Thomsen, M. F.
2002-04-01
The influence of adiabatic energization and deenergization effects, caused by particle drift in radial distance, on ring current growth rates and loss lifetimes is investigated. Growth and loss rates from simulation results of four storms (5 June 1991, 15 May 1997, 19 October 1998, and 25 September 1998) are examined and compared against the y component of the solar wind electric field (Ey,sw). Energy change rates with and without the inclusion of adiabatic energy changes are considered to isolate the influence of this mechanism in governing changes of ring current strength. It is found that the influence of adiabatic drift effects on the energy change rates is very large when energization and deenergization are considered separately as gain and loss mechanisms, often about an order of magnitude larger than all other source or loss terms combined. This is true not only during storm times, when the open drift path configuration of the hot ions dominates the physics of the ring current, but also during quiet times, when the small oscillation in L of the closed trajectories creates a large source and loss of energy each drift orbit. However, the net energy change from adiabatic drift is often smaller than other source and loss processes, especially during quiet times. Energization from adiabatic drift dominates ring current growth only during portions of the main phase of storms. Furthermore, the net-adiabatic energization is often positive, because some particles are lost in the inner magnetosphere before they can adiabatically deenergize. It is shown that the inclusion of only this net-adiabatic drift effect in the total source rate or loss lifetime (depending on the sign of the net-adiabatic energization) best matches the observed source and loss values from empirical Dst predictor methods (that is, for consistency, these values should be compared between the calculation methods). While adiabatic deenergization dominates the loss timescales for all Ey,sw values
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan-jie Ni
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun experimental system is employed to research the burning rate characteristics of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant. Enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR of propellants during and after electrical discharges are verified in the experiments. A modified 0D internal ballistic model is established to simulate the ETC launch. According to the measured pressure and electrical parameters, a transient burning rate law including the influence of EGGR coefficient by electric power and pressure gradient (dp/dt is added into the model. The EGGR coefficient of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant is equal to 0.005 MW−1. Both simulated breech pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord with the experimental results well. Compared with Woodley's modified burning rate law, the breech pressure curves acquired by the transient burning rate law are more consistent with test results. Based on the parameters calculated in the model, the relationship among propellant burning rate, pressure gradient (dp/dt and electric power is analyzed. Depending on the transient burning rate law and experimental data, the burning of solid propellant under the condition of plasma is described more accurately.
Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis
2014-12-01
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadayat eSeddiqi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Scaling-Up Quantum Heat Engines Efficiently via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathieu Beau
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction, and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inverse-square pairwise interactions that includes non-interacting and hard-core bosons as limiting cases.
Habershon, Scott
2013-09-14
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habershon, Scott
2013-01-01
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots
Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.
2008-12-01
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A
2008-01-01
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.
Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I
2008-12-10
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
High beta lasing in micropillar cavities with adiabatic layer design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels; Lorke, M.
2013-01-01
We report on lasing in optically pumped adiabatic micropillar cavities, based on the AlAs/GaAs material system. A detailed study of the threshold pump power and the spontaneous emission β factor in the lasing regime for different diameters dc is presented. We demonstrate a reduction of the thresh...... of the threshold pump power by over 2 orders of magnitude from dc = 2.25 μm down to 0.95 μm. Lasing with β factors exceeding 0.5 shows that adiabatic micropillars are operating deeply in the cavity quantum electrodynamics regime....
A Phase Matching, Adiabatic Accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemery, Francois [Hamburg U.; Flöttmann, Klaus [DESY; Kärtner, Franz [CFEL, Hamburg; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.
2017-05-01
Tabletop accelerators are a thing of the future. Reducing their size will require scaling down electromagnetic wavelengths; however, without correspondingly high field gradients, particles will be more susceptible to phase-slippage – especially at low energy. We investigate how an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide could maintain phase-matching between the accelerating mode and electron bunch. We benchmark our simple model with CST and implement it into ASTRA; finally we provide a first glimpse into the beam dynamics in a phase-matching accelerator.
Adiabatic theorem for the time-dependent wave operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Killingbeck, John P.; Perrin, Marie-Yvonne
2005-01-01
The application of time-dependent wave operator theory to the development of a quantum adiabatic perturbation theory is treated both theoretically and numerically, with emphasis on the description of field-matter interactions which involve short laser pulses. It is first shown that the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent wave operator corresponds to a succession of instantaneous static Bloch wave operators. Wave operator theory is then shown to be compatible with the two-time Floquet theory of light-matter interaction, thus allowing the application of Floquet theory to cases which require the use of a degenerate active space. A numerical study of some problems shows that the perturbation strength associated with nonadiabatic processes can be reduced by using multidimensional active spaces and illustrates the capacity of the wave operator approach to produce a quasiadiabatic treatment of a nominally nonadiabatic Floquet dynamical system
Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".
Rifkind, Jacob Bernard
2016-03-01
Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, A.C.; Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Martinez, E.Y.; Hernandez, D.H.; Martinez, E.
2009-01-01
The microstructures and microstructure evolution associated with adiabatic shear band (ASB) formation in ballistic plugging in thick (2.5 cm) Ti-6Al-4V targets impacted by cylindrical, 4340 steel projectiles (2.0 cm in height) at impact velocities ranging from 633 m/s to 1027 m/s (just above the ballistic limit) were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy. ASB width increased from 10 μm to 21 μm as the velocity increased. ASB evolution was accompanied by the evolution of dark deformation bands composed of α' martensite platelets which increased in density with increasing impact velocity. The corresponding Vickers microindentation hardness also increased from HV 619 to HV 632 in contrast to the surrounding matrix microindentation hardness of HV 555. These deformation bands were not necessarily precursors to ASB formation. The ASB average Vickers microindentation hardness was essentially constant at HV 645, a 16% increase over the matrix. This constant microindentation hardness was characterized by a consistent DRX grain structure which varied from equiaxed, defect-free grains (∼2 μm diameter) to heavily dislocated, equiaxed grains. Cracks nucleating and propagating within the ABSs were observed to increase from 8% to 87% of the ASB length with increasing impact velocity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byung Jae Lee
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise (Q∞ and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor (r. Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.
Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Shin, Kyung Joon; Kim, Yun Yong
2014-12-08
In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise ( Q ∞ ) and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor ( r ). Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q ∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Mingtao; Li, Yongchi; Hu, Xiuzhang; Hu, Haibo
2014-01-01
The formation of an adiabatic shear band (ASB) experiences three stages: stable plastic flow, nucleation and a fluid-like stage. For different stages, the microstructures of the material undergo great changes. The mechanical behavior of the material in each stage has its own unique characteristics. To describe these characteristics, a multi-stage model for the shear band is proposed. For the stable plastic flow stage, a modified adiabatic J–C constitutive relationship is used. For the nucleation stage, the effects of work hardening and temperature softening are described by a power function of plastic strain. A Newtonian fluid model is used for the fluid-like stage. The formation of a shear band is an instability process. Various defects in the material are perturbation sources, which change the local yield stress. To describe the disturbances, a probability factor is introduced into the macroscopic constitutive relationship. The yield stress in the material is assumed to obey a Gaussian distribution. The multi-stage model combined with a probability factor is applied to simulate the rupture of thick-walled cylinder in 304 Stainless Steel (304SS). A close agreement is found between the simulation and experimental results, such as the failure mechanism, shear band spacing and propagating velocity of the shear band. By combining the experimental results with the simulation results, the importance of the nucleation stage is emphasized. (paper)
Development of Adiabatic Doppler Feedback Model in 3D space time analysis Code ARCH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dwivedi, D.K.; Gupta, Anurag
2015-01-01
Integrated 3D space-time neutron kinetics with thermal-hydraulic feedback code system is being developed for transient analysis of Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR) and Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). ARCH (code for Analysis of Reactor transients in Cartesian and Hexagon geometries) has been developed with IQS module for efficient 3D space time analysis. Recently, an adiabatic Doppler (fuel temperature) feedback module has been incorporated in this ARCH-IQS version of tile code. In the adiabatic model of fuel temperature feedback, the transfer of the excess heat from the fuel to the coolant during transient is neglected. The viability of Doppler feedback in ARCH-IQS with adiabatic heating has been checked with AER benchmark (Dyn002). Analyses of anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) case in CHTR as well as in AHWR have been performed with adiabatic fuel temperature feedback. The methodology and results have been presented in this paper. (author)
Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
adiabatic transfer process through the 'dark state' by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. ... control field of Rabi frequency C(t) transfers one photon in the cavity mode to a long- .... It gives an approximate statistical description of the.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, L.
1993-01-01
While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose
Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching
Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.
2016-01-01
A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frimurer, Thomas M.; Günther, Peter H.; Sørensen, Morten Dahl
1999-01-01
adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)......adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)...
Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation.
Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M
2016-03-01
Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal
Effects of wind velocity and slope on flame properties
David R. Weise; Gregory S. Biging
1996-01-01
Abstract: The combined effects of wind velocity and percent slope on flame length and angle were measured in an open-topped, tilting wind tunnel by burning fuel beds composed of vertical birch sticks and aspen excelsior. Mean flame length ranged from 0.08 to 1.69 m; 0.25 m was the maximum observed flame length for most backing fires. Flame angle ranged from -46o to 50o...
The high velocity, high adiabat, ``Bigfoot'' campaign and tests of indirect-drive implosion scaling
Casey, Daniel
2017-10-01
To achieve hotspot ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions must achieve high hotspot internal energy that is inertially confined by a dense shell of DT fuel. To accomplish this, implosions are designed to achieve high peak implosion velocity, good energy coupling between the hotspot and imploding shell, and high areal-density at stagnation. However, experiments have shown that achieving these simultaneously is extremely challenging, partly because of inherent tradeoffs between these three interrelated requirements. The Bigfoot approach is to intentionally trade off high convergence, and therefore areal-density, in favor of high implosion velocity and good coupling between the hotspot and shell. This is done by intentionally colliding the shocks in the DT ice layer. This results in a short laser pulse which improves hohlraum symmetry and predictability while the reduced compression improves hydrodynamic stability. The results of this campaign will be reviewed and include demonstrated low-mode symmetry control at two different hohlraum geometries (5.75 mm and 5.4 mm diameters) and at two different target scales (5.4 mm and 6.0 mm hohlraum diameters) spanning 300-430 TW in laser power and 0.8-1.7 MJ in laser energy. Results of the 10% scaling between these designs for the hohlraum and capsule will be presented. Hydrodynamic instability growth from engineering features like the capsule fill tube are currently thought to be a significant perturbation to the target performance and a major factor in reducing its performance compared to calculations. Evidence supporting this hypothesis as well as plans going forward will be presented. Ongoing experiments are attempting to measure the impact on target performance from increase in target scale, and the preliminary results will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
The adiabatic versus the diabatic approximation in the decoupling of electron and nuclear motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Every, A.G.
1975-01-01
There are two limiting approximations that are used as starting points for the analysis of a system of interacting electrons and nuclei. The more widely used is the adiabatic approximation in which one assumes that the electrons adjust adiabatically to the instantaneous configuration of the nuclei. This yields an effective internuclear potential. In treating the nuclear motion, this potential can legitimately be expanded to fourth order in nuclear displacements from equilibrium. The difficulties of extending this expansion further are discussed. In situations where two adiabatic potentials approach each other the so-called diabatic approximation has to be used. A novel application to non-radioactive processes in solids is discussed. (author)
FRW-type cosmologies with adiabatic matter creation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, J.A.; Germano, A.S.; Abramo, L.R.
1996-01-01
Some properties of cosmological models with matter creation are investigated in the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element. For adiabatic matter creation, as developed by Prigogine and co-workers, we derive a simple expression relating the particle number density n and energy density ρ which holds regardless of the matter creation rate. The conditions to generate inflation are discussed and by considering the natural phenomenological matter creation rate ψ=3βnH, where β is a pure number of the order of unity and H is the Hubble parameter, a minimally modified hot big-bang model is proposed. The dynamic properties of such models can be deduced from the standard ones simply by replacing the adiabatic index γ of the equation of state by an effective parameter γ * =γ(1-β). The thermodynamic behavior is determined and it is also shown that ages large enough to agree with observations are obtained even given the high values of H suggested by recent measurements. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Burns education for non-burn specialist clinicians in Western Australia.
McWilliams, Tania; Hendricks, Joyce; Twigg, Di; Wood, Fiona
2015-03-01
Burn patients often receive their initial care by non-burn specialist clinicians, with increasingly collaborative burn models of care. The provision of relevant and accessible education for these clinicians is therefore vital for optimal patient care. A two phase design was used. A state-wide survey of multidisciplinary non-burn specialist clinicians throughout Western Australia identified learning needs related to paediatric burn care. A targeted education programme was developed and delivered live via videoconference. Pre-post-test analysis evaluated changes in knowledge as a result of attendance at each education session. Non-burn specialist clinicians identified numerous areas of burn care relevant to their practice. Statistically significant differences between perceived relevance of care and confidence in care provision were reported for aspects of acute burn care. Following attendance at the education sessions, statistically significant increases in knowledge were noted for most areas of acute burn care. Identification of learning needs facilitated the development of a targeted education programme for non-burn specialist clinicians. Increased non-burn specialist clinician knowledge following attendance at most education sessions supports the use of videoconferencing as an acceptable and effective method of delivering burns education in Western Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T
2014-01-01
The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)
Monte Carlo modeling of Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor in adiabatic equilibrium state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stanisz, Przemysław, E-mail: pstanisz@agh.edu.pl; Oettingen, Mikołaj, E-mail: moettin@agh.edu.pl; Cetnar, Jerzy, E-mail: cetnar@mail.ftj.agh.edu.pl
2016-05-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present the Monte Carlo modeling of the LFR in the adiabatic equilibrium state. • We assess the adiabatic equilibrium fuel composition using the MCB code. • We define the self-adjusting process of breeding gain by the control rod operation. • The designed LFR can work in the adiabatic cycle with zero fuel breeding. - Abstract: Nuclear power would appear to be the only energy source able to satisfy the global energy demand while also achieving a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it can provide a stable and secure source of electricity, and plays an important role in many European countries. However, nuclear power generation from its birth has been doomed by the legacy of radioactive nuclear waste. In addition, the looming decrease in the available resources of fissile U235 may influence the future sustainability of nuclear energy. The integrated solution to both problems is not trivial, and postulates the introduction of a closed-fuel cycle strategy based on breeder reactors. The perfect choice of a novel reactor system fulfilling both requirements is the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor operating in the adiabatic equilibrium state. In such a state, the reactor converts depleted or natural uranium into plutonium while consuming any self-generated minor actinides and transferring only fission products as waste. We present the preliminary design of a Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor operating in the adiabatic equilibrium state with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB. As a reference reactor model we apply the core design developed initially under the framework of the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY) project and refined in the follow-up Lead-cooled European Advanced DEmonstration Reactor (LEADER) project. The major objective of the study is to show to what extent the constraints of the adiabatic cycle are maintained and to indicate the phase space for further improvements. The analysis
Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Haemmerle
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.
Connection between adiabaticity and the mirror mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.
1976-01-01
The size of magnetic moment jumps of a particle in a long, thin equilibrium magnetic mirror field is shown to be related to the complex zeroes of the mirror mode parameter B + 4πdP/sub perpendicular//dB. A consequence is that adiabaticity places a lower limit on β than does the mirror mode
Velocity of sound in, and adiabatic compressibility of, Molten LiF-NaF, LiF-KF, NaF-KF mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minchenko, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.V.; Smirnov, M.V.
1986-01-01
The authors measured the velocity of sound as a function of temperature at 1.5 zHM frequency in LiF-NaF, NaF-KF, LiF-KF melts over the entire range of their compositions. The measurements were made by comparison of the phases of a reference pulse signal and a signal reflected from the bottom of the crucible. The specified temperatures were maintained constant within plus or minus 1 degree. The sound conductor consisted of a cylindrical rod of sintered beryllium oxide, which does not interact with test melts. The study shows that the velocity of sound decreases linearly with increase of the temperature. The values of the constants of the empirical equations are presented in a table, with indication of the temperature range. The dependence of the velocity of sound on composition of the melts is shown, where isotherms for 1250 K are given as an example. Variation of the composition by 1-2 mole % leads to increase or decrease of the velocity of sound by 5-10 m
Pre-History Of The Concepts Underlying Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.
2013-01-01
This tutorial review discusses some of the work that preceded development, twenty-five years ago, of the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique, now widely used in the controlled coherent dynamics of three-state systems, noting how the use of time-dependent adiabatically-evolving population-trapping dark states made possible the robust and highly-efficient population transfer between quantum states that first popularized STIRAP. Preceding the history discussion is a tutorial definition of STIRAP and its necessary and sufficient ingredients — understanding that has led to applications well beyond those of the original quantum systems. This review also discusses the relationship between STIRAP and two related procedures: chirped Raman adiabatic passage (RCAP or CHIRAP) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with slow and captured light. It concludes with a brief discussion of ways in which contemporary STIRAP has extended the original concept and enlarged the definition, beyond that of simple quantum systems to classical macroscopic devices. Appendices offer further details. The presentation emphasizes theory but with illustrations of experimental results. (author)
An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Murphy, A D
2008-06-01
The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.
Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?
Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.
2011-01-01
Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...
Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology?
Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E
2011-10-01
We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.
Adiabatic pair creation in heavy-ion and laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickl, P.; Durr, D.
2008-01-01
The planned generation of lasers and heavy-ion colliders renews the hope to see electron-positron pair creation in strong classical fields. This old prediction is usually referred to as spontaneous pair creation. We observe that both heavy-ion collisions and pair creation in strong laser fields, are instances of the theory of adiabatic pair creation. We shall present the theory, thereby correcting earlier results. We give the momentum distribution of created pairs in overcritical fields. We discuss carefully the proposed experimental verifications and conclude that pure laser-based experiments are highly questionable. We propose a new experiment, joining laser fields and heavy ions, which may be feasible with present-day technology and which may indeed verify the theoretical prediction of adiabatic pair creation. Our presentation relies on recent rigorous works in mathematical physics. (authors)
Adiabatic approximation in the ultrastrong-coupling regime of an oscillator and two qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ping; Zou, Ping [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, SIPSE and LQIT, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Ming, E-mail: zmzhang@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, SIPSE and LQIT, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2012-10-01
We present a system composed of two flux qubits and a transmission-line resonator. Instead of using the rotating wave approximation (RWA), we analyze the system by the adiabatic approximation methods under two opposite extreme conditions. Basic properties of the system are calculated and compared under these two different conditions. Relative energy-level spectrum of the system in the adiabatic displaced oscillator basis is shown, and the theoretical result is compared with the numerical solution. -- Highlights: ► Our work shows that the adiabatic approximations may work also in the ultrastrong coupling limit. ► Both of the approximation methods are valid in a large range of coupling strength, including the ultrastrong coupling regime. ► The results of the approximate formula meet well the exact numerical solution.
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-04-01
We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.
In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fingas, M.F.
2002-01-01
This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs
Dimova, E.; Steflekova, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Kyoseva, E.
2018-03-01
We propose a way of achieving efficient and robust second-harmonic generation. The technique proposed is similar to the adiabatic population transfer in a two-state quantum system with crossing energies. If the phase mismatching changes slowly, e.g., due to a temperature gradient along the crystal, and makes the phase match for second-harmonic generation to occur, then the energy would be converted adiabatically to the second harmonic. As an adiabatic technique, the second-harmonic generation scheme presented is stable to variations in the crystal parameters, as well as in the input light, crystal length, input intensity, wavelength and angle of incidence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armour, E.A.G.; Beker, C.A.; Farina, J.E.G.
1981-01-01
P-wave phaseshifts for positron-hydrogen elastic scattering are calculated using a new adiabatic approximation in which the length of the radius vector from the proton to the positron is fixed but its direction is allowed to vary. This adiabatic approximation makes possible the full inclusion in the calculation of virtual states in which angular momentum is transferred to the target H atom. The results obtained agree qualitatively with the highly accurate results of Bhatia and co-workers (Phys. Rev.; A9:219 (1974)) and are much closer to them than the results obtained using the usual adiabatic approximation in which the radius vector from the proton to the positron is fixed. (author)
Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, C.H.
1980-01-01
Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape
Development of a reactive burn model based upon an explicit visco-plastic pore collapse model
Bouton, Eric; Lefrançois, Alexandre; Belmas, Robert
2015-06-01
Our aim in this study is to develop a reactive burn model based upon a microscopic hot spot model to compute the initiation and shock to detonation of pressed TATB explosives. For the sake of simplicity, the hot spots are supposed to result from the viscoplastic collapse of spherical micro-voids inside the composition. Such a model has been incorporated in a lagrangian hydrodynamic code. In our calculations, 8 different pore diameters, ranging from 100 nm to 1.2 μm, have been taken into account and the porosity associated to each pore size has been deduced from the PBX-9502 void distribution derived from the SAXS. The last ingredient of our model is the burn rate that depends on two main variables. The first one is the shock pressure as proposed by the developers of the CREST model. The second one is the number of effective chemical reaction sites calculated by the microscopic model. Furthermore, the function of the reaction progress variable of the burn rate is similar to that in the SURF model proposed by Menikoff. Our burn rate has been calibrated by using pressure profile, material velocities wave forms obtained with embedded particle velocity gauges and run distance to detonation. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results is really good and sufficient to perform a wide variety of simulations including single, double shock waves and the desensitization phenomenon. In conclusion, future works are described.
Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)
2013-01-15
This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name ''Adiabatic
Adiabatic partial Siberian snake turn-on with no beam depolarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phelps, R.A.; Anferov, V.A.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Kaufman, W.A.; Koulsha, A.V.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Raczkowksi, D.B.; Sund, S.E.; Wong, V.K.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Khiari, F.Z.; Ratner, L.G.; Sato, H.
1994-01-01
A recent experiment in the IUCF cooler ring studied the adiabatic turn-on of a partial Siberian snake at 370 MeV, where the spin tune, ν s is 21/2 for all snake strengths. The snake consisted of two rampable warm solenoid magnets in series with a superconducting solenoid; this combination allowed varying the snake strength between about 0 and 25% at 370 MeV. We measured the beam polaraization after varying the snake either 1, 2, or 10 times; we found with good precision that no polarization was lost. This supports the conjecture that a Siberian snake can be ramped adiabatically at an energy where the spin tune is a half integer
On the recirculation of ammonia-lithium nitrate in adiabatic absorbers for chillers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventas, R.; Lecuona, A.; Legrand, M.; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, M.C.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model of single-effect absorption cycles with ammonia-lithium nitrate solution as the working pair and incorporating an adiabatic absorber. It is based on UA-ΔT lm models for separate regions of plate-type heat exchangers and it assumes an approach factor to adiabatic equilibrium. The results are offered as a function of external temperatures. A loop circuit with a heat exchanger upstream the absorber produces subcooling for facilitating absorption process. The effect of the mass flow rate recirculated through the absorber is studied. Results show a diminishing return effect. The value at which the recirculation mass flow yields a reasonable performance is between 4 and 6 times the solution mass flow. With a heat transfer area 6 times smaller than with a conventional diabatic shell-and-tube type absorber, the adiabatic absorber configured with a plate heat exchanger yields a 2% smaller maximum COP and a 15-20% smaller cooling power.
Density and adiabatic compressibility of the immiscible molten AgBr+LiCl mixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stepanov, Victor P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry; Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kulik, Nina P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry
2017-07-01
The adiabatic compressibility, β, of the immiscible liquid mixture 0.52 LiCl+0.48 AgBr (the top of the miscibility gap) was experimentally investigated in the temperature range from the melting point to the critical mixing temperature using the sound velocity values, u, measured by the pulse method, and the density quantities, ρ, which were determined using the hydrostatic weight procedure based on the relationship β = u{sup -2}ρ{sup -1}. It is shown that the coefficients of the temperature dependencies for the compressibility and density of the upper and lower equilibrium phases have opposite signs because of the superposition of the intensity of the thermal motion of the ions and the change in the composition of the phases. The differences, Δβ and Δρ, in the magnitudes of the compressibility and density for the equilibrium phases decrease with temperature elevation. The temperature dependencies of the compressibility and density difference are described using the empirical equations Δβ ∼ (T{sub c}-T){sup 0.438} and Δρ ∼ (T{sub c}-T){sup 0.439}.
Low-Power Adiabatic Computing with Improved Quasistatic Energy Recovery Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shipra Upadhyay
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Efficiency of adiabatic logic circuits is determined by the adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses incurred by them during the charging and recovery operations. The lesser will be these losses circuit will be more energy efficient. In this paper, a new approach is presented for minimizing power consumption in quasistatic energy recovery logic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the nonadiabatic losses completely by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs whose gates are controlled by power clocks. Proposed circuit inherits the advantages of quasistatic ERL (QSERL family but is with improved power efficiency and driving ability. In order to demonstrate workability of the newly developed circuit, a 4 × 4 bit array multiplier circuit has been designed. A mathematical expression to calculate energy dissipation in proposed inverter is developed. Performance of the proposed logic (improved quasistatic energy recovery logic (IQSERL is analyzed and compared with CMOS and reported QSERL in their representative inverters and multipliers in VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18 μm UMC technology. In our proposed (IQSERL inverter the power efficiency has been improved to almost 20% up to 50 MHz and 300 fF external load capacitance in comparison to CMOS and QSERL circuits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zacarías, Alejandro; Venegas, María; Lecuona, Antonio; Ventas, Rubén
2013-01-01
This paper presents the experimental assessment of the adiabatic absorption of ammonia vapour into an ammonia–lithium nitrate solution using a fog jet nozzle. The ammonia mass fraction was kept constant at 46.08% and the absorber pressure was varied in the range 355–411 kPa. The nozzle was located at the top of the absorption chamber, at a height of 205 mm measured from the bottom surface. The diluted solution flow rate was modified between 0.04 and 0.08 kg s −1 and the solution inlet temperature in the range 25.9–30.2 °C. The influence of these variables on the approach to adiabatic equilibrium factor, outlet subcooling, absorption ratio and mass transfer coefficient is analysed. The approach to adiabatic equilibrium factor for the conditions essayed is always between 0.82 and 0.93. Pressure drop of the solution entering the absorption chamber is also evaluated. Correlations for the approach to adiabatic equilibrium factor and the Sherwood number are given. - Highlights: ► Adiabatic absorption of NH 3 vapour into NH 3 –LiNO 3 using fog jet nozzle created spray. ► Pressure drop of the solution entering to the absorption chamber is evaluated. ► Approach to adiabatic equilibrium factor (F) is between 0.82 and 0.93 at 205 mm height. ► Experimental values of mass transfer coefficient and outlet subcooling are presented. ► Correlations for F and Sherwood number are given.
Partridge, Daniel; Morales, Ricardo; Stier, Philip
2015-04-01
Many previous studies have compared droplet activation parameterisations against adiabatic parcel models (e.g. Ghan et al., 2001). However, these have often involved comparisons for a limited number of parameter combinations based upon certain aerosol regimes. Recent studies (Morales et al., 2014) have used wider ranges when evaluating their parameterisations, however, no study has explored the full possible multi-dimensional parameter space that would be experienced by droplet activations within a global climate model (GCM). It is important to be able to efficiently highlight regions of the entire multi-dimensional parameter space in which we can expect the largest discrepancy between parameterisation and cloud parcel models in order to ascertain which regions simulated by a GCM can be expected to be a less accurate representation of the process of cloud droplet activation. This study provides a new, efficient, inverse modelling framework for comparing droplet activation parameterisations to more complex cloud parcel models. To achieve this we couple a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (Partridge et al., 2012) to two independent adiabatic cloud parcel models and four droplet activation parameterisations. This framework is computationally faster than employing a brute force Monte Carlo simulation, and allows us to transparently highlight which parameterisation provides the closest representation across all aerosol physiochemical and meteorological environments. The parameterisations are demonstrated to perform well for a large proportion of possible parameter combinations, however, for certain key parameters; most notably the vertical velocity and accumulation mode aerosol concentration, large discrepancies are highlighted. These discrepancies correspond for parameter combinations that result in very high/low simulated values of maximum supersaturation. By identifying parameter interactions or regimes within the multi-dimensional parameter space we hope to guide
Biomass burning in Africa: As assessment of annually burned biomass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delmas, R.A.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.; Menaut, J.C.
1991-01-01
It is now established that biomass burning is the dominant phenomenon that controls the atmospheric chemistry in the tropics. Africa is certainly the continent where biomass burning under various aspects and processes is the greatest. Three different types of burnings have to be considered-bush fires in savanna zones which mainly affect herbaceous flora, forest fires due to forestation for shifting agriculture or colonization of new lands, and the use of wood as fuel. The net release of carbon resulting from deforestation is assumed to be responsible for about 20% of the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere because the burning of forests corresponds to a destorage of carbon from the biospheric reservoir. The amount of reactive of greenhouse gases emitted by biomass burning is directly proportional, through individual emission factors, to the biomass actually burned. This chapter evaluates the biomass annually burned on the African continent as a result of the three main burning processes previously mentioned
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Keefe
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of traditional formulations of the Second Law, evidenced by attainment of a final process temperature below that which would result from an adiabatic magneto-caloric process applied to bulk dimensioned specimens.
Control of ITBs in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasmas
Panta, S. R.; Newman, D. E.; Terry, P. W.; Sanchez, R.
2017-10-01
In the magnetically confined burning plasma devices (in this case Tokamaks), internal transport barriers (ITBs) are those regimes in which the turbulence is suppressed by the E X B velocity shear, reducing the turbulent transport. This often occurs at a critical gradient in the profiles. The change in the transport then modifies the density and temperature profiles feeding back on the system. These transport barriers have to be controlled both to form them for improved confinement and remove them to both prevent global instabilities and to remove the ash and unnecessary impurities in the device. In this work we focus on pellet injection and modulated RF heating as a way to trigger and control the ITBs. These have an immediate consequence on density and temperature and hence pressure profiles acting as a control knob. For example, depending upon pellet size and its radial position of injection, it either helps to form or strengthen the barrier or to get rid of ITBs in the different transport channels of the burning plasmas. This transport model is then used to investigate the control and dynamics of the transport barriers in burning plasmas using pellets and RF addition to the NBI power and alpha power.
Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model.
Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek
2016-02-01
In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (Plocations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min-Suk Jo
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the applicability of adiabatic humidification in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems of semiconductor cleanrooms. Accurate temperature and humidity control are essential in semiconductor cleanrooms and high energy consumption steam humidification is commonly used. Therefore, we propose an adiabatic humidification system employing a pressurized water atomizer to reduce the energy consumption. The annual energy consumption of three different HVAC systems were analyzed to evaluate the applicability of adiabatic humidification. The studied cases were as follows: (1 CASE 1: a make-up air unit (MAU with a steam humidifier, a dry cooling coil (DCC, and a fan filter unit (FFU; (2 CASE 2: a MAU with the pressurized water atomizer, a DCC, and a FFU; and (3 CASE 3: a MAU, a DCC, and a FFU, and the pressurized water atomizer installed in the return duct. The energy saving potential of adiabatic humidification over steam humidification has been proved, with savings of 8% and 23% in CASE 2 and CASE 3 compared to CASE 1, respectively. Furthermore, the pressurized water atomizer installed in the return duct exhibits greater energy saving effect than when installed in the MAU.
30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel; Romanowsky, Aaron J.
2011-01-01
It has long been regarded as difficult if not impossible for a cosmological model to account simultaneously for the galaxy luminosity, mass, and velocity distributions. We revisit this issue using a modern compilation of observational data along with the best available large-scale cosmological simulation of dark matter (DM). We find that the standard cosmological model, used in conjunction with halo abundance matching (HAM) and simple dynamical corrections, fits—at least on average—all basic statistics of galaxies with circular velocities V circ > 80 km s –1 calculated at a radius of ∼10 kpc. Our primary observational constraint is the luminosity-velocity (LV) relation—which generalizes the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations in allowing all types of galaxies to be included, and provides a fundamental benchmark to be reproduced by any theory of galaxy formation. We have compiled data for a variety of galaxies ranging from dwarf irregulars to giant ellipticals. The data present a clear monotonic LV relation from ∼50 km s –1 to ∼500 km s –1 , with a bend below ∼80 km s –1 and a systematic offset between late- and early-type galaxies. For comparison to theory, we employ our new ΛCDM 'Bolshoi' simulation of DM, which has unprecedented mass and force resolution over a large cosmological volume, while using an up-to-date set of cosmological parameters. We use HAM to assign rank-ordered galaxy luminosities to the DM halos, a procedure that automatically fits the empirical luminosity function and provides a predicted LV relation that can be checked against observations. The adiabatic contraction of DM halos in response to the infall of the baryons is included as an optional model ingredient. The resulting predictions for the LV relation are in excellent agreement with the available data on both early-type and late-type galaxies for the luminosity range from M r = –14 to M r = –22. We also compare our predictions for the 'cold' baryon mass (i
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todorov, N S [Low Temperature Department of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia
1981-04-01
It is shown that the nonstationary Schroedinger equation does not satisfy a well-known adiabatical principle in thermodynamics. A ''renormalization procedure'' based on the possible existence of a time-irreversible basic evolution equation is proposed with the help of which one comes to agreement in a variety of specific cases of an adiabatic inclusion of a perturbing potential. The ideology of the present article rests essentially on the ideology of the preceding articles, in particular article I.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todorov, N S
1981-04-01
It is shown that the nonstationary Schroedinger equation does not satisfy a well-known adiabatical principle in thermodynamics. A ''renormalization procedure'' based on the possible existence of a time-irreversible basic evolution equation is proposed with the help of which one comes to agreement in a variety of specific cases of an adiabatic inclusion of a perturbing potential. The ideology of the present article IV rests essentially on the ideology of the preceding articles, in particular article I.
Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem
2016-03-01
This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salem M. Osta-Omar
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.
A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...
Burn Delay Analysis of the Lunar Orbit Insertion for Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter
Bae, Jonghee; Song, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bangyeop
2017-12-01
The first Korea lunar orbiter, Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), has been in development since 2016. After launch, the KPLO will execute several maneuvers to enter into the lunar mission orbit, and will then perform lunar science missions for one year. Among these maneuvers, the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) is the most critical maneuver because the KPLO will experience an extreme velocity change in the presence of the Moon’s gravitational pull. However, the lunar orbiter may have a delayed LOI burn during operation due to hardware limitations and telemetry delays. This delayed burn could occur in different captured lunar orbits; in the worst case, the KPLO could fly away from the Moon. Therefore, in this study, the burn delay for the first LOI maneuver is analyzed to successfully enter the desired lunar orbit. Numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the difference between the desired and delayed lunar orbits due to a burn delay in the LOI maneuver. Based on this analysis, critical factors in the LOI maneuver, the periselene altitude and orbit period, are significantly changed and an additional delta-V in the second LOI maneuver is required as the delay burn interval increases to 10 min from the planned maneuver epoch.
Burning Behaviour of High-Pressure CH4-H2-Air Mixtures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacopo D'Alessio
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental characterization of the burning behavior of gaseous mixtures has been carried out, analyzing spherical expanding flames. Tests were performed in the Device for Hydrogen-Air Reaction Mode Analysis (DHARMA laboratory of Istituto Motori—CNR. Based on a high-pressure, constant-volume bomb, the activity is aimed at populating a systematic database on the burning properties of CH4, H2 and other species of interest, in conditions typical of internal combustion (i.c. engines and gas turbines. High-speed shadowgraph is used to record the flame growth, allowing to infer the laminar burning parameters and the flame stability properties. Mixtures of CH4, H2 and air have been analyzed at initial temperature 293÷305 K, initial pressure 3÷18 bar and equivalence ratio = 1.0. The amount of H2 in the mixture was 0%, 20% and 30% (vol.. The effect of the initial pressure and of the Hydrogen content on the laminar burning velocity and the Markstein length has been evaluated: the relative weight and mutual interaction has been assessed of the two controlling parameters. Analysis has been carried out of the flame instability, expressed in terms of the critical radius for the onset of cellularity, as a function of the operating conditions.
Adiabatic and diabatic aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lugauer, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Furger, M.; Jost, D.T.; Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
Synoptic scale vertical motion, here detected by the geopotential height of the 500 hPa surface, mainly accounts for the aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch in winter. In summer, diabatic convection provides the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Nevertheless, synoptic scale adiabatic motion still determines whether diabatic convection can develop. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.
Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle
Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.
2015-03-01
The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.
Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.
Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji
2015-01-28
A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.
Two ways to model voltage-current curves of adiabatic MgB2 wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenvall, A; Korpela, A; Lehtonen, J; Mikkonen, R
2007-01-01
Usually overheating of the sample destroys attempts to measure voltage-current curves of conduction cooled high critical current MgB 2 wires at low temperatures. Typically, when a quench occurs a wire burns out due to massive heat generation and negligible cooling. It has also been suggested that high n values measured with MgB 2 wires and coils are not an intrinsic property of the material but arise due to heating during the voltage-current measurement. In addition, quite recently low n values for MgB 2 wires have been reported. In order to find out the real properties of MgB 2 an efficient computational model is required to simulate the voltage-current measurement. In this paper we go back to basics and consider two models to couple electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In the first model the magnetization losses are computed according to the critical state model and the flux creep losses are considered separately. In the second model the superconductor resistivity is described by the widely used power law. Then the coupled current diffusion and heat conduction equations are solved with the finite element method. In order to compare the models, example runs are carried out with an adiabatic slab. Both models produce a similar significant temperature rise near the critical current which leads to fictitiously high n values
Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2001-01-01
We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations...
Monte Carlo Simulation of Adiabatic Cooling and Nuclear Magnetism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Viertiö, H. E.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
in experimental studies of nuclear magnetism using adiabatic demagnetization methods. It is found that, although fluctuations reduce the transition temperatures by 40%, the isentropes are reduced by less than 10% relative to those calculated by mean-field theory. The dynamics of the ordering process following...
Novelli, Anna; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nitzan, Abraham
2015-01-01
The time evolution and the asymptotic outcome of a Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZ) process under continuous weak non-selective measurement is analyzed. We compare two measurement protocols in which the populations of either the adiabatic or the non-adiabatic levels are (continuously and weakly) monitored. The weak measurement formalism, described using a Gaussian Kraus operator, leads to a time evolution characterized by a Markovian dephasing process, which, in the non-adiabatic measurement protocol is similar to earlier studies of LZ dynamics in a dephasing environment. Casting the problem in the language of measurement theory makes it possible for us to compare diabatic and adiabatic measurement scenarios, to consider engineered dephasing as a control device and to examine the manifestation of the Zeno effect under the different measurement protocols. In particular, under measurement of the non-adiabatic populations, the Zeno effect is manifested not as a freezing of the measured system in its initial state, but rather as an approach to equal asymptotic populations of the two diabatic states. This behavior can be traced to the way by which the weak measurement formalism behaves in the strong measurement limit, with a built-in relationship between measurement time and strength.
An adiabatic matching device for the Orsay linear positron accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chehab, R.; Le Meur, G.; Mouton, B.; Renard, M.
1983-03-01
An adiabatically tapered solenoidal magnetic field is used to match positron beam source emittance to accelerating section acceptance. Such a matching system improves the accepted energy band which has been accurately computed and compared with analytical determination. The tapered field is provided by stacked pancakes and solenoids of various radii; total lens length is about 0.75m. The adiabatic matching system took place of a quarter wave transformer system and has been in operation for two years. Positron conversion ratio is 3.3% for a 1 GeV incident beam and presents a factor of nearly two of improvement for the positron yield. Energy bandwidth of positron beam has also been increased by a factor of nearly 2.5; the output positron beam energy is of 1.2 GeV
In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.
2004-01-01
In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs
Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging
Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M
2016-01-01
Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254
Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine
Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.
1988-01-01
This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.
Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study.
Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C
2016-08-01
While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raloff, J.
1993-01-01
The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy
30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...
Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Fahr
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.
Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Fahr
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.
Optimization using quantum mechanics: quantum annealing through adiabatic evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santoro, Giuseppe E; Tosatti, Erio
2006-01-01
We review here some recent work in the field of quantum annealing, alias adiabatic quantum computation. The idea of quantum annealing is to perform optimization by a quantum adiabatic evolution which tracks the ground state of a suitable time-dependent Hamiltonian, where 'ℎ' is slowly switched off. We illustrate several applications of quantum annealing strategies, starting from textbook toy-models-double-well potentials and other one-dimensional examples, with and without disorder. These examples display in a clear way the crucial differences between classical and quantum annealing. We then discuss applications of quantum annealing to challenging hard optimization problems, such as the random Ising model, the travelling salesman problem and Boolean satisfiability problems. The techniques used to implement quantum annealing are either deterministic Schroedinger's evolutions, for the toy models, or path-integral Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo approaches, for the hard optimization problems. The crucial role played by disorder and the associated non-trivial Landau-Zener tunnelling phenomena is discussed and emphasized. (topical review)
Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark
2008-01-01
We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.
Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.
2018-02-01
Vibrational-electronic resonance in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes invalidates Förster's adiabatic framework for interpreting spectra and energy transfer, thus complicating determination of how the surrounding protein affects pigment properties. This paper considers the combined effects of vibrational-electronic resonance and inhomogeneous variations in the electronic excitation energies of pigments at different sites on absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and hole-burning spectra for a non-degenerate homodimer. The non-degenerate homodimer has identical pigments in different sites that generate differences in electronic energies, with parameters loosely based on bacteriochlorophyll a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein. To explain the intensity borrowing, the excited state vibrational-electronic eigenvectors are discussed in terms of the vibrational basis localized on the individual pigments, as well as the correlated/anti-correlated vibrational basis delocalized over both pigments. Compared to those in the isolated pigment, vibrational satellites for the correlated vibration have the same frequency and precisely a factor of 2 intensity reduction through vibrational delocalization in both absorption and emission. Vibrational satellites for anti-correlated vibrations have their relaxed emission intensity reduced by over a factor 2 through vibrational and excitonic delocalization. In absorption, anti-correlated vibrational satellites borrow excitonic intensity but can be broadened away by the combination of vibronic resonance and site inhomogeneity; in parallel, their vibronically resonant excitonic partners are also broadened away. These considerations are consistent with photosynthetic antenna hole-burning spectra, where sharp vibrational and excitonic satellites are absent. Vibrational-excitonic resonance barely alters the inhomogeneously broadened linear absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra from those for a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Keqiao; Cai, Dehua; Liu, Yue; Jiang, Jingkai; Sun, Wei; He, Guogeng
2017-01-01
Graphical abstract: A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/refrigeration oil has been thermodynamically analyzed. Influences of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance and other system operation parameters have been investigated. The simulation results will be of great help to the miniaturization and practical application of the air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. • Influences of the ejector and the air-cooled non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance are investigated. • Variations of system performance and other system operation parameters are investigated. • R290/refrigeration oil mixture used as working pairs is analyzed. - Abstract: This paper thermodynamically analyzes a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle with R290/oil mixture driven by exhaust heat. An ejector located at the upstream of the non-adiabatic absorber is employed to improve the cycle performance. Variations of COP, circulation ratio and component heat load of the system as a function of generating temperature, pressure ratio, absorption temperature, condensing temperature and evaporating temperature have been investigated in this work. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional absorption refrigeration cycle, this non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle has higher absorption efficiency, better performance, wider working condition range and lower total heat load and its COP can reach as high as 0.5297. The implementation of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber helps to realize the miniaturization and wider application of the absorption refrigeration system. In addition, R290/oil mixture is a kind of highly potential working pairs for absorption refrigeration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peña-Monferrer, C.; Passalacqua, A.; Chiva, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM"® software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM"® and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.
Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires
Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.
2012-01-01
In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity
Towards 1H-MRSI of the human brain at 7T with slice-selective adiabatic refocusing pulses.
Scheenen, T.W.J.; Heerschap, A.; Klomp, D.W.J.
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To explore the possibilities of proton spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) of the human brain at 7 Tesla with adiabatic refocusing pulses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A combination of conventional slice selective excitation and two pairs of slice selective adiabatic refocusing pulses (semi-LASER)
An experimental study of two-phase natural circulation in an adiabatic flow loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, M.J.; Lambert, G.A.; Ishii, Mamoru.
1988-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-phase flow aspect of the phenomena of interruption and resumption of natural circulation, two-phase flow patterns and pattern transitions in the hot legs of B and W light water reactor systems. The test facility was a scaled adiabatic loop designed in accordance with the scaling criteria developed by Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii. The diameter and the height of the hot leg were 10 cm and 5.5 m, respectively; the working fluid pair was nitrogen-water. The effects of the thermal center in the steam generators, friction loss in the cold leg, and configuration of the inlet to the hot leg on the flow conditions in the hot leg were investigated by varying the water level in a gas separator, controlling the size of opening of a friction loss control valve, and using two inlet geometries. Methods for estimating the distribution parameter and the average drift velocity are proposed so that they may be used in the application of one-dimensional drift-flux model to the analysis of the interruption and resumption of natural circulation in a similar geometry. 7 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novelli, Anna; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nitzan, Abraham
2015-01-01
The time evolution and the asymptotic outcome of a Landau–Zener–Stueckelberg–Majorana (LZ) process under continuous weak non-selective measurement is analyzed. We compare two measurement protocols in which the populations of either the adiabatic or the non-adiabatic levels are (continuously and weakly) monitored. The weak measurement formalism, described using a Gaussian Kraus operator, leads to a time evolution characterized by a Markovian dephasing process, which, in the non-adiabatic measurement protocol is similar to earlier studies of LZ dynamics in a dephasing environment. Casting the problem in the language of measurement theory makes it possible for us to compare diabatic and adiabatic measurement scenarios, to consider engineered dephasing as a control device and to examine the manifestation of the Zeno effect under the different measurement protocols. In particular, under measurement of the non-adiabatic populations, the Zeno effect is manifested not as a freezing of the measured system in its initial state, but rather as an approach to equal asymptotic populations of the two diabatic states. This behavior can be traced to the way by which the weak measurement formalism behaves in the strong measurement limit, with a built-in relationship between measurement time and strength. (paper)
Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles
Khalifa, H. E.
1983-01-01
An evaluation of Bryton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks is presented. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. If installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or 170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified. Related studies in the area of waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines and NASA-CR-168255 (Steam Rankine) and CR-168256 (Organic Rankine).
Rotational excitation of H2O by para-H2 from an adiabatically reduced dimensional potential.
Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Lauvergnat, David
2012-03-07
Cross sections and rate coefficients for low lying rotational transitions in H(2)O colliding with para-hydrogen pH(2) are computed using an adiabatic approximation which reduces the dimensional dynamics from a 5D to a 3D problem. Calculations have been performed at the close-coupling level using the recent potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)]. A good agreement is found between the reduced adiabatic calculations and the 5D exact calculations, with an impressive time saving and memory gain. This adiabatic reduction of dimensionality seems very promising for scattering studies involving the excitation of a heavy target molecule by a light molecular projectile. © 2012 American Institute of Physics
Adiabatic nanofocusing: Spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world
Giugni, Andrea
2014-11-01
Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.
Adiabatic nanofocusing: Spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world
Giugni, Andrea; Allione, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Das, Gobind; Francardi, Marco; Moretti, Manola; Malerba, Mario; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.
2014-01-01
Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.
Entropy Spectrum of Black Holes of Heterotic String Theory via Adiabatic Invariance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alexis Larra？ aga; Luis Cabarique; Manuel Londo？ o
2012-01-01
Using adiabatic invariance and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule we investigate the entropy spectroscopy of two black holes of heterotic string theory,the charged GMGHS and the rotating Sen solutions.It is shown that the entropy spectrum is equally spaced in both cases,identically to the spectrum obtained before for Schwarzschild,Reissner-Nordstr?m and Kerr black holes.Since the adiabatic invariance method does not use quasinormal mode analysis,there is no need to impose the small charge or small angular momentum limits and there is no confusion on whether the real part or the imaginary part of the modes is responsible for the entropy spectrum.
Building an adiabatic quantum computer simulation in the classroom
Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Santalla, Silvia N.
2018-05-01
We present a didactic introduction to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) via the explicit construction of a classical simulator of quantum computers. This constitutes a suitable route to introduce several important concepts for advanced undergraduates in physics: quantum many-body systems, quantum phase transitions, disordered systems, spin-glasses, and computational complexity theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus
2014-01-01
Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....
Adiabatic shear behaviors in rolled and annealed pure titanium subjected to dynamic impact loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuang, Lianjun; Chen, Zhiyong, E-mail: czysh@netease.com; Jiang, Yanghui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Renke; Liu, Chuming
2017-02-08
The hat-shaped samples cut from rolled and annealed titanium plates were prepared to explore the adiabatic shear behaviors subjected to high-strain-rate deformation operated via Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The dynamic shear response calculation reveals that dynamic deformation processes of both state samples can be divided in similar three stages but rolled sample shows a higher susceptibility of adiabatic shear localization compared with the annealed one. Optical microscopy and electronic backscatter diffraction technique (EBSD) were used to systematically analyze the microstructure and texture characteristics. The results show that adiabatic shear bands form in both state samples and rotational dynamic recrystallization (RDRX) occurs within shear area and results in the formation of ultrafine equiaxed grains. Furthermore, ultrafine equiaxed grains within adiabatic shear bands have the same texture feature that <11–20> direction and {10-10} plane parallel to macro local shear direction and shear plane respectively. In the deformation region around the shear band, {10–12} <–1011> tensile and {11–22} <11-2-3> compressive two types twins are observed in both state samples and {10–12} <–1011> tensile twins are more frequently observed in rolled sample. In the rolled sample, {10–12} <–1011> tensile twins are more likely to happen in the hat-brim side than the hat-body side due to the difference of stress state in two sides.
Precise seismic-wave velocity atop Earth's core: No evidence for outer-core stratification
Alexandrakis, Catherine; Eaton, David W.
2010-05-01
Earth's outer core is composed of liquid Fe and Ni alloyed with a ˜10% fraction of light elements such as O, S, or Si. Secular cooling and compositional buoyancy drive vigorous convection that sustains the geodynamo, but critical details of light-element composition and thermal regime remain uncertain. Seismic velocities can provide important observational constraints on these parameters, but global reference models such as Preliminary Reference Earth Model ( PREM), IASP91 and AK135 exhibit significant discrepancies in the outermost ˜200 km of the core. Here, we apply an Empirical Transfer Function method to obtain precise arrival times for SmKS waves, a whispering-gallery mode that propagates near the underside of the core-mantle boundary. Models that fit our data are all characterized by seismic velocities and depth gradients in the outermost 200 km of the core that correspond best with PREM. This similarity to PREM, which has a smooth velocity profile that satisfies the adiabatic Adams and Williamson equation, argues against the presence of an anomalous layer of light material near the top of the core as suggested in some previous studies. A new model, AE09, is proposed as a slight modification to PREM for use as a reference model of the outermost core.
Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto
2001-01-01
Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)
Bacterial infections in burn patients at a burn hospital in Iran.
Ekrami, Alireza; Kalantar, Enayat
2007-12-01
The major challenge for a burn team is nosocomial infection in burn patients, which is known to cause over 50% of burn deaths. Most studies on infection in burn patients focus on burn wound infection, whereas other nosocomial infections in these patients are not well described. We undertook this study to determine three types of nosocomial infections viz., burn wound infection, urinary tract infection, and blood stream infection in burn patients in a burn hospital in Iran. During the one year period (May 2003 to April 2004), 182 patients were included in this study. Blood, urine and wound biopsy samples were taken 7 and 14 days after admission to Taleghani Burn hospital. Isolation and identification of microorganisms was done using the standard procedure. Disk diffusion test were performed for all the isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 182 patients, 140 (76.9%) acquired at least one type of infection of the 140, 116 patients (82.8%) were culture positive on day 7 while 24 (17.2%) on 14 days after admission. Primary wound infection was most common (72.5%), followed by blood stream (18.6%) and urinary tract infections (8.9 %). The microorganisms causing infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%), and Acinetobacter baumanni (10.4%). Among these isolates P. aeruginosa was found to be 100 per cent resistant to amikacin, gentamicin , carbenicillin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and ceftazidime; 58 per cent of S. aureus and 60 per cent of coagulase negative Staphylococcus were methicillin resistant. High prevalence of nosocomial infections and the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria, and methicillin resistant S. aureus in patients at Taleghani Burn Hospital suggest continuous surveillance of burn infections and develop strategies for antimicrobial resistance control and treatment of infectious complications.
Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila
2017-12-01
There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Solonin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a research of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel filled with water. A purpose of the work is to obtain experimental data for further analysis of a character of the moving phases. Research activities used the optic methods PIV (Particle Image Visualization because of their noninvasiveness to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow. A laser sheet illuminated the fluorescence particles, which were admixed in water along the channel length. A digital camera recorded their motion for a certain time interval that allowed building the velocity vector fields. As a result, gas phase velocity components typical for a steady area of the channel and their relations for various intensity of volume air rate were obtained. A character of motion both for an air bubble and for its surrounding liquid has been conducted. The most probable direction of phases moving in the channel under sparging regime is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The use of image processing enabled an analysis of the initial area of the air inlet into liquid. A characteristic curve of the bubbles offset from the axis for various intensity of volume gas rate and channel diameter is defined. A character of moving phases is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The values of vertical components of liquid velocity in the inlet part of channel are calculated. Using the obtained data of the gas phase velocities a true void fraction was calculated. It was compared with the values of void fraction, calculated according to the liquid level change in the channel. Obtained velocities were compared with those of the other researchers, and a small difference in their values was explained by experimental conditions. The article is one of the works to research the two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data allow us to understand a character of moving the two-phase flows in
Analysis of NIF experiments with the minimal energy implosion model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, B., E-mail: bcheng@lanl.gov; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cerjan, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2015-08-15
We apply a recently developed analytical model of implosion and thermonuclear burn to fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility that used low-foot and high-foot laser pulse formats. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental data. Our studies, together with neutron image analysis, reveal that the adiabats of the cold fuel in both low-foot and high-foot experiments are similar. That is, the cold deuterium-tritium shells in those experiments are all in a high adiabat state at the time of peak implosion velocity. The major difference between low-foot and high-foot capsule experiments is the growth of the shock-induced instabilities developed at the material interfaces which lead to fuel mixing with ablator material. Furthermore, we have compared the NIF capsules performance with the ignition criteria and analyzed the alpha particle heating in the NIF experiments. Our analysis shows that alpha heating was appreciable only in the high-foot experiments.
Analysis of NIF experiments with the minimal energy implosion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H.; Cerjan, C. J.
2015-01-01
We apply a recently developed analytical model of implosion and thermonuclear burn to fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility that used low-foot and high-foot laser pulse formats. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental data. Our studies, together with neutron image analysis, reveal that the adiabats of the cold fuel in both low-foot and high-foot experiments are similar. That is, the cold deuterium-tritium shells in those experiments are all in a high adiabat state at the time of peak implosion velocity. The major difference between low-foot and high-foot capsule experiments is the growth of the shock-induced instabilities developed at the material interfaces which lead to fuel mixing with ablator material. Furthermore, we have compared the NIF capsules performance with the ignition criteria and analyzed the alpha particle heating in the NIF experiments. Our analysis shows that alpha heating was appreciable only in the high-foot experiments
Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling
Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.
2003-01-01
We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.
... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...
Modelling of an adiabatic trickle-bed reactor with phase change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez Castelan, Carlos Eduardo; Hidalgo-Vivas, Angelica; Brix, Jacob
2017-01-01
This paper describes a modelling approach of the behavior of trickle-bed reactors used for catalytic hydrotreating of oil fractions. A dynamic plug-flow heterogeneous one-dimensional adiabatic model was used to describe the main reactions present in the hydrotreating process: hydrodesulfurization...
Spectral Doppler findings in a rare case of acute compartment syndrome following leg burn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omer A. Mahmoud
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome (ACS is an orthopedic emergency condition, which is rarely attributed to burns. It occurs when pressure in an enclosed space rises to a point where it reduces blood flow and impairs tissue perfusion. Its consequences often lead to ischemia and possible necrosis within that space. Until now, the use of Doppler assessment to explore different types of compartment syndrome has yielded contradictory findings. Here, we present a significant increase of blood flow velocity in the arteries proximal to the burned area. Thus, the combination of Duplex ultrasound results with clinical findings will help vascular surgeons to make immediate decision to perform fasciotomy. Keywords: Compartment syndrome, Spectral Doppler
Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity
Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.
1995-01-01
Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel
The CREST reactive-burn model for explosives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maheswaran M-A.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available CREST is an innovative reactive-burn model that has been developed at AWE for simulating shock initiation and detonation propagation behaviour in explosives. The model has a different basis from other reactive-burn models in that its reaction rate is independent of local flow variables behind the shock wave e.g. pressure and temperature. The foundation for CREST, based on a detailed analysis of data from particle-velocity gauge experiments, is that the reaction rate depends only on the local shock strength and the time since the shock passed. Since a measure of shock strength is the entropy of the non-reacted explosive, which remains constant behind a shock, CREST uses an entropy-dependent reaction rate. This paper will provide an overview of the CREST model and its predictive capability. In particular, it will be shown that the model can predict a wide range of experimental phenomena for both shock initiation (e.g. the effects of porosity and initial temperature on sustained-shock and thin-flyer initiation and detonation propagation (e.g. the diameter effect curve and detonation failure cones using a single set of coefficients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coïsson, M. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Barrera, G. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); University of Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, F.; Martino, L.; Vinai, F. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martino, P. [Politronica srl, via Livorno 60, 10144 Torino (Italy); Ferraro, G. [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT, corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Tiberto, P. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)
2016-10-01
An experimental setup for magnetic hyperthermia operating in non-adiabatic conditions is described. A thermodynamic model that takes into account the heat exchanged by the sample with the surrounding environment is developed. A suitable calibration procedure is proposed that allows the experimental validation of the model. Specific absorption rate can then be accurately determined just from the measurement of the sample temperature at the equilibrium steady state. The setup and the measurement procedure represent a simplification with respect to other systems requiring calorimeters or crucial corrections for heat flow. Two families of magnetic nanoparticles, one superparamagnetic and one characterised by larger sizes and static hysteresis, have been characterised as a function of field intensity, and specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power have been obtained. - Highlights: • Development and thermodynamic modelling of a hyperthermia setup operating in non-adiabatic conditions. • Calibration of the experimental setup and validation of the model. • Accurate measurement of specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power in non-adiabatic conditions.
Modification of optical properties by adiabatic shifting of resonances in a four-level atom
Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Panchadhyayee, Pradipta
2018-04-01
We describe the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a four-level atomic system, after reducing it to an effective two-level atomic model under the condition of adiabatic shifting of resonances driven by two coherent off-resonant fields. The reduced form of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the two-level system is obtained by employing an adiabatic elimination procedure in the rate equations of the probability amplitudes for the proposed four-level model. For a weak probe field operating in the system, the nonlinear dependence of complex susceptibility on the Rabi frequencies and the detuning parameters of the off-resonant driving fields makes it possible to exhibit coherent control of single-photon and two-photon absorption and transparency, the evolution of enhanced Self-Kerr nonlinearity and noticeable dispersive switching. We have shown how the quantum interference results in the generic four-level model at the adiabatic limit. The present scheme describes the appearance of single-photon transparency without invoking any exact two-photon resonance.
Väliviita, Jussi; Muhonen, Vesa
2003-09-26
In general correlated models, in addition to the usual adiabatic component with a spectral index n(ad1) there is another adiabatic component with a spectral index n(ad2) generated by entropy perturbation during inflation. We extend the analysis of a correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) group, who set the two adiabatic spectral indices equal. Allowing n(ad1) and n(ad2) to vary independently we find that the WMAP data favor models where the two adiabatic components have opposite spectral tilts. Using the WMAP data only, the 2sigma upper bound for the isocurvature fraction f(iso) of the initial power spectrum at k(0)=0.05 Mpc(-1) increases somewhat, e.g., from 0.76 of n(ad2)=n(ad1) models to 0.84 with a prior n(iso)<1.84 for the isocurvature spectral index.
Neutron generator based on adiabatic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovin, I.N.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Panov, D.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Shatalov, G.E.; Shcherbakov, A.G.
1988-01-01
A possibility of 14 MeV neutron generator (NG) production on the basis of axial-symmetric adiabatic trap with MHD cusped armature for the testing of materials and elements of the DT reactor first wall and blanket structure is discussed. General requirements to NG are formulated. It is shown that the NG variant discussed meets the requirements formulated. Approximate calculation of the NG parameters has shown that total energy consumption by the generator does not exceed 220 MW at neutron flux specific capacity of 2.5 MW/m 2 and radiation test area of 5-6 m 2
Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.
2006-01-01
In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Kishor
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, bubble dynamics and frictional pressure drop associated with gas liquid two-phase slug flow regime in adiabatic T-junction square microchannel has been investigated using CFD. A comprehensive study on the mechanism of bubble formation via squeezing and shearing regime is performed. The randomness and recirculation profiles observed in the squeezing regime are significantly higher as compared to the shearing regime during formation of the slug. Further, effects of increasing gas velocity on bubble length are obtained at fixed liquid velocities and simulated data displayed good agreement with available correlations in literature. The frictional pressure drop for slug flow regime from simulations are also obtained and evaluated against existing separated flow models. A regression correlation has also been developed by modifying C-parameter using separated flow model, which improves the prediction of two-phase frictional pressure drop data within slug flow region, with mean absolute error of 10 %. The influences of fluid properties such as liquid viscosity and surface tension on the two-phase frictional pressure drop are also investigated and compared with developed correlation. The higher liquid viscosity and lower surface tension value resulted in bubble formation via shearing regime.
Full Core Burn-up Calculation at JRR-3 with MVP-BURN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komeda, Masao; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi
2008-01-01
Research reactors use a burnable poison to suppress an excess reactivity in the beginning of reactor lifetime. The JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) has used cadmium wires of radius 0.02 cm as a burnable poison. This report describes burn-up calculations of plate fuel models and full core models with MVP-BURN, which is a burn-up calculation code using Monte Carlo method and has been developed in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As the results of calculations of plate models, between a model composed of one burn-up region along the radius direction and a model composed of a few burn-up regions along the radius direction, the effective absorption cross section of 113 Cd has had different tendency on reaching approximate 40. day (10000 MWd/t). And as results of calculations of full core model, it has been indicated that k eff is almost same till approximate 80. day (22000 MWd/t) between a model composed of one burn-up region along the vertical direction and a model composed of a few burn-up regions along the vertical direction. However difference of 113 Cd burn-up becomes pronounced and each k eff makes a difference after 80. day. (authors)
Educational Materials - Burn Wise
Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.
Non-adiabatic rotational excitation of dipolar molecule under the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 1213–1221. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... The rotational wave packets of LiCl molecule excited non-adiabatically by half cycle pulse. (HCP) is .... pared to the intensities required for the ionization of ..... out and with delayed ultrashort HCP at different initial pulse dura-.
Adiabatic quantum games and phase-transition-like behavior between optimal strategies
de Ponte, M. A.; Santos, Alan C.
2018-06-01
In this paper we propose a game of a single qubit whose strategies can be implemented adiabatically. In addition, we show how to implement the strategies of a quantum game through controlled adiabatic evolutions, where we analyze the payment of a quantum player for various situations of interest: (1) when the players receive distinct payments, (2) when the initial state is an arbitrary superposition, and (3) when the device that implements the strategy is inefficient. Through a graphical analysis, it is possible to notice that the curves that represent the gains of the players present a behavior similar to the curves that give rise to a phase transition in thermodynamics. These transitions are associated with optimal strategy changes and occur in the absence of entanglement and interaction between the players.
Keefe, Peter
2004-01-01
Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of tradi...
Numerical simulation and experimental validation of coiled adiabatic capillary tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)
2007-04-15
The objective of this study is to extend and validate the model developed and presented in previous works [O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part I: mathematical formulation and numerical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2) (2002) 173-182; O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part II: experimental validation and parametric studies, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (4) (2002) 379-391] to coiled adiabatic capillary tube expansion devices working with pure and mixed refrigerants. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step by step method. A special treatment has been implemented in order to consider transitions (subcooled liquid region, metastable liquid region, metastable two-phase region and equilibrium two-phase region). All the flow variables (enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, vapor qualities, velocities, heat fluxes, etc.) together with the thermophysical properties are evaluated at each point of the grid in which the domain is discretized. The numerical model allows analysis of aspects such as geometry, type of fluid (pure substances and mixtures), critical or non-critical flow conditions, metastable regions, and transient aspects. Comparison of the numerical simulation with a wide range of experimental data presented in the technical literature will be shown in the present article in order to validate the model developed. (author)
Evidence for the adiabatic invariance of the black hole horizon area
Mayo, Avraham E.
1998-01-01
Some examples in support of the conjecture that the horizon area of a near equilibrium black hole is an adiabatic invariant are described. These clarify somewhat the conditions under which the conjecture would be true.
PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator
Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.
2017-01-01
We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Parichay K.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► This method for estimating ΔT ad (t) against time in a semi-batch reactor is distinctively pioneer and novel. ► It has established uniquely a direct correspondence between the evolution of ΔT ad (t) in RC and C A (t) in a semi-batch reactor. ► Through a unique reaction scheme, the independent effects of heat of mixing and reaction on ΔT ad (t) has been demonstrated quantitatively. ► This work will help to build a thermally safe corridor of a thermally hazard reaction. ► This manuscript, the author believes will open a new vista for further research in Adiabatic Calorimetry. - Abstract: A novel method for estimating the transient profile of adiabatic rise in temperature has been developed from the heat flow data for exothermic chemical reactions that are conducted in reaction calorimeter (RC). It has also been mathematically demonstrated by the present design that there exists a direct qualitative equivalence between the temporal evolution of the adiabatic temperature rise and the concentration of the limiting reactant for an exothermic chemical reaction, carried out in semi batch mode. The proposed procedure shows that the adiabatic temperature rise will always be less than that of the reaction executed at batch mode thereby affording a thermally safe corridor. Moreover, a unique reaction scheme has been designed to establish the independent heat effect of dissolution and reaction quantitatively. It is hoped that the testimony of the transient adiabatic temperature rise that can be prepared by the proposed method, may provide ample scope for further research.
Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer K. Costanza
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary
Dokter, Jan
2016-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from
The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield
Tang, Zheng
2016-05-11
We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin
1999-01-01
A novel NMR experiment comprising adiabatic fast passage techniques for the measurement of heteronuclear self-relaxation rates in fully 15N-enriched proteins is described. Heteronuclear self-relaxation is monitored by performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) experiments at variable adiabaticity (e.g., variation of RF spin-lock field intensity). The experiment encompasses gradient- selection and sensitivity-enhancement. It is shown that transverse relaxation rates derived with this method are in good agreement with the ones measured by the classical Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. An application of this method to the study of the carboxyl-terminal LIM domain of quail cysteine and glycine-rich protein qCRP2(LIM2) is presented
Pulsational stabilities of a star in thermal imbalance: comparison between the methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vemury, S.K.
1978-01-01
The stability coefficients for quasi-adiabatic pulsations for a model in thermal imbalance are evaluated using the dynamical energy (DE) approach, the total (kinetic plus potential) energy (TE) approach, and the small amplitude (SA) approaches. From a comparison among the methods, it is found that there can exist two distinct stability coefficients under conditions of thermal imbalance as pointed out by Demaret. It is shown that both the TE approaches lead to one stability coefficient, while both the SA approaches lead to another coefficient. The coefficient obtained through the energy approaches is identified as the one which determines the stability of the velocity amplitudes.For a prenova model with a thin hydrogen-burning shell in thermal imbalance, several radial modes are found to be unstable both for radial displacements and for velocity amplitudes. However, a new kind of pulsational instability also appears, viz., while the radial displacements are unstable, the velocity amplitudes may be stabilized through the thermal imbalance terms
McLean, A D
2001-02-01
Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2017-12-01
A software package, called DFTBaby, is published, which provides the electronic structure needed for running non-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations at the level of tight-binding DFT. A long-range correction is incorporated to avoid spurious charge transfer states. Excited state energies, their analytic gradients and scalar non-adiabatic couplings are computed using tight-binding TD-DFT. These quantities are fed into a molecular dynamics code, which integrates Newton's equations of motion for the nuclei together with the electronic Schrödinger equation. Non-adiabatic effects are included by surface hopping. As an example, the program is applied to the optimization of excited states and non-adiabatic dynamics of polyfluorene. The python and Fortran source code is available at http://www.dftbaby.chemie.uni-wuerzburg.de.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peña-Monferrer, C., E-mail: cmonfer@upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Passalacqua, A., E-mail: albertop@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chiva, S., E-mail: schiva@emc.uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Muñoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain)
2016-05-15
Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM{sup ®} software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM{sup ®} and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.
Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients
2015-03-06
ceruloplasmin; ferroxidase; iron status; oxidant stress; burn; trauma 1. Introduction Iron is an essential element for life that facilitates...899–906. 45. Shakespeare , P.G. Studies on the serum levels of iron, copper and zinc and the urinary excretion of zinc after burn injury. Burns Incl
Multiple coupled landscapes and non-adiabatic dynamics with applications to self-activating genes.
Chen, Cong; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Haidong; Sasai, Masaki; Wang, Jin
2015-11-21
Many physical, chemical and biochemical systems (e.g. electronic dynamics and gene regulatory networks) are governed by continuous stochastic processes (e.g. electron dynamics on a particular electronic energy surface and protein (gene product) synthesis) coupled with discrete processes (e.g. hopping among different electronic energy surfaces and on and off switching of genes). One can also think of the underlying dynamics as the continuous motion on a particular landscape and discrete hoppings among different landscapes. The main difference of such systems from the intra-landscape dynamics alone is the emergence of the timescale involved in transitions among different landscapes in addition to the timescale involved in a particular landscape. The adiabatic limit when inter-landscape hoppings are fast compared to continuous intra-landscape dynamics has been studied both analytically and numerically, but the analytical treatment of the non-adiabatic regime where the inter-landscape hoppings are slow or comparable to continuous intra-landscape dynamics remains challenging. In this study, we show that there exists mathematical mapping of the dynamics on 2(N) discretely coupled N continuous dimensional landscapes onto one single landscape in 2N dimensional extended continuous space. On this 2N dimensional landscape, eddy current emerges as a sign of non-equilibrium non-adiabatic dynamics and plays an important role in system evolution. Many interesting physical effects such as the enhancement of fluctuations, irreversibility, dissipation and optimal kinetics emerge due to non-adiabaticity manifested by the eddy current illustrated for an N = 1 self-activator. We further generalize our theory to the N-gene network with multiple binding sites and multiple synthesis rates for discretely coupled non-equilibrium stochastic physical and biological systems.
Boehler, R.
1982-07-01
The adiabats of olivine, magnesium oxide, and quartz were measured up to 50kbar and 1000 K. An end-loaded piston-cylinder apparatus with an in situ pressure gauge and a very fine thermocouple was used to measure (∂T/∂P)s during adiabatic compression. A power law between (∂T/∂P)s and compression yields values of the power n = -∂ ln (∂T/∂P)s/∂ ln ρ that agree with previous results from salts, metals, and fluids. Assuming constant values for n, the adiabtic gradient for an olivine upper mantle and a magnesium oxide lower mantle was calculated. The results agree well with some previous theoretical estimates. The volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter γ was calculated from the thermodynamic equation ∂ ln γ/∂ ln ρ = ∂B/∂P - n, where B is the isothermal bulk modulus. γ is found to a good approximation to be proportional to volume. Table 6 is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document J82-002; $1.00. Payment must accompany order.
Zero-point energy, tunnelling, and vibrational adiabaticity in the Mu + H2 reaction
Mielke, Steven L.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Fleming, Donald G.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2015-01-01
Isotopic substitution of muonium for hydrogen provides an unparalleled opportunity to deepen our understanding of quantum mass effects on chemical reactions. A recent topical review in this journal of the thermal and vibrationally state-selected reaction of Mu with H2 raises a number of issues that are addressed here. We show that some earlier quantum mechanical calculations of the Mu + H2 reaction, which are highlighted in this review, and which have been used to benchmark approximate methods, are in error by as much as 19% in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate that an approximate treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction that was used in some recent studies is not valid for treating the vibrationally state-selected reaction. We also discuss why vibrationally adiabatic potentials that neglect bend zero-point energy are not a useful analytical tool for understanding reaction rates, and why vibrationally non-adiabatic transitions cannot be understood by considering tunnelling through vibrationally adiabatic potentials. Finally, we present calculations on a hierarchical family of potential energy surfaces to assess the sensitivity of rate constants to the quality of the potential surface.
Chaotic jumps in the generalized first adiabatic invariant in current sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brittnacher, M.J.; Whipple, E.C.
1991-01-01
In attempting to develop a fluidlike model of plasma dynamics in a current sheet, kinetic effects due to chaotic non-adiabatic particle motion must be included in any realistic description. Using drift variables, derived by the Kruskal averaging procedure, to construct distribution functions may provide an approach in which to develop the fluid description. However, the drift motion is influenced by abrupt changes in the value of the generalized first adiabatic invariant J. In this letter, the authors indicate how the changes in J derived from separatrix crossing theory can be incorporated into the drift variable approach to generating distribution functions. In particular, the authors propose a method to determine distribution functions for an ensemble of particles following interactions with the tail current sheet by treating the interaction as a scattering problem characterized by changes in the invariant
Progress in the indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landen, O L; Benedetti, R; Bleuel, D; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D; Collins, G W; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Doeppner, T; Eggert, J; Farley, D; Glenn, S M; Boehly, T R; Edgell, D; Glebov, V; Frenje, J A
2012-01-01
We have carried out precision optimization of inertial confinement fusion ignition scale implosions. We have achieved hohlraum temperatures in excess of the 300 eV ignition goal with hot-spot symmetry and shock timing near ignition specs. Using slower rise pulses to peak power and extended pulses resulted in lower hot-spot adiabat and higher main fuel areal density at about 80% of the ignition goal. Yields are within a factor of 5–6 of that required to initiate alpha dominated burn. It is likely we will require thicker shells (+15–20%) to reach ignition velocity without mixing of ablator material into the hot spot. (paper)
Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.
Adiabatic Low-Pass J Filters for Artifact Suppression in Heteronuclear NMR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard
2009-01-01
NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts....
A study on burning behavior and convective flows in Methanol pool fires bound by ice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farahani, Hamed Farmahini; Jomaas, Grunde; Rangwala, Ali S.
2017-01-01
conditions to analyze burning parameters of methanol, 2- in a square glass tray with outside dimensions of 10 × 10 cm and a depth of 5 cm to obtain flow field of methanol pool with a two-dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. The results of the experiments of the first part show the cold...... of the cavity. The analysis of the results obtained by the PIV system showed the velocity magnitudes and flow patterns in the liquid-phase of icy methanol fire significantly change over the course of burning. In the instants after ignition a horizontal flow induced by Marangoni near the surface was observed......An experimental study on methanol pool fires bound by ice was carried to research the burning behavior and flow field (within the liquid-phase) of methanol. The experiments were conducted in two parts: 1- in a cylindrical ice cavity/pan (10.2 cm diameter and 6 cm depth) at three different...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Baker, K. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Gharibyan, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others
2016-05-15
A series of indirectly driven capsule implosions has been performed on the National Ignition Facility to assess the relative contributions of ablation-front instability growth vs. fuel compression on implosion performance. Laser pulse shapes for both low and high-foot pulses were modified to vary ablation-front growth and fuel adiabat, separately and controllably. Three principal conclusions are drawn from this study: (1) It is shown that reducing ablation-front instability growth in low-foot implosions results in a substantial (3-10X) increase in neutron yield with no loss of fuel compression. (2) It is shown that reducing the fuel adiabat in high-foot implosions results in a significant (36%) increase in fuel compression together with a small (10%) increase in neutron yield. (3) Increased electron preheat at higher laser power in high-foot implosions, however, appears to offset the gain in compression achieved by adiabat-shaping at lower power. These results taken collectively bridge the space between the higher compression low-foot results and the higher yield high-foot results.
Reeves, Patrick T; Herndon, David N; Tanksley, Jessica D; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Clayton, Robert P; Crites, Nancy N; Hays, Joshua P; Andersen, Clark; Lee, Jong O; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C
2016-04-01
Administration of oxandrolone, a nonaromatizable testosterone analog, to children for 12 months following severe burn injury has been shown to improve height, increase bone mineral content (BMC), reduce cardiac work, and augment muscle strength. Surprisingly, the increase in BMC persists well beyond the period of oxandrolone administration. This study was undertaken to determine if administration of oxandrolone for 2 years yields greater effects on long-term BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). Patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ≥30% of total body surface area burned were consented to an IRB-approved protocol and randomized to receive either placebo (n = 84) or 0.1 mg/kg oxandrolone orally twice daily for 24 months (n = 35). Patients were followed prospectively from the time of admission until 5 years postburn in a single-center, intent-to-treat setting. Height, weight, BMC, and BMD were recorded annually through 5 years postinjury. The long-term administration of oxandrolone for 16 ± 1 months postburn (range, 12.1-25.2 months) significantly increased whole-body (WB) BMC (p patients who were in growth spurt years (7-18 years). When adjusted for height, sex, and age, LS BMD was found to significantly increase with long-term oxandrolone administration (p patients receiving oxandrolone exhibited LS BMD z scores below -2.0 as compared with controls, indicating a significantly reduced risk for future fracture with oxandrolone administration. Long-term oxandrolone patients had significantly greater height velocity than controls throughout the first 2-year postburn (p patients receiving long-term oxandrolone to previously described patients receiving 12 months of oxandrolone revealed that long-term oxandrolone administration imparted significantly greater increases in WB-BMC, WB-BMD, and LS-BMD (p burned pediatric patients significantly improves WB BMC, LS BMC, LS BMD, and height velocity. The administration of long-term oxandrolone was more efficacious than
Effects of radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on hemodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianming; Xiao Jiasi
1996-01-01
Changes in hemodynamics after radiation, burn and combined radiation burn injury within eight hours post injury were studied. The results indicate: (1) Shock of rats in the combined injury group is more severe than that in the burn group. One of the reasons is that the blood volume in the combined injury group is less than that in the burn group. Radiation injury plays an important role in this effect, which enhances the increase in vascular permeability and causes the loss of plasma. (2) Decrease in cardiac output and stroke work and increase in vascular resistance in the combined radiation burn group are more drastic than those in the burn group, which may cause and enhance shock. Replenishing fluid is useful for recovery of hemodynamics. (3) Rb uptake is increased in the radiation group which indicates that compensated increase of myocardial nutritional blood flow may take place before the changes of hemodynamics and shock. Changes of Rb uptake in the combined injury group is different from that in the radiation groups and in the burn group. The results also suggest that changes of ion channel activities may occur to a different extent after injury. (4) Verapamil is helpful to the recovery of hemodynamics post injury. It is better to combine verapamil with replenishing fluid
CLINICAL STUDY OF ELECTRICAL BURNS AMONG ALL BURNS CASES- 3 YEARS’ EXPERIENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nagabathula Durga Prasad
2017-08-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND With the advances in technology, electrical injuries are becoming more common and are the leading cause of work-related traumatic death. One third of all electrical traumas and most high-voltage injuries are job related and more than 50% of these injuries result from power line contact. The management of the major burn injury represents a significant challenge to every member of the burns team. Most of electrical burns present with gangrene of toes and limbs with eschar over body parts. Their presentation is mostly due to contact with high-voltage electricity at their work places. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was made to study the clinico-social profile of patients suffering electric burns admitted into Department of General Surgery. RESULTS 92 cases were evaluated and studied. Majority of patients developed gangrene of limbs and toes. Amputations and skin grafting was done. Most patients who suffered electric burns were males of age group 21 to 40 years. All cases are accidental and mostly occurred at work places. Most electric burns are high-voltage based and caused deep burns. Major complications like acute renal failure and septicaemia were encountered. Most of them suffered 16 to 30% burns. Most commonly isolated organism from wounds is pseudomonas. Most of them suffered a hospital stay of 1 to 2 months. CONCLUSION Electric burns are a burden to the society. Prevention is the best way to deal with them. Electricity-based employees have to be trained properly regarding safety measures to be taken. General education of public regarding safety measures can prevent electrical burn injuries.
Outcomes of burns in the elderly: revised estimates from the Birmingham Burn Centre.
Wearn, Christopher; Hardwicke, Joseph; Kitsios, Andreas; Siddons, Victoria; Nightingale, Peter; Moiemen, Naiem
2015-09-01
Outcomes after burn have continued to improve over the last 70 years in all age groups including the elderly. However, concerns have been raised that survival gains have not been to the same magnitude in elderly patients compared to younger age groups. The aims of this study were to analyze the recent outcomes of elderly burn injured patients admitted to the Birmingham Burn Centre, compare data with a historical cohort and published data from other burn centres worldwide. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients ≥65 years of age, admitted to our centre with cutaneous burns, between 2004 and 2012. Data was compared to a previously published historical cohort (1999-2003). 228 patients were included. The observed mortality for the study group was 14.9%. The median age of the study group was 79 years, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and median Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burned was 5%. The incidence of inhalation injury was 13%. Median length of stay per TBSA burned for survivors was 2.4 days/% TBSA. Mortality has improved in all burn size groups, but differences were highly statistically significant in the medium burn size group (10-20% TBSA, p≤0.001). Burn outcomes in the elderly have improved over the last decade. This reduction has been impacted by a reduction in overall injury severity but is also likely due to general improvements in burn care, improved infrastructure, implementation of clinical guidelines and increased multi-disciplinary support, including Geriatric physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Wound management and outcome of 595 electrical burns in a major burn center.
Li, Haisheng; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiaping; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing
2017-06-15
Electrical burns are important causes of trauma worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics, wound management, and outcome of electric burns. This retrospective study was performed at the Institute of Burn Research of the Third Military Medical University during 2013-2015. Data including the demographics, injury patterns, wound treatment, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. A total of 595 electrical burn patients (93.8% males) were included. The average age was 37.3 ± 14.6 y, and most patients (73.5%) were aged 19∼50 years. Most patients (67.2%) were injured in work-related circumstances. The mean total body surface area was 8.8 ± 11.8% and most wounds (63.5%) were full-thickness burns. Operation times of high-voltage burns and current burns were higher than those of low-voltage burns and arc burns, respectively. Of the 375 operated patients, 83.2% (n = 312) underwent skin autografting and 49.3% (n = 185) required skin flap coverage. Common types of skin flaps were adjacent (50.3%), random (42.2%), and pedicle (35.7%). Amputation was performed in 107 cases (18.0%) and concentrated on the hands (43.9%) and upper limbs (39.3%). The mean length of stay was 42.9 ± 46.3 d and only one death occurred (0.2%). Current burns and higher numbers of operations were major risk factors for amputation and length of stay, respectively. Electrical burns mainly affected adult males with occupational exposures in China. Skin autografts and various skin flaps were commonly used for electric burn wound management. More standardized and effective strategies of treatment and prevention are still needed to decrease amputation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Non - Adiabaticity and Novel Isotope Effect in the Doped Cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kresin, V.; WOLF, S. A.
1995-01-01
This paper reports a novel isotope effect which is due to a strong non-adiabaticity that manifests itself in the dependence of the carrier concentration on the isotopic mass. The critical temperature in turn depends on the carrier concentration giving rise to a unique and non-phononic isotope shift. (author)
Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Shangwu; Gu Zhiyu
2005-01-01
There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K A Kamala
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Masahiro; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Sato, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up of core fuel in commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is important to obtain the detail of flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. In this study, water experiments were carried out to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in a subchannel of nominal pin geometry as the first step. These basic data are not only useful for understanding of pin bundle thermal hydraulics but also a code validation. A wire-wrapped 3-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in the subchannel which is surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consists of an irregular hexagonal acrylic duct tube and three pins made of fluorinated resin pins which has nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. This enables to visualize the central subchannel through the pins. The velocity distribution in the central subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through a side wall of the duct tube. Typical flow velocity conditions in the pin bundle were 0.36m/s (Re=2,700) and 1.6m/s (Re=13,500). Influence of the wrapping wire on the velocity distributions in vertical and horizontal directions was confirmed. A clockwise swirl flow around the wire was found in subchannel. Significant differences were not recognized between the two cases of Re=2,700 and 13,500 concerning flow patterns. (author)
Assessment of burn-specific health-related quality of life and patient scar status following burn.
Oh, Hyunjin; Boo, Sunjoo
2017-11-01
This study assessed patient-perceived levels of scar assessment and burn-specific quality of life (QOL) in Korean burn patients admitted to burn care centers and identified differences in scar assessment and QOL based on various patient characteristics. A cross-sectional descriptive study using anonymous paper-based survey methods was conducted with 100 burn patients from three burn centers specializing in burn care in South Korea. Mean subject age was 44.5 years old, and 69% of the subjects were men. The overall mean QOL was 2.91 out of 5. QOL was lowest for the work subdomain (2.25±1.45) followed by the treatment regimen subdomain (2.32±1.16). The subjects' mean total scar assessment score was 35.51 out of 60, and subjects were most unsatisfied with scar color. Subjects with low income, flame-source burns, severe burns, visible scars, and scars on face or hand reported significantly lower QOL. Subjects with severe burn degree and burn range perceived their burn scar condition to be worse than that of others. The results show that burn subjects experience the most difficulties with their work and the treatment regimen. Subjects with severe burn and visible scarring have a reduced QOL and a poor scar status. Scar management intervention may improve QOL of burn patients especially those with severe burn and visible scars. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the relationship between scar assessment and QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Epidemiology, etiology and outcomes of burn patients in a Referral Burn Hospital, Tehran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Burns and its complications are regarded as a major problem in the society. Skin injuries resulted from ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals as well as respiratory damage from smoke inhalation are considered burns. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and outcome of burn patients admitted to Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred patients with second-degree burns admitted to Motahari Referral Center of Burn in Tehran, Iran. They were studied during a period of 12 months from May 2012 to May 2013. During the first week of treatment swabs were collected from the burn wounds after cleaning the site with sterile normal saline. Samples were inoculated in blood agar and McConkey agar, then incubation at 37 C for 48 hours. Identification was carried out according to standard conventional biochemical tests. Treatment continued up to epithelial formation and wound healing. Results of microbial culture for each patient was recorded. Healing time of the burn wounds in patients was recorded in log books. Chi-square test and SPSS Software v.19 (IBM, NY, USA were used for data analysis. Results: Our findings indicate that the most causes of burns are hot liquids in 57% of cases and flammable liquid in 21% of cases. The most cases of burns were found to be in the range of 21 to 30 percent with 17.5% and 7% in male and female respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were dominated in 85.7% and among them pseudomonas spp. with 37.5% were the most common cause of infected burns, followed by Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the most cause of burns in both sex is hot liquid. Men were more expose to burn than women and this might be due to the fact that men are involved in more dangerous jobs than female. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism encountered in burn infection.
Adiabatic/diabatic polarization beam splitter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeRose, Christopher; Cai, Hong
2017-09-12
The various presented herein relate to an on-chip polarization beam splitter (PBS), which is adiabatic for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and diabatic for the transverse electric (TE) mode. The PBS comprises a through waveguide and a cross waveguide, wherein an electromagnetic beam comprising TE mode and TM mode components is applied to an input port of the through waveguide. The PBS can be utilized to separate the TE mode component from the TM mode component, wherein the TE mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the through waveguide, and the TM mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the cross waveguide. The PBS has a structure that is tolerant to manufacturing variations and exhibits high polarization extinction ratios over a wide bandwidth.
Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jhu, Can-Yong [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Yih-Wen, E-mail: g9410825@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, 79-9, Sha-Luen-Hu, Xi-Zhou-Li, Houlong, Miaoli 35664, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shu, Chi-Min [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Rm. 222, Bldg. 77, 2F, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2011-08-15
Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO{sub 2}) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2 V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T{sub 0}), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T{sub max}) and pressure (P{sub max}). The T{sub max} and P{sub max} of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0 {sup o}C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO{sub 2} batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology.
Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jhu, Can-Yong; Wang, Yih-Wen; Shu, Chi-Min; Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun
2011-01-01
Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO 2 ) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO 2 cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2 V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T 0 ), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T max ) and pressure (P max ). The T max and P max of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0 o C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO 2 batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology.
The epidemology of burn injuries of children and the importance of modern burn centre
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janez Mohar
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Burns represent the major percentage of injuries to children. Their incidence level, injury mechanisms and treatment often differ from the burn injuries of adults.Methods: From the medical records of the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre we gathered, analyzed and compared the burn injuries of children up to the age of 15 who were admitted to hospital in the year 2003 to those who were treated as outpatients. Moreover, we compared the burn injuries of hospitalized children at the same department in the years 2003, 1993 and 1983 respectively. We compared their gender, age, the total body surface area of burns, the depth of burns, frequency of the mechanisms of injury, the affected parts of the body and the length and mode of treatment. Finally, we compared our results with the results of similar studies from other burn centres.Results: The number of children treated for burns at the department has declined. In all the years studied, the injured children were younger than 5 and the majority of them were boys. The number of children admitted with substantial total body surface areas of burns was also declining. However, there was an increase in the number of children admitted with burns less than 10 % of their total body surface area. The number of burns treated by surgery slightly increased over the years studied. There was a similar sex and age distribution among the hospitalized children and those treated as outpatients.Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with burns is in decline. In the years 1983, 1993 and 2003, there was no significant difference in the percentage of children who were treated surgically and those who were treated conservatively (P = 0.247. The Burn Centre at the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre which together with the Burn Department of the Maribor General Hospital covers the population of two million
Pediatric burns: Kids' Inpatient Database vs the National Burn Repository.
Soleimani, Tahereh; Evans, Tyler A; Sood, Rajiv; Hartman, Brett C; Hadad, Ivan; Tholpady, Sunil S
2016-04-01
Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Burn Repository (NBR) are two large national databases that can be used to evaluate outcomes and help quality improvement in burn care. Differences in the design of the KID and NBR could lead to differing results affecting resultant conclusions and quality improvement programs. This study was designed to validate the use of KID for burn epidemiologic studies, as an adjunct to the NBR. Using the KID (2003, 2006, and 2009), a total of 17,300 nonelective burn patients younger than 20 y old were identified. Data from 13,828 similar patients were collected from the NBR. Outcome variables were compared between the two databases. Comparisons revealed similar patient distribution by gender, race, and burn size. Inhalation injury was more common among the NBR patients and was associated with increased mortality. The rates of respiratory failure, wound infection, cellulitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were higher in the KID. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders demonstrated similar mortality rate but significantly longer length of stay for patients in the NBR. Despite differences in the design and sampling of the KID and NBR, the overall demographic and mortality results are similar. The differences in complication rate and length of stay should be explored by further studies to clarify underlying causes. Investigations into these differences should also better inform strategies to improve burn prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How do quantum numbers generally vary in the adiabatic transformation of an ideal gas?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarman, T.; Kholmetskii, A. L.
2011-01-01
We continue to analyse the known law of adiabatic transformation for an ideal gas PV 5/3 = Constant, where P is the pressure and V is the volume, and following the approach of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which we suggested in a previous work (Yarman et al. 2010 Int. J. Phys. Sci. 5 1524). We explicitly determine the constant for the general parallelepiped geometry of a container. We also disclose how the quantum numbers associated with molecules of an ideal gas vary through an arbitrary adiabatic transformation. Physical implications of the results obtained are discussed. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Adiabatic superconducting cells for ultra-low-power artificial neural networks
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Andrey E. Schegolev
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We propose the concept of using superconducting quantum interferometers for the implementation of neural network algorithms with extremely low power dissipation. These adiabatic elements are Josephson cells with sigmoid- and Gaussian-like activation functions. We optimize their parameters for application in three-layer perceptron and radial basis function networks.
Strassle, Paula D; Williams, Felicia N; Napravnik, Sonia; van Duin, David; Weber, David J; Charles, Anthony; Cairns, Bruce A; Jones, Samuel W
Classic determinants of burn mortality are age, burn size, and the presence of inhalation injury. Our objective was to describe temporal trends in patient and burn characteristics, inpatient mortality, and the relationship between these characteristics and inpatient mortality over time. All patients aged 18 years or older and admitted with burn injury, including inhalation injury only, between 2004 and 2013 were included. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relationship between admit year and inpatient mortality. A total of 5540 patients were admitted between 2004 and 2013. Significant differences in sex, race/ethnicity, burn mechanisms, TBSA, inhalation injury, and inpatient mortality were observed across calendar years. Patients admitted between 2011 and 2013 were more likely to be women, non-Hispanic Caucasian, with smaller burn size, and less likely to have an inhalation injury, in comparison with patients admitted from 2004 to 2010. After controlling for patient demographics, burn mechanisms, and differential lengths of stay, no calendar year trends in inpatient mortality were detected. However, a significant decrease in inpatient mortality was observed among patients with extensive burns (≥75% TBSA) in more recent calendar years. This large, tertiary care referral burn center has maintained low inpatient mortality rates among burn patients over the past 10 years. While observed decreases in mortality during this time are largely due to changes in patient and burn characteristics, survival among patients with extensive burns has improved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xygalatas, Dimitris
. Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....
Adiabatic Quasi-Spherical Compressions Driven by Magnetic Pressure for Inertial Confinement Fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nash, Thomas J.
2000-01-01
The magnetic implosion of a high-Z quasi-spherical shell filled with DT fuel by the 20-MA Z accelerator can heat the fuel to near-ignition temperature. The attainable implosion velocity on Z, 13-cm/micros, is fast enough that thermal losses from the fuel to the shell are small. The high-Z shell traps radiation losses from the fuel, and the fuel reaches a high enough density to reabsorb the trapped radiation. The implosion is then nearly adiabatic. In this case the temperature of the fuel increases as the square of the convergence. The initial temperature of the fuel is set by the heating of an ion acoustic wave to be about 200-eV after a convergence of 4. To reach the ignition temperature of 5-keV an additional convergence of 5 is required. The implosion dynamics of the quasi-spherical implosion is modeled with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. LASNEX shows an 8-mm diameter quasi-spherical tungsten shell on Z driving 6-atmospheres of DT fuel nearly to ignition at 3.5-keV with a convergence of 20. The convergence is limited by mass flow along the surface of the quasi-spherical shell. With a convergence of 20 the final spot size is 400-microm in diameter
Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carsin, H.; Stephanazzi, J.; Lambert, F.; Curet, P.M.; Gourmelon, P.
2002-01-01
Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)
Experimental and numerical studies of choked flow through adiabatic and diabatic capillary tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deodhar, Subodh D.; Kothadia, Hardik B.; Iyer, K.N.; Prabhu, S.V.
2015-01-01
Capillary tubes are extensively used in several cooling applications like refrigeration, electronic cooling etc. Local pressure variation in adiabatic straight capillary tube (mini channel) is studied experimentally and numerically with R134a as the working fluid. Experiments are performed on two straight capillary tubes. It is found that the diameter is the most sensitive design parameter of the capillary tube. Experiments are performed on five helically coiled capillary tubes to quantify the effect of pitch and curvature of helically coiled capillary tube on the pressure drop. Non dimensionalized factor to account coiling of capillary tube is derived to calculate mass flow rate in helically coiled capillary tubes. Flow visualization in adiabatic capillary tube confirms the bubbly nature of two phase flow. Numerical and experimental investigations in diabatic capillary tube suggest that the use of positive displacement pump and choking at the exit of the channel ensures flow stability. - Highlights: • Model is developed to design capillary tube in adiabatic and diabatic condition. • Effect of coil curvature on pressure drop is studied experimentally. • Correlation is developed to predict mass flow rate in helical capillary tubes. • Flow visualization is carried out to check the type of two phase flow. • Effect of choked flow on diabatic capillary tubes is studied experimentally.
Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Shaaban
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.
Deng, Jiawen; Wang, Qing-hai; Liu, Zhihao; Hanggi, Peter; Gong, Jiangbin
2013-01-01
Under a general framework, shortcuts to adiabatic processes are shown to be possible in classical systems. We then study the distribution function of the work done on a small system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium. It is found that the work fluctuations can be significantly reduced via shortcuts to adiabatic processes. For example, in the classical case probabilities of having very large or almost zero work values are suppressed. In the quantum case negative work may be totally remo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Ran [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Wuhan Textile Univ. (China). School of Environment and Urban Construction; Liu, Hao; Zhong, Xiaojiao; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Ziqin; Qiu, Jianrong [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Chen, Yingming [Wuhan Textile Univ. (China). School of Environment and Urban Construction
2013-07-01
Oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion is one of the several promising new technologies which can realize the integrated control of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and other pollutants. However, when fuels are burned in the high CO{sub 2} concentration environment, the combustion characteristics can be very different from conventional air-fired combustion. Such changes imply that the high CO{sub 2} concentration atmosphere has impacts on the combustion processes. In this paper, the ignition time, laminar flame speed and adiabatic temperature property of C{sub 5} {proportional_to} C{sub 7} n-alkane fuels were studied under both ordinary air atmosphere and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmospheres over a wide range of CO{sub 2} concentration in the combustion systems. A new unified detailed chemical kinetic model was validated and used to simulate the three liquid hydrocarbon fuel's flame characteristics. Based on the verified model, the influences of various parameters (atmosphere, excess oxygen ratio, O{sub 2} concentration, CO{sub 2} concentration, and alkane type) on the C{sub 5} {proportional_to} C{sub 7} n-alkane's flame characteristics were systematically investigated. It can be concluded that high CO{sub 2} concentration atmosphere has negative effect on n-pentane, n-hexane and n-heptane flame's ignition, laminar flame speed and adiabatic temperature. Besides, this work confirms that high CO{sub 2} concentration atmosphere's chemical effects play a pronounced role on the flame characteristics, especially for the ignition time property.
Adiabatic quantum pumping and charge quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashcheyevs, V; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlmanl, O.
2004-01-01
Full Text:Modern techniques for coherent manipulation of electrons at the nano scale (electrostatic gating, surface acoustic waves) allow for studies of the adiabatic quantum pumping effect - a directed current induced by a slowly varying external perturbation. Scattering theory of pumping predicts transfer of an almost integer number of electrons per cycle if instantaneous transmission is determined by a sequence of resonances. We show that this quantization can be explained in terms of loading/unloading quasi-bound virtual states, and derive a tool for analyzing quantized pumping induced by a general potential. This theory is applied to a simple model of pumping due to surface acoustic waves. The results reproduce all the qualitative features observed in actual experiments
[Combined burn trauma in the array of modern civilian and combat burns].
Ivchenko, E V; Borisov, D N; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Rusev, I T
2015-02-01
The current article positions the combined burn and non-burn injuries in the general array of civilian and combat burns. For that purpose the official state statistics and scientific medical publications, domestic as well as foreign, have been analyzed. It has been shown that in peace time the combined burn/trauma injuries are infrequent. But the same type of injury becomes routine especially among the civilian population in the conditions of the modern so called "hybrid war". And the medical service should be prepared for it.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand Bala
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.
Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C., E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA 40210-340 (Brazil)
2014-10-01
In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.
On the force-velocity relationship of a bundle of rigid bio-filaments
Perilli, Alessia; Pierleoni, Carlo; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul
2018-03-01
In various cellular processes, bio-filaments like F-actin and F-tubulin are able to exploit chemical energy associated with polymerization to perform mechanical work against an obstacle loaded with an external force. The force-velocity relationship quantitatively summarizes the nature of this process. By a stochastic dynamical model, we give, together with the evolution of a staggered bundle of Nf rigid living filaments facing a loaded wall, the corresponding force-velocity relationship. We compute the evolution of the model in the infinite wall diffusion limit and in supercritical conditions (monomer density reduced by critical density ρ^ 1>1 ), and we show that this solution remains valid for moderate non-zero values of the ratio between the wall diffusion and the chemical time scales. We consider two classical protocols: the bundle is opposed either to a constant load or to an optical trap setup, characterized by a harmonic restoring force. The constant load case leads, for each F value, to a stationary velocity Vs t a t(F ;Nf,ρ^ 1 ) after a relaxation with characteristic time τmicro(F). When the bundle (initially taken as an assembly of filament seeds) is subjected to a harmonic restoring force (optical trap load), the bundle elongates and the load increases up to stalling over a characteristic time τOT. Extracted from this single experiment, the force-velocity VO T(F ;Nf,ρ^ 1 ) curve is found to coincide with Vs t a t(F ;Nf,ρ^ 1 ) , except at low loads. We show that this result follows from the adiabatic separation between τmicro and τOT, i.e., τmicro ≪ τOT.
Survival after burn in a sub-Saharan burn unit: Challenges and opportunities
Tyson, Anna F.; Boschini, Laura P.; Kiser, Michelle M.; Samuel, Jonathan C.; Mjuweni, Steven N.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.
2013-01-01
Background Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries and a major global public health crisis, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, aggressive management of burns continues to lower overall mortality and increase lethal total body surface area (TBSA) at which 50% of patients die (LA50). However, lack of resources and inadequate infrastructure significantly impede such improvements in developing countries. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the burn center at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi between June 2011 and December 2012. We collected information including patient age, gender, date of admission, mechanism of injury, time to presentation to hospital, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, comorbidities, date and type of operative procedures, date of discharge, length of hospital stay, and survival. We then performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with increased mortality. Results A total of 454 patients were admitted during the study period with a median age of 4 years (range 0.5 months to 79 years). Of these patients, 53% were male. The overall mean TBSA was 18.5%, and average TBSA increased with age—17% for 0–18 year olds, 24% for 19–60 year olds, and 41% for patients over 60 years old. Scald and flame burns were the commonest mechanisms, 52% and 41% respectively, and flame burns were associated with higher mortality. Overall survival in this population was 82%; however survival reduced with increasing age categories (84% in patients 0–18 years old, 79% in patients 19–60 years old, and 36% in patients older than 60 years). TBSA remained the strongest predictor of mortality after adjusting for age and mechanism of burn. The LA50 for this population was 39% TBSA. Discussion Our data reiterate that burn in Malawi is largely a pediatric disease and that the high burn mortality and relatively low LA50 have modestly improved
Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M
2016-05-01
Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Photoionization by a bichromatic field: Adiabatic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazdzersky, V.A.; Yurovsky, V.A.
1995-01-01
Atom photoionization by the superposition of a fundamental field and its second harmonic is considered. The finite analytical expressions for the photoionization probability are obtained using the adiabatic approximation. They demonstrate that the photoelectron angular distribution has a polar symmetry when the electrical field strength has a maximal polar asymmetry and the distribution is asymmetrical when the field is symmetrical. A strict proof of the polar symmetry of the photoionization probability in the case of the electrical field with maximal asymmetry is deduced using the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss theories. The obtained results are in agreement with the experimental data available
Decoherence in a scalable adiabatic quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashhab, S.; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
We consider the effects of decoherence on Landau-Zener crossings encountered in a large-scale adiabatic-quantum-computing setup. We analyze the dependence of the success probability--i.e., the probability for the system to end up in its new ground state--on the noise amplitude and correlation time. We determine the optimal sweep rate that is required to maximize the success probability. We then discuss the scaling of decoherence effects with increasing system size. We find that those effects can be important for large systems, even if they are small for each of the small building blocks
On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.
2010-01-01
In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavol Baňacký
Full Text Available It has been shown that the adiabatic electronic structure of the superconducting phase of sulfur hydride at 200 GPa is unstable toward the vibration motion of H-atoms. A theoretical study indicates that in coupling to H-vibrations, the system undergoes a transition from adiabatic into a stabilized anti-adiabatic multi-gap superconducting state at a temperature that can reach 203 K. Keywords: Superconductivity of sulfur hydride, Electron–phonon coupling in superconductors, Anti-adiabatic theory of superconductivity
Collision of an object in the transition from adiabatic inspiral to plunge around a Kerr black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harada, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masashi
2011-01-01
An inspiraling object of mass μ around a Kerr black hole of mass M(>>μ) experiences a continuous transition near the innermost stable circular orbit from adiabatic inspiral to plunge into the horizon as gravitational radiation extracts its energy and angular momentum. We investigate the collision of such an object with a generic counterpart around a Kerr black hole. We find that the angular momentum of the object is fine-tuned through gravitational radiation and that the high-velocity collision of the object with a generic counterpart naturally occurs around a nearly maximally rotating black hole. We also find that the center-of-mass energy can be far beyond the Planck energy for dark matter particles colliding around a stellar mass black hole and as high as 10 58 erg for stellar mass compact objects colliding around a supermassive black hole, where the present transition formalism is well justified. Therefore, rapidly rotating black holes can accelerate objects inspiraling around them to energy high enough to be of great physical interest.
S-wave Qanti Qqanti q states in the adiabatic approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chao, K T [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics
1981-06-01
The static potential energy for an S-wave Qanti Qqanti q system is discussed in an adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) approximation. Both spherical bag and arbitrary bag are considered. We concentrate on those Qanti Qqanti q states in which both (Qanti Q) and (qanti q) are colour singlets. Their energy level, wave function, and possible experimental observation are studied.
Between ethylene and polyenes--the non-adiabatic dynamics of cis-dienes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Glover, William J; Mori, Toshifumi
2012-01-01
Using Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) with a Multi-State Multi-Reference Perturbation theory (MS-MR-CASPT2) treatment of the electronic structure, we have simulated the non-adiabatic excited state dynamics of cyclopentadiene (CPD) and 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-cyclopentadiene (Me4-CPD) following exc...
Could solitons be adiabatic invariants attached to certain non linear equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochak, P.
1984-01-01
Arguments are given to support the claim that solitons should be the adiabatic invariants associated to certain non linear partial differential equations; a precise mathematical form of this conjecture is then stated. As a particular case of the conjecture, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is studied. (Auth.)
Dissipation in adiabatic quantum computers: lessons from an exactly solvable model
Keck, Maximilian; Montangero, Simone; Santoro, Giuseppe E.; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide
2017-11-01
We introduce and study the adiabatic dynamics of free-fermion models subject to a local Lindblad bath and in the presence of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The merit of these models is that they can be solved exactly, and will help us to study the interplay between nonadiabatic transitions and dissipation in many-body quantum systems. After the adiabatic evolution, we evaluate the excess energy (the average value of the Hamiltonian) as a measure of the deviation from reaching the final target ground state. We compute the excess energy in a variety of different situations, where the nature of the bath and the Hamiltonian is modified. We find robust evidence of the fact that an optimal working time for the quantum annealing protocol emerges as a result of the competition between the nonadiabatic effects and the dissipative processes. We compare these results with the matrix-product-operator simulations of an Ising system and show that the phenomenology we found also applies for this more realistic case.
Detuning-induced stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in dense two-level systems
Deng, Li; Lin, Gongwei; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing
2018-05-01
We investigate the coherence generation in dense two-level systems under detuning-induced stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (D-STIRAP). In the dense two-level system, the near dipole-dipole (NDD) interaction should be taken into consideration. With the increase in the strength of the NDD interaction, it is found that a switchlike transition of the generated coherence from maximum value to zero appears. Meanwhile, the adiabatic condition of the D-STIRAP is destroyed in the presence of the NDD interaction. In order to avoid the sudden decrease in the generated coherence and maintain the maximum value, we can use stronger detuning pulse or pump pulse, between which increasing the intensity of the detuning pulse is of more efficiency. Except for taking advantage of such maximum coherence in the high density case into areas like enhancing the four-wave mixing process, we also point out that the phenomenon of the coherence transition can be applied as an optical switch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, J.S.; Struensee, M.C.
1991-01-01
The improved adiabatic representation is used in calculations of elastic and isotopic-exchange cross sections for asymmetric collisions of pμ, dμ, and tμ with bare p, d, and t nuclei and with H, D, and T atoms. This formulation dissociates properly, correcting a well-known deficiency of the standard adiabatic method for muonic-atom collisions, and includes some effects at zeroth order that are normally considered nonadiabatic. The electronic screening is calculated directly and precisely within the improved adiabatic description; it is found to be about 30% smaller in magnitude than the previously used value at large internuclear distances and to deviate considerably from the asymptotic form at small distances. The reactance matrices, needed for calculations of molecular-target effects, are given in tables
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-01-01
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement
Foot burns: epidemiology and management.
Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T
2007-12-01
This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toema, M.A.; El-Bazza, Z.E.; El-Hifnawi, H.N.; Abd-El-Hakim, E.E.
2013-01-01
In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.
Bailey, Nicholas P; Bøhling, Lasse; Veldhorst, Arno A; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C
2013-11-14
We derive exact results for the rate of change of thermodynamic quantities, in particular, the configurational specific heat at constant volume, CV, along configurational adiabats (curves of constant excess entropy Sex). Such curves are designated isomorphs for so-called Roskilde liquids, in view of the invariance of various structural and dynamical quantities along them. The slope of the isomorphs in a double logarithmic representation of the density-temperature phase diagram, γ, can be interpreted as one third of an effective inverse power-law potential exponent. We show that in liquids where γ increases (decreases) with density, the contours of CV have smaller (larger) slope than configurational adiabats. We clarify also the connection between γ and the pair potential. A fluctuation formula for the slope of the CV-contours is derived. The theoretical results are supported with data from computer simulations of two systems, the Lennard-Jones fluid, and the Girifalco fluid. The sign of dγ∕dρ is thus a third key parameter in characterizing Roskilde liquids, after γ and the virial-potential energy correlation coefficient R. To go beyond isomorph theory we compare invariance of a dynamical quantity, the self-diffusion coefficient, along adiabats and CV-contours, finding it more invariant along adiabats.
Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity
Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.
2013-06-01
Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Ryeol Choi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.
Adiabatic partition effect on natural convection heat transfer inside a square cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahmoudi Nezhad, Sajjad; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; yousefi, Tooraj
2018-01-01
A steady state and two-dimensional laminar free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity with horizontal adiabatic and isothermal side walls is investigated using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments and numerical simulations are carried out using a Mach......-Zehnder interferometer and a finite volume code, respectively. A horizontal and adiabatic partition, with angle of θ is adjusted such that it separates the cavity into two identical parts. Effects of this angel as well as Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the side-heated walls are investigated in this study...... partition angle, the results show that the average Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer enhance as the Rayleigh number increases. However, for a given Rayleigh number the maximum and the minimum heat transfer occurs at θ = 45°and θ = 90°, respectively. Two responsible mechanisms...
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. I. The diabatic representation.
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J
2012-12-14
We extend a recently developed quantum trajectory method [Y. Goldfarb, I. Degani, and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 231103 (2006)] to treat non-adiabatic transitions. Each trajectory evolves on a single surface according to Newton's laws with complex positions and momenta. The transfer of amplitude between surfaces stems naturally from the equations of motion, without the need for surface hopping. In this paper we derive the equations of motion and show results in the diabatic representation, which is rarely used in trajectory methods for calculating non-adiabatic dynamics. We apply our method to the first two benchmark models introduced by Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)]. Besides giving the probability branching ratios between the surfaces, the method also allows the reconstruction of the time-dependent wavepacket. Our results are in quantitative agreement with converged quantum mechanical calculations.
Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.
Peck, Michael D
2012-08-01
A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Shilon, I.; Langeslag, S.A.E.; Martins, L.P.; ten Kate, H.H.J.
2015-06-19
The stability of high-current superconductors is challenging in the design of superconducting magnets. When the stability requirements are fulfilled, the protection against a quench must still be considered. A main factor in the design of quench protection systems is the resistance growth rate in the magnet following a quench. The usual method for determining the resistance growth in impregnated coils is to calculate the longitudinal velocity with which the normal zone propagates in the conductor along the coil windings. Here, we present a 2D numerical model for predicting the normal zone propagation velocity in Al stabilized Rutherford NbTi cables with large cross section. By solving two coupled differential equations under adiabatic conditions, the model takes into account the thermal diffusion and the current redistribution process following a quench. Both the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the superconductor and the metal cladding materials properties are included. Unlike common normal zon...
K A Kamala; S Sankethguddad; S G Sujith; Praveena Tantradi
2016-01-01
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to different...
Adult survivors' lived experience of burns and post-burn health: A qualitative analysis.
Abrams, Thereasa E; Ogletree, Roberta J; Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Neumeister, Michael W
2016-02-01
The individual implications of major burns are likely to affect the full spectrum of patients' physical, emotional, psychological, social, environmental, spiritual and vocational health. Yet, not all of the post-burn health implications are inevitably negative. Utilizing a qualitative approach, this heuristic phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions early (ages 18-35) and midlife (ages 36-64) adults providing insight for how participants perceived their burns in relationship to their post-burn health. Participants were interviewed using semi-structured interview questions framed around seven domains of health. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim then coded line by line, identifying dominant categories related to health. Categories were analyzed identifying shared themes among the study sample. Participants were Caucasian, seven males and one female. Mean age at time of interviews was 54.38 and 42.38 at time of burns. Mean time since burns occurred was 9.38 years with a minimum of (20%) total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Qualitative content analysis rendered three emergent health-related categories and associated themes that represented shared meanings within the participant sample. The category of "Physical Health" reflected the theme physical limitations, pain and sensitivity to temperature. Within the category of "Intellectual Health" were themes of insight, goal setting and self-efficacy, optimism and humor and within "Emotional Health" were the themes empathy and gratitude. By exploring subjective experiences and perceptions of health shared through dialog with experienced burned persons, there are opportunities to develop a more complete picture of how holistic health may be affected by major burns that in turn could support future long-term rehabilitative trajectories of early and midlife adult burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A
2017-03-31
Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm3+:YAG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.
2008-01-01
We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm 3+ :YAG crystal. Tm 3+ :YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm 3+ :YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results
Treatment of Palm Burns in Children
Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.
2005-01-01
The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neriman Akansel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.
A Survey of Studies on Ignition and Burn of Inertially Confined Fuels
Atzeni, Stefano
2016-10-01
A survey of studies on ignition and burn of inertial fusion fuels is presented. Potentials and issues of different approaches to ignition (central ignition, fast ignition, volume ignition) are addressed by means of simple models and numerical simulations. Both equimolar DT and T-lean mixtures are considered. Crucial issues concerning hot spot formation (implosion symmetry for central ignition; igniting pulse parameters for fast ignition) are briefly discussed. Recent results concerning the scaling of the ignition energy with the implosion velocity and constrained gain curves are also summarized.
The adiabatic approximation in multichannel scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulte, A.M.
1978-01-01
Using two-dimensional models, an attempt has been made to get an impression of the conditions of validity of the adiabatic approximation. For a nucleon bound to a rotating nucleus the Coriolis coupling is neglected and the relation between this nuclear Coriolis coupling and the classical Coriolis force has been examined. The approximation for particle scattering from an axially symmetric rotating nucleus based on a short duration of the collision, has been combined with an approximation based on the limitation of angular momentum transfer between particle and nucleus. Numerical calculations demonstrate the validity of the new combined method. The concept of time duration for quantum mechanical collisions has also been studied, as has the collective description of permanently deformed nuclei. (C.F.)
Optimization of burn referrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...
Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.
Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol
2017-05-01
Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Astronaut observations of global biomass burning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, C.A.; Nelson, R.
1991-01-01
One of the most fundamental inputs for understanding and modeling possible effects of biomass burning is knowledge of the size of the area burned. Because the burns are often very large and occur on all continents (except Antarctica), observations from space are essential. Information is presented in this chapter on another method for monitoring biomass burning, including immediate and long-term effects. Examples of astronaut photography of burning during one year give a perspective of the widespread occurrence of burning and the variety of biological materials that are consumed. The growth of burning in the Amazon region is presented over 15 years using smoke as a proxy for actual burning. Possible climate effects of smoke palls are also discussed
Mechanical and chemical responses of low-velocity impacted RDX and HMX explosive powders
Wu, Yanqing; Guo, Hongfu; Huang, Fenglei; Bao, Xiaowei; Explosion; damage Team
2017-06-01
The experimental analyses of mechanical and chemical responses of RDX and HMX particles were performed based on the optimized drop-weight experimental system equipped with the High-Speed Camera (HSC). It has been found that Jetting phenomenon observed by HSC is the result of the energy released by gaseous products, which push the pulverized or melted explosives to splash radially. Jetting is the only and the most obvious difference between reactive and inert particles prior to combustion so that jetting can be regarded as the sign of ignition. Area expansion velocity, jetting velocity, and flame propagation velocity have been estimated via image processing, making it possible to characterize mechanical deformation and violence of reaction of each stage. Hot-spots coalescence promotes flame propagation whose velocity reflects the violence of deflagration reaction. Jetting appearance time can be used to determine time-to-ignition more accurately than other ways. For RDX, molten phase plays an important role to the formation of the hot-spots. Multiple particles experienced more severe burning reactions than an individual particle. China National Nature Science Foundation (11572045), ``Science Challenging Program'' (JCKY2016212A501),opening fund from Safety ammunition research and Development Center (RMC2015B03).
Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.
Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W
2004-01-01
Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.
Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 2: Gravitational shocking
Weinberg, Martin D.
1994-01-01
A new theory of gravitational shocking based on time-dependent perturbation theory shows that the changes in energy and angular momentum due to a slowly varying disturbance are not exponentially small for stellar dynamical systems in general. It predicts significant shock heating by slowly varying perturbations previously thought to be negligible according to the adiabatic criterion. The theory extends the scenarios traditionally computed only with the impulse approximation and is applicable to a wide class of disturbances. The approach is applied specifically to the problem of disk shocking of star clusters.
Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients
2014-04-24
Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface
Kinetic Models for Adiabatic Reversible Expansion of a Monatomic Ideal Gas.
Chang, On-Kok
1983-01-01
A fixed amount of an ideal gas is confined in an adiabatic cylinder and piston device. The relation between temperature and volume in initial/final phases can be derived from the first law of thermodynamics. However, the relation can also be derived based on kinetic models. Several of these models are discussed. (JN)
Potentials of NO{sub X} emission reduction methods in SI hydrogen engines: Simulation study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safari, H.; Jazayeri, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, No.15, Pardis Street, Vanak Square, Tehran (Iran); Ebrahimi, R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 4th Tehranpars Square, East Vafadar Street, Tehran (Iran)
2009-01-15
The ever increasing cost of hydrocarbon fuels and more stringent emission standards may resolve challenges in producing hydrogen and using it as an alternative fuel in industries. Internal combustion engines are well-established technology and hydrogen fuel in such engines is considered as an attractive choice in exploiting clean, efficient and renewable hydrogen energy. This work presents an improved thermo-kinetics model for simulation of hydrogen combustion in SI engines. The turbulent propagating flame is modeled using turbulent burning velocity model. During combustion the charge is divided into three zones containing unburned charge, flame and burned gas. The adiabatic flame is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium while the detailed chemical kinetics scheme is considered for burned and unburned zones. The results were first validated against published experiments. Good agreements were obtained between simulation and experiment for varying equivalence ratio, ignition timing and compression ratio. Detailed analysis of engine NO{sub X} emission was performed afterward. The lean-burn and EGR strategies' potentials were examined by the current model. The effects of different amounts of cooled dry EGR and hot wet EGR on the NO{sub X} emission, engine power output and indicated thermal efficiency were investigated and compared theoretically. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, H.-Q.; Wan, W.
2012-01-01
The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: faruso@usc.es; Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
2005-12-15
Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M.; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Felix
2005-01-01
Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature
Schmauss, Daniel; Rezaeian, Farid; Finck, Tom; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Wettstein, Reto; Harder, Yves
2015-01-01
After a burn injury, superficial partial-thickness burn wounds may progress to deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds, if kept untreated. This phenomenon is called secondary burn wound progression or conversion. Burn wound depth is an important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reduction or even the prevention of secondary burn wound progression is one goal of the acute care of burned patients. The objective of this study was to review preclinical approaches evaluating therapies to reduce burn wound progression. A systematic review of experimental approaches in animals that aim at reducing or preventing secondary burn wound progression was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The selected references consist of all the peer-reviewed studies performed in vivo in animals and review articles published in English, German, Italian, Spanish, or French language relevant to the topic of secondary burn wound progression. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar including all the articles published from the beginning of notations to the present. The search was conducted between May 3, 2012 and December 26, 2013. We included 29 experimental studies in this review, investigating agents that maintain or increase local perfusion conditions, as well as agents that exhibit an anti-coagulatory, an anti-inflammatory, or an anti-apoptotic property. Warm water, simvastatin, EPO, or cerium nitrate may represent particularly promising approaches for the translation into clinical use in the near future. This review demonstrates promising experimental approaches that might reduce secondary burn wound progression. Nevertheless, a translation into clinical application needs to confirm the results compiled in experimental animal studies.
An introduction to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannoni, M.J.
1984-05-01
The aim of the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method is to investigate the microscopic foundations of the phenomenological collective models. We briefly review the general formulation, which consists in deriving a Bohr-like Hamiltonian from a mean field theory, and discuss the limiting case where only a few collective variables participate to the motion. Some applications to soft nuclei and heavy ion collisions are presented
A counterexample and a modification to the adiabatic approximation theorem in quantum mechanics
Gingold, H.
1991-01-01
A counterexample to the adiabatic approximation theorem is given when degeneracies are present. A formulation of an alternative version is proposed. A complete asymptotic decomposition for n dimensional self-adjoint Hamiltonian systems is restated and used.
Baranowski, M; Woźniak-Braszak, A; Jurga, K
2016-01-01
The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2MHz and 28.411MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins (1)H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins (19)F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, D.D.
1992-01-01
In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible
Moment distributions of clusters and molecules in the adiabatic rotor model
Ballentine, G. E.; Bertsch, G. F.; Onishi, N.; Yabana, K.
2008-01-01
We present a Fortran program to compute the distribution of dipole moments of free particles for use in analyzing molecular beams experiments that measure moments by deflection in an inhomogeneous field. The theory is the same for magnetic and electric dipole moments, and is based on a thermal ensemble of classical particles that are free to rotate and that have moment vectors aligned along a principal axis of rotation. The theory has two parameters, the ratio of the magnetic (or electric) dipole energy to the thermal energy, and the ratio of moments of inertia of the rotor. Program summaryProgram title:AdiabaticRotor Catalogue identifier:ADZO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:479 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:4853 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Fortran 90 Computer:Pentium-IV, Macintosh Power PC G4 Operating system:Linux, Mac OS X RAM:600 Kbytes Word size:64 bits Classification:2.3 Nature of problem:The system considered is a thermal ensemble of rotors having a magnetic or electric moment aligned along one of the principal axes. The ensemble is placed in an external field which is turned on adiabatically. The problem is to find the distribution of moments in the presence of the external field. Solution method:There are three adiabatic invariants. The only nontrivial one is the action associated with the polar angle of the rotor axis with respect to external field. It is found by Newton's method. Running time:3 min on a 3 GHz Pentium IV processor.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations of opening reaction of molecular junctions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zobač, Vladimír; Lewis, J.P.; Jelínek, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 28 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 285202. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02079S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-adiabatic molecular dynamics * molecular junctions * molecular switches * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zareh, Masoud; Heidari, Mohammad Ghorbani [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-15
This research represents an experimental investigation of the metastable flow and re-condensation phenomenon through non-adiabatic lateral helical capillary tubes and suction tube heat exchanger. The results show that mass flux ratio has a vital role: It affects metastable flow and also reverse heat transfer phenomenon through non-adiabatic helical capillary tube. Therefore, by increasing of the mass flux ratio, the rate of heat transfer between them decreases. In contrast to the strong rate condition of heat transfer between them, reverse heat transfer or re-condensation maybe happen. Moreover, experimental results show that for R134 flow with mass flux ratio more than 57.84, metastable flow exists in non-adiabatic capillary tube with 0.9144 mm inner diameter, 30 mm coil diameter, 6.18 m length, 4 mm inner diameter of compressor suction tube.
Reliability enhancement through optimal burn-in
Kuo, W.
1984-06-01
A numerical reliability and cost model is defined for production line burn-in tests of electronic components. The necessity of burn-in is governed by upper and lower bounds: burn-in is mandatory for operation-critical or nonreparable component; no burn-in is needed when failure effects are insignificant or easily repairable. The model considers electronic systems in terms of a series of components connected by a single black box. The infant mortality rate is described with a Weibull distribution. Performance reaches a steady state after burn-in, and the cost of burn-in is a linear function for each component. A minimum cost is calculated among the costs and total time of burn-in, shop repair, and field repair, with attention given to possible losses in future sales from inadequate burn-in testing.
Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors
... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...
Determination of adiabatic temperature change in MnFe(P,Ge) compounds with pulse-field method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trung, N T; Tegus, O; Cam Thanh, D T; Buschow, K H J; Brueck, E; Klaasse, J C P
2010-01-01
Fast magnetic measurements performed by means of a 20 T pulse-field magnet provide a good approach for directly monitoring the magnetocaloric effect of the MnFe(P,Ge) compounds. Based on the comparison of magnetization curves obtained either in an adiabatic or isothermal process, we propose that the method introduced by Levitin et al is applicable to determine the adiabatic temperature change for an equivalent field change in first-order magnetic transition materials. More strikingly, experimental results confirm that the first-order nature of the transition in MnFe(P,Ge) alloys is not a limiting factor to the operation frequency of a magnetic refrigerator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zrafi, W; Oujia, B; Gadea, F X
2006-01-01
For nearly all states dissociating below the ionic limit, we perform an adiabatic and diabatic study for 1 Σ + and 3 Σ + electronic states dissociating into Cs (6s, 6p, 5d, 7s, 7p, 6d, 8s and 4f) + H (1s). Furthermore, we present the adiabatic results for the 1-5 1,3 Π and 1-3 1,3 Δ states. The calculations rely on an ab initio pseudopotential, semi-empirical operator core-valence correlation and full valence CI approaches, combined to an efficient diabatization procedure. For the low-lying states, our spectroscopic constants and vibrational level spacing are in very good agreement with the available experimental data. Diabatic potentials and dipole moments are analysed, revealing the strong imprint of the ionic state in the 1 Σ + adiabatic states. The H electron affinity correction was accounted for by the use of the efficient diabatization method. This leads to a better agreement with the available experimental data. Experimental suggestions are also given for the higher excited states based on their unusual behaviour
Universal fault-tolerant adiabatic quantum computing with quantum dots or donors
Landahl, Andrew
I will present a conceptual design for an adiabatic quantum computer that can achieve arbitrarily accurate universal fault-tolerant quantum computations with a constant energy gap and nearest-neighbor interactions. This machine can run any quantum algorithm known today or discovered in the future, in principle. The key theoretical idea is adiabatic deformation of degenerate ground spaces formed by topological quantum error-correcting codes. An open problem with the design is making the four-body interactions and measurements it uses more technologically accessible. I will present some partial solutions, including one in which interactions between quantum dots or donors in a two-dimensional array can emulate the desired interactions in second-order perturbation theory. I will conclude with some open problems, including the challenge of reformulating Kitaev's gadget perturbation theory technique so that it preserves fault tolerance. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Robust adiabatic approach to optical spin entangling in coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauger, Erik M; Benjamin, Simon C; Lovett, Brendon W; Nazir, Ahsan; Stace, Thomas M
2008-01-01
Excitonic transitions offer a possible route to ultrafast optical spin manipulation in coupled nanostructures. We perform here a detailed study of the three principal exciton-mediated decoherence channels for optically controlled electron spin qubits in coupled quantum dots: radiative decay of the excitonic state, exciton-phonon interactions, and Landau-Zener transitions between laser-dressed states. We consider a scheme for producing an entangling controlled-phase gate on a pair of coupled spins which, in its simplest dynamic form, renders the system subject to fast decoherence rates associated with exciton creation during the gating operation. In contrast, we show that an adiabatic approach employing off-resonant laser excitation allows us to suppress all sources of decoherence simultaneously, significantly increasing the fidelity of operations at only a relatively small gating time cost. We find that controlled-phase gates accurate to one part in 10 2 can realistically be achieved with the adiabatic approach, whereas the conventional dynamic approach does not appear to support a fidelity suitable for scalable quantum computation. Our predictions could be demonstrated experimentally in the near future
Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M
2010-12-01
This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takada, Junichi; Suzuki, Motoe; Tukamoto, Michio; Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji
1995-03-01
Safety demonstration tests of an explosive burning in a cell in the reprocessing plant has been carried out in JAERI under the auspices of the Science and Technology Agency, to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during the hypothetical explosion. The postulated explosive burning of organic solvent mixed with nitric acid was simulated by solid explosives. The demonstration test was performed using an industrial scale experimental facility simulating to the ventilation system of the large scale reprocessing plant in JAPAN. Propagations of pressure, temperature, and gas velocity through cells and ducts in the ventilation system were measured during the explosive burning under deflagration. Experimental data in this report can be used to evaluate the transport phenomena of radioactive materials in the ventilation system during the explosion, and also to verify computer code CELVA for the safety analysis of ventilation system in the event of explosion accidents. (author)
Covert, Ashley; Jordan, Peter
2010-05-01
To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed to fit into a single full-sized pick-up truck. The three-legged simulator extended to approximately 3.3 metres above ground on steep slopes and used a single Spraying Systems 1/2HH-30WSQ nozzle which can easily be interchanged for other sized nozzles. Rainfall characteristics were measured using a digital camera which took images of the raindrops against a grid. Median drop size and velocity 5 cm above ground were measured and found to be 3/4 of the size of natural rain drops of that diameter class, and fell 7% faster than terminal velocity. The simulator was used for experiments on runoff and erosion on sites burned in 2007 by two wildfires in southern British Columbia. Simulations were repeated one and two years after the fires. Rainfall was simulated at an average rate of 67 mm hr-1 over a 1 m2 plot for 20 minutes. This rainfall rate is similar to the 100 year return period rainfall intensity for this duration at a nearby weather station. Simulations were conducted on five replicate 1 m2 plots in each experimental unit including high burn severity, moderate burn severity, unburned, and unburned with forest floor removed. During the simulation a sample was collected for 30 seconds every minute, with two additional samples until runoff ceased, resulting in 22 samples per simulation. Runoff, overland flow coefficient, infiltration and sediment yield were compared between treatments. Additional simulations were conducted immediately after a 2009 wildfire to test different mulch treatments. Typical results showed that runoff on plots with high burn
Menger, Tirsa; Krijnen, Pieta; Tuinebreijer, Willem E; Breederveld, Roelf S
2014-01-01
In the literature no study was found about the effect of location of burns on outcome. The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of location on outcome parameters of 371 patients, admitted to our burn center from January 2009 to December 2011. The patients were included in the study if more than 80% of the burn(s) was localized either on the extremities or on the head and/or trunk. Two groups of TBSA were elaborated, low: 0 to 5% and intermediate: 5 to 15%. Two-hundred ninety-two patients (78.7%) had a low TBSA (burns on the head and/or trunk were more often admitted to the intensive care unit, mostly as a result of suspected inhalation injury (6.2 vs 0.9%; P = .008). More complications were seen in the intermediate TBSA group. In this study no difference in outcome was found between burns on the head and/or trunk or on extremities. The patients with burns on the head and/or trunk group are more frequently admitted to intensive care.
Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses
Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Zhongyi; Lu Xingan; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang
1994-01-01
Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds β injured burns are discussed. The article also describes the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Haddadin, W.
2012-01-01
Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757
Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.
2010-01-01
In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.
Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.
Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S
2012-09-01
Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korobov, V.I.; Melezhik, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.I.
1992-01-01
A numerical scheme for solving the problem of slow collisions in the three-body adiabatic approach is applied for calculation of muon transfer rates in collisions of hydrogen isotope atoms on bare nuclei. It is demonstrated that the multichannel adiabatic approach allows one to reach high accuracy results (∼3%) estimating the cross sections of charge transfer processes which are the best ones up to date. The method is appliable in a wide range of energies (0.001-50 eV) which is of interest for analysis of muon catalysed fusion experiments. 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs
... small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection. Although some minor burns aren't cause for concern and can ... burns, the mildest of the three, are limited to the top layer of skin: Signs ... pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters. Healing ...
Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel
Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P
2012-11-20
A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.
Smartphone applications in burns.
Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P
2015-08-01
Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Finlay, V; Phillips, M; Allison, G T; Wood, F M; Ching, D; Wicaksono, D; Plowman, S; Hendrie, D; Edgar, D W
2015-11-01
As minor burn patients constitute the vast majority of a developed nation case-mix, streamlining care for this group can promote efficiency from a service-wide perspective. This study tested the hypothesis that a predictive nomogram model that estimates likelihood of good long-term quality of life (QoL) post-burn is a valid way to optimise patient selection and risk management when applying a streamlined model of care. A sample of 224 burn patients managed by the Burn Service of Western Australia who provided both short and long-term outcomes was used to estimate the probability of achieving a good QoL defined as 150 out of a possible 160 points on the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) at least six months from injury. A multivariate logistic regression analysis produced a predictive model provisioned as a nomogram for clinical application. A second, independent cohort of consecutive patients (n=106) was used to validate the predictive merit of the nomogram. Male gender (p=0.02), conservative management (p=0.03), upper limb burn (p=0.04) and high BSHS-B score within one month of burn (pburns were excluded due to loss to follow up. For clinicians managing comparable burn populations, the BSWA burns nomogram is an effective tool to assist the selection of patients to a streamlined care pathway with the aim of improving efficiency of service delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Adiabatic evolution, quantum phases, and Landau-Zener transitions in strong radiation fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuer, H.P.; Dietz, K.; Holthaus, M.
1990-07-01
We develop a method that allows the investigation of adiabatic evolution in periodically driven quantum systems. It is shown how Berry's geometrical phase emerges in quantum optics. We analyse microwave experiments performed on Rydberg atoms and suggest a new, non-perturbative mechanism to produce excited atomic states. (orig.)
van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther
2012-01-01
Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p burned (p 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.
Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C
2000-01-01
Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed.