WorldWideScience

Sample records for adhesively bonded shell

  1. Interface Fracture in Adhesively Bonded Shell Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2007-01-01

    Two methods for the prediction of crack propagation through the interface of adhesively bonded shells are discussed. One is based on a fracture mechanics approach; the other is based on a cohesive zone approach. Attention is focussed on predicting the shape of the crack front and the critical...... stress required to propagate the crack under quasi-static conditions. The fracture mechanical model is theoretically sound and it is accurate and numerically stable. The cohesive zone model has some advantages over the fracture mechanics based model. It is easier to generalise the cohesive zone model...... to take into account effects such as plastic deformation in the adhering shells, and to take into account effects of large local curvatures of the interface crack front. The comparison shows a convergence of the results based on the cohesive zone model towards the results based on a fracture mechanics...

  2. A finite element modelling methodology for the non-linear stiffness evaluation of adhesively bonded single lap-joints. Part 2, Novel shell mesh to minimise analysis time

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Ian T.; Mottram, J. Toby

    2012-01-01

    A new modelling methodology is presented that enables the stiffness of adhesively bonded single lap-joints to be included in the finite element analysis of whole vehicle bodies. This work was driven by the need to significantly reduce computing resources for vehicle analysis. To achieve this goal the adhesive bond line and adherends are modelled by a relatively ‘small’ number of shell elements to replace the usual solid element mesh for a reliable analysis. Previous work in Part 1 has provide...

  3. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  4. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  5. Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan adhesive films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piller Sabine C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Methods Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ~0.1 wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (λ = 532 nm, Fluence~110 J/cm2, spot size~0.5 cm. A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine with adhesion strength of 15 ± 2 kPa, (n = 31. The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5 ± 0.1 (n = 8 kPa when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26°C to 32°C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. Conclusion A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  6. Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauto, Antonio; Mawad, Damia; Barton, Matthew; Piller, Sabine C.; Longo, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Materials and Methods. Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ˜0.1wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (wavelength = 532 nm, Fluence ˜110 J/cm2, spot size ˜5 mm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results and Conclusion. The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine (15±2 kPa, n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5±0.1 kPa (n = 8) when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26 °C to 32 °C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  7. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Optibond™ FL, Kerr), G3 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (All-Bond 3®, Bisco), G4 - etch & rinse simplified system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), G5 - self-etching system with one step (Bond Force, Tokuyama), G6 - universal system in moist dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), G7 - universal system in dry dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then all groups received the cementing of a self-adhesive resin cement cylinder (Duo-link, Bisco) made from a polypropylene matrix. In the evaluation of bond strength, the samples were subjected to the microshear test and evaluated according to the fracture pattern by optical microscopy. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test suggests a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,039), and Tukey for multiple comparisons, indicating a statistically significant difference between G3 and G4 (p<0.05). It was verified high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed failure and cohesive in dentin. Conclusions The technique and the system used to dentin hybridization are able to affect the immediate bond strength of resin cement dual adhesive. Key words:Adhesion, adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:28149471

  8. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  9. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  10. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  11. Advances in modeling and design of adhesively bonded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S

    2013-01-01

    The book comprehensively charts a way for industry to employ adhesively bonded joints to make systems more efficient and cost-effective Adhesively bonded systems have found applications in a wide spectrum of industries (e.g., aerospace, electronics, construction, ship building, biomedical, etc.) for a variety of purposes. Emerging adhesive materials with improved mechanical properties have allowed adhesion strength approaching that of the bonded materials themselves. Due to advances in adhesive materials and the many potential merits that adhesive bonding offers, adhesive bonding has replac

  12. Reliability Analysis of Adhesive Bonded Scarf Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Lund, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    A probabilistic model for the reliability analysis of adhesive bonded scarfed lap joints subjected to static loading is developed. It is representative for the main laminate in a wind turbine blade subjected to flapwise bending. The structural analysis is based on a three dimensional (3D) finite...... the FEA model, and a sensitivity analysis on the influence of various geometrical parameters and material properties on the maximum stress is conducted. Because the yield behavior of many polymeric structural adhesives is dependent on both deviatoric and hydrostatic stress components, different ratios...... of the compressive to tensile adhesive yield stresses in the failure criterion are considered. It is shown that the chosen failure criterion, the scarf angle and the load are significant for the assessment of the probability of failure....

  13. Adhesion to tooth structure mediated by contemporary bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangel, Ivan; Ellis, Thomas H; Sacher, Edward

    2007-07-01

    Given the enormity of the field of adhesion and the number of commercial products available, the discipline of modern adhesive dentistry can be daunting with respect to materials and techniques. This article organizes contemporary bonding practice and materials around an understanding of the fundamentals of adhesion to tooth structure. In providing this context, adhesive development, bonding systems, and their appropriate use are better understood. The end result is the better practice of adhesive dentistry.

  14. Improved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugd, J. de; Voert, M.J.A. te; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Tabak, E.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in optomechanical structures for bonding optical components to their mounts. The main advantage of using adhesives is the excellent strength to weight ratio. Adhesive bonding is seen as a desirable joining technique as it allows for greater flexibility in design. A disadvan

  15. Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Ceramics Using an Asymmetric Wedge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    moisture durability of adhesive bonding of ceramics is dental applications (12–14). The adhesive bonding of ceramic orthodontic inserts presents unique...sample sets. Environmental exposure is often limited to mechanical testing on the millimeter scale of bonded ceramic blocks or extracted human...Dressler, K. B.; Grenadier, M. R. Direct Bonding of Orthodontic Brackets to Esthetic Restorative Materials Using a Silane. Am. J. Orthodontics and

  16. [The application of universal adhesives in dental bonding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingmei; Lei, Wenlong; Yang, Hongye; Huang, Cui

    2016-03-01

    The bonding restoration has become an important clinical technique for the development of dental bonding technology. Because of its easy operation and the maximum preservation of tooth tissues, bonding repair is widely used in dental restoration. The recent multi-mode universal adhesives have brought new progress in dental bonding restoration. In this article the universal adhesives were reviewed according to its definition, development, improvement, application features and possible problems.

  17. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

  18. Application of Bonded Joints for Quantitative Analysis of Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Trpčevská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of hot-dip coated steel sheets is associated with properties of the zinc coatings on steel substrate. For the characterization of the adhesion behaviour of zinc coating on steel various tests were employed. The study was focused on quantification assessment of galvanized coating adhesion to substrates. Methods for evaluation of the bonding strength of zinc coating by the shear strength and the T-peel tests applying four special types of adhesives were used. The experimental tests of bonded joints show that the adhesion of the zinc coating to the substrate was higher than that of the applied adhesive with the highest strength.

  19. Comparison of Bond in Roll-bonded and Adhesively Bonded Aluminums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensfeir, R. J., Jr.; Trenkler, G.; Delagi, R. G.; Forster, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Lap-shear and peel test measurements of bond strength have been carried out as part of an investigation of roll bonding of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys. Shear strengths of the bonded material in the F temper are in the range of 14 to 16 ksi. Corresponding peel strengths are 120 to 130 lb/inch. These values, which are three to five times those reported in the literature for adhesively bonded 2024 and 7075, are a result of the true metallurgical bond achieved. The effects of heat-treating the bonded material are described and the improvements in bond strength discussed relative to the shear strength of the parent material. The significance of the findings for aerospace applications is discussed.

  20. Adhesive bonding of composite aircraft structures: Challenges and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Tserpes, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, the challenges and some recent developments of adhesive bonding technology in composite aircraft structures are discussed. The durability of bonded joints is defined and presented for parameters that may influence bonding quality. Presented is also, a numerical design approach for composite joining profiles used to realize adhesive bonding. It is shown that environmental ageing and pre-bond contamination of bonding surfaces may degrade significantly fracture toughness of bonded joints. Moreover, it is obvious that additional research is needed in order to design joining profiles that will enable load transfer through shearing of the bondline. These findings, together with the limited capabilities of existing non-destructive testing techniques, can partially explain the confined use of adhesive bonding in primary composite aircraft structural parts.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Bonds via Ultrasonic Phase Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, Harold A.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Gupta, Mool C.

    2016-01-01

    The use of advanced composites utilizing adhesively bonded structures offers advantages in weight and cost for both the aerospace and automotive industries. Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved unable to reliably detect weak bonds or bond deterioration during service life conditions. A new nondestructive technique for quantitatively measuring adhesive bond strength is demonstrated. In this paper, an ultrasonic technique employing constant frequency pulsed phased-locked loop (CFPPLL) circuitry to monitor the phase response of a bonded structure from change in thermal stress is discussed. Theoretical research suggests that the thermal response of a bonded interface relates well with the quality of the adhesive bond. In particular, the effective stiffness of the adhesive-adherent interface may be extracted from the thermal phase response of the structure. The sensitivity of the CFPPLL instrument allows detection of bond pathologies that have been previously difficult-to-detect. Theoretical results with this ultrasonic technique on single epoxy lap joint (SLJ) specimens are presented and discussed. This technique has the potential to advance the use of adhesive bonds - and by association, advanced composite structures - by providing a reliable method to measure adhesive bond strength, thus permitting more complex, lightweight, and safe designs.

  2. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface adhesion in composite bonded structures. To this end, peel tests were performed with nine different types of adhesives and at two environmental temperatures, room temperature and +80°C. The results we...

  3. Resolving fundamental limits of adhesive bonding in microfabrication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jessica S.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Emerson, John Allen; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Kent, Michael Stuart; Read, Douglas H.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Lamppa, Kerry P.; Kawaguchi, Stacie; Holmes, Melissa A.

    2004-04-01

    As electronic and optical components reach the micro- and nanoscales, efficient assembly and packaging require the use of adhesive bonds. This work focuses on resolving several fundamental issues in the transition from macro- to micro- to nanobonding. A primary issue is that, as bondline thicknesses decrease, knowledge of the stability and dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films is important to obtain robust, void-free adhesive bonds. While researchers have studied dewetting dynamics of thin films of model, non-polar polymers, little experimental work has been done regarding dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films, which exhibit much more complex behaviors. In this work, the areas of dispensing small volumes of viscous materials, capillary fluid flow, surface energetics, and wetting have all been investigated. By resolving these adhesive-bonding issues, we are allowing significantly smaller devices to be designed and fabricated. Simultaneously, we are increasing the manufacturability and reliability of these devices.

  4. Automation Tools for Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article presents two new automation creation tools that obtain stresses and strains (Shear and peel) in adhesively bonded joints. For a given adhesively bonded joint Finite Element model, in which the adhesive is characterised using springs, these automation tools read the corresponding input and output files, use the spring forces and deformations to obtain the adhesive stresses and strains, sort the stresses and strains in descending order, and generate plot files for 3D visualisation of the stress and strain fields. Grids (nodes) and elements can be numbered in any order that is convenient for the user. Using the automation tools, trade-off studies, which are needed for design of adhesively bonded joints, can be performed very quickly.

  5. Current aspects on bonding effectiveness and stability in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M V; de Almeida Neves, A; Mine, A; Coutinho, E; Van Landuyt, K; De Munck, J; Van Meerbeek, B

    2011-06-01

    Improved dental adhesive technology has extensively influenced modern concepts in restorative dentistry. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which basically relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Nowadays, the interaction of adhesives with the dental substrate is based on two different strategies, commonly described as an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch approach. In an attempt to simplify the bonding technique, manufacturers have decreased the number of steps necessary for the accomplishment of the bonding procedure. As a consequence, two-step etch-and-rinse and one-step (self-etch) adhesives were introduced and gained rapid popularity in the dental market due to their claimed user-friendliness and lower technique sensitivity. However, many concerns have been raised on the bonding effectiveness of these simplified adhesives, especially in terms of durability, although this tends to be very material dependent. In order to blend all the adhesive components into one single solution, one-step adhesives were made more acidic and hydrophilic. Unfortunately, these properties induce a wide variety of seemingly unrelated problems that may jeopardize the effectiveness and stability of adhesion to the dental substrate. Being more susceptible to water sorption and thus nanoleakage, these adhesives are more prone to bond degradation and tend to fail prematurely as compared to their multi-step counterparts. Incidentally, another factor that may interfere with the bonding effectiveness of adhesives is the technique used for caries removal and cavity preparation. Several tools are on the market today to effectively remove carious tissue, thereby respecting the current trend of minimum intervention. Despite their promising performance, such techniques modify the tooth substrate in different aspects, possibly affecting bonding effectiveness. Altogether, we may conclude that not only the

  6. Hydrolytic stability of self-etch adhesives bonded to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, S; Koshiro, K; Yoshida, Y; De Munck, J; Nagakane, K; Suzuki, K; Sano, H; Van Meerbeek, B

    2005-12-01

    Functional monomers chemically interact with hydroxyapatite that remains within submicron hybrid layers produced by mild self-etch adhesives. The functional monomer 10-MDP interacts most intensively with hydroxyapatite, and its calcium salt appeared most hydrolytically stable, as compared with 4-MET and phenyl-P. We investigated the hypothesis that additional chemical interaction of self-etch adhesives improves bond stability. The micro-tensile bond strength (muTBS) of the 10-MDP-based adhesive did not decrease significantly after 100,000 cycles, but did after 50,000 and 30,000 cycles, respectively, for the 4-MET-based and the phenyl-P-based adhesives. Likewise, the interfacial ultrastructure was unchanged after 100,000 thermocycles for the 10-MDP-based adhesive, while that of both the 4-MET- and phenyl-P-based adhesives contained voids and less-defined collagen. The findings of this study support the concept that long-term durability of adhesive-dentin bonds depends on the chemical bonding potential of the functional monomer.

  7. Moisture contamination detection in adhesive bond using embedded FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents an application of embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for moisture contamination detection in an adhesive bond between two composite elements. FBG sensors are a great tool to Structural Health Monitoring of composite structures due to their high corrosion resistance as well as their small size and weight. Adhesive bonds are very popular in many industrial branches. One of the major problem limits the use of an adhesive joints is they sensitivity on water form ambient. Even the 1% of moisture affects an adhesive bond layer strength. FBG sensors can be use for detection of even a small amount of moisture concentration (1-3% of sample weight). It can be also used for determination of moisture concentration changes during both soaking and drying processes.

  8. Alternative adhesive strategies to optimize bonding to radicular dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillaguet, Serge; Bertossa, Bruno; Krejci, Ivo; Wataha, John C; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2007-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that bond strengths of filling materials to radicular dentin might be optimized by using an indirect dentin bonding procedure with an acrylic core material. Roots of human teeth were endodontically prepared and obturated with EndoREZ, Epiphany, or the bonding of an acrylic point with SE Bond by using a direct or an indirect bonding technique. Bond strengths of endodontic sealers to radicular dentin were measured with a thin slice push-out test. Push-out strengths of EndoREZ and Epiphany to radicular dentin were less than 5 megapascals (MPa). The direct bonding technique with acrylic points and the self-etching adhesive had push-out strengths of 10 MPa, increasing to 18 MPa with the indirect technique. The use of the indirect bonding protocol with an acrylic point to compensate for polymerization stresses appears to be a viable means for optimizing bond strengths of endodontic filling materials to radicular dentin.

  9. Polymer composition and substrate influences on the adhesive bonding of a biomimetic, cross-linking polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Pérez, Cristina R; White, James D; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2012-06-06

    Hierarchical biological materials such as bone, sea shells, and marine bioadhesives are providing inspiration for the assembly of synthetic molecules into complex structures. The adhesive system of marine mussels has been the focus of much attention in recent years. Several catechol-containing polymers are being developed to mimic the cross-linking of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) used by shellfish for sticking to rocks. Many of these biomimetic polymer systems have been shown to form surface coatings or hydrogels; however, bulk adhesion is demonstrated less often. Developing adhesives requires addressing design issues including finding a good balance between cohesive and adhesive bonding interactions. Despite the growing number of mussel-mimicking polymers, there has been little effort to generate structure-property relations and gain insights on what chemical traits give rise to the best glues. In this report, we examine the simplest of these biomimetic polymers, poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]. Pendant catechol groups (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxystyrene) are distributed throughout a polystyrene backbone. Several polymer derivatives were prepared, each with a different 3,4-dihyroxystyrene content. Bulk adhesion testing showed where the optimal middle ground of cohesive and adhesive bonding resides. Adhesive performance was benchmarked against commercial glues as well as the genuine material produced by live mussels. In the best case, bonding was similar to that obtained with cyanoacrylate "Krazy Glue". Performance was also examined using low- (e.g., plastics) and high-energy (e.g., metals, wood) surfaces. The adhesive bonding of poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene] may be the strongest of reported mussel protein mimics. These insights should help us to design future biomimetic systems, thereby bringing us closer to development of bone cements, dental composites, and surgical glues.

  10. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  11. Adhesion between silica surfaces due to hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James; Rossetto, Hebert L.; Kendall, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    The adhesion between surfaces can be enhanced significantly by the presence of hydrogen bonding. Confined water at the nanoscale can display behaviour remarkably different to bulk water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between two surfaces. In this work we investigate the role of confined water on the interaction between hydrophilic surfaces, specifically the effect of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase, by measuring the peak adhesive force and the work of adhesion. Atomic force microscope cantilevers presenting hemispherical silica tips were interacted with planar single crystals of silica in the presence of dimethylformamide, ethanol, and formamide; solution compositions in the range 0-100 mol% water were investigated for each molecule. Each molecule was chosen for its ability to hydrogen bond with water molecules, with increasing concentrations likely to disrupt the structure of surface-bound water layers. With the exception of aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of ethanol, all molecules decreased the ability of confined water to enhance the adhesion between the silica surfaces in excess of the predicted theoretical adhesion due to van der Waals forces. The conclusion was that adhesion depends strongly on the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network within the water layers confined between the silica surfaces.

  12. Fatigue de-bond growth in adhesively bonded single lap joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sahoo; B Dattaguru; C M Manjunatha; C R L Murthy

    2012-02-01

    The fatigue de-bond growth studies have been conducted on adhesively bonded lap joint specimens between aluminium and aluminium with Redux-319A adhesive with a pre-defined crack of 3 mm at the bond end. The correlations between fracture parameters and the de-bond growth data are established using both numerical and experimental techniques. In the numerical method, geometrically non-linear finite element analyses were carried out on adhesively bonded joint specimen for various de-bond lengths measured from the lap end along the mid-bond line of the adhesive. The finite element results were post processed to estimate the SERR components $G_I$ and $G_{II}$ using the Modified Virtual Crack Closure Integral (MVCCI) procedure. In experimental work, specimens were fabricated and fatigue de-bond growth tests were conducted at a stress ratio $R = −1$. The results obtained from both numerical analyses and testing have been used to generate de-bond growth curve and establish de-bond growth law in the Paris regime for such joints. The de-bond growth rate is primarily function of mode-I SERR component $G_I$ since the rate of growth in shear mode is relatively small. The value of Paris exponent is found to be 6.55. The high value of de-bond growth exponent in Paris regime is expected, since the adhesive is less ductile than conventional metallic materials. This study is important for estimating the life of adhesively bonded joints under both constant and variable amplitude fatigue loads.

  13. Gap measurement and bond strength of five selected adhesive systems bonded to tooth structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, F; Gage, J P; Young, W G; Shahabi, S; Swenson, S M

    1998-06-01

    The ability of a restorative material to bond and seal the interface with tooth structure is perhaps the most significant factor in determining resistance to marginal caries. Thus, the quality and durability of marginal seal and bond strength are major considerations in the selection of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength and marginal discrepancies of five adhesive systems: All-Bond 2, Clearfil Liner Bond, KB 200, ProBond and AELITE Bond. Twenty-five buccal and 25 lingual cavities were prepared in 25 caries-free extracted molar teeth, giving 10 cavities for each of the 5 adhesive systems. All teeth were restored with the resin composite Pertac Hybrid, or PRISMA Total Performance Hybrid with their appropriate adhesive systems. After restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, were stained with a 1.5% aqueous solution of a procion dye (reactive orange 14) and sectioned coronally with a saw microtome. Three sections of 200 microns thickness were prepared from each restoration which were then examined microscopically to measure marginal gap widths using a confocal tandem microscope. Shear bond strength measurements were carried out on the dentine bond using a universal testing machine. The All-Bond 2 adhesive system was found to have higher shear bond strength and to have the least gap width at the cementodentinal margin.

  14. Why do receptor-ligand bonds in cell adhesion cluster into discrete focal-adhesion sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiwen; Gao, Yanfei

    2016-10-01

    Cell adhesion often exhibits the clustering of the receptor-ligand bonds into discrete focal-adhesion sites near the contact edge, thus resembling a rosette shape or a contracting membrane anchored by a small number of peripheral forces. The ligands on the extracellular matrix are immobile, and the receptors in the cell plasma membrane consist of two types: high-affinity integrins (that bond to the substrate ligands and are immobile) and low-affinity integrins (that are mobile and not bonded to the ligands). Thus the adhesion energy density is proportional to the high-affinity integrin density. This paper provides a mechanistic explanation for the clustering/assembling of the receptor-ligand bonds from two main points: (1) the cellular contractile force leads to the density evolution of these two types of integrins, and results into a large high-affinity integrin density near the contact edge and (2) the front of a propagating crack into a decreasing toughness field will be unstable and wavy. From this fracture mechanics perspective, the chemomechanical equilibrium is reached when a small number of patches with large receptor-ligand bond density are anticipated to form at the cell periphery, as opposed to a uniform distribution of bonds on the entire interface. Cohesive fracture simulations show that the de-adhesion force can be significantly enhanced by this nonuniform bond density field, but the de-adhesion force anisotropy due to the substrate elastic anisotropy is significantly reduced.

  15. Computed tomography analysis of wood-adhesive bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzel, Gunter Georg Rolf

    The importance of wood bonding increased in the last decades due to the increased usage of wood composites whose performance depends to a large extent on the adhesive penetration and subsequent bonding of the adherends. The presented research used XMT (x-ray microtomography) to perform a non-destructive, three-dimensional analysis of the adhesive bondline and wood-structure of Southern yellow pine, Douglas-fir and yellow-poplar samples. A phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was used. The sodium hydroxide catalyst was replaced with rubidium hydroxide during resin formulation. This was done to improve the image contrast. The reconstructions of the wood structure of Southern yellow pine showed tracheids, rays, fusiform rays, resin canals and pits. On the Douglas-fir sample tracheids, pits and rays were displayed clearly. The yellow-poplar images showed vessels, fibers, bordered pits, scalariform sieve plates and rays. The renderings of the adhesive-bondline of Southern yellow pine proved the dominant role of tracheids for the adhesive flow and showed rays as a secondary pathway of adhesive flow. The results revealed no adhesive flow occured through bordered pits, while simple pits permitted some adhesive flow through ray parenchyma. The results for Douglas-fir showed a similar result; the tracheids were the predominant path of adhesive penetration, while rays played a secondary role and no adhesive flow through the pit aperture was visible. The adhesive flow through the microstructure of yellow-poplar wood occured mainly through vessels and also through rays, but no adhesive flow through the pits was directly observed. The segmentation of the images in three phases: void space, cell wall substance and adhesive, enabled the calculation of the effective bondline thickness based on the adhesive, as well as the volumetric measurement of all three elements and their share on the sample volume. Subsequent experiments showed that the exposure of the Southern yellow pine and yellow

  16. Thermoplastic polymeric adhesive for structural bonding applications for orthopaedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, D.; King, R.; Swarts, D.; Lin, S. [Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN (United States); Ramani, K.; Tagle, J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The orthopaedics industry has witnessed tremendous growth in recent years primarily due to the introduction of high performance, porous coated implants. These devices have eliminated the need for the use of bone cement for in vivo implant fixation, replacing it with the ingrowth of bone into the porous surfaces. The metallurgical bonding processes used for attaching the porous to the implant body introduce some undesirable effect i.e., the reduction of the fatigue strength of the implant due to the ``notches`` created and also due to the high temperature exposure during the sintering operations. This paper describes the development of a thermoplastic polymeric adhesive based structural bonding technique. The high performance polymeric adhesive is fully characterized with respect to its intended application. The design of the porous layer is optimized to achieve a reliable bond to the implant. A thermal heating/cooling process was developed to control the final polymer morphology. Static and fatigue tests were conducted to fully characterize the adhesive bond strength. A ring shear test method was developed to determine the shear strength of the bond interface. Besides the characterization of the adhesive bond, the joints will be analyzed using finite element models. The correlation between the analytical models and the

  17. Cure Monitoring Techniques for Adhesive Bonding Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Dissipation Factor 21 Derived From Audrey and Phasemeter Data for PH-73 Ad- hesive. Filled symbols represent positive values of tanq .; hollow symbols...bonded joint. Since the absorption of water is a slow diffusion controlled process, it was decided to test the idea by iomursing a siulated bondline in... water . A series of probed bonds (probe 1/4" x 2ŕ) were fabricated between aluminum adherends with a layer of FE? film adjacent to each adherend. This

  18. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days. Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond, two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond, or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250. Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37°C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (α = 0.05. After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time.

  19. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Bonini, Gabriela; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS) of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days). Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond), two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond), or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250). Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37 °C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400 ×). Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time.

  20. Development of a Nonchromate Structural Adhesive Bond Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Prevent corrosion of base metal • Applied to porous anodized surface • Overcoated with non- inhibited epoxy adhesive • High adhesive bond strength...primers •Long-running surveillance of chromate-free alternatives by UTC companies shows weak corrosion inhibition • (A) strontium chromate... corrosion inhibiter achieved Electrokinetic Confirmation of Active Inhibition in Coatings 7 Schematic of defect production and samples for salt

  1. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  2. Debonding characteristics of adhesively bonded woven Kevlar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    The fatigue damage mechanism of an adhesively bonded joint between fabric reinforced composite adherends was investigated with cracked-lap-shear specimens. Two bonded systems were studied: fabric Kevlar 49/5208 epoxy adherends bonded together with either EC 3445 or FM-300 adhesive. For each bonded system, two specimen geometries were tested. In all specimens tested, fatigue damage occurred in the form of cyclic debonding; however, the woven Kevlar specimens gave significantly slower debond growth rates and higher fracture toughness than previously found in the nonwoven adherend specimens. The surfaces for the woven adherends were not smooth; rather, they had regular crests (high spots) and troughs (low spots) due to the weave pattern. Radiographs of the specimens and examination of their failure surfaces revealed that fiber bridging occurred between the crests of the two adherends in the debonded region. The observed improvements in debond growth resistance and static fracture toughness are attributed to this bridging.

  3. Microtensile Bond Strength of Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop Adhesives to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh Oskoee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength to sound and caries-affected dentin using Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesives.Materials and Methods: Sixteen extracted human molars with carious lesions extended halfway through dentin were ground to expose the caries affected and the surrounding normal dentin. The samples were divided into two groups of eight samples each, including Single Bond (two-step etch and rinse and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (one step self-etch. Z-100 (3M was used for composite build-ups. The teeth were then sectioned and prepared for micro tensile bond strength test, at cross head speed of 1.5 mm/min. Data were ana-lyzed by 1- and 2-way ANOVA.Results: Bond strengths of Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesives to sound den-tin were significantly higher than to the caries-affected one (P<0.001, besides, bond strength of Single Bond to dentin was generally found to be higher than Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesive (P<0.001.The interaction effect was not significant (P=0.116Conclusion: Bond strength to caries-affected dentin was compromised when one and two step adhesives were used.

  4. Durability of Structural Adhesively Bonded System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    boundary zone at a time interval of At = 60 minutes (i.e. non-linear with strain rate effect solution). Fig. 8.1 Sequence of environmental history cycle...8.2 Sequence of environmental history cycle Nos. 11 and Il, for investigation of hygrothermal behavior of CFRP and adhesiv specimens, representing the... environmental history on the ’eformational behavior of an FRP adherend as part of a bonded structured more information is needed on the HEC and CTE

  5. In-Situ Adhesive Bond Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    2008, Irvine , CA, August 27-29, 2008. [7] Srivastava, A. and Lanza di Scalea, F., "Quantitative Detection of Bond Defects in Composite Aircraft...Zagrai, S. Buckley, J. Ganley, and J. S. Welsh , "Structural Health Monitoring: An Enabler for Responsive Satellites," Proc. SPIE Smart Structures/NDE 6935...Arritt, L. M. Robertson, A. D. Williams, B. K. Henderson, S. Buckley, J. Ganley, J. S. Welsh , L. Ouyang, S. Beard, E. Clayton, M. D. Todd, D. Doyle, and

  6. Comparing Properties of Adhesive Bonding, Resistance Spot Welding, and Adhesive Weld Bonding of Coated and Uncoated DP 600 Steel%Comparing Properties of Adhesive Bonding, Resistance Spot Welding, and Adhesive Weld Bonding of Coated and Uncoated DP 600 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih Hayat

    2011-01-01

    Zinc coated dual phase 600 steel (DP 600 grade) was investigated, utilisation of which has gradually increased with each passing day in the automotive industry. The adhesive bonding (AB), resistance spot welding (RSW), and adhesive weld bonding (AWB) ioints of the zinc coated DP 600 steel were investigated. Additionally, the zinc coating was removed using HCL acid in order to investigate the effect of the coating. The microstructure, tensile shear strengths, and fracture properties of adhesive bonding (AB), resistance spot welding (RSW), and adhesive weld bonding (AWB) joints of the coated and uncoated DP 600 steel were compared. In addition, a mechani cal-electrical-thermal coupled model in a finite element analysis environment was utilised. The thermal profile phe nomenon was calculated by simulating this process. The results of the tensile shear test indicated that the tensile load bearing capacity (TLBC) values of the coated specimens among the three welding methods were higher than those of the uncoated specimens. Additionally, the tensile strength of the AWB joints of the coated and uncoated specimens was higher than that of the AB and RSW joints. It was determined that the fracture behaviours and the deformation caused were different for the three welding methods.

  7. Durability of bonds and clinical success of adhesive restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo M; Manso, Adriana P; Geraldeli, Saulo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2012-01-01

    Resin-dentin bond strength durability testing has been extensively used to evaluate the effectiveness of adhesive systems and the applicability of new strategies to improve that property. Clinical effectiveness is determined by the survival rates of restorations placed in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). While there is evidence that the bond strength data generated in laboratory studies somehow correlates with the clinical outcome of NCCL restorations, it is questionable whether the knowledge of bonding mechanisms obtained from laboratory testing can be used to justify clinical performance of resin-dentin bonds. There are significant morphological and structural differences between the bonding substrate used in in vitro testing versus the substrate encountered in NCCL. These differences qualify NCCL as a hostile substrate for bonding, yielding bond strengths that are usually lower than those obtained in normal dentin. However, clinical survival time of NCCL restorations often surpass the durability of normal dentin tested in the laboratory. Likewise, clinical reports on the long-term survival rates of posterior composite restorations defy the relatively rapid rate of degradation of adhesive interfaces reported in laboratory studies. This article critically analyzes how the effectiveness of adhesive systems is currently measured, to identify gaps in knowledge where new research could be encouraged. The morphological and chemical analysis of bonded interfaces of resin composite restorations in teeth that had been in clinical service for many years, but were extracted for periodontal reasons, could be a useful tool to observe the ultrastructural characteristics of restorations that are regarded as clinically acceptable. This could help determine how much degradation is acceptable for clinical success.

  8. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  9. Influence of additional adhesive application on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, André Luís Faria; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; de Souza, Grace Mendonça Dias; dos Santos, Carlos Tadeu Dias; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microtensile bond strength (pTBS) when an additional adhesive layer was applied to the dentin surface. Thirty-five human third molars were flattened to expose the occlusal dentin surface. The teeth were randomly assigned to 7 experimental groups: G1-Single Bond (SB); G2-additional layer of SB; G3--a layer of Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SMP) adhesive applied over SB; G4-Clearfil SE Bond (CE); G5-additional layer of CE; G6-Adper Prompt (AP) and G7-additional layer of AP. For the G2, G3, G5 and G7 groups, the first adhesive layer was light-cured before application of the additional layer. After bonding procedures, 5-mm high composite crowns were incrementally built up. The samples were sectioned to obtain 0.9 x 0.9 beams, which were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5-mm/minute until failure. The failure mode and adhesive thickness were evaluated under SEM. The pTBS data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Ducan's Test (a=0.05). Mean adhesive thickness was analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test (a=0.05). The results indicated that G3 presented the highest microTBS and the thickest adhesive layer. G6 and G7 presented the lowest microTBS values. When solvent-free adhesives systems were used, microTBS values were not affected by the thicker layer.

  10. Microtensile bond strength of sealant and adhesive systems applied to occlusal primary enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires-Romito, ACD; Reis, A; Loguercio, AD; Hipolito, VD; de Goes, MF; Singer, JD; Grande, RHM

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the microtensile bond strength (mu TBS) of a self-etch adhesive system (OptiBond Solo Self-Etch Adhesive System), two total etch adhesive system (OptiBond FL; OptiBond Solo), and a conventional sealant (Clinpro) applied to the occlusal surface of primary molars under saliva contamination. Methods: Sealant and adhesive systems were applied under manufacturers' specifications with or without previous saliva contamination. After storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C for ...

  11. The Effect of Temperature on Shear Bond Strength of Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Single Bond Adhesive Systems to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nouri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Monomer viscosity and solvent evaporation can be affected by the adhesive system temperature. Higher temperature can elevate the vapor pressure in solution and penetration of adhesive in smear layer. Bonding mechanism may be influenced by the adhesive temperature. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heating on shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives to ground bovine dentin surfaces, at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 60 maxillary bovine incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10. The central part of labial dentin surfaces was exposed with a diamond bur and standardized smear layer was creat-ed by using silicon carbide paper (600 grit under water-coolant while the specimens were mounted in acrylic resin. Two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse (Adper single bond and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond were stored at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C for 30 minutes and were then applied on the prepared labial surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The composite resin (Z350 was packed in Teflon mold (5 mm in diameter on this surface and was cured. The shear bond strength (MPa was evaluated by universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany at cross head speed of 1mm/min. The results were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p< 0.05. Results: No significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond adhesive in different temperature and single Bond adhesive sys-tem at 25 ̊C and 40 ̊C. However, there were significant differences between 4 ̊C of Adper single bond in comparison with 25˚C and 40˚C (p= 0.0001. Conclusion: Pre-heating did not affect the shear bond strength of SE Bond, but could promote the shear bond strength of Adper Single Bond.

  12. Shear bond strength of ceramic and metallic orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer and conventional bonding adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Valiollah; Naghipour, Fatemeh; Ravadgar, Mehdi; Karkhah, Ahmad; Barati, Mohammad Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adult patients typically require high-quality orthodontic treatment for ceramic brackets, but some clinicians remain concerned about the bond strength of these brackets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the shear bond strength and de-bonding characteristics of metallic and ceramic brackets bonded with two types of bonding agents. Methods In an experimental study done in 2013 in Babol, Iran, 120 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows: HM group: metallic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SM group: metallic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer; HC group: ceramic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SC group: ceramic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer. Twenty-four hours after thermocycling (1000 cycle, 5 °C–55 °C), the shear bond strength values were measured. The amount of resin remaining on the tooth surface (adhesive remnant index: ARI) was determined under a stereomicroscope. Enamel detachment index was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. To perform statistical analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey post-hoc tests were applied. The level of significance was set at p ceramic brackets. In addition, self-etching primer was able to produce fewer bonds compared with the conventional technique. Many samples showed the bracket-adhesive interface failure or failure inside the adhesive. PMID:28243410

  13. Curli mediate bacterial adhesion to fibronectin via tensile multiple bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Gruber, Hermann J.; Cui, Yidan; Traxler, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Park, Sungsu; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Many enteric bacteria including pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains produce curli fibers that bind to host surfaces, leading to bacterial internalization into host cells. By using a nanomechanical force-sensing approach, we obtained real-time information about the distribution of molecular bonds involved in the adhesion of curliated bacteria to fibronectin. We found that curliated E. coli and fibronectin formed dense quantized and multiple specific bonds with high tensile strength, resulting in tight bacterial binding. Nanomechanical recognition measurements revealed that approximately 10 bonds were disrupted either sequentially or simultaneously under force load. Thus the curli formation of bacterial surfaces leads to multi-bond structural components of fibrous nature, which may explain the strong mechanical binding of curliated bacteria to host cells and unveil the functions of these proteins in bacterial internalization and invasion.

  14. Propagation of Iamb waves in adhesively bonded multilayered media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haiyan; XIE Yuanxia; LIU Zhenqing

    2003-01-01

    The effect of introducing attenuation on Lamb wave dispersion curves is studied in this paper. Attenuation is introduced to a three-layered composite plate by an adhesive bond layer with viscous behavior. No changes are required to the transfer matrix formulation for the propagation of elastic waves. By introduction of a complex wavenumber, the model can be used to the propagation of attenuative Lamb waves. Numerical examples for a three-layered aluminium-epoxy-aluminium plate show that attenuation values of each mode in plates are related not only to attenuation, but also to the thickness of the bonded layer, which is in agreement with practical situations.

  15. Shear bond strength of new self-adhesive flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdowicz, Michael N; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Means, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new self-adhesive flowable composite resin systems have been introduced to the market. These new composite resin systems reportedly bond to dentin and enamel without the application of an adhesive bonding agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel of two new self-adhesive flowable composites with and without the use of an etch-and-rinse bonding agent. The new self-adhesive flowable composites had significantly lower bond strengths to enamel compared to a traditional adhesively bonded flowable composite. Both self-adhesive flowable composites had a significant increase in bond strength to enamel with the use of a phosphoric acid-etch and adhesive bonding agent.

  16. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  17. Influence of adhesive bond line thickness on joint strength

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Peter; Sohier, L; Cognard, J. -y.; Bourmaud, A; Choqueuse, Dominique; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Creac' Hcadec, R

    2009-01-01

    While the geometry of aerospace assemblies is carefully controlled, for many industrial applications such as marine structures bond line thickness can vary significantly. In this study epoxy adhesive joints of different thicknesses between aluminium substrates have been characterized using physico-chemical analyses (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA; spectroscopy), nano-indentation and mechanical testing. Thermal analyses indicated no influence of thickn...

  18. Regional bond strengths of adhesive resins to pulp chamber dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, S; Zhang, Y; Pereira, P N; Ozer, F; Pashley, D H

    2001-08-01

    Microleakage of oral microorganisms, which can occur due to the lack of sealing ability of permanent restorative materials, may cause failure of root canal treatments. Although a great deal of research has been done on sealing enamel and coronal dentin with resins, little research has been done on the adhesion of resins to the walls of pulp chambers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional bond strengths of two adhesive systems to the walls of pulp chambers. A section was made horizontally through the middle of the pulp chamber of extracted human third molars to divide the chamber into upper and lower halves. The pulp tissue was removed and the tooth segments were then divided into treatment subgroups. The pulp chambers were bonded with C&B Metabond (Parkell) or One-Step (Bisco), with or without 5% NaOCI pretreatment. The microtensile bond strengths of these resins to four different pulp chamber regions (bottom, wall, roof, and pulp horn areas) were then measured using an Instron machine. The data were expressed in MPa and were analyzed by a three-way ANOVA. Statistically significant differences were found among the test groups (p < 0.001). One-Step produced higher bond strengths to all pulp chamber regions except the floor, compared with C&B Metabond. The results indicated that high bond strengths can be achieved between adhesive resins and the various regions of the pulp chamber. This should permit the use of a thick layer of unfilled resin along the floor of the pulp chamber and over the canal orifices as a secondary protective seal after finishing root canal therapy.

  19. Contraction stress in dentin adhesives bonded to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M; de Gee, A J; Kaga, M; Feilzer, A J

    2006-08-01

    Adhesives cured under constrained conditions develop contraction stresses. We hypothesized that, with dentin as a bonding substrate, the stress would reach a maximum, followed by a continuous decline. Stress development was determined with a tensilometer for two total-etch systems and two systems with self-etching primers. The adhesives were placed in a thin layer between a glass plate and a flat dentin surface pretreated with phosphoric acid or self-etching primer. After an initial maximum shortly after light-curing, the stress decreased dramatically for the total-etch systems (70%) and, to a lesser extent, for the adhesives with self-etching primers (30%). The greater stress decrease for the total-etch systems was ascribed to water and/or solvents released into the adhesives from the fully opened dentinal tubules by the pulling/sucking action of the contraction stress. This happened less with the adhesives with self-etching primers, where the tubules remained mainly closed.

  20. Reliability of Adhesive Bonds Under Severe Environments. Report of the Committee on Reliability of Adhesive Bonds in Severe Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Arlington, Virginia LAWRENCE T. DRZAL, Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio BEN A. WILCOX , Defense Advanced...area of mechanics included additi, nal research in the area of nondestructive evaluation ( NDE ), the - - r. w-o I----- - -: - -." .--. search for...carried out on the cffects of additives and impurities on adhesive bond durability. • . - I MECHANICS o Efforts should be made to develop NDE

  1. Surface Monitoring of CFRP Structures for Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Palmieri, Frank L.; Yost, William T.; Connell, John W.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of composite materials requires reliable monitoring and detection of surface contaminants to assure robust and durable bonded structures. Surface treatment and effective monitoring prior to bonding is essential in order to obtain a surface free from contaminants that may degrade structural performance. Two techniques which monitor the effectiveness of the laser surface treatment of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials are being investigated: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE). The applicability of LIBS to detect silicone contaminants on CFRP composites is studied using 35 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm with a pulse energy of 45 mJ. The LIBS regime in which pulse energies are surface cleanliness pre- and post-treatment by laser ablation on specimens contaminated with PDMS coatings from 8 nm to 1311 nm in thickness. The results showed a significant increase in the OSEE photocurrent after laser surface treatment.

  2. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  3. Microtensile Bond Strength of Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop Adhesives to Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    P. Alizadeh Oskoee; AA. Ajami; S. Savadi Oskoee; F. Pournaghi-Azar

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength to sound and caries-affected dentin using Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesives.Materials and Methods: Sixteen extracted human molars with carious lesions extended halfway through dentin were ground to expose the caries affected and the surrounding normal dentin. The samples were divided into two groups of eight samples each, including Single Bond (two-step etch and rinse) and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (one step s...

  4. Bond efficacy and interface morphology of self-etching adhesives to ground enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, A.I.; El Zohairy, A.A.; Mohsen, M.M.A.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the microshear bond strengths to ground enamel of three one-step self-etching adhesive systems, a self-etching primer system and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Three self-etching adhesives, Futurabond DC (Voco), Clearfil S Tri Bond (Kuraray) an

  5. Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  6. Improved Bond Strength of Cyanoacrylate Adhesives Through Nanostructured Chromium Adhesion Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobble, Kyle; Stark, Amelia; Stagon, Stephen P.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of many consumer products suffers due to weak and inconsistent bonds formed to low surface energy polymer materials, such as polyolefin-based high-density polyethylene (HDPE), with adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate. In this letter, we present an industrially relevant means of increasing bond shear strength and consistency through vacuum metallization of chromium thin films and nanorods, using HDPE as a prototype material and cyanoacrylate as a prototype adhesive. For the as received HDPE surfaces, unmodified bond shear strength is shown to be only 0.20 MPa with a standard deviation of 14 %. When Cr metallization layers are added onto the HDPE at thicknesses of 50 nm or less, nanorod-structured coatings outperform continuous films and have a maximum bond shear strength of 0.96 MPa with a standard deviation of 7 %. When the metallization layer is greater than 50 nm thick, continuous films demonstrate greater performance than nanorod coatings and have a maximum shear strength of 1.03 MPa with a standard deviation of 6 %. Further, when the combination of surface roughening with P400 grit sandpaper and metallization is used, 100-nm-thick nanorod coatings show a tenfold increase in shear strength over the baseline, reaching a maximum of 2.03 MPa with a standard deviation of only 3 %. The substantial increase in shear strength through metallization, and the combination of roughening with metallization, may have wide-reaching implications in consumer products which utilize low surface energy plastics.

  7. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesives to pulp chamber dentin after irrigation with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ç Barutcigil

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that EDTA irrigation can affect the bond strength of adhesive systems on pulp chamber lateral walls. Clinically, low EDTA concentrations can be recommended if self-etch adhesives have been selected.

  8. Evaluation of bond strength and thickness of adhesive layer according to the techniques of applying adhesives in composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Fernando Carlos Hueb; da Silva, Stella Borges; Valentino, Thiago Assunção; Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb de Menezes; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Conçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive restorations have increasingly been used in dentistry, and the adhesive system application technique may determine the success of the restorative procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the application technique of two adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Scotchbond MultiPurpose) on the bond strength and adhesive layer of composite resin restorations. Eight human third molars were selected and prepared with Class I occlusal cavities. The teeth were restored with composite using various application techniques for both adhesives, according to the following groups (n = 10): group 1 (control), systems were applied and adhesive was immediately light activated for 20 seconds without removing excesses; group 2, excess adhesive was removed with a gentle jet of air for 5 seconds; group 3, excess was removed with a dry microbrushtype device; and group 4, a gentle jet of air was applied after the microbrush and then light activation was performed. After this, the teeth were submitted to microtensile testing. For the two systems tested, no statistical differences were observed between groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 and 4 presented higher bond strength values compared with the other studied groups, allowing the conclusion that excess adhesive removal with a dry microbrush could improve bond strength in composite restorations. Predominance of adhesive fracture and thicker adhesive layer were observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in groups 1 and 2. For groups 3 and 4, a mixed failure pattern and thinner adhesive layer were verified. Clinicians should be aware that excess adhesive may negatively affect bond strength, whereas a thin, uniform adhesive layer appears to be favorable.

  9. Effect of water storage on the bonding effectiveness of 6 adhesives to Class I cavity dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Shirai, Kenichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Lambrechts, Paul; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Shintani, Hideaki; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive-dentin interfaces degrade with time. This study determined the effect water storage may have on the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to occlusal Class I cavity-bottom dentin. Six adhesives, all representing contemporary classes of adhesives, were applied: a 3-step (OptiBond FL, Kerr) and 2-step (Scotchbond 1*, 3M ESPE) etch-and-rinse adhesive, a 2-step (Clearfil SE, Kuraray) and 1-step (Adper prompt, 3M ESPE) self-etch adhesive and a 2-step (FujiBond LC, GC) and 1-step (Reactmer, Shofu) resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by microtensile bond strength testing (MTBS) and electron microscopy (Feg-SEM and TEM). The MTBS was determined after 1 day and 1 year water storage of the entire restored cavity (indirect exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water) and prepared microTBS-beams (direct exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water). The hypotheses tested were: (1) resin-dentin bonds formed at the bottom of Class I cavities resist 1-year water storage and (2) an adjacent composite-enamel bond protects the composite-dentin bond against degradation. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis statistically analyzed the microTBSs. The first hypothesis was rejected, as only the microTBS of OptiBond FL and Clearfil SE did not significantly decrease after 1-year direct and/or indirect water storage. The second hypothesis was corroborated, as the bonding effectiveness of most simplified adhesives (Scotchbond 1, Adper Prompt, FujiBond LC and Reactmer) approached 0 (because of the frequent pre-testing failures) after 1-year direct water exposure. The second hypothesis concluded that the 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive must still be regarded the "gold standard." Though microTBS decreased significantly, Clearfil SE, as a 2-step self-etch adhesive, was the only simplified adhesive to perform reliably after 1-year direct water exposure.

  10. A study of the non-linear behaviour of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Cognard, Jean Yves; Davies, Peter; Sohier, S; Creac' Hcadec, R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to define a reliable tool for dimensioning of adhesively bonded assemblies, particularly for marine and underwater applications. This paper presents experimental and numerical results, which describe the non-linear behaviour of an adhesive in a bonded assembly for various loadings. A modified Arcan fixture, well-suited for the study of the behaviour of bonded metal-metal assemblies, was developed in order to focus on the analysis of the behaviour of the adhesive...

  11. Multivariate Analysis of High Through-Put Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joints: Experimental and Workflow Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ARL-TR-7696 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Multivariate Analysis of High Through- Put Adhesively Bonded Single Lap...TR-7696 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Multivariate Analysis of High Through- Put Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joints: Experimental...SUBTITLE Multivariate Analysis of High Through- Put Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joints: Experimental and Workflow Protocols 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  12. Effect of adhesive layers on microshear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bond strength of adhesive layer can absorb unwanted stresses of polymerization shrinkage in composite resin restorations; increased microshear bond strength can prevent failure of restoration materials, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive layers on microshear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to dentin. Material and Methods Two different types of adhesive systems: universal adhesive (ExciTE) and newly developed adhesive (Nano-Bond), and one type of light-cured resin restorative material (Nanocomposite resin) were used in this study. The occlusal surfaces of extracted human molar teeth were ground perpendicular to the long axis of each tooth to expose a flat dentin surface. The adhesives were applied on dentin surfaces (single application or double application). Nanocomposite resin was then placed and light cured for 40 seconds. After 24 hours of immersion in water at 37°C, then subjected to thermocycling before testing, a microshear bond test was carried out. The data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA. For comparison between groups, Tukey’s post-hoc test was used. Results The mean bond strengths of ExciTE and Nano-Bond adhesives with a single application were 8.8 and 16.6 MPa, respectively. The mean bond strengths of ExciTE and Nano-Bond adhesives with double application were 13.2 and 21.8MPa, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in microshear bond strengths between the single application of Nano-Bond and the double application of ExciTE adhesives. Conclusions Microshear bond strength increased significantly as the applied adhesive layer was doubled. Key words:Adhesive, microshear, bond, strength, nanocomposite. PMID:28210433

  13. Experimental study about the influence of adhesive stiffness to the bonding strengths of adhesives for ceramic/metal targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Seifert

    2016-04-01

    The experimental results indicate that the damage behavior of the ceramic/metal composites depends on the absolute elongation of the adhesive layer. This can be controlled either by the thickness or the stiffness of the bonding layer.

  14. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems applied on occlusal primary enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires-Romito, Ana Cláudia; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; de Góes, Mario Fernando; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems (OptiBond Solo, Kerr; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) on occlusal surface of primary molars. The adhesives were tested under manufacturers' specifications and after contamination of the bonding site with saliva. Hourglass cylindrical-shaped samples were obtained and subjected to a tensile force. No significant difference was observed among the groups. OptiBond Solo and Prime & Bond NT showed similar values of bond strengths when applied on occlusal enamel of primary molar under either saliva contamination or not.

  15. Bond strength of different adhesives to normal and caries-affected dentins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN Wei; HOU Ben-xiang; L(U) Yalin

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, several systems of dentin substrate-reacting adhesives are available for use in the restorative treatment against caries. However, the bond effectiveness and property of different adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different adhesives to both normal dentin (ND) and caries-affected dentin (CAD) and to analyze the dentin/adhesive interracial characteristics.Methods Twenty eight extracted human molars with coronal medium carious lesions were randomly assigned to four groups according to adhesives used. ND and CAD were bonded with etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper~(TM) Single Bond 2 (SB2) or self-etching adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil S~3 Bond (CS3), iBond GI (IB). Rectangular sticks of resin-dentin bonded interfaces 0.9 mm~2 were obtained. The specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Mean μTBS was statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Interfacial morphologies were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).Results Etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper~(TM) Single Bond 2 yielded high bond strength when applied to both normal and caries-affected dentin. The two-step self-etching adhesive Clearfil SE Bond generated the highest bond strength to ND among all adhesives tested but a significantly reduced strength when applied to CAD. For the one-step self-etching adhesives, Clearfil S~3 Bond and iBond GI, the bond strength was relatively low regardless of the dentin type. SEM interfacial analysis revealed that hybrid layers were thicker with poorer resin tag formation and less resin-filled lateral branches in the CAD than in the ND for all the adhesives tested.Conclusion The etch-and-rinse adhesive performed more effectively to caries-affected dentin than the self-etching adhesives.

  16. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Makoto; O’Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

  17. Post-bleaching application of an antioxidant on dentin bond strength of three dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that bond strength of resin to bleached dentin may be affected with the adhesive system. Reduced SBS to bleached dentin can be amended by the use of SA as an antioxidizing agent. However, the amount of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant might be related to the kind of dental adhesive.

  18. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Faria-e-Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10: SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC; AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem. Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05. The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  19. Polymerization contraction stress in dentin adhesives bonded to dentin and enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hashimoto; A.J. de Gee; A.J. Feilzer

    2008-01-01

    Objective In a previous study on of polymerization contraction stress determinations of adhesives bonded to dentin a continuous decline of stress was observed after the adhesives had been light-cured. The decline was ascribed to stress relief caused by diffusion into the adhesive layer of water and/

  20. Evaluation of adhesive bond Young's modulus during crosslinking using a mechanical method and an ultrasound method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, B.; Budzik, M. K.; Castaings, M.; Jumel, J.; Shanahan, M. E. R.

    2012-03-01

    The strength and stability of adhesive bonded structures are related to polymer curing, when crosslinking occurs and leads to adhesive strength, stiffness and durability. Depending on the resin and curing agent used, cure time can vary from minutes to weeks. Methods based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) or calorimetric techniques (DSC, DTA) are valuable for evaluating mechanical properties of adhesives, but are devoted specifically to the polymers alone, and not in situ in adhesive bonds. In this contribution, we have monitored - during crosslinking - the Young's modulus of a slow-curing DGEBA - PAMAM adhesive system, with two non-destructive, in situ, methods used for the characterisation of the adhesive in a bonded system. The first method is based on measurements obtained from strain gauges mounted on one bonded adherend. The second method uses an ultrasound technique based on the through-transmission. Both methods suggest the same curing kinetics.

  1. On structural health monitoring of aircraft adhesively bonded repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulou, Sofia

    The recent interest in life extension of ageing aircraft and the need to address the repair challenges in the new age composite ones, led to the investigation of new repair methodologies such as adhesively bonded repair patches. The present thesis focuses on structural health monitoring aspects of the repairs, evaluating their performance with guided ultrasonic waves aiming to develop a monitoring strategy which would eliminate unscheduled maintenance and unnecessary inspection costs. To address the complex nature of the wave propagation phenomena, a finite element based model identified the existing challenges by exploring the interaction of the excitation waves with different levels of damage. The damage sensitivity of the first anti-symmetric mode was numerically investigated. An external bonded patch and a scarf repair, were further tested in static and dynamic loadings, and their performance was monitored with Lamb waves, excited by surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers.. The response was processed by means of advanced pattern recognition and data dimension reduction techniques such as novelty detection and principal component analysis. An optimisation of these tools enabled an accurate damage detection under complex conditions. The phenomena of mode isolation and precise arrival time determination under a noisy environment and the problem of inadequate training data were investigated and solved through appropriate transducer arrangements and advanced signal processing respectively. The applicability of the established techniques was demonstrated on an aluminium repaired helicopter tail stabilizer. Each case study utilised alternative non-destructive techniques for validation such as 3D digital image correlation, X-ray radiography and thermography. Finally a feature selection strategy was developed through the analysis of the instantaneous properties of guided waves for damage detection purposes..

  2. Core-shell nanowire based electrical surface fastener used for room-temperature electronic packaging bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ju, Yang; Hosoi, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    With the ongoing miniaturization in electronic packaging, the traditional solders suffer from severe performance degradation. In addition, the high temperature required in the traditional solder reflow process may damage electronic elements. Therefore, there is an increasing urgent need for a new kind of nontoxic solder that can afford good mechanical stress and electrical contact at low temperature. This paper presents a method of fabricating nanowire surface fastener for the application of microelectronic packaging bonding at room temperature. This surface fastener consists of copper core and polystyrene shell nanowire arrays. It showed an adhesive strength of ˜24 N/cm2 and an electrical resistance of ˜0.41 × 10-2 Ω·cm2. This kind of nanowire surface fastener may enable the exploration of wide range applications, involving assembly of components in the electronic packaging.

  3. Microtensile bond strength of etch and rinse versus self-etch adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; Samra, Nagia R; Badawi, Manal F

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive versus one-component or two-component self-etch adhesives. Twelve intact human molar teeth were cleaned and the occlusal enamel of the teeth was removed. The exposed dentin surfaces were polished and rinsed, and the adhesives were applied. A microhybride composite resin was applied to form specimens of 4 mm height and 6 mm diameter. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce dentin-resin composite sticks, with an adhesive area of approximately 1.4 mm(2). The sticks were subjected to tensile loading until failure occurred. The debonded areas were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the site of failure. The results showed that the microtensile bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive was higher than that of one-component or two-component self-etch adhesives. The scanning electron microscope examination of the dentin surfaces revealed adhesive and mixed modes of failure. The adhesive mode of failure occurred at the adhesive/dentin interface, while the mixed mode of failure occurred partially in the composite and partially at the adhesive/dentin interface. It was concluded that the etch and rinse adhesive had higher microtensile bond strength when compared to that of the self-etch adhesives.

  4. "The effect of an addicional adhesive layer on dentin bond strength : comparison with manufacture protocol"

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Ana Soraia Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Tese de Mestrado, Medicina Dentária, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, 2014 The aesthetic requirements of today's society led to the development of a new concept of adhesive dentistry, in which manufacturers are challenged to design the simplest, user-friendly and least technique-sensitive-adhesive. Thus, a newly developed class of dental adhesives has appeared on the market the universal adhesives systems. Purpose: To evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength to denti...

  5. Effectiveness of immediate bonding of etch-and-rinse adhesives to simplified ethanol-saturated dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Afonso Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the immediate bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesives to demineralized dentin saturated with either water or absolute ethanol. The research hypothesis was that there would be no difference in bond strength to dentin between water or ethanol wet-bonding techniques. The medium dentin of 20 third molars was exposed (n = 5. The dentin surface was then acid-etched, left moist and randomly assigned to be saturated via either water wet-bonding (WBT or absolute ethanol wet-bonding (EBT. The specimens were then treated with one of the following etch-and-rinse adhesive systems: a 3-step, water-based system (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose, or SBMP or a 2-step, ethanol/water-based system (Adper Single Bond 2, or SB. Resin composite build-ups were then incrementally constructed. After water storage for 24 h at 37°C, the tensile strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 5%. The failure modes were verified using a stereomicroscope (40'. For both adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was observed between WBT and EBT (p > 0.05. The highest bond strength was observed for SB, regardless of the bonding technique (p < 0.05. No significant interaction between adhesives and bonding techniques was noticed (p = 0.597. There was a predominance of adhesive failures for all tested groups. The EBT and WBT displayed similar immediate bond strength means for both adhesives. The SB adhesive exhibited higher means for all conditions tested. Further investigations are needed to evaluate long-term bonding to dentin mediated by commercial etch-and-rinse adhesives using the EBT approach.

  6. Dentin bond strength and degree of conversion evaluation of experimental self-etch adhesive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdi, Fatemeh Maleknejad; Moosavi, Horieh; Atai, Mohammad; Zeynali, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) monomer in one-step self-etch experimental adhesives on dentinal microshear bond strength (µSBS), their degree of conversion and bonded micro structure. Material and Methods Composite resin cylinders (Clearfil AP-X) were bonded on human sound molar dentinal surfaces by using five experimental one-step self-etching adhesives (1-SEAs) containing 0% ...

  7. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  8. Effect of Curing Direction on Microtensile Bond Strength of Fifth and Sixth Generation Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nadaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Composite restorative materials and dental adhesives are usually cured with light sources. The light direction may influence the bond strength of dental adhesives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light direction on the microtensile bond strength of fifth and sixth generation dental adhesives.Materials and Methods: Prime & Bond NT and Clearfil SE bond were used with different light directions.Sixty human incisor teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=15. In groups A and C, Clearfil SE bond with light curing direction from buccal was used for bonding a composite resin to dentin. In groups B and D, Prime & Bond NT with light curing direction from composite was used. After thermocycling the specimens were subjected to tensile force until debonding occurred and values for microtensile bond strength were recorded. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.Results: The findings showed that the bond strength of Clearfil SE bond was significantly higher than that of Prime&Bond NT (P<0.001. There was no significant difference between light curing directions (P=0.132.Conclusion: Light curing direction did not have significant effect on the bond strength. Sixth generation adhesives was more successful than fifth generation in terms of bond strength to dentin.

  9. Does hybridized dentin affect bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle, Accácio-Lins; de Andrade, Gustavo-Henrique-Barbosa; Vidotti, Hugo-Alberto; Só, Marcus-Vinícius-Reis; Pereira, Jefferson-Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluate the influence of different hybridization bonding techniques of a self-adhesive resin cement. Material and Methods 30 human health molars were divided into six groups (n=10). The specimens received three longitudinal sections, allowing insertion of central cuts in PVC matrices. Each group received a different dentin pretreatment according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, except the control group (G1), as follows. G2 - a 3-step total-etch adhesive system (Optibond™ FL, Kerr); G3 - a 3-step total-etch adhesive system (Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE); G4 - a 2-step total-etch adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE); G5 - a single-step self-etching system (Bond Force, Tokuyama); and G6 - universal bonding system (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then, cylinders made of self-adhesive resin cement with polypropylene matrix was cemented in all groups (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). Bond strength was assessed by submitting the specimens to micro-shear test and was characterized according to the fracture pattern observed through optical microscopy. Results The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, which indicated a statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.04), and Tukey’s multiple comparisons, which indicated a statistically significant difference between G1 and G3 (p<0.05). The microscopic analysis revealed a high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed fractures, and cohesive failures in the dentin. Conclusions The use of a previous dentin hybridization protocol is able to increase adhesive bonding resistance of self-adhesive resin cement, especially when used Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose system. Key words:Bonding, self-adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:27703609

  10. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  11. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days). Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM) or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001). For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  12. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words:Bond strength, self-adhesive cement, silane, dentin, indirect composite. PMID:26855700

  13. Effect of phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    SABATINI, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of optional phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two self-etch adhesives to enamel and dentin. Material and Methods Ninety-six bovine mandibular incisors were ground flat to obtain enamel and dentin substrates. A two-step self-etch adhesive (FL-Bond II) and a one-step self-etch adhesive (BeautiBond) were applied with and without a preliminary acid etching to both the enamel and dentin. The specimens were equally and randomly assigned t...

  14. Evaluation of enamel damages following orthodontic bracket debonding in fluorosed teeth bonded with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baherimoghadam, Tahreh; Akbarian, Sahar; Rasouli, Reza; Naseri, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) of the orthodontic brackets bonded to fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth using Light Bond with and without adhesion promoters and compare their enamel damages following debonding. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 fluorosed (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index = 4–5) and 30 nonfluorosed teeth were randomly distributed between two subgroups according to the bonding materials: Group 1, fluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 2, fluorosed teeth bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond; Group 3, nonfluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 4, nonfluorosed bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond. After bonding, the SBS of the brackets was tested with a universal testing machine. Stereomicroscopic evaluation was performed by unbiased stereology in all teeth to determine the amount of adhesive remnants and the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding and after debonding. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis, Wilcoxon Signed Rank, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: While fluorosis reduced the SBS of orthodontic bracket (P = 0.017), Enhance Locus Ceruleus LC significantly increased the SBS of the orthodontic bracket in fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth (P = 0.039). Significant increasing in the number and length of enamel crack after debonding was found in all four groups. There were no significant differences in the length of enamel crack increased after debonding among four groups (P = 0.768) while increasing in the number of enamel cracks after debonding was significantly different among the four groups (P = 0.023). Teeth in Group 2 showed the highest enamel damages among four groups following debonding. Conclusion: Adhesion promoters could improve the bond strength of orthodontic brackets, but conservative debonding methods for decreasing enamel damages would be necessary. PMID:27095895

  15. Comparative study to evaluate shear bond strength of RMGIC to composite resin using different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Chandak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the role of new dental adhesives to bond composite to the resinmodified glass inomer cement (RMGIC. Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens were prepared on acrylic blocks, with wells prepared in it by drilling holes, to retain the RMGIC. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of ten specimens each. In Group a thin layer of selfetch adhesive (3M ESPE was applied between the RMGIC and the composite resin FILTEK P60 (3M SPE. In Group II, total etch adhesive (Adeper Scotch bond 2, 3M ESPE was applied, and in Group III, there was no application of any adhesive between RMGIC and the composite resin. After curing all the specimens, the shear bond strength was measured using an Instron universal testing machine. Results: The results were drawn and tabulated using ANOVA-fishers and Dunnet D statistical tests.The maximum shear bond strength values were recorded in Group I specimens with self-etch adhesive showing a mean value of 2.74 when compared to the Group II adhesive (Total etch showing a mean shear strength of value 1.89, where no adhesive was used, showed a minimum mean shear bond strength of 1.42. There was a great and significant difference between Group I and Group II (P value 0.05 whereas, both Group I and Group II showed a vast and significant difference from Group III (P value = 0-001. Conclusion: Hence, this present study concludes that application of self-etch adhesive (3M ESPE, U.S.A in between RMGIC and composite resin increases the shear bond strength between RMGIC and the resin composites, as compared to the total-etch type adhesive (Adeper Scotch bond 2,3M ESPE, U.S.A as well as without application of the adhesive agent.

  16. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strengths of total-etch adhesives and self-etch adhesives with single and multiple consecutive applications: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandava Deepthi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study evaluates the effect of single and multiple consecutive applications of adhesives on the tensile bond strength. The currently available adhesives follow either the total-etch or the self-etch concept. However, in both techniques the uniformity and thickness of the adhesive layer plays a significant role in the development of a good bond. Materials and Methods: Sixty composite-dentin bonded specimens were prepared using a total-etch adhesive (Gluma and another 60 using a self-etch adhesive (AdheSE. Each group was further divided into six subgroups based on the number of applications, i.e., single application and multiple (2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 applications. The tensile bond strength was tested with the Instron universal testing machine. The values were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and multiple range tests by Tukey′s HSD procedure to identify those subgroups that had significantly higher bond strength. Results: The results indicate that with total-etch adhesive the bond strength increases significantly as the number of applications are increased from one to two or from two to three", for self-etch adhesive the bond strength obtained with two applications is significantly higher than that with one application. However, for both adhesive systems, there was a decrease in the tensile bond strength values with further applications. Conclusion: We conclude that, in the clinical setting, the application of multiple coats of total etch adhesive improves bonding.

  17. Creep simulation of adhesively bonded joints using modified generalized time hardening model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadigh, Mohammad Ali Saeimi [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Creep behavior of double lap adhesively bonded joints was investigated using experimental tests and numerical analysis. Firstly, uniaxial creep tests were carried out to obtain the creep characteristics and constitutive parameters of the adhesive at different stress and temperature levels. Generalized time hardening model was used to predict the creep behavior of the adhesive. This model was modified to simulate the creep behavior at different stress and temperature levels. Secondly, the developed model was used to simulate the creep behavior of bonded joints using finite element based numerical analysis. Creep deformations of the joints were measured experimentally and good agreement was observed in comparison with the results obtained using numerical simulation. Afterward, stress redistribution due to the creep along the adhesively bonded joint was obtained numerically. It was observed that temperature level had a significant effect on the stress redistribution along the adhesive thickness.

  18. The effect of storage and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of three dentinal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino Carracho, A J; Chappell, R P; Glaros, A G; Purk, J H; Eick, J D

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of time of storage and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of three dentinal adhesives. The shear bond strength of Mirage Bond was significantly greater than that of Scotchbond 2, which was significantly greater than that of Scotchbond Dual Cure (P less than or equal to .05). Thermocycling significantly lowered the shear bond strength of Scotchbond Dual Cure and Scotchbond 2, but not that of Mirage Bond (P less than or equal to .05). Time of storage did not affect the shear bond strength of the other adhesives, but Mirage Bond had a significantly greater shear bond strength after 1 month of storage (P less than or equal to .05). Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the fracture patterns were all at the smear layer-adhesive interface for Scotchbond Dual Cure, the majority of the fractures were at the primer-adhesive interface for Scotchbond 2, and most of the fractures were cohesive in the bonding agent for Mirage Bond.

  19. Interaction morphology and bond strength of nanofilled simplified-step adhesives to acid etched dentin

    OpenAIRE

    DI HIPÓLITO, Vinicius; Reis, André Figueiredo; Mitra, Sumita B.; Goes, Mario Fernando De

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of nanofillers incorporated into adhesives on the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) and interfacial micromorphology to dentin. Methods: The occlusal enamel of 5 human molars was removed and each tooth sectioned into four quarters. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond (SB-unfilled), OptiBond Solo Plus (OS-barium aluminoborosilicate, 400nm Ø), Prime & Bond NT (NT-colloidal silica, 7–40 nm Ø) and Adper Single Bon...

  20. Shear Bond Strength of Ormocer-Based Restorative Material Using Specific and Nonspecific Adhesive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of ormocer-based restorative material bonded to tooth structure using specific ormocer and nonspecific resin-based adhesives. Human molars were prepared to obtain flat buccal enamel surfaces and flat occlusal dentin surfaces. Admira bond, and Prime & Bond NT, Excite, AdheSE, and Prompt-L-Pop were applied to the prepared enamel and dentin surfaces. Ormocer restorative material was inserted into a mold fixed onto the prepared tooth s...

  1. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Hattar

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution.

  2. Non-uniform breaking of molecular bonds, peripheral morphology and releasable adhesion by elastic anisotropy in bio-adhesive contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Biological adhesive contacts are usually of hierarchical structures, such as the clustering of hundreds of sub-micrometre spatulae on keratinous hairs of gecko feet, or the clustering of molecular bonds into focal contacts in cell adhesion. When separating these interfaces, releasable adhesion can be accomplished by asymmetric alignment of the lowest scale discrete bonds (such as the inclined spatula that leads to different peeling force when loading in different directions) or by elastic anisotropy. However, only two-dimensional contact has been analysed for the latter method (Chen & Gao 2007 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 55, 1001-1015 (doi:10.1016/j.jmps.2006.10.008)). Important questions such as the three-dimensional contact morphology, the maximum to minimum pull-off force ratio and the tunability of releasable adhesion cannot be answered. In this work, we developed a three-dimensional cohesive interface model with fictitious viscosity that is capable of simulating the de-adhesion instability and the peripheral morphology before and after the onset of instability. The two-dimensional prediction is found to significantly overestimate the maximum to minimum pull-off force ratio. Based on an interface fracture mechanics analysis, we conclude that (i) the maximum and minimum pull-off forces correspond to the largest and smallest contact stiffness, i.e. 'stiff-adhere and compliant-release', (ii) the fracture toughness is sensitive to the crack morphology and the initial contact shape can be designed to attain a significantly higher maximum-to-minimum pull-off force ratio than a circular contact, and (iii) since the adhesion is accomplished by clustering of discrete bonds or called bridged crack in terms of fracture mechanics terminology, the above conclusions can only be achieved when the bridging zone is significantly smaller than the contact size. This adhesion-fracture analogy study leads to mechanistic predictions that can be readily used to design biomimetics and

  3. Adhesive bond performance of heat-treated wood at various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Hamiyet Sahin; Özbay, Günay

    2016-07-01

    Heat treatment of wood leads to chemical, structural and physical changes in wood constituents, which can significantly affect the bonding performance of wood in several ways depending on the adhesive type used. In the present study, fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) were heat treated at 170 degrees C, 180 degrees C, 190 degrees C, 200 and 212 degrees C for 2 hours. Four different types of adhesives were used for bonding process: melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF), and polyurethane (PUR). For all the pretreatment conditions, highest shear strength of adhesive bonds of each adhesive system was observed for untreated samples and shear strength decreased with increasing heat treatment. The strength of each adhesive bond of samples which were soaked in water was much less than dry samples, approximately half of the dry strength. Generally, the shear strength of the adhesive bonds after boiling was smaller than or similar to the values obtained for soaking. The untreated samples lost more strength after soaking and boiling than heat treated samples. With increasing heat treatment severity, reduction in shear strength increased in dry samples while decreased in soaking and boiling samples. For instance, after soaking, the untreated samples lost more strength (almost 39%) than heat treated samples (almost 24% for most severely heat treated samples). The results showed that the shear strength of adhesive bonds was influenced by heat treatment and depended on pretreatment of samples prior to testing. In general, all adhesives used performed in quite a similar way for all pretreatment conditions, and the bonding performance of heat treated fir wood was less satisfactory than that of beech wood for all adhesive system and condition.

  4. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5±1 min. The compressive strength after 24h of incubation was approximately 8.45±1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10±1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16±4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics.

  5. Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    LIN, JIE; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coat...

  6. Tensile bond strength and SEM evaluation of caries-affected dentin using dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Sano, H; Burrow, M F; Tagami, J; Yoshiyama, M; Ebisu, S; Ciucchi, B; Russell, C M; Pashley, D H

    1995-10-01

    Tensile bond strength measurements are commonly used for the evaluation of dentin adhesive systems. Most tests are performed using extracted non-carious human or bovine dentin. However, the adhesion of resins to caries-affected dentin is still unclear. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin is inferior to bonding to normal dentin, and that the quality of the hybrid layer plays a major role in creating good adhesion. We used a micro-tensile bond strength test to compare test bond strengths made to either caries-affected dentin or normal dentin, using three commercial adhesive systems (All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, and Clearfil Liner Bond II). For scanning electron microscopy, the polished interfaces between the adhesive bond and dentin were subjected to brief exposure to 10% phosphoric acid solution and 5% sodium hypochlorite, so that the quality of the hybrid layers could be observed. Bonding to normal dentin with either All Bond 2 (26.9 +/- 8.8 MPa) or Clearfil Liner Bond II (29.5 +/- 10.9 MPa) showed tensile bond strengths higher than those to caries-affected dentin (13.0 +/- 3.6 MPa and 14.0 +/- 4.3 MPa, respectively). The tensile bond strengths obtained with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose were similar in normal and caries-affected dentin (20.3 +/- 5.5 MPa and 18.5 +/- 4.0 MPa, respectively). The hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in normal dentin and by Clearfil Liner Bond II in normal or caries-affected dentin showed phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite resistance, whereas the hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in caries-affected dentin and those created by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose to normal and caries-affected dentin showed partial susceptibility to the acid and sodium hypochlorite treatment. The results indicate that the strength of adhesion to dentin depends upon both the adhesive system used and the type of dentin. Moreover, the quality of the hybrid layer may not always contribute

  7. Fracture analysis of cracked metallic plate repaired with adhesive bonding composite patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Weiguo; Mu Zhitao

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth test of cracked metallic plate repaired with adhesive bonding composite patch was conducted to study the fracture behavior of crack patching. The failure mode was that crack grows along with adhesive debonding. The crack length and debonding area were measured at different numbers of cycles. The nonlinear three-dimensional(3D)finite element(FE)model considering adhesive debonding and crack growth simultaneously was developed. The experimental and analytical results were in good agreement with each other.

  8. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Stress Distributions within Single-Lap Adhesively Bonded Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for predicting the stress distributions within single-lap adhesively bonded beams under tension is presented in this paper. By combining the governing equations of each adherend with the joint kinematics, the overall system of governing equations can be obtained. Both the adherends and the adhesive are assumed to be under plane strain condition. With suitable boundary conditions, the stress distribution of the adhesive in the longitudinal direction is determined.

  9. BONDING OF MINIATURE PARTS WITH ADHESIVES AND VISION BASED PROCEDURE INSPECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaodong; Jürgen Hesselbach

    2004-01-01

    Bonding with adhesives is an important technique for building up hybrid microsystems.Some adhesives are tested with capillary dispensing system for microassembly,and volume of droplets less than 10 nl with good repeatability can be acquired.1-part UV curing adhesive hardens rapidly and is suitable for bonding of transparent microparts.Light-activated adhesive starts the curing process in an adjustable short period of time after the radiation of visible light,and thus suits bonding of non-transparent microparts.A method is proposed for bonding the guides of a miniature linear motor being developed by collaborate research center 516 (SFB516) in Germany.With the method high assembly accuracy in the vertical direction can be guaranteed.By making small grooves on the stator for containing adhesive,the deterioration of the accuracy due to the thickness of adhesive layer can be avoided.The criteria on deciding the size of the groove are given and analyzed.Vision based inspection method is introduced for automatic assembly of the guides.The dispensing volume and position of dispensed adhesive droplets can be detected for ensuring the bonding quality.

  10. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL and a two-steps/self-etch adhesive system (Optibond XTR were used. Composite buildups were performed with a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XTR. All specimens were submitted to thermocycling ageing (10000 cycles. The specimens were sectioned in 1 mm2 sticks. Microtensile bond strength tests were measured. Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed due to nonnormality of data. Optibond XTR on irradiated and nonirradiated teeth did not show any significant differences. However, Optibond FL bond strength was more effective on nonirradiated teeth than on irradiated teeth. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy had a significant detrimental effect on bond strength to human dentin. However, it seems that adhesive choice could be adapted to the substrata. According to the present study, the two-steps/self-etch (Optibond XTR adhesive system tested could be more effective on irradiated dentin compared to three-steps/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL.

  11. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Cécile; Villat, Cyril; Abouelleil, Hazem; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL) and a two-steps/self-etch adhesive system (Optibond XTR) were used. Composite buildups were performed with a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XTR). All specimens were submitted to thermocycling ageing (10000 cycles). The specimens were sectioned in 1 mm(2) sticks. Microtensile bond strength tests were measured. Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed due to nonnormality of data. Optibond XTR on irradiated and nonirradiated teeth did not show any significant differences. However, Optibond FL bond strength was more effective on nonirradiated teeth than on irradiated teeth. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy had a significant detrimental effect on bond strength to human dentin. However, it seems that adhesive choice could be adapted to the substrata. According to the present study, the two-steps/self-etch (Optibond XTR) adhesive system tested could be more effective on irradiated dentin compared to three-steps/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL).

  12. Nondestructive testing of adhesive bonds by nuclear quadrupole resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Inert, strain sensitive tracer, cuprous oxide, added to polymeric adhesive ensures sufficiently large signal to noise ratio in NQR system output. Method is successful, provided that RF-transparent structural materials are used between modified adhesive and probe of NQR spectrometer.

  13. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Anish

    Adhesive bonding of graphite epoxy composite laminates to itself or traditional metal alloys in modern aerospace and aircraft structural applications offers an excellent opportunity to use the most efficient and intelligent combination of materials available thus providing an attractive package for efficient structural designs. However, one of the major issues of adhesive bonding is the occasional formation of interfacial defects such as kissing or weak bonds in the bondline interface. Also, there are shortcomings of existing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to non-destructively detect/characterize these interfacial defects and reliably predicting the bond shear strength. As a result, adhesive bonding technology is still not solely implemented in primary structures of an aircraft. Therefore, there is a greater demand for a novel NDE tool that can meet the existing aerospace requirement for adhesive bondline characterization. This research implemented a novel Acoustography ultrasonic imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique to detect and characterize interfacial defects in the bondline and determine bond shear strength in adhesively bonded composite-metal joints. Adhesively bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate and 2024-T3 Aluminum single lap shear panels subjected to various implanted kissing/weak bond defects were the primary focus of this study. Kissing/weak bonds were prepared by controlled surface contamination in the composite bonding surface and also by improperly mixing the adhesive constituent. SEM analyses were also conducted to understand the surface morphology of substrates and their interaction with the contaminants. Morphological changes were observed in the microscopic scale and the chemical analysis confirmed the stability of the contaminant at or very close to the interface. In addition, it was also demonstrated that contaminants migrated during the curing of the adhesive from CFRP substrate which caused a

  14. Effect of glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate on shear bond strength of adhesives to primary dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alternative pulpotomy agents such as glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate on the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesive systems to dentin of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty human primary molar teeth were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction and divided into experimental and control groups. Lingual dentin specimens in experimental groups were treated with glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate. Buccal surfaces soaked in water served as control group. Each group was then divided into two groups based on the adhesive system used: Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Prompt L-Pop. A teflon mold was used to build the composite (Filtek Z-250 cylinders on the dentinal surface of all the specimens. Shear bond strength was tested for all the specimens with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The failure mode analysis was performed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Results: The results revealed that glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate significantly reduced the shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin. Clearfil SE Bond showed much higher shear bond strength than Adper Prompt L Pop to primary dentin. SEM analysis revealed a predominant cohesive failure mode for both adhesive systems. Conclusion: This study revealed that the pulpotomy medicaments glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate adversely affected the bonding of self-etch adhesive systems to primary dentin.

  15. Towards the modeling of nanoindentation of virus shells: Do substrate adhesion and geometry matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Arthur; Dragnea, Bogdan; Tayachi, Manel; Temam, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Soft nanoparticles adsorbing at surfaces undergo deformation and buildup of elastic strain as a consequence of interfacial adhesion of similar magnitude with constitutive interactions. An example is the adsorption of virus particles at surfaces, a phenomenon of central importance for experiments in virus nanoindentation and for understanding of virus entry. The influence of adhesion forces and substrate corrugation on the mechanical response to indentation has not been studied. This is somewhat surprising considering that many single-stranded RNA icosahedral viruses are organized by soft intermolecular interactions while relatively strong adhesion forces are required for virus immobilization for nanoindentation. This article presents numerical simulations via finite elements discretization investigating the deformation of a thick shell in the context of slow evolution linear elasticity and in presence of adhesion interactions with the substrate. We study the influence of the adhesion forces in the deformation of the virus model under axial compression on a flat substrate by comparing the force-displacement curves for a shell having elastic constants relevant to virus capsids with and without adhesion forces derived from the Lennard-Jones potential. Finally, we study the influence of the geometry of the substrate in two-dimensions by comparing deformation of the virus model adsorbed at the cusp between two cylinders with that on a flat surface.

  16. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Cécile Bernard; Cyril Villat; Hazem Abouelleil; Marie-Paule Gustin; Brigitte Grosgogeat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL) and a two-steps/self-et...

  17. Effect of phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila SABATINI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effect of optional phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS of two self-etch adhesives to enamel and dentin. Material and Methods Ninety-six bovine mandibular incisors were ground flat to obtain enamel and dentin substrates. A two-step self-etch adhesive (FL-Bond II and a one-step self-etch adhesive (BeautiBond were applied with and without a preliminary acid etching to both the enamel and dentin. The specimens were equally and randomly assigned to 4 groups per substrate (n=12 as follows: FL-Bond II etched; FL-Bond II un-etched; BeautiBond etched; BeautiBond un-etched. Composite cylinders (Filtek Z100 were bonded onto the treated tooth structure. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 hours of storage (37°C, 100% humidity with a testing machine (Ultra-tester at a speed of 1 mm/min. The data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test with a significance level of p<0.05. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used for the failure mode analysis. Results Both adhesives evidenced a significant decrease in the dentin SBS with the use of an optional phosphoric acid-etching step (p<0.05. Preliminary phosphoric acid etching yielded significantly higher enamel SBS for FL-Bond II (p<0.05 only, but not for BeautiBond. FL-Bond II applied to un-etched dentin demonstrated the highest mean bond strength (37.7±3.2 MPa and BeautiBond applied to etched dentin showed the lowest mean bond strength (18.3±6.7 MPa among all tested groups (p<0.05. Conclusion The use of a preliminary acid-etching step with 37.5% phosphoric acid had a significant adverse effect on the dentin bond strength of the self-etch adhesives evaluated while providing improvement on the enamel bond strength only for FL-Bond II. This suggests that the potential benefit that may be derived from an additional etching step with phosphoric acid does not justify the risk of adversely affecting the bond strength to dentin.

  18. Influence of chlorhexidine digluconate on bond strength durability of a self-etching adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synara Santos Herênio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of 2% chlorhexidine on bond strength durability of a self-etching adhesive system (ClearFill SE Bond. Material and methods: Forty bovine incisors’ crowns had their labial surfaces abraded to dentinexposure,inorderthatthestandardadhesion dentin exposure, inorderthatthestandardadhesion in order that the standard adhesion area reached 4 mm in diameter. Subsequently, they were divided into four groups, according to the treatments performed on the surfaces and storage time: G1 – adhesive system without chlorhexidine for 24 hours (control group; G2 – adhesive system without chlorhexidine for 6 months (control group; G3 – adhesive system with chlorhexidine for 24 hours (experimental group; G4 – adhesive system with chlorhexidine for 6 months (experimental group. After dentin surface treatments, cylinders of composite resin (Z350 were constructed. Then, the specimens were stored in distilled water according to each group design and storage time. Following, the four groups were subjected to shear bond strength test, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm / min. The obtained values were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant decrease of bond strength in the group treated with chlorhexidine followed by 24-hour storage when compared to control group. However, there was no significant difference in 6-month storage between the experimental and control groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The application of 2% chlorhexidine was deleterious for bond strength after 24-hour storage.

  19. THE PROBLEMS OF ENSURE OF SAFE LABOR CONDITIONS ON WORKPLACES FOR ADHESIVE BONDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara CIECIŃSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the performance a variety of technological operations a human may come into contact with a variety of factors caus-ing deterioration of safety at work. As an example of which is described in article, adhesive bonding operations are re-quiring use of specific chemicals, which are adhesives. They are produced on the basis of a variety of compounds, often hazardous to human health. Furthermore, adhesive bonding requires a series of preparatory operations such as degreas-ing or surface preparation with a specific structure and roughness and auxiliary operations such as measurement of the wettability of surface. In this paper are described examples of risks occurring during adhesive bonding, it is a simple way to estimate the risks associated with the performance of operations. The examples of the determination by the produc-ers of chemicals are described which are used in adhesive bonding and fragment of international chemical safety card (ICSC, as a source of information important to the workplace organization and ensuring safety during adhesive bonding.

  20. Adhesive-bonded double-lap joints. [analytical solutions for static load carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Explicit analytical solutions are derived for the static load carrying capacity of double-lap adhesive-bonded joints. The analyses extend the elastic solution Volkersen and cover adhesive plasticity, adherend stiffness imbalance and thermal mismatch between the adherends. Both elastic-plastic and bi-elastic adhesive representations lead to the explicit result that the influence of the adhesive on the maximum potential bond strength is defined uniquely by the strain energy in shear per unit area of bond. Failures induced by peel stresses at the ends of the joint are examined. This failure mode is particularly important for composite adherends. The explicit solutions are sufficiently simple to be used for design purposes

  1. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints: A closed form solution. [plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The plane strain of adhesively bonded structures which consist of two different orthotropic adherents is considered. Assuming that the thicknesses of the adherends are constant and are small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, the adherends are treated as plates. The transverse shear effects in the adherends and the in-plane normal strain in the adhesive are taken into account. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form. A single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions are considered as examples. To verify the basic trend of the solutions obtained from the plate theory a sample problem is solved by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic continua. The plate theory not only predicts the correct trend for the adhesive stresses but also gives rather surprisingly accurate results.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of adhesion strength measurement devices for ceramic/titanium matrix composite bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlchuck, Bobby; Zeller, Mary V.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive bond between ceramic cement and a titanium matrix composite substrate to be used in the National Aerospace Plane program is evaluated. Two commercially available adhesion testers, the Sebastian Adherence Tester and the CSEM REVETEST Scratch Tester, are evaluated to determine their suitability for quantitatively measuring adhesion strength. Various thicknesses of cements are applied to several substrates, and bond strengths are determined with both testers. The Sabastian Adherence Tester has provided limited data due to an interference from the sample mounting procedure, and has been shown to be incapable of distinguishing adhesion strength from tensile and shear properties of the cement itself. The data from the scratch tester has been found to be difficult to interpret due to the porosity and hardness of the cement. Recommendations are proposed for a more reliable adhesion test method.

  3. Influence of the Hardener Proportion on Mechanical Properties of Adhesive Bonds Used in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining materials by adhesive bonding is used across all industrial branches. The occurrence of adhesive bonds in machine constructions is still more frequent because of the development of adhesives which are able to meet various requirements of designers. This trend is observable also in agriculture - in the construction of agricultural machines. There even exists a cooperation between the companies developing the adhesives and the agricultural machines producers. The production process of machines and equipment must consider a required production tact. Adhesives and the process of their hardening have to meet these requirements. In the sphere of agriculture, epoxy resins hardening based either on hardeners or heating are used. Mechanical properties of two-component epoxy resins depending on variable amount of the hardener starting crosslinking of these reactoplastics are described.

  4. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers

    OpenAIRE

    Quanshui Li; Zhili Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redsh...

  5. The Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on the Dentin Bond Durability of Two Self-etch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khamverdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Self-etch adhesives can activate matrix metalloprotein-ase (MMP which hydrolyzes organic matrix of demineralized dentin. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, especially found in green tea, could inhibit the activation of MMP. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG into two types of adhesives on dentin bond strength. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 64 extracted third molars were randomly divided into 16 groups. Clearfil SE Bond and Filtek Silorane System with 0 µM, 25µM, 50µM, and 100µM concentration of 95% EGCG were used for bond-ing. Following the bonding and fabrication of beams (1±0.1 mm2 and storage in distilled water, the specimens were subjected to thermal cycles. Microtensile bond strengths of 8 groups were examined after 24 hours and others were tested after 6 months. The fracture modes of specimens were evaluated by stereomicroscope and SEM. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t-test (α = 0.05. Results: The results of the three- way ANOVA test showed that types of bonding, storage time and interactive effect of EGCG concentration and bonding influenced the bond strength of specimens significantly (p<0.05. The results of the t-test indi-cated that storage time only had significant effect on bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond with no EGCG (p= 0.017. The most common failure modes in Filtek Silorane System groups and Clearfil SE Bond groups were adhesive and mixed/cohesive, respectively. The results of SEM at different magnifications showed that most fractures have occurred in the hybrid layer. Conclusion: Although adding 100 µM volume of EGCG to Clearfil SE Bond can preserve the dentin bond, incorporation of EGCG in the silorane system, especially in high concentrations, decreases the bond strength after 6 months.

  6. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Hattar; Hatamleh, Muhanad M.; Faleh Sawair; Mohammad Al-Rabab’ah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods: Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results w...

  7. Effect of dentin location and long-term water storage on bonding effectiveness of dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Mine, Atsushi; Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; De Almeida Neves, Aline; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Dentin is a variable substrate with properties that change considerable in a single surface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness to these different dentin locations and evaluate these differences over time. After bonding procedures with five different adhesives, small micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) beams were prepared and dichotomously divided in 'center' and 'periphery' dentin specimens. After 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months of water storage the µTBS of specimens of each group was determined, enabling a paired study design. The bond strengths of both etch&rinse adhesives were insensitive to regional variability. For the two-step self-etch adhesives, a marked increase in bond strengths was observed with increasing amount of intertubular dentin. Regional variability did not affect the long-term bonding effectiveness for any of the adhesives tested. In conclusion, only for the mild self-etch adhesives, µTBS to 'periphery' dentin was higher than for the 'center' specimens.

  8. Bond strength comparison of color-change adhesives for orthodontic bonding using a self-etching primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey GN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ekhlassi, Jeryl D English, Joe C Ontiveros, John M Powers, Harry I Bussa, Gary N Frey, Clark D Colville, Randy K EllisHouston Department of Orthodontics, The University of Texas Dental Branch, Houston, TX, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two color-change adhesives with a commonly used conventional light-cure adhesive while using a self-etching primer, and to compare any changes in shear bond strengths over time.Methods: One hundred and eighty extracted bovine incisors were randomly divided into nine groups of 20 teeth each. The teeth were prepared with a self-etching primer (Transbond™ Plus Metal lower incisor brackets were bonded directly to each tooth with two different color-change adhesives (TransbondPlus and Grengloo™ and a control (Transbond XT. The teeth were debonded at three different time points (15 minutes, 24 hours, 1 week using an Instron at 1.0 mm/min. The teeth that were to be debonded at 24 hours and 1 week were stored in distilled water at 37°C to simulate the oral environment. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and with Fisher's protected least-significant difference multiple comparisons test at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Adhesive remnant index (ARI scores were calculated for each debonded tooth.Results: Transbond Plus at 1 week had the highest mean shear bond strength (14.7 mPa. Grengloo tested at 24 hours had the lowest mean shear bond strength (11.3 mPa. The mean shear bond strengths for the remaining seven groups had a range of 12–14.5 mPa. Grengloo had >80% samples presenting with an ARI score of 1 at all times. Interestingly, both Transbond groups had ARI scores of 3 in more than 50% of their samples.Conclusion: Time had no significant effect on the mean shear bond strength of Transbond XT, Grengloo, or Transbond Plus adhesive.Keywords: bond strength, color-change adhesives, self-etching primer, orthodontic bonding 

  9. Four-year water degradation of a total-etch and two self-etching adhesives bonded to dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Abdalla; A.J. Feilzer

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate effect of direct and indirect water storage on the microtensile dentin bond strength of one total-etch and two self-etching adhesives. Methods: The adhesive materials were: one total-etch adhesive; ‘Admira Bond’ and two selfetch adhesives; ‘Clearfil SE Bond’ and ‘Hybrid Bond’

  10. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface ad

  11. The effect of collagen removal on shear bond strength of four single bottle adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasraie Sh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Achieving adhesion between restorative materials and dentin as a wet and dynamic surface is an important topic in restorative and especially in conservative dentistry. Adhesion of new dentin bonding systems depends on the formation of hybrid layer and micromechanical retention. Nevertheless, an ideal adhesive system has not yet been introduced .Recent studies reveal an increase in bonding stability when the collagen is removed from demineralized dentin surfaces. This study investigates the effect of collagen removal on the shear bond strength of four single bottle dentin bonding systems regarding their structural differences. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 56 intact human premolar teeth. Smooth surfaces of dentin were prepared on buccal & lingual aspects of teeth, providing 112 dentin surfaces. The dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and then rinsed. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. Single bottle adhesive systems [Single Bond (3M, One-Step (Bisco, Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply, and Excite (Vivadent] were then applied on the dentin surfaces of 4 groups using the wet bonding technique. In the other 4 groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite for one minute in order to remove the surface organic components. The adhesive systems mentioned before were applied to these 4 groups with the same wet bonding technique. A cylinder of Z100 (3M dental composite with a 3 mm diameter and 2 mm height was placed on the adhesive covered dentin surface of all groups and light-cured (400 mW/cm2 ,40 sec on each side. The specimens were kept in distilled water at room temperature for one week and then thermocycled for 3000 times (5-55 oc. Shear bond strength of specimens was measured using an Instron (1495 universal mechanical testing machine with cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute and chisel form shearing blade. Data were

  12. Effects of adhesion promoter on orthodontic bonding in fluorosed teeth: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Tariq, Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the present study were to elucidate the effects of fluorosis in orthodontic bonding and to evaluate the efficiency of an adhesion promoter (Assure Universal Bonding Resin) in bonding to fluorosed teeth. Materials and Methods: Extracted premolars were divided into two groups on the basis of Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index. Ten samples from each group were etched and evaluated for etching patterns using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The remaining samples were subdivided into four groups of 20 each on the basis of adhesives used: IA, IIA - Transbond XT and IB, IIB - Transbond XT plus Assure Universal Bonding Resin. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after 24 h using the universal testing machine. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were recorded using SEM. Statistical analysis was conducted using a two-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's post hoc test was performed on SBS and ARI scores. Results: Similar etching patterns were observed in both fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth. No significant differences were found in the SBS values observed in both groups (8.66 ± 3.19 vs. 8.53 ± 3.44, P = 1.000). Increase in SBS was observed when Assure Universal Bonding Resin was used. Higher ARI scores were observed when adhesion promoter was used for bonding. Conclusions: Mild-moderately fluorosed teeth etch in a manner similar to the nonfluorosed teeth. Similar bond strengths were achieved in fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth when conventional composite was used. Use of adhesion promoter increases the bond strengths in both groups of teeth. PMID:27556020

  13. Influence of chlorhexidine concentration on microtensile bond strength of contemporary adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Alves de Campos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX concentration on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS of contemporary adhesive systems. Eighty bovine central incisors were used in this study. The facial enamel surface of the crowns was abraded with 600-grit silicon carbide paper to expose flat, mid-coronal dentin surfaces. The tested materials were Scotchbond Multipurpose (SMP, Single-Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB and Clearfil Tri S Bond (CTSB. All the materials were applied according to manufacturer's instructions and followed by composite application (Z250. The teeth were randomly divided into 16 groups: for the etch-and-rinse adhesives (SMP and SB, 0.12% or 2% CHX was applied prior to or after the acid etching procedure. For the self-etch adhesives (CSEB and CTSB 0.12% or 2% CHX was applied prior to the primer. Control groups for each one of the adhesive systems were also set up. The specimens were immediately submitted to μTBS testing and the data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and the Tukey post hoc test (alpha = .01. The failure patterns of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The effects of 2% CHX were statistically significant (p < 0.01 for the self-etch adhesives but were not significant for the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Analysis of the data demonstrated no statistical difference between the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. CHX-based cavity disinfectants in concentrations higher than 0.12% should be avoided prior to the self-etch adhesive systems evaluated in this study to diminish the possibilities of reduction in bond strength.

  14. Adhesive dentistry: the development of immediate dentin sealing/selective etching bonding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvey, Gregg A

    2011-01-01

    A major objective of dental research over the past 60 years has been a search for the "dream-team" of dental adhesives. In fact, a recent Medline search produced more than 6,500 papers on dentin bonding and its techniques. Adhesive systems are designed to retain direct and indirect restorations, minimize leakage at the margin, and be simple to place while producing consistent results. The development of materials and techniques has an interesting history; some have recirculated from the past and are being used in some form today. Buonocore used the etchant phosphoric acid at the beginning of the adhesive revolution. Though not accepted for many years it eventually became the "gold standard" for etching enamel. Technique sensitivity moved it out of favor and, through the development of self-etching acidic primers, was eliminated from some adhesive systems. Although these primers may have successfully addressed postoperative sensitivity, adhesion was compromised. The bond strength of these systems has now been improved with the incorporation of phosphoric acid-etch to condition enamel prior to using the adhesive system. This article will trace the history of adhesive techniques and materials and how it has led to the creation of a new technique that combines two bonding methods.

  15. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a weigh

  16. Adhesive bond strength evaluation in composite materials by laser-generated high amplitude ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Blouin, A.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of composites laminates is highly efficient but is not used for joining primary aircraft structures, since there is presently no nondestructive inspection technique to ensure the quality of the bond. We are developing a technique based on the propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves to evaluate the adhesive bond strength. Large amplitude compression waves are generated by a short pulse powerful laser under water confinement and are converted after reflection by the assembly back surface into tensile waves. The resulting tensile stresses can cause a delamination inside the laminates or at the bond interfaces. The adhesion strength is evaluated by increasing the laser pulse energy until disbond. A good bond is unaffected by a certain level of stress whereas a weaker one is damaged. The method is shown completely non invasive throughout the whole composite assembly. The sample back surface velocity is measured by an optical interferometer and used to estimate stress history inside the sample. The depth and size of the disbonds are revealed by a post-test inspection by the well established laser-ultrasonic technique. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to differentiate weak bond from strong bonds and to estimate quantitatively their bond strength.

  17. Silver Adhesive Layer for Enhanced Pressure-Free Bonding Using Copper Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Toshikazu; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Akedo, Kunio

    2017-02-01

    Pressure-free Cu nanoparticle bonding between two Cu plates with an Ag adhesive layer was examined. Insertion of the Ag adhesive layer considerably enhanced the bonding strength at firing temperatures between 523 K and 673 K. The bonding strength generally increased with the firing temperature. The strength enhancement of the Ag adhesive layer was observed even for a very thin (3 nm) Ag layer, and there was no obvious dependence of the thickness of the Ag layer on the bonding strength for Ag layers of thickness up to 200 nm. Ag atoms from the adhesive layer diffused away to the bonding layer with an increase in the firing temperature. The elemental mapping images showed that the Ag had two morphologies: thin Ag layers existing between particulate Cu grains, and fine Ag particles dispersed in coarse Cu crystals. The microstructure near the interface between the Cu nanoparticle bonding layer and Cu plate used as the substrate suggests that the enhancement effect of the Ag layer originates in the active migration of the Ag layer itself.

  18. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment on microtensile bond strength of adhesives to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Coutinho, Eduardo; Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; de Carvalho, Rubens Corte Real; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards minimum-intervention dentistry has introduced laser technology as an alternative technique for cavity preparation. This study assessed the null hypothesis that enamel prepared either by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or conventional diamond bur is equally receptive to adhesive procedures. The buccal and lingual surfaces of 35 sound human molars were prepared with Er,Cr:YSGG laser or a medium-grit diamond bur. One etch&rinse (OptiBond FL) and three self-etch adhesives (Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond) were applied on laser-irradiated and bur-cut enamel, followed by the application of a 5-6 mm build-up of Z100. The micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) was determined after 24 hours of storage in water at 37 degrees C. Prepared enamel surfaces and failure patterns were evaluated using a stereomicroscope and a field-emission-gun scanning electron microscope (Feg-SEM). The pTBS to laser-irradiated enamel was significantly lower than to bur-cut enamel (pOptiBond FL. SEM analysis revealed significant morphological alterations of the laser-irradiated enamel surface, such as areas of melted and recrystalized hydroxyapatite and deep extensive micro-cracks. In conclusion, the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to laser-irradiated enamel depends not only on the structural substrate alterations induced by the laser, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed.

  19. Loss effects on adhesively-bonded multilayer ultrasonic transducers by self-heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengbin; Cochran, Sandy

    2010-04-01

    Multilayer ultrasonic transducers are widely being used for high power applications. In these applications, typical Langevin/Tonpilz structures without any adhesive bondings however have the disadvantage of limited bandwidth. Therefore adhesively-bonded structures are still a potential solution for this issue. In this paper, two-layer piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers with two different adhesive bondlines were investigated comparing to a single-layer transducer in terms of loss effects during operation with excitation signals sufficient to cause self-heating. The theoretical functions fitted to the measured time-temperature dependency data are compared with experimental results of different piezoelectric transducers. Theoretical analysis of loss characteristics at various surface displacements and the relationship with increasing temperature are reported. The effects of self-heating on the practical performance of multilayer ultrasonic transducers with adhesive bondlines are discussed.

  20. Lamb Wave Interaction with Adhesively Bonded Stiffeners and Disbonds Using 3D Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Marks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many advantages to adhesively bonding stiffeners onto aircraft structures rather than using traditional mechanical fastening methods. However there is a lack of confidence of the structural integrity of adhesively bonded joints over time. Acousto-ultrasonic Lamb waves have shown great potential in structural health monitoring applications in both metallic and composite structures. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the use of acousto-ultrasonic Lamb waves for the monitoring of adhesively bonded joints in metallic structures using 3D scanning laser vibrometry. Two stiffened panels were manufactured, one with an intentional disbonded region. Lamb wave interaction with the healthy and disbonded stiffeners was investigated at three excitation frequencies. A windowed root-mean-squared technique was applied to quantify where Lamb wave energy was reflected, attenuated and transmitted across the structure enabling the size and shape of the defect to be visualised which was verified by traditional ultrasonic inspection techniques.

  1. Lamb wave based active damage identification in adhesively bonded composite lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Prateek

    Bonding composite structures using adhesives offers several advantages over mechanical fastening such as better flow stress, weight saving, improved fatigue resistance and the ability to join dissimilar structures. The hesitation to adopt adhesively bonded composite joints stems from the lack of knowledge regarding damage initiation and propagation mechanisms within the joint. A means of overcoming this hesitation is to continuously monitor damage in the joint. This study proposes a methodology to conduct structural health monitoring (SHM) of an adhesively bonded composite lap joint using acoustic, guided Lamb waves by detecting, locating and predicting the size of damage. Finite element modeling of a joint in both 2D and 3D is used to test the feasibility of the proposed damage triangulation technique. Experimental validation of the methodology is conducted by detecting the presence, location and size of inflicted damage with the use of tuned guided Lamb waves.

  2. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesives to pulp chamber dentin after irrigation with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ç Barutcigil; Arslan, H.; Özcan, E.; O T Harorli

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution on adhesion, that is, the bond strength of the different adhesive systems, to the pulp chamber dentin. Materials and Methods: Recently extracted, sound, human, third molars were cut horizontally to expose the pulp horn. The roof of the pulp chamber and pulp tissue was removed. The teeth were then divided into five main groups. The teeth in each group were ...

  3. Effects of Different Hardeners on the Working Properties and Bonding Strength of Urea-formaldehyde Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The addition of a hardener is necessary for the curing of urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives in the production of MDF and particleboard. The most commonly used hardener, ammonium chloride, however, is suspected to cause the formation of poisonous dioxin when waste boards are combusted and hence considered as a potential source of pollution. To assess the feasibility of substituting ammonium sulphate for ammonium chloride, working properties and bonding strength were measured for UF adhesives with the two ...

  4. Additional Interface Corner Toughness Data for an Adhesively-Bonded Butt Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D.

    1999-04-14

    Over a period of 15 months, five sets of adhesively-bonded butt joints were fabricated and tested. This previously unreported data is used to assess the variability of measured interface corner toughness values, K{sub ac}, as well as the dependence of K{sub ac} on surface preparation. A correlation between K{sub ac} and the size of the adhesive failure zone is also noted.

  5. Analysis of interfacial structure and bond strength of self-etch adhesive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Watanabe, Larry G; Reis, Andre F; Powers, John M; Marshall, Sally J; Marshall, Grayson W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the bond strength, nanoleakage and interfacial morphology of four self-etch adhesives bonded to superficial dentin. Methods Micro-tensile (MT, n=15) and single plane shear (SP, n=8) bond tests were performed using human dentin polished through 320-grit SiC paper. Clearfil Protect Bond (PB), Clearfil S3 Bond (S3), Prompt L-Pop (PLP) and G-BOND (GB) were used according to manufacturers’ instructions. Composite was applied as cylinders with a thickness of 4 mm with a 1-mm diameter and stored in water at 37° C for 24 hours. Specimens were debonded with a testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Means and standard deviations of bond strength were calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Fisher’s PLSD intervals were calculated at the 0.05 level of significance. Failure modes were determined at 100X. The hybrid layer was revealed by treatment with 5N HCl/5% NaOCl or fractured perpendicular to the interface and sputter coated with gold. Specimens were viewed at 1000X, 2500X, and 5000X in a field emission SEM at 15 kV. Teeth (n=2) sectioned into 0.9-mm thick slabs were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 24 hours, rinsed and immersed in photo-developing solution for 8h. Specimens were sectioned (90-nm thick) and observed under TEM. Results Means ranged from 25.0 to 73.1 MPa for MT and from 15.5 to 56.4 MPa for SP. MT values were greater than SP, but were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, p= 0.003) and provided the same order for the systems studied. Fisher’s PLSD intervals (pbond strength techniques and adhesives results were 1.7 and 2.3 MPa, respectively. Failures sites were mixed. TEM showed that hybrid layers were ~0.5 µm for PB, GB and S3 and ~5 µm for PLP. SEM showed morphologic differences among adhesives. Silver nitrate deposits were observed within interfaces for all adhesive systems. Clinical significance Simplification of application procedures appears to induce loss of adhesion capabilities. In this in vitro

  6. The development of ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive evaluation of adhesive bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gilbert B., II

    Demands for improvements in aerospace and automotive energy-efficiency, performance, corrosion resistance, body stiffness and style have increased the use of adhesive bonds to help meet those demands by providing joining technology that accommodates a wider variety of materials and design options. However, the history of adhesive bond performance clearly indicates the need for a robust method of assuring the existence of the required consistent level of adhesive bond integrity in every bonded region. This investigation seeks to meet that need by the development of new, complementary ultrasonic techniques for the evaluation of these bonds, and thus provide improvements over previous methods by extending the range of resolution, speed and applications. The development of a 20 MHz pulse-echo method for nondestructive evaluation of adhesive bonds will accomplish the assessment of bond joints with adhesive as thin as 0.1 mm. This new method advances the state of the art by providing a high-resolution, phase-sensitive procedure that identifies the bond state at each interface of the adhesive with the substrate(s), by the acquisition and analysis of acoustic echoes reflected from interfaces between layers with large acoustic impedance mismatch. Because interface echo amplitudes are marginal when the acoustic impedance of the substrate is close to that of the adhesive, a 25 kHz Lamb wave technique was developed to be employed in such cases, albeit with reduced resolution. Modeling the ultrasonic echoes and Lamb-wave signals was accomplished using mathematical expressions developed from the physics of acoustic transmission, attenuation and reflection in layered media. The models were validated by experimental results from a variety of bond joint materials, geometries and conditions, thereby confirming the validity of the methodology used for extracting interpretations from the phase-sensitive indications, as well as identifying the range and limits of applications. Results

  7. Influence of adhesion promoters and curing-light sources on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tavares Machado

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The conventional orthodontic adhesive presented higher bond strength than the nanofilled composite, although both materials interacted similarly to the teeth. The curing-light devices tested did not influence on bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  8. Multitechnique monitoring of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded composite lap-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias; Khomenko, Anton; Dib, Gerges; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2015-03-01

    The requirement for reduced structural weight has driven the development of adhesively bonded joints. However, a major issue preventing their full acceptance is the initiation of premature failure in the form of a disbond between adherends, mainly due to fatigue, manufacturing flaws or impact damage. This work presents the integrated approach for in-situ monitoring of degradation of the adhesive bond in the GFRP composite lap-joint using ultrasonic guided waves and dynamic measurements from strategically embedded FBG sensors. Guided waves are actuated with surface mounted piezoelectric elements and mode tuning is used to provide high sensitivity to the degradation of the adhesive layer parameters. Composite lap-joints are subjected to fatigue loading, and data from piezoceramic transducers are collected at regular intervals to evaluate the progression of damage. Results demonstrate that quasi-static loading affects guided wave measurements considerably, but FBG sensors can be used to monitor the applied load levels and residual strains in the adhesive bond. The proposed technique shows promise for determining the post-damage stiffness of adhesively bonded joints.

  9. Effect of cleaning methods on bond strength of self-etching adhesive to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Delatorre Bronzato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cleaning methods to remove zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer (Endomethasone on the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods: Twenty crowns of bovine incisors were cut to expose the pulp chamber. A zinc oxide- and eugenol-based sealer was placed for 10 min in contact with the pulp chamber dentin. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the cleaning method of dentin used: G1, no root canal sealer (control; G2, 0.9% sodium chlorite (NaCl; G3, ethanol; and G4, followed by diamond drill. After cleaning, the teeth were restored with composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond. All specimens were sectioned to produce rectangular sticks and dentin/resin interface was submitted to microtensile bond testing. The mean bond strengths were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey (α = 0.05. Results: G3 and G4 showed bond strengths similar to the G1 (P > 0.05. A significant decrease in the bond strength in the G2 was observed (P < 0.05. G1, G3, and G4, the predominant failure mode was the mixed type. The prevalence of adhesive failure mode was verified in the G2. Conclusion: The cleaning methods affected the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin differently.

  10. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modiifed conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangdang Liang; Hongfei Cai; Yongyu Hao; Geng Sun; Yaoyao Song; Wen Chen

    2014-01-01

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not ifx the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and re-paired it using a modiifed 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modiifed conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the av-erage operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No signiifcant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modiifed conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect.

  11. Identification of parameters of cohesive elements for modeling of adhesively bonded joints of epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottner R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adhesively bonded joints can be numerically simulated using the cohesive crack model. The critical strain energy release rate and the critical opening displacement are the parameters which must be known when cohesive elements in MSC.Marc software are used. In this work, the parameters of two industrial adhesives Hunstman Araldite 2021 and Gurit Spabond 345 for bonding of epoxy composites are identified. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB and End Notched Flexure (ENF test data were used for the identification. The critical opening displacements were identified using an optimization algorithm where the tests and their numerical simulations were compared.

  12. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; List, Martina S.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesively bonded structures are potentially lighter in weight than mechanically fastened ones, but existing surface treatments are often considered unreliable. Two main problems in achieving reproducible and durable adhesive bonds are surface contamination and variability in standard surface preparation techniques. In this work three surface pretreatments were compared: laser etching with and without grit blasting and conventional Pasa-Jell treatment. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Laser -etching was found to produce clean surfaces with precisely controlled surface topographies and PETI-5 lap shear strengths and durabilities were equivalent to those produced with Pasa-Jell.

  13. Experimental study about the influence of adhesive stiffness to the bonding strengths of adhesives for ceramic/metal targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. SEIFERT; E. STRASSBURGER; S. GREFEN; S. SCHAARE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigations presented here was to understand how the stiffness of the adhesive affects the failure of ceramic tiles adhered to metallic backings. The working hypothesis was that varying the adhesive stiffness could have the same effect on the ballistic performance as a variation of the adhesive thickness. Two different projectile/target combinations were utilized for ballistic tests in order to generate extremely different loading conditions. With targets consisting of 6 mm aluminum oxide ceramic and 6 mm aluminum backing, complete penetration occurred in each test with 7.62 mm tungsten carbide core AP ammunition at an impact velocity of 940 m/s. In contrast, with ceramic tiles of 20 mm thickness on 13 mm steel backing, no penetration of the ceramic occurred at the impact of a 7.62 mm ball round at 840 m/s. Four different types of adhesive (high-strength till high-flexible) were tested in both configurations. The elongation of the adhesive layer, the deformation of the metallic backing and the failure of the ceramics were observed by means of a high-speed camera during the projectile/target interaction. The results of the ballistic tests showed that a higher fracture strain caused a larger deformation of the backing compared to adhesives, which exhibit a high tensile strength and low fracture strains. The experimental results indicate that the damage behavior of the ceramic/metal composites depends on the absolute elongation of the adhesive layer. This can be controlled either by the thickness or the stiffness of the bonding layer.

  14. Low-frequency features of the ultrasound echo from an adhesively bonded layer-substrate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaomin; LI Mingxuan; MAO Jie; LIAN Guoxuan

    2005-01-01

    The low-frequency features of the ultrasound reflection spectra from the structure of a single layer on a substrate bonded by a thin adhesive layer are theoretically studied; the low-frequency here means the frequency of the interrogating ultrasonic wave is less than the quart-wavelength resonance frequency of the adhesive layer. The possibility of the inversion of the thickness and the evaluation of the cohesion strength of the adhesive layer from the resonance frequency shifts of the layered system is indicated. An analytic solution to the nonlinear equation satisfied by the resonance frequency is presented by Taylor expansion method showing satisfactory agreement with the numerical results by Newton iterative method. The results indicate larger range for application than the traditional spring model for the thin adhesive layer. In a much lower frequency range the thin adhesive layer may be regarded to be a spring.

  15. Effects of Type I Collagen Degradation on the Durability of Three Adhesive Systems in the Early Phase of Dentin Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Hu; Yu-hong Xiao; Ming Fang; Yu Gao; Li Huang; An-qi Jia; Ji-hua Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding. Methods Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by ...

  16. Effect of adhesive resin cements and post surface silanization on the bond strengths of adhesively inserted fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Altenburger, Markus Jörg; Schirrmeister, Jörg Fabian; Bitter, Kerstin; Kielbassa, Andrej Michael

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated the tensile bond strengths and the effect of silanization of fiber posts inserted with different adhesive systems. Sixty DT Light Posts (size 1) were used. Thirty posts were pretreated with silane. The posts were cemented into form-congruent artificial root canals (12 mm) of bovine dentine. Six groups were formed: G1, Prime&Bond NT/Calibra; G2, Monobond-S+Prime&Bond NT/Calibra; G3, ED Primer/Panavia 21ex; G4, Monobond-S+ED Primer/Panavia 21ex; G5, RelyX Unicem; and G6, Monobond-S+RelyX Unicem. The mean (standard deviation) tensile bond strengths (megapascals) were 7.69 (0.85) for G1, 7.15 (1.01) for G2, 6.73 (0.85) for G3, 6.78 (0.97) for G4, 4.79 (0.58) for G5, and 4.74 (0.88) for G6. G1 achieved significantly higher bond strengths than G3 and G5; G3 had significantly higher values than G5 (P Silanization had no significant effect (P > .05, one-way analysis of variance). Tensile bond strengths were significantly influenced by the type of resin cement. Silanization of fiber post surfaces seems to have no clinical relevance.

  17. Shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using different dentin adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using four dentin adhesive systems.Materials and Methods: One hundred human molars were selected. After enamel removal, a dentin cylinder with 3 mm thickness was prepared. Eighty specimens were resorted with amalgam and four dentin adhesive systems as follows (n=20: group 1, Scotch Bond Multi-Purpose; group 2, One Coat Bond; group 3, PQ1; and group 4, Panavia-F. In group 5, 20 specimens were resorted with amalgam and varnish as control group. The specimens were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The shear bond strengths were then measured by using push out method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests.Results: Mean values for bond strengths of test groups were as follows: group 1=21.03±8.9, group 2=23.47±9, group 3=13.16±8.8, group 4=20.07±8.9 and group 5=14.15±8.7 MPa±SD. One-way ANOVA showed the statistically significant difference between the bond strengths of five groups (P=0.001. Post hoc Duncan's test showed significant difference between groups 1and 3 (P=0.008, groups 1 and 5 (P=0.019, groups 2 and 5 (P=0.0008, groups 4 and 5 (P=0.042, and groups 3 and 4 (P=0.018.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the bond strength of amalgam to dentin using One Coat Bond as dentin adhesive system was higher than that observed in other dentin adhesive systems.

  18. Plasma treatment of dentin surfaces for improving self-etching adhesive/dentin interface bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Hao; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate plasma treatment effects on dentin surfaces for improving self-etching adhesive and dentin interface bonding. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used after crown removal to expose dentin. One half of each dentin surface was treated with atmospheric non-thermal argon plasmas, while another half was untreated and used as the same tooth control. Self-etching adhesive and universal resin composite was applied to the dentin surfaces as directed. After restoration, the adhesive-dentin bonding strength was evaluated by micro-tensile bonding strength (μTBS) test. Bonding strength data was analyzed using histograms and Welch’s t-test based on unequal variances. μTBS test results showed that, with plasma treatment, the average μTBS value increased to 69.7±11.5 MPa as compared with the 57.1±17.5 MPa obtained from the untreated controls. After 2 months immersion of the restored teeth in 37 °C phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the adhesive-dentin bonding strengths of the plasma-treated specimens slightly decreased from 69.7±11.5 MPa to 63.9±14.4 MPa, while the strengths of the untreated specimens reduced from 57.1±17.5 MPa to 48.9±14.6 MPa. Water contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination verified that plasma treatment followed by water rewetting could partially open dentin tubules, which could enhance adhesive penetration to form thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tags and consequently improve the adhesive/dentin interface quality. PMID:26273561

  19. A simple surface treatment and characterization of AA 6061 aluminum alloy surface for adhesive bonding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleema, N., E-mail: saleema.noormohammed@imi.cnrc-nrc.gc.ca [National Research Council of Canada (ATC-NRC), 501 Boulevard University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 8C3 (Canada); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), University of Quebec at Chicoutimi (UQAC), 555 Boulevard University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 2B1 (Canada); Paynter, R.W. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Energie Materiaux Telecommunications (INRS-EMT), 1650 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Gallant, D.; Eskandarian, M. [National Research Council of Canada (ATC-NRC), 501 Boulevard University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 8C3 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very simple surface treatment method to achieve excellent and durable aluminum adhesive bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method involves simple immersion of aluminum in very dilute NaOH solution at room temperature with no involvement of strong acids or multiple procedures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface analysis via various surface characterization techniques showed morphological and chemical modifications favorable for obtaining highly durable bond strengths on the treated surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Safe, economical, reproducible and simple method, easily applicable in industries. - Abstract: Structural adhesive bonding of aluminum is widely used in aircraft and automotive industries. It has been widely noted that surface preparation of aluminum surfaces prior to adhesive bonding plays a significant role in improving the strength of the adhesive bond. Surface cleanliness, surface roughness, surface wettability and surface chemistry are controlled primarily by proper surface treatment methods. In this study, we have employed a very simple technique influencing all these criteria by simply immersing aluminum substrates in a very dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and we have studied the effect of varying the treatment period on the adhesive bonding characteristics. A bi-component epoxy adhesive was used to join the treated surfaces and the bond strengths were evaluated via single lap shear (SLS) tests in pristine as well as degraded conditions. Surface morphology, chemistry, crystalline nature and wettability of the NaOH treated surfaces were characterized using various surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), optical profilometry, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and contact angle goniometry. Excellent adhesion characteristics with complete cohesive failure

  20. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redshift behaviors as the coupled dipole bonding modes in the same situations. Furthermore, the intensities of those anti-bonding modes weaken with decreasing distance between the monomers, because of the interaction of the induced dipole moment in the monomers and the charge distribution variation on the facing surfaces of the gap by the coulomb attraction. Other split bands are the higher-order mode (octupole-like or triakontadipole-like), which do not have obvious peak-shift behavior, and the intensities have very little attenuation with decreasing distance. Finally, the coupling of the bonding and anti-bonding modes under the longitudinal polarization is symmetric (bonding).

  1. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Ricardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse. Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10 and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05. Results: According to the results, Kruskal-Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001. The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05. Group PSM8 (P90 + SM showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP, PSB2 (P90 + SB, and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE. Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin.

  2. Durability of polyimide adhesives and their bonded joints for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatareddy, Hari

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and develop an understanding of durability of an adhesive bonded system, for application in a future high speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft structure. The system under study was comprised of Ti-6Al-4V metal adherends and a thermosetting polyimide adhesive, designated as FM-5, supplied by Cytec Engineered Materials, Inc. An approach based on fracture mechanics was employed to assess Ti-6Al-4V/FM-5 bond durability. Initially, wedge tests were utilized to find a durable surface pretreatment for the titanium adherends. Based on an extensive screening study, chromic acid anodization (CAA) was chosen as the standard pretreatment for this research project. Double cantilever beam specimens (DCB) were then made and aged at 150sp°C, 177sp°C, and 204sp°C in three different environments; ambient atmospheric air (14.7 psia), and reduced air pressures of 2 psia (13.8 KPa) and 0.2 psia (1.38 KPa). Joints were aged for up to 18 months (including several intermediate aging times) in the above environments. The strain energy release rate (G) of the adhesive joints was monitored as a function of exposure time in the different environments. A 40% drop in fracture toughness was noted over the 18 month period, with the greatest degradation observed in samples aged at 204sp°C in ambient atmospheric air pressure. The loss in adhesive bond performance with time was attributable to a combination of physical and chemical aging phenomena in the FM-5 resin, and possible degradation of the metal-adhesive interface(s). Several mechanical and material tests, performed on the bonded joints and neat FM-5 resin specimens, confirmed the above statement. It was also noted that physical aging could be "erased" by thermal rejuvenation, partially restoring the toughness of the FM-5 adhesive material. The FM-5 adhesive material displayed good chemical resistance towards organic solvents and other aircraft fluids such as jet fuel and hydraulic fluid. The

  3. Bonding to dentin: evaluation of three adhesive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, H; Davila, J M; Gwinnett, A J

    1992-01-01

    Dye penetration was observed in all specimens. SEM demonstrated isolated areas with no gap formation, suggesting a partial bond with dentin. A correlation is evident from the results of both techniques. Since dye-penetration was found to be similar in all the specimens, it was difficult to assess the effect of thermocycling on the amount of dye penetration. The use of posterior composites should be considered as a short-term tested procedure. It should be utilized carefully, following the manufacturer's instructions, and monitored routinely. Undoubtedly, the utilization of posterior composite materials is a very technique-sensitive procedure. Comparing the results of this in vitro study with those previously reported suggests that little improvement has been made in the bonding of the materials tested. Development of new materials and improved techniques are necessary.

  4. Adhesive Bonding of Neoprene to Metals in Sonar Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-31

    primers. However, the most effective primers contained an epoxy resin similar to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A ( DGEBA ) and 7-AEAPS. In a few cases...289.2 291.2 Table V. Non-Proprietary Primer for Bonding Neoprene to Steel. DGEBA 7.90 grams Carbon Black 2.25 7-AEAPS 1.50 Dowanol PM 45.00 Toluene

  5. The analysis of adhesively bonded advanced composite joints using joint finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.

    The design and sizing of adhesively bonded joints has always been a major bottleneck in the design of composite vehicles. Dense finite element (FE) meshes are required to capture the full behavior of a joint numerically, but these dense meshes are impractical in vehicle-scale models where a course mesh is more desirable to make quick assessments and comparisons of different joint geometries. Analytical models are often helpful in sizing, but difficulties arise in coupling these models with full-vehicle FE models. Therefore, a joint FE was created which can be used within structural FE models to make quick assessments of bonded composite joints. The shape functions of the joint FE were found by solving the governing equations for a structural model for a joint. By analytically determining the shape functions of the joint FE, the complex joint behavior can be captured with very few elements. This joint FE was modified and used to consider adhesives with functionally graded material properties to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. Furthermore, proof-of-concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint. Furthermore, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior with large rotations was developed, and progressive failure of the adhesive was modeled by re-meshing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results predicted using the joint FE was compared with experimental results for various

  6. The Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Advanced Composite Joints Using Joint Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and sizing of adhesively bonded joints has always been a major bottleneck in the design of composite vehicles. Dense finite element (FE) meshes are required to capture the full behavior of a joint numerically, but these dense meshes are impractical in vehicle-scale models where a course mesh is more desirable to make quick assessments and comparisons of different joint geometries. Analytical models are often helpful in sizing, but difficulties arise in coupling these models with full-vehicle FE models. Therefore, a joint FE was created which can be used within structural FE models to make quick assessments of bonded composite joints. The shape functions of the joint FE were found by solving the governing equations for a structural model for a joint. By analytically determining the shape functions of the joint FE, the complex joint behavior can be captured with very few elements. This joint FE was modified and used to consider adhesives with functionally graded material properties to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. Furthermore, proof-of-concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint. Furthermore, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior with large rotations was developed, and progressive failure of the adhesive was modeled by re-meshing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results predicted using the joint FE was compared with experimental results for various

  7. First-principles calculations of adhesion, bonding and magnetism of the Fe/HfC interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si Abdelkader, H., E-mail: hayet.siabdelkader@mail.univ-tlemcen.dz [Laboratoire d' Etude et Prediction des Materiaux, Unite de Recherche Materiaux et Energies Renouvelables. LEPM-URMER. Universite de Tlemcen, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Faraoun, H.I. [Laboratoire d' Etude et Prediction des Materiaux, Unite de Recherche Materiaux et Energies Renouvelables. LEPM-URMER. Universite de Tlemcen, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria)

    2012-12-15

    First-principles plane-wave pseudopotential calculations of the adhesion, bonding and magnetism of the interface between the ferromagnetic bcc Fe and non-magnetic HfC are performed. The work of adhesion for C- and Hf-site Fe/HfC interfaces is calculated. High adhesion at C-site interface is found and Fe-C polar covalent bonds are formed across the interface. The magnetic moments of Fe atoms at interface are increased in both interfaces. The effect of the magnetism on the electronic structure of Fe/HfC interface is also investigated. It is shown that the change in band of majority-spin leads to enhance the magnetic moment of Fe. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adhesion, electronic and magnetism of Fe(110)/HfC(100) interface are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High adhesion at C-site interface is found and Fe-C polar covalent bonds are formed across the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic moments of interfacial Fe atoms are increased in both C-site and Hf-site interfaces.

  8. Temperature effect on the static behaviour of adhesively-bonded metal skin to composite stiffener

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of temperature on the static behavior of an hybrid structure consisting of adhesively bonded Fiber Metal Laminate skin to a composite stiffener. This hybrid structure was tested using stiffener pull-off tests, which is a typical set-up used to simu

  9. Adhesion to tooth structure: a critical review of "micro" bond strength test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Steve; Geraldeli, Saulo; Maia, Rodrigo; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Soares, Carlos José; Yamagawa, Junichiro

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to critically review the literature regarding the mechanics, geometry, load application and other testing parameters of "micro" shear and tensile adhesion tests, and to outline their advantages and limitations. The testing of multiple specimens from a single tooth conserves teeth and allows research designs not possible using conventional 'macro' methods. Specimen fabrication, gripping and load application methods, in addition to material properties of the various components comprising the resin-tooth adhesive bond, will influence the stress distribution and consequently, the nominal bond strength and failure mode. These issues must be understood; as should the limitations inherent to strength-based testing of a complicated adhesive bond joining dissimilar substrates, for proper test selection, conduct and interpretation. Finite element analysis and comprehensive reporting of test conduct and results will further our efforts towards a standardization of test procedures. For the foreseeable future, both "micro" and "macro" bond strength tests will, as well as various morphological and spectroscopic investigative techniques, continue to be important tools for improving resin-tooth adhesion to increase the service life of dental resin-based composite restorations.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of titanium for high temperature adhesive bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation surface treatment of titanium is carried out by plasma ion implantation under atmospheric pressure plasma in order to increase the adhesive bond strength. Prior to the plasma treatment, titanium surfaces were mechanically treated by sand blasting. It is observed that the contac

  11. Does Adhesive Resin Application Contribute to Resin Bond Durability on Etched and Silanized Feldspathic Ceramic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of adhesive application and aging on the bond durability of resin cement to etched and silanized feldspathic ceramic. Materials and Methods: Twenty blocks (6.4 x 6.4 x 4.8 mm) of feldspathic ceramic (Vita VM7) were produced. The ceramic surfaces were conditioned with 10

  12. Microtensile bond strength of three simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Purwanta, K.; Dogan, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  13. Fluoride level in saliva after bonding orthodontic brackets with a fluoride containing adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Arends, J; Helseth, H; Dijkman, G; vanderKuijl, M

    1997-01-01

    The fluoride level in saliva is considered an important parameter in caries prevention. Elevation of the salivary fluoride level by a fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding adhesive would most likely be beneficial in the prevention of enamel caries. In this study, the fluoride level in saliva was me

  14. Microtensile Bond Strength of Three Simplified Adhesive Systems to Caries-affected Dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes; Purwanta, Kenny; Dogan, Nilgun; Kleverlaan, Cees J.; Feilzer, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  15. Effect of Repeated Container Lid Opening on Dentin Shear Bond Strength of Two Dentin Adhesive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hassanzadeh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparing the effect of repeated opening of the container lid of two dentin adhesive systems, Prime&Bond NT (P&B NT and iBond (iB, on shear bond strength.Materials and Methods: Intact bovine lower incisors (n=60, fixed in acrylic were ran-domly divided into six groups (n=10. Groups I and II were set as control groups. P&B NT and iB were applied on the samples after five days a week, three times a day for two weeks of use in groups III and VI; and after four weeks of use in groups V and VI. The samples were evaluated by a universal testing-machine (Instron, cross-head speed 1mm/min and stereomicroscope.Results: There was no significant difference between the bond strengths in any of the three P&B NT. The mean amount of the shear bond strength for iB after 60 times of use (15.31 MPa was significantly lowerthan that at the baseline (23.51 MPa. There was no significant difference between iB at the baseline and after 30 times of use (19.26 Mpa, and also between iB after 30 times of use and after 60 times of use. All P&B NT groups showed significantly highershear bond strengths when compared with their similar iB groups in iB.Conclusion: Repeated use (60 times of the all-in-one adhesive container seems to reduce dentin shear bond strength. Therefore, containers with a lower content of the same adhe-sive or a single-dose of the adhesive are preferred.

  16. Adhesive bond failure monitoring with triboluminescent optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohag, Md Abu S.; Hammel, Emily C.; Olawale, David O.; Okoli, Okenwa O.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most severe damage modes in modern wind turbines is the failure of the adhesive joints in the trailing edge of the large composite blades. The geometrical shape of the blade and current manufacturing techniques make the trailing edge of the wind turbine blade more sensitive to damage. Failure to timely detect this damage type may result in catastrophic failures, expensive system downtime, and high repair costs. A novel sensing system called the In-situ Triboluminescent Optical Fiber (ITOF) sensor has been proposed for monitoring the initiation and propagation of disbonds in composite adhesive joints. The ITOF sensor combines the triboluminescent property of ZnS:Mn with the many desirable features of optical fiber to provide in-situ and distributed damage sensing in large composite structures like the wind blades. Unlike other sensor systems, the ITOF sensor does not require a power source at the sensing location or for transmitting damage-induced signals to the hub of the wind turbine. Composite parts will be fabricated and the ITOF integrated within the bondline to provide in-situ and real time damage sensing. Samples of the fabricated composite parts with integrated ITOF will be subjected to tensile and flexural loads, and the response from the integrated sensors will be monitored and analyzed to characterize the performance of the ITOF sensor as a debonding damage monitoring system. In addition, C-scan and optical microscopy will be employed to gain greater insights into the damage propagation behavior and the signals received from the ITOF sensors.

  17. Effect of Nanofiller Addition to an Experimental Dentin Adhesive on Microtensile Bond Strength to Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Kasraei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of adding nanofiller particles to a dentin bonding agent on resin-dentin bond strength.Materials and Methods: Fifty-four human intact premolar teeth were divided in to 6 groups of nine. The teeth were ground on occlusal surfaces and polished with 320 and then 600 grit silicon carbide papers. An experimental bonding system based on acetone/alcoholsolvent was provided with filler contents of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 weight percent fumed silica nanofiller. After dentin surface etching, rinsing and blot drying, the experimentalbonding agents were applied to dentin surface. A composite resin was, then,bonded to the dentin on the bonding agent. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles and sectioned in stick form. After two week of storage in distilled water, resin-dentin microtensile bond strength of the specimens was measured. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and DunnettT3 tests.Results: Bond strength to dentin was significantly affected by the filler level. Minimum and maximum resin-microtensile bond strength was in the experimental bonding agent with no filler (5.88 MPa and with filler level of 1.0 weight percent (15.15 MPa, respectively,and decreased with the increase of filler content down to 8.95 MPa for the filler level of 10.0 weight percent.Conclusion: Filler content seems to be one of the important factors influencing the bond strength of dental adhesives. Maximum dentin bond strength was obtained with 1% silanized nanofiller silica added to experimental adhesive system.

  18. An In Vitro Study of the Bond Strength of Five Adhesives Used for Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression Materials and Tray Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Surender; Gandhi, Udey Vir; Banerjee, Saurav

    2013-01-01

    Although stock trays often provide mechanical retention for elastomeric impression materials, manufacturers typically recommend the use of an adhesive, whether a stock or custom tray is used. The mention of the bond strength on the adhesive packaging is not available, therefore the clinician has no idea whatsoever of the ideal adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) materials, one with a poly(methyl methacrylate) autopolymerizing (PM...

  19. One-day bonding effectiveness of new self-etch adhesives to bur-cut enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Vargas, Marcos; Iracki, Jacek; Van Landuyt, Kristen; Poitevin, André; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Self-etch adhesives try to solve difficulties commonly associated with the clinical application of etch-and-rinse adhesives. Their application procedure is considered less time-consuming and, more importantly, less technique-sensitive. The main objective of this study was to determine the bonding effectiveness to and the interaction with enamel/dentin of three contemporary one- and two-step self-etch adhesives by microtensile bond strength testing (microTBS), Fe-SEM and TEM when compared to a control two-step self-etch and a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. The one-step self-etch adhesive, Adper Prompt (3M ESPE), scored the lowest microTBS of all experimental and control adhesives tested. Conversely, the two-step self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE (Kuraray) and OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (Kerr) approached the values obtained by the three-step etch-and-rinse control (OptiBond FL, Kerr) when bonded to enamel and dentin. Ultramorphological characterization showed that interfacial morphology and the pH of the self-etch primer/adhesive are strongly associated. The interaction with dentin varied from the formation of a submicron, hydroxyapatite-containing hybrid layer for the "mild" self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE to a 3-5 microm thick, hydroxyapatite-depleted hybrid layer for the "strong" self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt. The two-step self-etch adhesives AdheSE and OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch presented with a hybrid layer with a hydroxyapatite-depleted top part and a hydroxyapatite-containing base part and were therefore classified into a new group of self-etch adhesives, namely "intermediary strong" self-etch adhesives.

  20. In vitro analysis of shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of different metal brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Souza Henkin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: There is a great variety of orthodontic brackets in the Brazilian market, and constantly evaluating them is critical for professionals to know their properties, so as to be able to choose which product best suits their clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate the bond strength and the adhesive remnant index (ARI of different brands of metal brackets. Material and Methods: A total of 105 bovine incisors were used, and brackets of different brands were bonded to teeth. Seven different bracket brands were tested (MorelliTM, American OrthodonticsTM, TP OrthodonticsTM, Abzil-3MTM, OrthometricTM, TecnidentTM and UNIDENTM. Twenty-four hours after bonding, shear bond strength test was performed; and after debonding, the ARI was determined by using an optical microscope at a 10-fold increase. Results: Mean shear bond strength values ranged from 3.845 ± 3.997 (MorelliTM to 9.871 ± 5.106 MPa (TecnidentTM. The majority of the ARI index scores was 0 and 1. Conclusion: Among the evaluated brackets, the one with the lowest mean shear bond strength values was MorelliTM. General evaluation of groups indicated that a greater number of bond failure occurred at the enamel/adhesive interface.

  1. In vitro analysis of shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of different metal brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Fernanda de Souza; de Macêdo, Érika de Oliveira Dias; Santos, Karoline da Silva; Schwarzbach, Marília; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Mundstock, Karina Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There is a great variety of orthodontic brackets in the Brazilian market, and constantly evaluating them is critical for professionals to know their properties, so as to be able to choose which product best suits their clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate the bond strength and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different brands of metal brackets. Material and Methods: A total of 105 bovine incisors were used, and brackets of different brands were bonded to teeth. Seven different bracket brands were tested (MorelliTM, American OrthodonticsTM, TP OrthodonticsTM, Abzil-3MTM, OrthometricTM, TecnidentTM and UNIDENTM). Twenty-four hours after bonding, shear bond strength test was performed; and after debonding, the ARI was determined by using an optical microscope at a 10-fold increase. Results: Mean shear bond strength values ranged from 3.845 ± 3.997 (MorelliTM) to 9.871 ± 5.106 MPa (TecnidentTM). The majority of the ARI index scores was 0 and 1. Conclusion: Among the evaluated brackets, the one with the lowest mean shear bond strength values was MorelliTM. General evaluation of groups indicated that a greater number of bond failure occurred at the enamel/adhesive interface. PMID:28125142

  2. Comparative Shear-Bond Strength of Six Dental Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared shear bond strength (SBS of six self-adhesive resin cements (SARC and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC to zirconia before and after thermocycling. The cylinder shape (Φ 2.35 mm × 3 mm of six SARCs (G-CEM LinkAce (GLA, Maxcem Elite (MAX, Clearfil SA Luting (CSL, PermaCem 2.0 (PM2, Rely-X U200 (RXU, Smartcem 2 (SC2 were bonded to the top surface of the zirconia specimens with light-curing. RMGIC (Fujicem (FJC was bonded to the specimens with self-curing. The shear bond strength of all cemented specimens was measured with universal testing machine. Half of the specimens were thermocycled 5000 times before shear bonding strength testing. Fractured surfaces were examined with a field-emission SEM (10,000× and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. MAX, PM2, SC2 group without thermocycling and GLA, MAX, PM2 group with thermocycling showed adhesive failure, but GLA, CSL, RXU, FJC group without thermocycling and SLC, RXU, SC2, FJC group with thermocycling indicated cohesive failure. Within the limitation of this study, All of SARCs except MAX demonstrated higher bond strength than that of RMGIC regardless of thermocycling. Also, SARC containing MDP monomers (CSL retained better bonds than other cements.

  3. Influence of fluoride-containing adhesives and bleaching agents on enamel bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cavalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of fluoride-containing carbamide peroxide (CP bleaching agents and adhesive systems on bonded enamel interfaces that are part of the dynamic pH cycling and thermal cycling models. The buccal surfaces of 60 bovine incisors were restored with a composite resin and bonded with three- and two-step, etch-and-rinse, fluoride-containing adhesives, Optibond FL (FL and Optibond Solo Plus (SP, respectively. Restored teeth were subjected to thermal cycling to age the interface. Both SP and FL adhesive-restored teeth were bleached (n = 10 with 10% CP (CP and 10% CP + fluoride (CPF or were left unbleached (control. Bleaching was performed for 14 days simultaneously with pH cycling, which comprised of 14 h of remineralization, 2 h of demineralization and 8 h of bleaching. The control groups (FL and SP were stored in remineralizing solution during their bleaching periods and were also subjected to carious lesion formation. Parallelepiped-shaped samples were obtained from the bonded interface for microtensile bond strength (∝TBS testing. The enamel ∝TBS of the FL and SP groups (control, not bleached were higher (p FL + CPF = FL + CP and SP > SP + CPF = SP + CP. The groups subjected to treatment with the fluoride-containing bleaching agents exhibited similar ∝TBS compared to regular bleaching agents. Bleaching agents, regardless of whether they contained fluoride, decreased enamel bond strength.

  4. Influence of fluoride-containing adhesives and bleaching agents on enamel bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Vanessa; Liporoni, Priscila Cristiane Suzy; Rego, Marcos Augusto do; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Giannini, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of fluoride-containing carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agents and adhesive systems on bonded enamel interfaces that are part of the dynamic pH cycling and thermal cycling models. The buccal surfaces of 60 bovine incisors were restored with a composite resin and bonded with three- and two-step, etch-and-rinse, fluoride-containing adhesives, Optibond FL (FL) and Optibond Solo Plus (SP), respectively. Restored teeth were subjected to thermal cycling to age the interface. Both SP and FL adhesive-restored teeth were bleached (n = 10) with 10% CP (CP) and 10% CP + fluoride (CPF) or were left unbleached (control). Bleaching was performed for 14 days simultaneously with pH cycling, which comprised of 14 h of remineralization, 2 h of demineralization and 8 h of bleaching. The control groups (FL and SP) were stored in remineralizing solution during their bleaching periods and were also subjected to carious lesion formation. Parallelepiped-shaped samples were obtained from the bonded interface for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. The enamel μTBS of the FL and SP groups (control, not bleached) were higher (p FL > FL + CPF = FL + CP and SP > SP + CPF = SP + CP). The groups subjected to treatment with the fluoride-containing bleaching agents exhibited similar μTBS compared to regular bleaching agents. Bleaching agents, regardless of whether they contained fluoride, decreased enamel bond strength.

  5. Three-dimensional Material and Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narasimhan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 3-D viscoplastic analysis of adhesively bonded single lap joint considering material and geometric nonlinearity. Total Lagrangian formulation is used to develop a 3-D finite element for geometric nonlinear analysis. The overall geometry of the single lap joint, the loading, and the boundary conditions has been considered, both according to the ASTM testing standards and from those adopted in earlier investigations. The constitutive relations for the adhesive are developed using a pressure-dependant (modified von Mises yield function and Ramberg-Osgood idealisation for the experimental stress-strain curve. The adherends and adhesive layers are both modelled using 20-noded solid elements. However, observations have been made, in particular, on peel and shear stresses in the adhesive layer, which provide useful insight into the 3-D nature of the problem.

  6. Influence of dentin contamination by temporary cements on the bond strength of adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimeri Hebling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin contaminated by temporary cements with or without eugenol. Method: Flat dentin surfaces were obtained from twenty-four human third molars. With exception of the control group (n=8, the surfaces were covered with Interim Restorative Material (Caulk Dentsplay, Milford, DE, USA or Cavit (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA and kept in an oven at 37oC for seven days. After removing the cements, the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA or Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan were applied in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations, and then the crowns were constructed in of resin composite. The teeth were sectioned into specimens with a cross-sectional bond area of 0.81mm2, which were sub mitted to microtensile testing in a mechanical test machine at an actuator speed of 0.5mm/min. The data were analyzed by t- and ANOVA tests, complemented by Tukey tests (α=0.05. Results: For Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA, bond strength did not differ statistically (p>0.05 for all the experimental conditions. For Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan, only the Interim Restorative Material (Caulk Dentsplay, Milford, DE, USA Group showed significantly lower bond strength (30.1±13.8 MPa in comparison with the other groups; control (38.9±13.5 MPa and Cavit (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA (42.1±11.0 MPa, which showed no significant difference between them.Conclusion: It was concluded that the previous covering of dentin with temporary cement containing eugenol had a deleterious effect on the adhesive performance of the self-etching system only.

  7. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using three different resin adhesives vs. glass-ionomer based adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical success of sandwich technique depends on the strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC bonding to both dentin and resin composite. Therefore, the shear bond strength (SBS of resin composite bonded to RMGIC utilizing different resin adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive was compared. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 84 holes (5×2 mm were prepared in acrylic blocks, randomly divided into seven groups (n=12 and filled with RMGIC (Light-Cured Universal Restorative, GC. In the Group I; no adhesive was applied on the RMGIC. In the Group II, non-etched and Group III was etched with phosphoric acid. In groups II and III, after rinsing, etch-and-rinse adhesive (OptiBond Solo Plus; in the Group IV; a two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR and in Group V; a one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One were applied on the cement surfaces. Group VI; a GIC-based adhesive (Fuji Bond LC was painted over the cement surface and cured. Group VII; the GIC-based adhesive was brushed over RMGIC followed by the placement of resin composite and co-cured. Afterward; resin composite (Point 4 cylinders were placed on the treated cement surfaces. The specimens were placed in 100% humidity at 37 ± 1°C and thermo cycled. The shear bond test was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min and calculated in MPa; the specimens were examined to determine mode of failure. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The maximum (24.62±3.70 MPa and minimum (18.15±3.38 MPa SBS mean values were recorded for OptiBond XTR adhesive and the control group, respectively. The pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the groups that bonded with different adhesives. The adhesive failure was the most common failure mode observed. Conclusion: This study suggests that GIC-based adhesive could be applied over RMGIC as co-cure technique for sandwich restorations in lieu of employing the resin

  8. Effect of laser preparation on bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Rüya; Agarwal, Ishita; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E; Mang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser treatment on shear bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin composite to human dentin. Eighty extracted sound human molar teeth were used for the study. The teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and embedded in acrylic blocks. The dentin surfaces were ground wet with 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper. They were randomly divided into two preparation groups: laser (Er:YAG laser, with 12 Hz, 350 mJ energy) and control (SiC). Each group was then divided into two subgroups according to the flowable resin composite type (n = 20). A self-adhesive flowable (Vertise Flow) and a conventional flowable resin (Premise Flow) were used. Flowable resin composites were applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations using the Ultradent shear bond Teflon mold system. The bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h. Shear bond strength was tested at 1 mm/min. The data were logarithmically transformed and analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keul's test at a significance level of 0.05. The self-adhesive flowable resin showed significantly higher bond strength values to laser-prepared surfaces than to SiC-prepared surfaces (p flowable resin did not show such differences (p = 0.224). While there was a significant difference between the two flowable resin composites in SiC-prepared surfaces (p flowable resin composite differs according to the type of dentin surface preparation. Laser treatment increased the dentin bonding values of the self-adhesive flowable resin.

  9. Effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by calculating their Pearson's correlation coefficient.Aging induced time-dependent reduction in micro-tensile bond strengths for all the tested adhesive systems, although such reduction for the single-step self-etching adhesive G-Bond (GB was not statistically significant. The bond strength of the two-step self-etching primer adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond (SEB was similar to that of the two-step etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesive system Single Bond 2 (SB, and they were both significantly reduced after one or four months of aging. A negative correlation was found between the degree of collagen degradation and magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength (r = -0.65, p = 0.003. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.426, indicating that 42.6% of the aging-induced reduction in bond strength can be explained by the degradation of collagen.In the early phase of dentin bonding, there was a negative correlation between the degree of collagen degradation and the magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength. The reduction of bond strength was accompanied by the degradation of collagen. These results provide evidence for the causative relationship between the degradation of collagen and the deterioration of dentin-adhesive interface.

  10. Do matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors improve the bond durability of universal dental adhesives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Balci, Sibel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitors on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and the adhesive-dentin interface of two universal dentin bonding agents, Single Bond Universal and All Bond Universal, after 12 months of water storage. Seventy extracted, caries-free, human third molars were used in this study. Of these, 50 were used for μTBS testing and 20 were used for scanning electron microscopy. The two bonding agents were applied to flat dentin surfaces in five different ways: self-etch mode, etch-and-rinse mode with 37% phosphoric acid, etch-and-rinse mode with phosphoric acid containing 1% benzalkonium chloride, etch-and-rinse mode with phosphoric acid and 2% chlorhexidine, and etch-and-rinse mode with 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (n = 5 for each bonding agent in each group; N = 50). Half the specimens were subjected to μTBS tests at 24 h, while half were subjected to the tests after 12 months of water storage. For each bonding agent, inhibition, storage, and their interaction effects were tested by two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. For Single Bond Universal, the benzalkonium chloride (p = 0.024) and chlorhexidine groups (p = 0.033) exhibited significantly higher μTBS values at 24 h compared with the self-etch group. For All Bond Universal, all groups displayed similar bond strengths at 24 h (p > 0.05). After 12 months of water storage, the μTBS values decreased significantly in the benzalkonium chloride group for Single Bond Universal (p = 0.001) and the self-etch (p = 0.029), chlorhexidine (p = 0.046), and EDTA (p = 0.032) groups for All Bond Universal. These results suggest that the immediate dentin bond strength increases when universal bonding systems are applied in the etch-and-rinse mode, although the durability decreases. The use of chlorhexidine and EDTA can increase the bond durability of mild adhesives such as

  11. Shear bond strengths and microleakage of four types of dentin adhesive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateyah, Nasrien Z; Elhejazi, Ahmed A

    2004-02-15

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the microleakage of composite resin (Z-100) and shear bond strength to bovine dentin using different types of adhesive systems (Scotch Bond Multi-Purpose, All-Bond 2, One-Step, and Perma Quick) to compare and correlate microleakage to shear bond strength. For the microleakage aspect of the study, 20 class V were prepared (bovine incisors) with 90-degree cavosurface margins and were located at the cemento-enamel junction using a template. Each dentin bonding system was applied to five cavities following the manufacturer's instructions and restored with Z-100 composite resin. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C, the teeth were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin dye. All teeth were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction using a diamond saw, and each section was then inspected under a stereomacroscope. For the shear bond strength aspect of the study, 20 bovine incisors were centrally horizontally mounted in Teflon mold with cold cure acrylic resin. Flat labial dentin surfaces were prepared using different grit silicon carbide abrasive wheels. Five specimens were used for each of the bonding agent systems. Each specimen was bonded with restorative composite resin (Z-100) and applied to the treated dentinal surface through a split Teflon mold. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The bonds were stressed using shear forces at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min using an Instron Universal testing machine. Findings indicate none of the systems tested in this study were free from microleakage. Scotch bond multi-purpose achieved the best seal, with One-Step being second best, while All-Bond 2 and Perma Quick had the poorest seal. However, there were significant differences among the shear bond strengths of the four bonding systems tested. Scotch Bond Multi-Purpose has a higher bond strength to composite resin when compared to the other dentin adhesives. The study also concluded

  12. Enhancing structural integrity of adhesive bonds through pulsed laser surface micro-machining

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz, Edwin Hernandez

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing the effective peel resistance of plastically deforming adhesive joints through laser-based surface micro-machining Edwin Hernandez Diaz Inspired by adhesion examples commonly found in nature, we reached out to examine the effect of different kinds of heterogeneous surface properties that may replicate this behavior and the mechanisms at work. In order to do this, we used pulsed laser ablation on copper substrates (CuZn40) aiming to increase adhesion for bonding. A Yb-fiber laser was used for surface preparation of the substrates, which were probed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Heterogeneous surface properties were devised through the use of simplified laser micromachined patterns which may induce sequential events of crack arrest propagation, thereby having a leveraging effect on dissipation. The me- chanical performance of copper/epoxy joints with homogeneous and heterogeneous laser micromachined interfaces was then analyzed using the T-peel test. Fractured surfaces were analyzed using SEM to resolve the mechanism of failure and adhesive penetration within induced surface asperities from the treatment. Results confirm positive modifications of the surface morphology and chemistry from laser ablation that enable mechanical interlocking and cohesive failure within the adhesive layer. Remarkable improvements of apparent peel energy, bond toughness, and effective peel force were appreciated with respect to sanded substrates as control samples.

  13. Investigation of the impact of cleaning on the adhesive bond and the process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; ADKINS,CAROL L. JONES; CURRO,JOHN G.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LOPEZ,EDWIN P.; LEMKE,PAUL A.

    2000-05-01

    While surface cleaning is the most common process step in DOE manufacturing operations, the link between a successful adhesive bond and the surface clean performed before adhesion is not well understood. An innovative approach that combines computer modeling expertise, fracture mechanics understanding, and cleaning experience to address how to achieve a good adhesive bond is discussed here to develop a capability that would result in reduced cleaning development time and testing, improved bonds, improved manufacturability, and even an understanding that leads to improved aging. A simulation modeling technique, polymer reference interaction site model applied near wall (Wall PRISM), provided the capability to include contaminants on the surface. Calculations determined an approximately 8% reduction in the work of adhesion for 1% by weight of ethanol contamination on the structure of a silicone adhesive near a surface. The demonstration of repeatable coatings and quantitative analysis of the surface for deposition of controlled amounts of contamination (hexadecane and mineral oil) was based on three deposition methods. The effect of the cleaning process used on interfacial toughness was determined. The measured interfacial toughness of samples with a Brulin cleaned sandblasted aluminum surface was found to be {approximately} 15% greater than that with a TCE cleaned aluminum surface. The sensitivity of measured fracture toughness to various test conditions determined that both interfacial toughness and interface corner toughness depended strongly on surface roughness. The work of adhesion value for silicone/silicone interface was determined by a contact mechanics technique known as the JKR method. Correlation with fracture data has allowed a better understanding between interfacial fracture parameters and surface energy.

  14. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  15. Excimer laser surface modification of coated steel for enhancement of adhesive bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Hamid R.; Moffat, B.; Mueller, R. E.; Fumo, D.; Duley, W.; North, T.; Gu, Bo

    1998-05-01

    Zinc coated sheet steel in the form of temper rolled galvanize and galvanneal are used extensively in the automotive industry. Through a process of excimer laser surface treatment, we have developed a procedure to significantly enhance the adhesion characteristics of these coated steels. We report here results of processing trials using both XeCl (308 nm) and KrF (248 nm) excimer lasers and a two-part epoxy adhesive (3M DP-460) with a range of processing conditions. Bond strengths are measured by T-peel and shear test methods. Using T-peel tests, bond strength improvements greater than five times than for untreated surfaces have been observed. With the improved surface condition, the bond strength becomes limited by the cohesive strength of the adhesive. Detailed measurements of the physical structure and chemical composition of the excimer laser processed surfaces are presented. The enhancement in bond strength is correlated with the observed changes in physical and chemical structure of the laser processed surfaces. Surface structure is observed using SEM and physical characteristics are quantified using a Talysurf profilometer. The chemical composition of the treated surface has been analysed using XPS and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.

  16. Effect of Multiple Coatings of One-step Self-etching Adhesive on Microtensile Bond Strength to Primary Dentin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ma; Jian-feng Zhou; Jian-guo Tan; Quan Jing; Ji-zhi Zhao; Kuo Wan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of multiple coatings of the one-step self-etching adhesive on immediate microtensile bond strength to primary dentin.Methods Twelve caries-free human primary molars were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 teeth each. In group 1,each tooth was hemisected into two halves. One half was assigned to control subgroup 1,which was bonded with a single-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; the other half was assigned to experimental subgroup 1 in which the adhesive was applied three times before light curing. In group 2, the teeth were also hemisected into two halves. One half was assigned to control subgroup 2, which was bonded with the single-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; the other half was assigned to experimental subgroup 2 in which three layers of adhesive were applied with light curing each successive layer. Microtensile bond strength was immediately tested after specimen preparation.Results When the adhesive was applied three times before light curing, the bond strength of the experimental subgroup 1 (n=33, 57.49±11.61 MPa) was higher than that of the control subgroup 1 (n=31,49.71±11.43 MPa, P0.05).Conclusion multiple coatings of one-step self-etching adhesive can increase the immediate bond strength to primary dentin when using the technique of light-curing after applying three layers of adhesive.

  17. Effect of EDTA Conditioning and Carbodiimide Pretreatment on the Bonding Performance of All-in-One Self-Etch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA conditioning and carbodiimide (EDC pretreatment on the shear bond strength of two all-in-one self-etch adhesives to dentin. Methods. Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared on one hundred and sixty extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into eight groups according to two different self-etch adhesives used [G-Bond and OptiBond-All-In-One] and four different surface pretreatments: (a adhesive applied following manufacturer’s instructions; (b dentin conditioning with 24% EDTA gel prior to application of adhesive; (c EDC pretreatment followed by application of adhesive; (d application of EDC on EDTA conditioned dentin surface followed by application of adhesive. Composite restorations were placed in all the samples. Ten samples from each group were subjected to immediate and delayed (6-month storage in artificial saliva shear bond strength evaluation. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s test at a significance level of p<0.05.  Results and Conclusion. EDTA preconditioning as well as EDC pretreatment alone had no significant effect on the immediate and delayed bond strengths of either of the adhesives. However, EDC pretreatment on EDTA conditioned dentin surface resulted in preservation of resin-dentin bond strength of both adhesives with no significant fall over six months.

  18. Influence of different tooth types on the bond strength of two orthodontic adhesive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Bora; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin; Çatalbaş, Bülent; Özer, Füsun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of different tooth types on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic resin adhesive systems in vitro. Two hundred extracted sound human teeth were used in the study. Ten teeth of each tooth type were the mounted in acrylic resin leaving the buccal surface of the crowns parallel to the base of the moulds. In each experimental group, the adhesives (Transbond XT™ and Light Bond™) were applied to the etched enamel surfaces. The orthodontic composite resins were then applied to the surface in cylindrical-shaped plastic matrices. For SBS testing, a force transducer (Ultradent™) was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute at the interface between the tooth and composite until failure occurred. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA, a Bonferroni adjusted Mann–Whitney U-test, and an independent t-test. Generally, it was found that tooth type had a significant effect on SBS (P < 0.05) with Light Bond™ showing a higher SBS than Transbond XT™ (P < 0.05). The highest bond strengths were observed for the upper central incisor and lower molars with Light Bond™ (P < 0.05) and the lowest mean bond strengths for the upper molars and lower canine with Transbond XT™ (P <0.05). The results demonstrated that enamel SBS was significantly altered by both tooth type and adhesive system. Thus, the findings of this study confirm that enamel bond strength is not uniform for all teeth. These results may also explain the variability in the enamel-bonding efficacy of adhesives. PMID:18678760

  19. Effect of salivary contamination during different bonding stages on shear dentin bond strength of one-step self-etch and total etch adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kermanshah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of saliva contamination during bonding procedures without removing saliva on shear dentin bond strength of three adhesive generations when rubber dam isolation is not feasible.Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of seventy-two extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups (A: Scotch Bond MP Plus (SBMP, B: Single Bond (SB, C: Prompt L-Pop according to the applied adhesives and twelve subgroups (n=6according to the following saliva contamination applied in different bonding steps. The specimens were contaminated with saliva after etching (A1 and B1, after primer application (A2, after adhesive application before polymerization (A3, B2 and C1, and after adhesivepolymerization (A4, B3 and C2. Three subgroups were not contaminated as controls (A5, B4 and C3. Resin composite was placed on dentin subsequently followed by thermocycling.Shear test was performed by Universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The collected data were statically analyzed using one and two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD.Results: In contrast to SBMP and SB, the mean shear bond strength of Promote L-Pop was not significantly different between contaminated and uncontaminated subgroups. Mean shear bond strengths of SBMP subgroups contaminated after adhesive polymerization or uncontaminated were significantly higher compared to the other two groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Unlike Promote L-Pop, saliva contamination could reduce shear bond strength of the total-etch adhesives. Furthermore, the step of bonding procedures and the type of adhesive seems to be effective on the bond strength of adhesive contaminated with saliva.

  20. Influence of chlorhexidine application on longitudinal adhesive bond strength in deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of applying 2% chlorhexidine for 30 seconds after phosphoric acid conditioning of dentin on the immediate and long-term bond strengths in deciduous teeth. The occlusal enamel was removed from 40 human sound deciduous molars, which were exfoliated by natural means, and the dentin was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and washed with running water. The specimens were divided into two groups of 20 teeth. The test group received an application of 2% chlorhexidine for 30 seconds prior to a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, whereas the control group received only the adhesive system. Three cylindrical restorations were made with a composite resin for each tooth. Ten teeth in each group were submitted to a microshear bond strength test after 24 hours, while the remaining teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 6 months before testing the microshear bond strength. The test group had a higher bond strength than did the control group after 6 months of storage. No statistical differences were found when groups with the same dentin treatment were compared at different times. Short applications of chlorhexidine at low concentrations prevent hybrid layer degradation and positively affect bond strength over time.

  1. Bonding between oxide ceramics and adhesive cement systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papia, Evaggelia; Larsson, Christel; du Toit, Madeleine; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2014-02-01

    The following aims were set for this systematic literature review: (a) to make an inventory of existing methods to achieve bondable surfaces on oxide ceramics and (b) to evaluate which methods might provide sufficient bond strength. Current literature of in vitro studies regarding bond strength achieved using different surface treatments on oxide ceramics in combination with adhesive cement systems was selected from PubMed and systematically analyzed and completed with reference tracking. The total number of publications included for aim a was 127 studies, 23 of which were used for aim b. The surface treatments are divided into seven main groups: as-produced, grinding/polishing, airborne particle abrasion, surface coating, laser treatment, acid treatment, and primer treatment. There are large variations, making comparison of the studies difficult. An as-produced surface of oxide ceramic needs to be surface treated to achieve durable bond strength. Abrasive surface treatment and/or silica-coating treatment with the use of primer treatment can provide sufficient bond strength for bonding oxide ceramics. This conclusion, however, needs to be confirmed by clinical studies. There is no universal surface treatment. Consideration should be given to the specific materials to be cemented and to the adhesive cement system to be used.

  2. Influence of adhesive layer properties on laser-generated ultrasonic waves in thin bonded plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-Xiang; Xu Bai-Qiang; Zhang Hua; Gao Qian; Zhang Shu-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies quantitatively the generation of Lamb waves in thin bonded plates subjected to laser illumination, after considering the viscoelasticity of the adhesive layer. The displacements of such plates have been calculated in the frequency domain by using the finite element method, and the time domain response has been reconstructed by applying an inverse fast Fourier transform. Numerical results are presented showing the normal surface displacement for several configurations: a single aluminum plate, a three-layer bonded plate, and a two-layer plate. The characteristics of the laser-generated Lamb waves for each particular case have been investigated. In addition, the sensitivity of the transient responses to variations of material properties (elastic modulus, viscoelastic modulus, and thickness) of the adhesive layer has been studied in detail.

  3. Characterization of debond growth mechanism in adhesively bonded composites under mode II static and fatigue loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize the debond growth mechanism under mode II static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, end-notched flexure specimens of graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) adherends bonded with EC 3445 adhesive were tested. In all specimen tested, the fatigue failure occurred in the form of cyclic debonding. The present study confirmed the result of previous studies that total strain-energy-release rate is the driving parameter for cyclic debonding. Further, the debond growth resistance under cyclic loading with full shear reversal (i.e., stress ratio, R = -1) is drastically reduced in comparison to the case when subjected to cyclic shear loading with no shear reversal (i.e., R = 0.1).

  4. Cost-Efficient Wafer-Level Capping for MEMS and Imaging Sensors by Adhesive Wafer Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Bleiker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Device encapsulation and packaging often constitutes a substantial part of the fabrication cost of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS transducers and imaging sensor devices. In this paper, we propose a simple and cost-effective wafer-level capping method that utilizes a limited number of highly standardized process steps as well as low-cost materials. The proposed capping process is based on low-temperature adhesive wafer bonding, which ensures full complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS compatibility. All necessary fabrication steps for the wafer bonding, such as cavity formation and deposition of the adhesive, are performed on the capping substrate. The polymer adhesive is deposited by spray-coating on the capping wafer containing the cavities. Thus, no lithographic patterning of the polymer adhesive is needed, and material waste is minimized. Furthermore, this process does not require any additional fabrication steps on the device wafer, which lowers the process complexity and fabrication costs. We demonstrate the proposed capping method by packaging two different MEMS devices. The two MEMS devices include a vibration sensor and an acceleration switch, which employ two different electrical interconnection schemes. The experimental results show wafer-level capping with excellent bond quality due to the re-flow behavior of the polymer adhesive. No impediment to the functionality of the MEMS devices was observed, which indicates that the encapsulation does not introduce significant tensile nor compressive stresses. Thus, we present a highly versatile, robust, and cost-efficient capping method for components such as MEMS and imaging sensors.

  5. Shear Bond Strength of Bracket Bases to Adhesives Based on Bracket Base Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    bracket compared to the surface of the substrate. Recent research and development have resulted in the production of various bracket base designs other...designs has been offered by ODP’s state of the art Anchor-Lock TM Pad which claims to take bonding to a whole new level. With this bracket, the base ...FUTURE RESEARCH When metal bracket bases are debonded, the site of failure occurs predominately at the adhesive- base interface. This failure site

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial and fluoride-releasing adhesive system on dentin--microtensile bond strength and acid-base challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; Yamauti, Monica; Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Giannini, Marcelo; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a fluoride-containing adhesive on microtensile bond strength (microTBS) to dentin, as well as analyzed the dentin-adhesive interface after acid-base challenge. Experimental groups were: G1--Clearfil SE Bond control (SE); G2--Clearfil Protect Bond control (PB); G3--Primer[SE]/Adhesive[PB]; G4--Primer[PB]/Adhesive[SE]. For microTBS evaluation, dentin surfaces were ground, bonded, and composite resin crowns were built up to obtain beams to be tested. For interfacial analysis, adhesive system was applied on dentin surface and a low-viscosity resin was placed between two dentin disks. Then, the specimens were subjected to acid-base challenge, sectioned, and polished to be observed by SEM. microTBS data showed no statistical differences among the groups (GI: 51.3, G2: 47.6, G3: 55.0, G4: 53.9; mean in MPa). Through SEM, it was observed that a thick acid-base resistant zone adjacent to the hybrid layer was created only when the fluoride-releasing adhesive was used. In conclusion, the presence of fluoride in an adhesive contributed significantly to preventing secondary caries, and did not interfere with dentin-adhesive bond strength.

  7. Sacrificial adhesive bonding: a powerful method for fabrication of glass microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Renato S.; Leão, Paulo A. G. C.; Piazzetta, Maria H. O.; Monteiro, Alessandra M.; Shiroma, Leandro Y.; Gobbi, Angelo L.; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2015-08-01

    A new protocol for fabrication of glass microchips is addressed in this research paper. Initially, the method involves the use of an uncured SU-8 intermediate to seal two glass slides irreversibly as in conventional adhesive bonding-based approaches. Subsequently, an additional step removes the adhesive layer from the channels. This step relies on a selective development to remove the SU-8 only inside the microchannel, generating glass-like surface properties as demonstrated by specific tests. Named sacrificial adhesive layer (SAB), the protocol meets the requirements of an ideal microfabrication technique such as throughput, relatively low cost, feasibility for ultra large-scale integration (ULSI), and high adhesion strength, supporting pressures on the order of 5 MPa. Furthermore, SAB eliminates the use of high temperature, pressure, or potential, enabling the deposition of thin films for electrical or electrochemical experiments. Finally, the SAB protocol is an improvement on SU-8-based bondings described in the literature. Aspects such as substrate/resist adherence, formation of bubbles, and thermal stress were effectively solved by using simple and inexpensive alternatives.

  8. Sacrificial adhesive bonding: a powerful method for fabrication of glass microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Renato S; Leão, Paulo A G C; Piazzetta, Maria H O; Monteiro, Alessandra M; Shiroma, Leandro Y; Gobbi, Angelo L; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2015-08-21

    A new protocol for fabrication of glass microchips is addressed in this research paper. Initially, the method involves the use of an uncured SU-8 intermediate to seal two glass slides irreversibly as in conventional adhesive bonding-based approaches. Subsequently, an additional step removes the adhesive layer from the channels. This step relies on a selective development to remove the SU-8 only inside the microchannel, generating glass-like surface properties as demonstrated by specific tests. Named sacrificial adhesive layer (SAB), the protocol meets the requirements of an ideal microfabrication technique such as throughput, relatively low cost, feasibility for ultra large-scale integration (ULSI), and high adhesion strength, supporting pressures on the order of 5 MPa. Furthermore, SAB eliminates the use of high temperature, pressure, or potential, enabling the deposition of thin films for electrical or electrochemical experiments. Finally, the SAB protocol is an improvement on SU-8-based bondings described in the literature. Aspects such as substrate/resist adherence, formation of bubbles, and thermal stress were effectively solved by using simple and inexpensive alternatives.

  9. Structural model for covalent adhesion of the Streptococcus pyogenes pilus through a thioester bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke-Winnebeck, Christian; Paterson, Neil G; Young, Paul G; Middleditch, Martin J; Greenwood, David R; Witte, Gregor; Baker, Edward N

    2014-01-03

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces pili that are essential for adhesion to host surface receptors. Cpa, the adhesin at the pilus tip, was recently shown to have a thioester-containing domain. The thioester bond is believed to be important in adhesion, implying a mechanism of covalent attachment analogous to that used by human complement factors. Here, we have characterized a second active thioester-containing domain on Cpa, the N-terminal domain of Cpa (CpaN). Expression of CpaN in Escherichia coli gave covalently linked dimers. These were shown by x-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry to comprise two CpaN molecules cross-linked by the polyamine spermidine following reaction with the thioester bonds. This cross-linked CpaN dimer provides a model for the covalent attachment of Cpa to target receptors and thus the streptococcal pilus to host cells. Similar thioester domains were identified in cell wall proteins of other Gram-positive pathogens, suggesting that thioester domains are more widely used and provide a mechanism of adhesion by covalent bonding to target molecules on host cells that mimics that used by the human complement system to eliminate pathogens.

  10. Laser Ablation Surface Preparation of Ti-6A1-4V for Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Watson, Kent A.; Morales, Guillermo; Williams, Thomas; Hicks, Robert; Wohl, Christopher J.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive bonding offers many advantages over mechanical fastening, but requires certification before it can be incorporated in primary structures for commercial aviation without disbond-arrestment features or redundant load paths. Surface preparation is widely recognized as the key step to producing robust and predictable bonds. Laser ablation imparts both topographical and chemical changes to a surface which can lead to increased bond durability. A laser based process provides an alternative to chemical-dip, manual abrasion and grit blast treatments which are expensive, hazardous, polluting, and less precise. This report documents preliminary testing of a surface preparation technique using laser ablation as a replacement for the chemical etch and abrasive processes currently applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloy adherends. Failure mode, surface roughness, and chemical makeup were analyzed using fluorescence enhanced visualization, microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Single lap shear tests were conducted on bonded and aged specimens to observe bond strength retention and failure mode. Some promising results showed increasing strength and durability of lap shear specimens as laser ablation coverage area and beam intensity increased. Chemical analyses showed trends for surface chemical species which correlated with improved bond strength and durability. Combined, these results suggest that laser ablation is a viable process for inclusion with or/and replacement of one or more currently used titanium surface treatments. On-going work will focus on additional mechanical tests to further demonstrate improved bond durability.

  11. The effect of antimicrobial agents on bond strength of orthodontic adhesives: a meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, A S P; Collares, F M; Leitune, V C B; Samuel, S M W

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives aim to reduce white spot lesions' incidence in orthodontic patients, but they should not jeopardizing its properties. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to answer the question whether the association of antimicrobial agents with orthodontic adhesives compromises its mechanical properties and whether there is a superior antimicrobial agent. PubMed and Scopus databases. In vitro studies comparing shear bond strength of conventional photo-activated orthodontic adhesives to antimicrobial photo-activated orthodontic adhesives were considered eligible. Search terms included the following: orthodontics, orthodontic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, bactericidal, adhesive, resin, resin composite, bonding agent, bonding system, and bond strength. The searches yielded 494 citations, which turned into 467 after duplicates were discarded. Titles and abstracts were read and 13 publications were selected for full-text reading. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. The global analysis showed no statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. In the subgroup analysis, only the chlorhexidine subgroup showed a statistically significant difference, where the control groups had higher bond strength than the experimental groups. Many studies on in vitro orthodontic bond strength fail to report test conditions that could affect their outcomes. The pooled in vitro data suggest that adding an antimicrobial agent to an orthodontic adhesive system does not influence bond strength to enamel. It is not possible to state which antimicrobial agent is better to be associated.

  12. Shear bond strengths of self-adhesive luting resins fixing dentine to different restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congxiao; Degrange, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the bond strengths of three self-adhesive resin cements (Rely X Unicem, Maxcem and Multilink Sprint) fixing dentine to four different restorative substrates (Ni-Cr alloy, E-Max glass-ceramic, Y-TZP Zirconia and Adoro micro-filled composite) and to compare their performances with those of two conventional dual-cured luting cements (Variolink II + Total-etch Excite DSC and Multilink Automix + Self-etching Primer A + B). Cylindric specimens (5 x 5 mm) were prepared with the four restorative materials for bonding to human dentine. Three surface treatments were performed depending on the restorative material: (i) Al2O3 50 microm sandblasting (Ni-Cr, Adoro), (ii) #800 SiC polishing (Zirconia, E-Max), (iii) hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etching (E-Max). Twenty-five groups (n = 10) were designed according to luting cements, restorative materials and surface pre-treatments. In some experimental groups, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were coupled with, respectively, a silane primer (Monobond S) and an alloy/zirconia primer (Multilink A/Z primer). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then loaded in shear until failure. Variolink II and Multilink Automix showed the highest bond strengths, regardless of the restorative substrate, when used with dentine bonding systems and primers, while the weakest bonds were with Maxcem. The bond strength recorded with the two other self-adhesive cements depended on the nature of the restorative substrate. Increasing retention at the interfaces (i.e., HF ceramic etching) and using specific primers significantly improves the bond strength of luted restorative materials to dentine.

  13. Adaptive Shape Functions and Internal Mesh Adaptation for Modelling Progressive Failure in Adhesively Bonded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.

  14. Micro-tensile bond strength of self-etching primer adhesive systems to human coronal carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, J; Itota, T; Torii, Y; Nakabo, S; Yoshiyama, M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strengths of three self-etching primer adhesive systems to normal dentin (ND), caries-affected dentin (CAD) and caries-infected dentin (CID). Human extracted molars with caries were used, and flat dentin surfaces ground by 600-grit SiC paper were prepared. The surfaces were dyed using Caries-Detector solution, treated with Clearfil SE Bond, Mac-Bond II and UniFil Bond, and then covered with resin composites according to manufacturer's instructions. After immersion in 37 degrees C water for 24 h, the teeth were serially sectioned into multiple slices. Each slice was distinguished into ND, CAD and CID groups by the degree of staining, and the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation was also performed. For statistical analysis, anova and Scheffe's test were used (P bond strengths of the three adhesive systems to CAD and CID were significantly lower than those to ND. There was significant difference in the bond strength to ND between Clearfil SE Bond and UniFil Bond, but no significant differences to CAD and CID among the three adhesive systems. On SEM, the hybrid layers in CAD and CID showed more porous structures compared with ND. The results indicated that the bond strengths to CAD and CID were not affected by a variety of self-etching primer adhesive systems because of the porous hybrid layer formation in carious dentin.

  15. Multiple Coatings can Improve the Bond Durability of One-step Self-etching Adhesive to Primary Dentin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ma; Jian-feng Zhou; Quan Jing; Ji-zhi Zhao; Kuo Wan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether multiple coatings can improve the bond durability of one-step self-etching adhesive to primary dentin.Methods Twelve caries-free human primary molars were randomly divided into 2 groups.In group 1,each tooth was hemisected into 2 halves.One half was assigned to the control subgroup 1,which was bonded with a commercially available one-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; the other half was assigned to experimental subgroup 1,in which the adhesive was applied three times before light curing.In group 2,one split half tooth was bonded with a commercially available one-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; for the other half,three layers of adhesive were applied with each successive layer of light curing.Specimens were stored in 0.9% NaCl containing 0.02% sodium azide at 37℃ for 18 months and then were subjected to microtensile bond strength test and the fracture mode analysis.Results When the adhesive was applied three times before light curing,the bond strength of the experimental subgroup 1 was significandy higher than that of the control subgroup 1 (47.46±13.91 vs.38.12±11.21 MPa,P<0.05).When using the technique of applying multiple layers of adhesive with each successive layer of light curing,no difference was observed in bond strength between the control subgroup and the experimental subgroup (39.40±8.87 vs.40.87±9.33 MPa,P>0.05).Conclusion Multiple coatings can improve the bond durability of one-step self-etching adhesive to primary dentin when using the technique of light-curing after applying 3 layers of adhesive.

  16. Effect of different adhesion strategies on bond strength of resin composite to composite-dentin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, M; Pekkan, G

    2013-01-01

    Service life of discolored and abraded resin composite restorations could be prolonged by repair or relayering actions. Composite-composite adhesion can be achieved successfully using some surface conditioning methods, but the most effective adhesion protocol for relayering is not known when the composite restorations are surrounded with dentin. This study evaluated the effect of three adhesion strategies on the bond strength of resin composite to the composite-dentin complex. Intact maxillary central incisors (N=72, n=8 per subgroup) were collected and the coronal parts of the teeth were embedded in autopolymerized poly(methyl tfr54methacrylate) surrounded by a polyvinyl chloride cylinder. Cylindrical cavities (diameter: 2.6 mm; depth: 2 mm) were opened in the middle of the labial surfaces of the teeth using a standard diamond bur, and the specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Two types of resin composite, namely microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine; AS) and nanohybrid (Grandio; G), were photo-polymerized incrementally in the cavities according to each manufacturer's recommendations. The composite-enamel surfaces were ground finished to 1200-grit silicone carbide paper until the dentin was exposed. The surfaces of the substrate composites and the surrounding dentin were conditioned according to one of the following adhesion protocols: protocol 1: acid-etching (dentin) + silica coating (composite) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); protocol 2: silica coating (composite) + acid-etching (dentin) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); and protocol 3: acid-etching (dentin) + primer (dentin) + silanization (composite) + bonding agent (dentin + composite). Applied primer and bonding agents were the corresponding materials of the composite manufacturer. Silica coating (CoJet sand, 30 μm) was achieved using a chairside air-abrasion device (distance: 10 mm; duration

  17. Relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive. As controls, micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites were tested. The universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Adhese Universal, and G-Premio Bond. The fracture toughness and flexural properties of resin composites, and shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength of universal adhesive with resin composite using both total-etch and self-etch modes were determined. In the results, short fiber-reinforced resin composite showed significantly higher fracture toughness than did micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The flexural strength and modulus of short fiber-reinforced and nano-hybrid resin composites were significantly lower than were those of micro-hybrid resin composites. Regardless of etching mode, the shear bond strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite did not show any significant differences from micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The shear fatigue strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite and micro-hybrid resin composites were significantly higher than that of nano-hybrid resin composites. The results of this study suggest that the mechanical properties of short fiber-reinforced resin composite improve their bond durability with universal adhesive.

  18. CARIOSTATIC EFFECT AND FLUORIDE RELEASE FROM A VISIBLE LIGHT-CURING ADHESIVE FOR BONDING OF ORTHODONTIC BRACKETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; REZKLEGA, F; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the cariostatic potential in vivo of a visible light-curing adhesive for the bonding of orthodontic brackets. The fluoride release of the adhesive in water and saliva was also measured. Ten orthodontic patients with premolars to be extracted participated. One b

  19. Mechanical switching and coupling between two dissociation pathways in a P-selectin adhesion bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Evan; Leung, Andrew; Heinrich, Volkmar; Zhu, Cheng

    2004-08-01

    Many biomolecular bonds exhibit a mechanical strength that increases in proportion to the logarithm of the rate of force application. Consistent with exponential decrease in bond lifetime under rising force, this kinetically limited failure reflects dissociation along a single thermodynamic pathway impeded by a sharp free energy barrier. Using a sensitive force probe to test the leukocyte adhesion bond P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1)-P-selectin, we observed a linear increase of bond strength with each 10-fold increase in the rate of force application from 300 to 30,000 pN/sec, implying a single pathway for failure. However, the strength and lifetime of PSGL-1-P-selectin bonds dropped anomalously when loaded below 300 pN/sec, demonstrating unexpectedly faster dissociation and a possible second pathway for failure. Remarkably, if first loaded by a "jump" in force to 20-30 pN, the bonds became strong when subjected to a force ramp as slow as 30 pN/sec and exhibited the same single-pathway kinetics under all force rates. Applied in this way, a new "jump/ramp" mode of force spectroscopy was used to show that the PSGL-1-P-selectin bond behaves as a mechanochemical switch where force history selects between two dissociation pathways with markedly different properties. Furthermore, replacing PSGL-1 by variants of its 19-aa N terminus and by the crucial tetrasaccharide sialyl LewisX produces dramatic changes in the failure kinetics, suggesting a structural basis for the two pathways. The two-pathway switch seems to provide a mechanism for the "catch bond" response observed recently with PSGL-1-P-selectin bonds subjected to small-constant forces.

  20. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bond strength of self-etching adhesive system- An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Madhusudhana; Gogala, Dorasani; Mathew, Vinod B; Thangala, Venugopal; Deepthi, Mandava; Sasidhar, Nalluru

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to determine the effect of saliva and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive to enamel and dentin; and, to compare the difference in bond strength due to contamination beforeand after application of the self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods: 40 human mandibular molars were wet ground on both buccal and lingual surfaces to prepare flat superficial enamel and dentin surfaces. They were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40) based on the substrate (enamel and dentin). Each group was further divided into five subgroups (n = 8) based on the type of contamination it was subjected to, and the step in the bonding sequence when the contamination occurred (before or after adhesive application). Fresh saliva and fresh human blood were applied either before or after the application of Xeno III® self-etching adhesive system (SES). Composite resin was applied as inverted, truncated cured cones that were subjected to shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test were used. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the bond strength was shown after both saliva and blood contamination before and after Xeno III® application (Pcontamination with blood as compared to saliva. Conclusions: When self-etching adhesive systems are used, saliva and blood contamination significantly decrease the bond strength of the adhesive to enamel and dentin of the tooth. PMID:22876017

  1. Resin Bonding of Self-Etch Adhesives to Bovine Dentin Bleached from Pulp Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Akiko; Kato, Junji; Takemoto, Shinji; Oda, Yutaka; Kawada, Eiji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Furusawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs) and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs) to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1) and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Pyrenees®) activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2). Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls. After treatment, dentin was bonded with resin composite using 1-SEA or 2-SEA and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h. Each specimen was sectioned and trimmed to an hourglass-shape and μTBS was measured. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine fracture modes. All specimens in Group 1 failed before proper bonding tests. In Group 2, the μTBS of 2-SEA was significantly greater (with no failed specimens) than 1-SEA (where 21 out of 36 failed). These results indicate that 2-SEA is a better adhesive system than 1-SEA on bleached dentin. Our results also demonstrated that application of H2O2 significantly decreases bond strength of resin to dentin; however, in the case of nonvital tooth bleaching, Pyrenees® is a better alternative to the conventional 30% H2O2 bleaching. PMID:27747220

  2. Resin Bonding of Self-Etch Adhesives to Bovine Dentin Bleached from Pulp Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Akiko; Kameyama, Atsushi; Kato, Junji; Takemoto, Shinji; Oda, Yutaka; Kawada, Eiji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Furusawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs) and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs) to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1) and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Pyrenees®) activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2). Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls. After treatment, dentin was bonded with resin composite using 1-SEA or 2-SEA and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h. Each specimen was sectioned and trimmed to an hourglass-shape and μTBS was measured. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine fracture modes. All specimens in Group 1 failed before proper bonding tests. In Group 2, the μTBS of 2-SEA was significantly greater (with no failed specimens) than 1-SEA (where 21 out of 36 failed). These results indicate that 2-SEA is a better adhesive system than 1-SEA on bleached dentin. Our results also demonstrated that application of H2O2 significantly decreases bond strength of resin to dentin; however, in the case of nonvital tooth bleaching, Pyrenees® is a better alternative to the conventional 30% H2O2 bleaching.

  3. Resin Bonding of Self-Etch Adhesives to Bovine Dentin Bleached from Pulp Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Haruyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1 and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2 (Pyrenees® activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2. Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls. After treatment, dentin was bonded with resin composite using 1-SEA or 2-SEA and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h. Each specimen was sectioned and trimmed to an hourglass-shape and μTBS was measured. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine fracture modes. All specimens in Group 1 failed before proper bonding tests. In Group 2, the μTBS of 2-SEA was significantly greater (with no failed specimens than 1-SEA (where 21 out of 36 failed. These results indicate that 2-SEA is a better adhesive system than 1-SEA on bleached dentin. Our results also demonstrated that application of H2O2 significantly decreases bond strength of resin to dentin; however, in the case of nonvital tooth bleaching, Pyrenees® is a better alternative to the conventional 30% H2O2 bleaching.

  4. Effect of EDTA and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment on the Bonding Effectiveness of Self-Etch Adhesives to Ground Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ihab M.; Elkassas, Dina W.; Yousry, Mai M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study determined the effect of enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bond strength of strong, intermediary strong, and mild self-etching adhesive systems. Methods: Ninety sound human premolars were used. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to flat ground enamel surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=0.9–1.0), intermediary strong AdheSE (pH=1.6–1.7), and mild Frog (pH=2). Adhesive systems were applied either according to manufacturer instructions (control) or after pretreatment with either phosphoric acid or EDTA (n=10). After 24 hours, shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Ultra-morphological characterization of the surface topography and resin/enamel interfaces as well as representative fractured enamel specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Neither surface pretreatment statistically increased the mean shear bond strength values of either the strong or the intermediary strong self-etching adhesive systems. However, phosphoric acid pretreatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strength values of the mild self-etching adhesive system. SEM examination of enamel surface topography showed that phosphoric acid pretreatment deepened the same etching pattern of the strong and intermediary strong adhesive systems but converted the irregular etching pattern of the mild self-etching adhesive system to a regular etching pattern. SEM examination of the resin/enamel interface revealed that deepening of the etching pattern was consistent with increase in the length of resin tags. EDTA pretreatment had a negligible effect on ultra-morphological features. Conclusions: Use of phosphoric acid pretreatment can be beneficial with mild self-etching adhesive systems for bonding to enamel. PMID:20922162

  5. Depletion of water molecules during ethanol wet-bonding with etch and rinse dental adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, Genevieve, E-mail: gregoire@cict.fr [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France); Sharrock, Patrick [Medical and Spatial Imaging Laboratory, University Toulouse III, Ave. Pompidou, 81104, Castres (France); Delannee, Mathieu [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France); Delisle, Marie-Bernadette [Faculty of Medicine, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of demineralized dentin with ethanol has been proposed as a way to improve hydrophobic monomer penetration into otherwise water saturated collagen fibrils. The ethanol rinse is expected to preserve the fibrils from collapsing while optimizing resin constituent infiltration for better long term adhesion. The physico-chemical investigations of demineralized dentin confirmed objectively these working hypotheses. Namely, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the melting point of water molecules pointed to the presence of free and bound water states. Unfreezable water was the main type of water remaining following a rinsing step with absolute ethanol. Two different liquid water phases were also observed by Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of ethanol treated specimens illustrated differences with the fully hydrated specimens concerning the polar carbonyl vibrations. Optical microscopy observations as well as scanning electron microscopy showed an improved dentin-adhesive interface with ethanol wet bonding. The results indicate that water can be confined to strongly bound structural molecules when excess water is removed with ethanol prior to adhesive application. This should preserve collagen from hydrolysis upon aging of the hybrid layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-freezable water exists in demineralized dentine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free water can be removed by ethanol rinse of the demineralized collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol wet bonding leads to a homogeneous hybrid layer free of defects.

  6. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Türkmen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group: direct composite resin restoration (Alert with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive, Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia luted with a resin cement (Cement-It combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond, Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. RESULTS: The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7 showed better results compared to the other groups (p0.05. The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. CONCLUSION: The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces.

  7. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  8. An in vitro study of the bond strength of five adhesives used for vinyl polysiloxane impression materials and tray materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surender; Gandhi, Udey Vir; Banerjee, Saurav

    2014-03-01

    Although stock trays often provide mechanical retention for elastomeric impression materials, manufacturers typically recommend the use of an adhesive, whether a stock or custom tray is used. The mention of the bond strength on the adhesive packaging is not available, therefore the clinician has no idea whatsoever of the ideal adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) materials, one with a poly(methyl methacrylate) autopolymerizing (PMMA) specimen and another with a light-polymerizing tray material (VLC), using the adhesive recommended by the manufacturer of the impression material, and two universal adhesives. A total of ninety specimens (15 × 15 × 20 mm) were used, 45 specimens were made in PMMA and rest 45 was made in VLC. Five paint-on adhesives (Coltene, Caulk, 3M, universal Zhermack and universal GC) were applied. Three impression materials, Affinis, Reprosil, and 3M, were mixed and injected into a perforated poly vinyl chloride cylinder. Tray specimens were positioned against the open cylinder end in contact with the VPS material. Tensile strength tests were conducted until adhesive separation failure. Mean values and standard errors of the adhesive strength were recorded in MPa for each material combination. GC paint-on universal adhesive provided significantly higher adhesive strength values.

  9. Effect of different adhesive strategies on microtensile bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing blocks bonded to dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Teich, Sorin; Porto, Thiago Soares

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of ceramic and composite computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks bonded to dentin using different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 crowns of sound freshly extracted human molars were sectioned horizontally 3 mm above the cementoenamel junction to produce flat dentin surfaces. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks, size 14, were sectioned into slices of 3 mm thick. Before bonding, CAD/CAM block surfaces were treated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Groups were created based on the adhesive strategy used: Group 1 (GI) - conventional resin cement + total-etch adhesive system, Group 2 (GII) - conventional resin cement + self-etch adhesive system, and Group 3 (GIII) - self-adhesive resin cement with no adhesive. Bonded specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24h at 37΀C, and then sectioned with a slow-speed diamond saw to obtain 1 mm × 1 mm × 6 mm microsticks. Microtensile testing was then conducted using a microtensile tester. μTBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc (Tukey) test at the 5% significance level. Results: Mean values and standard deviations of μTBS (MPa) were 17.68 (±2.71) for GI/ceramic; 17.62 (±3.99) for GI/composite; 13.61 (±6.92) for GII/composite; 12.22 (±4.24) for GII/ceramic; 7.47 (±2.29) for GIII/composite; and 6.48 (±3.10) for GIII/ceramic; ANOVA indicated significant differences among the adhesive modality and block interaction (P ceramic. Bond strength of GIII was consistently lower (P ceramic, can be significantly affected by different adhesive strategies used. PMID:27076825

  10. Antibacterial Activity and Bonding Ability of an Orthodontic Adhesive Containing the Antibacterial Monomer 2-Methacryloxylethyl Hexadecyl Methyl Ammonium Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yu, Hao-han; Lin, Ping-ting; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Xiang; Liu, Yan; Xia, Yu-ning; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-hua

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible white spot lesion (WSL) occurs in up to 50% of patients during orthodontic treatment. Therefore, orthodontic adhesives need to be able to inhibit or reduce bacterial growth in order to prevent or minimize WSL. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin-based orthodontic adhesive containing the antibacterial monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl hexadecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-HB). MAE-HB was added at three concentrations (1, 3, and 5 wt%) to a commercial orthodontic adhesive Transbond XT, while the blank control comprised unmodified Transbond XT. Their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans were investigated after 0 and 180 days of aging. The SBS of metal brackets bonded to the buccal enamel surface of human premolars was assessed. Compared with the blank control, the MAE-HB-incorporated adhesive exhibited a significant contact inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05), even after 180 days of aging. SBS and adhesive remnant index values revealed that the bonding ability of the experimental adhesive was not significantly adversely affected by the incorporation of MAE-HB at any of the three concentrations. Therefore, orthodontic adhesives with strong and long-lasting bacteriostatic properties can be created through the incorporation of MAE-HB without negatively influencing bonding ability. PMID:28169312

  11. Supersonic Retropulsion Surface Preparation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Blohowiak, Kay Y.; Connell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Surface preparation is widely recognized as a key step to producing robust and predictable bonds in a precise and reproducible manner. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, can lack precision and reproducibility, which can lead to variation in surface properties and subsequent bonding performance. The use of a laser to ablate composite surface resin can provide an efficient, precise, and reproducible means of preparing composite surfaces for adhesive bonding. Advantages include elimination of physical waste (i.e., grit media and sacrificial peel ply layers that ultimately require disposal), reduction in process variability due to increased precision (e.g. increased reproducibility), and automation of surface preparation, all of which improve reliability and process control. This paper describes a Nd:YAG laser surface preparation technique for composite substrates and the mechanical performance and failure modes of bonded laminates thus prepared. Additionally, bonded specimens were aged in a hot, wet environment for approximately one year and subsequently mechanically tested. The results of a one year hygrothermal aging study will be presented.

  12. SEM/XPS analysis of fractured adhesively bonded graphite fibre-reinforced polyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Messick, D. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The surfaces of the graphite fiber-reinforced polyimide composites presently pretreated prior to bonding with polyimide adhesive contained variable amounts of a fluoropolymer, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Lap shear strengths were determined for unaged samples and for those aged over 500- and 1000-hour periods at 177 and 232 C. Unaged sample lap strengths, which were the highest obtained, exhibited no variation with surface pretreatment, but a significant decrease is noted with increasing aging temperature. These thermally aged samples, however, had increased surface fluorine concentration, while a minimal concentration was found in unaged samples. SEM demonstrated a progressive shift from cohesive to adhesive failure for elevated temperature-aged composites.

  13. Investigation of the adhesive bonding technology for the insulator structure of EAST neutral beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiang-Long; Li, Jun; Hu, Chun-Dong; Xie, Ya-Hong; Jing, Hao

    2014-07-01

    A key issue on the development of EAST ion source was the junction design of insulator structure, which consists of three insulators and four supporting flanges of electrode grid. Because the ion source is installed on the vertical plane, the insulator structure has to withstand large bending and shear stress due to the gravity of whole ion source. Through a mechanical analysis, it was calculated that the maximum bending normal stress was 0.34 MPa and shear stress was 0.23 MPa on the insulator structure. Due to the advantages of simplicity and high strength, the adhesive bonding technology was applied to the junction of insulator structure. A tensile testing campaign of different junction designs between insulator and supporting flange was performed, and a junction design of stainless steel and fiber enhanced epoxy resin with epoxy adhesive was determined. The insulator structure based on the determined design can satisfy both the requirements of high-voltage holding and mechanical strength.

  14. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm in 4 groups (n=10 were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2, B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4, C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1, and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2. The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05. Results: The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002, C (p< 0.001, and D (p< 0.001. Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch was significantly different from group D (total-etch (p< 0.001; and C (self-etch with D (p= 0.024. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive.

  15. Influence of zinc-oxide eugenol, formocresol, and ferric sulfate on bond strength of dentin adhesives to primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Fouad Saad

    2005-08-15

    This study evaluated in vitro the influence of a temporary filling {zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE)} and two pulpotomy agents {formocresol (FC) and ferric sulfate (FS)} on shear bond strength (SBS) of two dentin adhesives to the dentin of primary molars. A total of 80 dentin surfaces were prepared and randomly allocated into 10 groups of 8 specimens each. Groups were subjected to different treatments, which included covering with a paste of ZOE mixed at different powder:liquid (P:L) ratios, placement on a gauze soaked in FC or FS, or they received no pretreatment and served as a control. XRV Herculite composite cylinders were bonded to dentin surfaces using Prime and Bond NT adhesive resin or Opti Bond Solo Plus adhesive resin. SBSs were determined using the lnstron testing machine running at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The use of ZOE mixed at the lower P:L ratio of 10g:2g significantly decreased the values of SBS of the two adhesives. The use of two pulpotomy agents (FC and FS) significantly decreased the SBS of the two adhesives. The bond strength to dentin of primary teeth was influenced by the pulpotomy agents used and the ZOE P:L ratio but not by the adhesive system used.

  16. SHEAR STRENGTH OF HEAT-TREATED TALI (ERYTHROPHLEUM IVORENSE AND IROKO (CHLOROPHORA EXCELSA WOODS, BONDED WITH VARIOUS ADHESIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamiyet Sahin Kol

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the shear strength of tali (Erythrophleum ivorense and iroko (Chlorophora excelsa woods, bonded with some structural adhesives. Shear strength of untreated and heat-treated woods bonded with phenol-formaldehyde (PF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF, melamine-formaldehyde (MF, and polyurethane (PUR adhesives was studied. An industrial heat treatment method (ThermoWood was used. The timbers were thermally modified for 2 hours at 180 ºC. Laminated samples having two sample sets were prepared from untreated and heat-treated wood for the shear strength test. The results of the tests showed that the heat treatment affected shear strength of laminated wood negatively. Although there was a considerable difference in adhesive bond shear strength between untreated and treated wood, both wood species bonded with the adhesives fulfilled the required value for shear strength of the adhesive bonds. PF, MUF, MF, and PUR adhesives performed in a rather similar way for both wood species.

  17. A self-diagnostic adhesive for monitoring bonded joints in aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yitao; Li, Yu-hung; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2016-04-01

    Bondline integrity is still one of the most critical concerns in the design of aircraft structures up to date. Due to the lack of confidence on the integrity of the bondline both during fabrication and service, the industry standards and regulations still require assembling the composite using conventional fasteners. Furthermore, current state-of-the-art non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques are incapable of offering mature solutions on the issue of bondline integrity monitoring. Therefore, the objective of this work is the development of an intelligent adhesive film with integrated micro-sensors for monitoring the integrity of the bondline interface. The proposed method makes use of an electromechanical-impedance (EMI) based method, which is a rapidly evolving approach within the SHM family. Furthermore, an innovative screen-printing technique to fabricate piezoelectric ceramic sensors with minimal thickness has been developed at Stanford. The approach presented in this study is based on the use of (i) micro screen-printed piezoelectric sensors integrated into adhesive leaving a minimal footprint on the material, (ii) numerical and analytical modeling of the EMI spectrum of the adhesive bondline, (iii) novel diagnostic algorithms for monitoring the bondline integrity based on advanced signal processing techniques, and (iv) the experimental assessment via prototype adhesively bonded structures in static (varying loads) and dynamic (fatigue) environments. The proposed method will provide a huge confidence on the use of bonded joints for aerospace structures and lead to a paradigm change in their design by enabling enormous weight savings while maximizing the economic and performance efficiency.

  18. Adhesives in Building--Lamination of Structural Timber Beams, Bonding of Cementitious Materials, Bonding of Gypsum Drywall Construction. Proceedings of a Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Spring 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The role of adhesives in building design is discussed. Three major areas are as follows--(1) lamination of structural timber beams, (2) bonding of cementitious materials, and (3) bonding of gypsum drywall construction. Topical coverage includes--(1) structural lamination today, (2) adhesives in use today, (3) new adhesives needed, (4) production…

  19. Ultrasonic study of adhesive bond quality at a steel-to-rubber interface by using quadrature phase detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. C.; Yang, H.

    1989-01-01

    The quadrature phase detection technique was used to simultaneously monitor the phase and amplitude of a toneburst signal normally reflected from an adhesively bonded steel-to-rubber interface. The measured phase was found to show a positive shift for all bonded samples with respect to the disbonded state - the phase shift being larger for samples with weaker bonds, as manifested by smaller values of applied tensile loads at failure. A model calculation, which incorporates the concept of interfacial strength into the usual problem of wave propagation in multilayered media, was used to deduce a bond-quality parameter from an experimentally measured phase shift. This bond-quality parameter was found to be correlated with the tensile strength of the adhesive bonds at failure loads.

  20. Effect of self-etching primer/adhesive and conventional bonding on the shear bond strength in metallic and ceramic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Hydari, Mahboubeh; Shahrbaf, Shirin; Mirzakouchaki-Boroujeni, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Bracket debonding from the tooth surface is a common problem in fixed orthodontics. The aims of the present study were to assess the bond strength and failure sites in two ways of bonding technique, with metallic and ceramic brackets. Material and Methods: One hundred premolars were assigned to 4 groups of 25 each: Group A, metallic brackets/ conventional procedure; Group B, metallic brackets/Transbond XT; Group C, ceramic brackets/conventional procedure; and Group D, ceramic brackets/Transbond XT. Transbond XT composite paste was used for bracket bonding and cured by conventional light-cure device. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling. One week after bonding shearing force was applied to the bracket-tooth interface. Bonding failure site optically examined using a stereomicroscope under 10 × magnifications and scoring was done using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were subjected to analysis of One-way variance, Tukey post hoc, Chi-square and Spearman’s tests. Results: Mean bond strength (in MPa) were: group A=9.2, group B=8.5, group C=6.2 and group D=5.7. Bond strength differences between groups A and B, and between C and D were not significant, (pceramic ones and the selfetching primer produce fewer bonds than the conventional method (clinically acceptable). A positive correlation found between changes in shearing bond strength and ARI. Key words: Acid etching, adhesive remnant index, orthodontic brackets, self-etching primer, shearing bond strength. PMID:21743430

  1. Reliability Analysis for Adhesive Bonded Composite Stepped Lap Joints Loaded in Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic approach to calculate the reliability of adhesive bonded composite stepped lap joints loaded in fatigue using three- dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). A method for progressive damage modelling is used to assess fatigue damage accumulation and residual...... strength under fully reversed cyclic loading based on stiffness/strength degradation. The FEA simulations are conducted using the commercial FEA code ANSYS 12.1. A design equation for fatigue failure of wind turbine blades is chosen based on recommendations given in the wind turbine standard IEC 61400...

  2. Laser treatment of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix for adhesive bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, S.; Leone, C.; Ucciardello, N.; Giuliani, M.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laser surface treatment of CFRP made of PPS thermoplastic matrix by means of a 30 W Q-Switched Yb:YAG fiber laser, is investigated with the aim to improve adhesive bonding. The process parameters pulse power, scanning speed, hatch distance and scanning strategy, were varied to the aim to study the influence of the process condition on the first top resin layer removal and fibre damage. The operating window was experimentally determined. The effectiveness of laser treatment was verified by single lap shear test.

  3. Influence of 10-MDP Adhesive System on Shear Bond Strength of Zirconia-Composite Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Cornelius Pott; Meike Stiesch; Michael Eisenburger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This in-vitro study investigated the initial 24h bond strength between different composites and zirconia after application of four different adhesive systems. Methods: A total of 120 specimens of zirconia (InCoris, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim) were ground with a 165 µm grit rotating diamond disc. Thirty specimens were each additionally treated with Cimara Zircon “CZ” (VOCO GmbH, Germany, Cuxhaven), Futurabond U “FBU” (VOCO GmbH), Futurabond M+ “FBM” (VOCO GmbH) or Futurabond M+ i...

  4. Systems, Apparatuses, and Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, III, Stanley S. (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  5. The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-10-15

    To discuss the reduction of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde emission test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC emission was slightly increased by the PVAc addition.

  6. Resin-dentin bond strength of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Silvia Terra; Cubas, Gloria Beatriz de Azevedo; Flores, Josiane Barcelos; Montemezzo, Murieli Leonor; Pinto, Marcia Bueno; Piva, Evandro

    2010-01-01

    To compare the resin-dentin bond degradation of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage, 100 bovine incisors were randomly separated into 10 groups and their superficial coronal dentin was exposed. According to manufacturers' instructions, dentin surfaces were bonded with one of seven two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives or one of three three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives. Composite buildups were constructed incrementally. Restored teeth were sectioned to obtain sticks (0.5 mm²). The specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond strength test after storage in distilled water (at 37°C) for one year. Data (MPa) were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests at α = 0.05. Of the adhesives tested, One Step, All Bond 2, and Optibond FL attained the highest bond strength to dentin after one year in water storage, while Magic Bond DE and Master Bond presented a high number of premature debonded flaws.

  7. Effect of collagen fibrils removal on shear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishevar L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Sodium hypochlorite can remove the organic phase of the demineralized dentin and it produces direct resin bonding with hydroxyapatite crystals. Therefore, the hydrolytic degradation of collagen fibrils which might affect the bonding durability is removed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibrils removal by 10% NaOCl on dentin shear bond strength of two total etch and self etch adhesive systems."nMaterials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were used in this study. Buccal surface of teeth were grounded until dentin was exposed. Then teeth were divided into four groups. According to dentin surface treatment, experimental groups were as follows: Group I: Single Bond (3M according to manufacture instruction, Group II: 10% NaOCl+Single bond (3M, Group III: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray according to manufacture instruction, and Group IV: Clearfil SE Bond primer. After that, the specimens were immersed in 50% acetone solution for removing extra monomer. Then the specimens were rinsed and dried. 10% NaOCl was applied and finally adhesive was used. Then composite was bonded to the treated surfaces using a 4 2 mm cylindrical plastic mold. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5-55ºC. A shear load was employed by a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The data were analyzed for statistical significance with One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests."nResults: The mean shear bond strengths of groups were as follows: Single Bond=16.8±4.2, Clearfil SE Bond=23.7±4.07, Single Bond+NaOCl=10.5±4.34, Clearfil SE Bond+NaOCl=23.3±3.65 MPa. Statistical analysis revealed that using 10% NaOCl significantly decreased the shear bond strength in Single Bond group (P=0.00, but caused no significant difference in the shear bond strength in Clearfil SE Bond group (P=0.99."nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl treatment did not improve the bond

  8. The role of host-derived dentinal matrix metalloproteinases in reducing dentin bonding of resin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-chuan; Kern, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteolytic enzymes trapped within mineralized dentin matrix, which have the ability to hydrolyze the organic matrix of demineralized dentin. After bonding with resins to dentin there are usually some exposed collagen fibrils at the bottom of the hybrid layer owing to imperfect resin impregnation of the demineralized dentin matrix. Exposed collagen fibrils might be affected by MMPs inducing hydrolytic degradation, which might result in reduced bond strength. Most MMPs are synthesized and released from odontoblasts in the form of proenzymes, requiring activation to degrade extracellular matrix components. Unfortunately, they can be activated by modem self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the role of dentinal host-derived MMPs in dentin matrix degradation. We also discuss various available MMP inhibitors, especially chlorhexidine, and suggest that they could provide a potential pathway for inhibiting collagen degradation in bonding interfaces thereby increasing dentin bonding durability.

  9. Can previous acid etching increase the bond strength of a self-etching primer adhesive to enamel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Because a greater research effort has been directed to analyzing the adhesive effectiveness of self etch primers to dentin, the aim of this study was to evaluate, by microtensile testing, the bond strength to enamel of a composite resin combined with a conventional adhesive system or with a self-etching primer adhesive, used according to its original prescription or used with previous acid etching. Thirty bovine teeth were divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth each (n= 10. In one of the groups, a self-etching primer (Clearfil SE Bond - Kuraray was applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and, in the other, it was applied after previous acid etching. In the third group, a conventional adhesive system (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus - 3M-ESPE was applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The results obtained by analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the adhesive systems (F = 22.31. The self-etching primer (Clearfil SE Bond presented lower enamel bond strength values than the conventional adhesive system (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (m = 39.70 ± 7.07 MPa both when used according to the original prescription (m = 27.81 ± 2.64 MPa and with previous acid etching (m = 25.08 ± 4.92 MPa.

  10. The effects of two soft drinks on bond strength, bracket microleakage, and adhesive remnant on intact and sealed enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raúl; Vicente, Ascensión; Ortiz, Antonio J; Bravo, Luis A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and Schweppes Limón on bond strength, adhesive remnant, and microleakage beneath brackets. One hundred and twenty upper central incisor brackets were bonded to bovine incisors and divided into three groups: (1) Control, (2) Coca-Cola, and (3) Schweppes Limón. The teeth were submerged in the drinks three times a day for 15 minutes over a 15 day period. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured with a universal testing machine, and adhesive remnant evaluated using image analysis equipment. Microleakage at the enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces was determined using methylene blue. One hundred and eight teeth were used for scanning electron microscopy to determine the effect of the drinks on intact and sealed enamel. SBS and adhesive remnant data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P 0.05). Microleakage at the enamel-adhesive interface for groups 2 and 3 was significantly greater than for group 1 (P Coca-Cola and Schweppes Limón did not affect the SBS of brackets or the adhesive remnant.

  11. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  12. Bonding of a mica-based castable ceramic material with a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, T; Matsumura, H; Atsuta, M

    1996-07-01

    Adhesive bonding of a mica-based castable ceramic material (Olympus Castable Ceramics, OCC) was evaluated in vitro with the use of a silane primer in conjunction with an adhesive luting material. The primer contained a silane coupler and 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), while the methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based luting agent was initiated with a tri-n-butylborane derivative (TBB) and contained 4-META (4-META/MMA-TBB resin). Ceramic specimens were sanded with No. 600 silicon carbide paper followed by blasting with alumina and/or etching with ammonium bifluoride. The specimens were bonded with various combinations and shear bond strengths were determined. Both priming and alumina blasting enhanced the bond between 4-META resin and OCC. Although etching with ammonium bifluoride roughened the ceramic surface, this procedure did not improve the bond strength. Electron probe microanalysis of the ceramic surface revealed a decrease in silicon and aluminium elements after etching with ammonium bifluoride.

  13. Effect of Caries Removal Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin and Glass IonomerAdhesives to Primary Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There is no enough published data about the shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer adhesives on caries-affected primary tooth dentin excavated using minimally invasive systems. Objectives: To evaluate the shear bond strength of 2 different adhesives (one resin modified glass ionomer and one resin using two caries removal tech- niques on healthy and caries-affected primary dentin. Materials and Methods: Two caries removal methods including mechanical (handpiece and chemomechanical (Carisolv techniques and two types of ad- hesives including one resin adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond; CSEB, Kuraray and one resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive (Riva Bond LC; RBLC, SDI were used in this study. Ten extracted healthy primary teeth were used for the control group. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and mesio-distally in order to obtain four specimens from each tooth. Thirty suitable specimens were selected as the “control” and randomly divided into two groups of “sound dentin” based on the type of the adhesive used. Sixty extracted caries affected teeth were used for the carious group; sectioned as mentioned above and sixty suitable specimens were selected as the “treatment”. Then the specimens were arbitrarily divided into four groups based on caries removal techniques and the type of ad- hesive used (n = 15. After bonding with either CSEB or RBLC, the specimens were restored with a resin composite by means of PVC tubes and subjected to the shear bond strength test. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The specimens in Carisolv group bonded with CSEB (11.68 ± 3.1 showed a statistically significant higher mean bond strength followed by those in handpiece group bonded with CSEB (9.4 ± 2.7, which exhibited higher mean values than those groups with RBLC (p < 0.05. Shear bond strength values for Clearfil SE Bond was not significantly higher than Riva Bond LC when used in sound

  14. The fabrication of microfluidic structures by means of full-wafer adhesive bonding using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samel, Björn; Kamruzzaman Chowdhury, M.; Stemme, Göran

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we present the use of a PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) curing-agent as the intermediate layer for adhesive full-wafer bonding suitable for fabrication of microfluidic structures. The curing-agent of the two-component silicone rubber (Sylgard 184) is spin coated on a substrate, brought into contact with another PDMS layer and heat cured to create an irreversible seal which is as strong as or even stronger than plasma-assisted PDMS bonding. The maximum bond strength is measured to 800 kPa when bonding together PDMS and silicon. The applicability of the new PDMS adhesive bonding method is verified by means of fabricating microfluidic structures. Using this method allows for wafer-level bonding of PDMS to various materials such as PDMS, glass or silicon and more importantly to selectively bond different layers by using a patterned adhesive bonding technique. Moreover, precise alignment of the structural layers is facilitated since curing is initiated upon heat which is an advantage when fabricating multilayer microfluidic devices.

  15. An investigation of interfacial stresses in adhesively-bonded single lap joints subject to transverse pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E.; Soleiman Fallah, A.; Louca, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Debonding in adhesively-bonded lap joints is a detrimental failure mode contingent upon the level of stresses develped in the adhesive. In this work, an analytical model is developed to estimate the peel and shear stresses in an isotropic elastic adhesive in a single lap joint subjected to transverse pulse loads. The proposed analytical model is an extension of the mathematical models developed by He and Rao (Journal of Sound and Vibration 152 (3), (1992) 405-416, 417-425) to study the coupled transverse and longitudinal vibrations of a bonded lap joint system. The adhesive, in this work, is modelled as an elastic isotropic material implemented in Abaqus 6.9-1. The interfacial stresses obtained by finite element simulations were used to validate the proposed analytical model. The maximum peel and shear stresses in the adhesive as predicted by the analytical model were found to correlate well with the maximum stresses predicted by the corresponding numerical models. The peel stresses in the adhesive were found to be higher than shear stresses, a result which is consistent with intuition for transversally loaded joints. The analytical model is able to predict the maxium stresses in the edges where debonding initiates due to the highly asymetrical stress distribution as observed in the finite element simulations and experiment. This phenomenon is consistent with observations made by Vaidya et al. (International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 26 (2006) 184-198). The stress distribution under uniformily distributed transverse pulse loading was observed to be similarly asymetric.

  16. Influence of warm air-drying on enamel bond strength and surface free-energy of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Koji; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effect of warm air-drying on the enamel bond strengths and the surface free-energy of three single-step self-etch adhesives. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and then wet ground with #600 silicon carbide (SiC) paper. The adhesives were applied according to the instructions of the respective manufacturers and then dried in a stream of normal (23°C) or warm (37°C) air for 5, 10, and 20 s. After visible-light irradiation of the adhesives, resin composites were condensed into a mold and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then the bond strengths were measured. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. The enamel bond strengths varied according to the air-drying time and ranged from 15.8 to 19.1 MPa. The trends for the bond strengths were different among the materials. The value of the γS⁺ component increased slightly when drying was performed with a stream of warm air, whereas that of the γS⁻ component decreased significantly. These data suggest that warm air-drying is essential to obtain adequate enamel bond strengths, although increasing the drying time did not significantly influence the bond strength.

  17. Effect of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of a new self-etch adhesive system to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Munaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of a new two-step self-etch adhesive (P90 system adhesive to dentin and to determine the effect of contaminant removing treatments on the recovery of bond strengths. Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of 40 human premolars were ground to expose dentin. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 is uncontaminated and serves as the control group. Further groups were divided based on the step in the bonding sequence when the contamination had occurred as follows: Group 2 (primer, saliva contamination, rinse and dry, group 3 (after procedure of group 2, reapplication of primer, and group 4 (after procedure like in control group, saliva contamination, rinse and dry. Filtek P90 composite resin cylinders of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm length were fabricated on the surfaces. Shear bond strength testing was done in an Instron Universal Testing Machine and the data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Student′s t-test. Results: With P90 system adhesive, group 2 and group 4 showed lower shear bond strength than group 1 (control and group 3 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Saliva contamination significantly decreased the shear bond strength of the adhesive to dentin.

  18. Damage prognosis of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gobbato, Maurizio [UCSD; Conte, Joel [UCSD; Kosmatke, John [UCSD; Oliver, Joseph A [UCSD

    2009-01-01

    The extensive use of lightweight advanced composite materials in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drastically increases the sensitivity to both fatigue- and impact-induced damage of their critical structural components (e.g., wings and tail stabilizers) during service life. The spar-to-skin adhesive joints are considered one of the most fatigue sensitive subcomponents of a lightweight UAV composite wing with damage progressively evolving from the wing root. This paper presents a comprehensive probabilistic methodology for predicting the remaining service life of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of UAVs. Non-destructive evaluation techniques and Bayesian inference are used to (i) assess the current state of damage of the system and, (ii) update the probability distribution of the damage extent at various locations. A probabilistic model for future loads and a mechanics-based damage model are then used to stochastically propagate damage through the joint. Combined local (e.g., exceedance of a critical damage size) and global (e.g.. flutter instability) failure criteria are finally used to compute the probability of component failure at future times. The applicability and the partial validation of the proposed methodology are then briefly discussed by analyzing the debonding propagation, along a pre-defined adhesive interface, in a simply supported laminated composite beam with solid rectangular cross section, subjected to a concentrated load applied at mid-span. A specially developed Eliler-Bernoulli beam finite element with interlaminar slip along the damageable interface is used in combination with a cohesive zone model to study the fatigue-induced degradation in the adhesive material. The preliminary numerical results presented are promising for the future validation of the methodology.

  19. Degradation in the Fatigue Strength of Dentin by Cutting, Etching and Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.-H.; Majd, H.; Orrego, S.; Majd, B.; Romberg, E.; Mutluay, M.M.; Arola, D.

    2014-01-01

    The processes involved in placing resin composite restorations may degrade the fatigue strength of dentin and increase the likelihood of fractures in restored teeth. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative changes in strength and fatigue behavior of dentin caused by bur preparation, etching and resin bonding procedures using a 3-step system. Methods Specimens of dentin were prepared from the crowns of unrestored 3rd molars and subjected to either quasi-static or cyclic flexural loading to failure. Four treated groups were prepared including dentin beams subjected to a burr treatment only with a conventional straight-sided bur, or etching treatment only. An additional treated group received both bur and etching treatments, and the last was treated by bur treatment and etching, followed by application of a commercial resin adhesive. The control group consisted of “as sectioned” dentin specimens. Results Under quasi-static loading to failure there was no significant difference between the strength of the control group and treated groups. Dentin beams receiving only etching or bur cutting treatments exhibited fatigue strengths that were significantly lower (p≤0.0001) than the control; there was no significant difference in the fatigue resistance of these two groups. Similarly, the dentin receiving bur and etching treatments exhibited significantly lower (p≤0.0001) fatigue strength than that of the control, regardless of whether an adhesive was applied. Significance The individual steps involved in the placement of bonded resin composite restorations significantly decrease the fatigue strength of dentin, and application of a bonding agent does not increase the fatigue strength of dentin. PMID:24985539

  20. Effect of dental bleaching after bracket bonding and debonding using three different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianna de Oliveira Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets on dental in-home bleaching, taking into account three different adhesive systems. METHODS: Forty-four bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to the primer system used for orthodontic bracket bonding. Following the debonding of orthodontic brackets, the teeth were stored in staining solution for 96 hours. Then, teeth were whitened using 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks at a 6-hour-a-day regime. Standardized digital photographs were taken at the following intervals: T0 (initial; T1 (after debonding; T2 (after pigmentation; T3, T4 and T5 representing 1, 7, and 14 days of bleaching. Repeatability and stability tests were carried out to check the method accuracy. Images were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software considering (L*a*b*color coordinate values and a modified color difference total (Δ;E'. RESULTS: The results of this study (ANOVA and Tukey; p < 0.01 demonstrated that after 7 days of bleaching, experimental groups showed significantly less teeth whitening compared to the control group. However, there were no significant color differences between the groups after 14 days, according to values of lightness (L*. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the adhesive primer system applied, bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets alters the outcome of tooth whitening in the first 7 days of bleaching, however it has no influence on the whitening of the dental structure after 14 days of in-home dental bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide.

  1. Effects of adhesive thickness on the Lamb wave pitch-catch signal using bonded piezoelectric wafer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. M.; Huang, H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of adhesive layer on Lamb wave ultrasound pitch-catch signals that are excited and sensed by piezoelectric wafer transducers bonded on a slender structure. Analytical models were established to simulate the longitudinal and flexural vibrations of the structures separately and parametric studies of the bonding layer properties, i.e. the shear transfer parameter, adhesive thickness, and shear modulus, were performed. The parametric studies indicate that there exists an optimal adhesive layer thickness that generates maximum ultrasound pitch-catch signal for both wave modes. This prediction was subsequently validated by measurements. In addition, an improved match between the measured and simulated pitch-catch signals was achieved by adjusting the adhesive layer parameters.

  2. Interface bond relaxation on the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weifeng; He, Yan; Ouyang, Gang, E-mail: gangouy@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications(SICQEA), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Sun, Changqing [School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-15

    The thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) is investigated on the basis of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. An analytical model is developed to clarify the interface bond relaxation of Si/Ge CSNWs. It is found that the thermal conductivity of Si core can be modulated through covering with Ge epitaxial layers. The change of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge CSNWs should be attributed to the surface relaxation and interface mismatch between inner Si nanowire and outer Ge epitaxial layer. Our results are in well agreement with the experimental measurements and simulations, suggesting that the presented method provides a fundamental insight of the thermal conductivity of CSNWs from the atomistic origin.

  3. Interface bond relaxation on the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires (CSNWs is investigated on the basis of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. An analytical model is developed to clarify the interface bond relaxation of Si/Ge CSNWs. It is found that the thermal conductivity of Si core can be modulated through covering with Ge epitaxial layers. The change of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge CSNWs should be attributed to the surface relaxation and interface mismatch between inner Si nanowire and outer Ge epitaxial layer. Our results are in well agreement with the experimental measurements and simulations, suggesting that the presented method provides a fundamental insight of the thermal conductivity of CSNWs from the atomistic origin.

  4. Shear Bond Strength of Saliva Contaminated and Re-etched All-in-One Adhesive to Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoroushi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphoric acid re-etching of an enamel surface treated via a one-bottle adhesive system on shear bond strength between resin composite and the enamelsurface in different stages of adhesive application.Materials and Methods: Extracted intact premolars (n=84 were divided into sevengroups (n=12. In the control group 1, the adhesive i-Bond was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, with nocontamination. In groups 2 to 4, the conditioned and saliva, contaminated enamel was blot dried only, rinsed,and blot dried, rinsed blot dried and re-etched, respectively. In groups 5, 6and 7 cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva and then rinsed and blot-dried, blot dried only and rinsed, blot-dried and re-etched respectively. In groups 3, 4, 6 and 7 the adhesive was reapplied. Afterward, Z100 compos-ite cylinders were bonded to the enamel surfaces. The samples were thermocycled (5°C and 55°C, 30 s, dwelling time: 10 s, 500 cycles. Finally, the samples were sheared using Dartec testing machine and shear bond strength data were subjected to one-way ANOVA analysis and Tukey's HSD test.Results: There were statistically significant differences among groups 1 and 5-7. The samples in groups 1 and 4 demonstrated higher bond strengths than those in the other groups.Conclusion: Using phosphoric acid etching may be effective, only where contamination occurs prior to curing of the adhesive. After curing of the adhesive, none of the methods in this study would be preferred.

  5. Influence of 10-MDP Adhesive System on Shear Bond Strength of Zirconia-Composite Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Cornelius Pott

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in-vitro study investigated the initial 24h bond strength between different composites and zirconia after application of four different adhesive systems. Methods: A total of 120 specimens of zirconia (InCoris, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim were ground with a 165 µm grit rotating diamond disc. Thirty specimens were each additionally treated with Cimara Zircon “CZ” (VOCO GmbH, Germany, Cuxhaven, Futurabond U “FBU” (VOCO GmbH, Futurabond M+ “FBM” (VOCO GmbH or Futurabond M+ in combination with the DCA activator “FBMD” (VOCO GmbH. One of three different types of composites – BifixSE (“BS”, BifixQM (“BQ” or GrandioSO (“G” (VOCO GmbH – was bonded to ten specimens each in every group. Shear bond strength (SBS was determined in a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and the Tukey test. Results: FBM and FBMD gave higher SBS than CZ and FBU in combination with all tested composites. In comparison to FBU, FBM gave statistically significant increases in SBS with BifixSE (19.4±5.7 MPa (P

  6. Influence of an arginine-containing toothpaste on bond strength of different adhesive systems to eroded dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Ana Cláudia Pietrobom; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different adhesive systems to eroded dentin following toothbrushing with an arginine-containing toothpaste. Sixty standardized 3 × 3 × 2-mm fragments of root dentin (n = 10) were prepared. After all surfaces except the buccal surfaces were impermeabilized, specimens were subjected to an erosive wear protocol and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. The specimens underwent 1000 toothbrushing cycles with an arginine-containing toothpaste, an arginine-free toothpaste (positive control group), or artificial saliva (negative control group). Following application of a self-etching or an etch-and-rinse adhesive to the buccal surfaces of the specimens, 6-mm-high composite resin blocks were built up in 2-mm increments. After 24 hours' storage in 100% relative humidity, microtensile test specimens with an approximate area of 1 mm² were prepared. The test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until specimen fracture, and the failure patterns were evaluated using a stereoscopic loupe. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the toothpastes, the adhesive systems, or the interactions between toothpaste and adhesive system in terms of the bond strength to eroded dentin (P > 0.05). The predominant failure pattern was adhesive in all groups. It was concluded that a toothpaste containing arginine did not interfere with the bond between either the self-etching or the etch-and-rinse adhesive system and eroded dentin.

  7. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  8. Bond strength between composite resin and resin modified glass ionomer using different adhesive systems and curing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Boruziniat; Samineh Gharaei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate bond strength between RMGI and composite using different adhesive systems and curing techniques. Materials and Methods: Sixty prepared samples of RMGI were randomly divided into six groups according to adhesive systems (total-etch, two-step self-etch and all-in-one) and curing techniques (co-curing and pre-curing). In co-curing technique, the adhesive systems were applied on uncured RMGI samples and co-cured together. In the pre-curing technique, before application of adh...

  9. The role of MDP in a bonding resin of a two-step self-etching adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Naoko; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Ikeda, Masaomi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) contained in the bonding resin of a two-step self-etch adhesive system. An experimental adhesive (M0) containing MDP only in the primer, but not in the bonding resin was prepared. Clearfil SE Bond (MM) and M0 were compared in terms of microtensile bond strength to dentin, ultimate tensile strength of the bonding resin, and dentin-resin bonding interface morphology under SEM and TEM. The immediate µTBS values of MM significantly decreased after thermal cycles while M0 were stable even after 10,000 cycles. In the SEM observations, formation of erosion was observed beneath the acid-base resistant zone only in M0. The results suggested that MDP in the bonding resin of the two-step self-etching system; 1) improved the immediate bond strength, but caused reduction in long-term bond durability; 2) offered the advantages of acid-base resistance at the ABRZ forefront area.

  10. Comparative study of the bond strength of self-etch adhesive systems with different pHs applied to enamel and dentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Côrte Real de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether the pH of the primer is capable of influencing the bond strength of three self-etching adhesive systems to enamel and dentin. Methods: Forty enamel surfaces and 40 dentin surfaces were used, divided into eight groups (n=10 according to the adhesive system (Single Bond, ClearfilSE, AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-Pop. A 3 mm matrix was used to delimit the area restored with composite resin Z250. The test specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and submitted to mechanical shear testing.Results: The ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests showed that there was no statistical difference among the groups in which the adhesivesystems Single Bond (control and Clearfil SE Bond were used and among the groups in which the AdheSE and Adper Prompt L-Pop systemswere used, both with statistical difference when compared with the Single Bond and Clearfil SE Bond groups. There was no statisticallysignificant difference between the bond strength values obtained, when the same adhesive systems were compared with regard to thesubstrates (enamel and dentin. The increased acidity of the self-etch adhesive systems was not capable of increasing the bond strengthvalues. Conclusion: The increasing of self-etch acidity of adhesive systems was not capable to increase the band strenght values. In the comparison between the same adhesive system in enamel or dentin, all adhesive presented similar performance, irrespective of the substrate used.

  11. The Influence of No-Primer Adhesives and Anchor Pylons Bracket Bases on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Scribante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI scores of no-primer adhesives tested with two different bracket bases. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens. Two brackets (ODP with different bracket bases (anchor pylons and 80-gauge mesh were bonded to the teeth using a conventional adhesive (Transbond XT and two different no-primer adhesive (Ortho Cem; Heliosit systems. Groups were tested using an instron universal testing machine. SBS values were recorded. ARI scores were measured. SEM microphotographs were taken to evaluate the pattern of bracket bases. Statistical analysis was performed. ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out for SBS values, whereas a chi-squared test was applied for ARI scores. Results. Highest bond strength values were reported with Transbond XT (with both pad designs, Ortho Cem bonded on anchor pylons and Heliosit on 80-gauge mesh. A higher frequency of ARI score of “3” was reported for Transbond XT groups. Other groups showed a higher frequency of ARI score “2” and “1.” Conclusion. Transbond XT showed the highest shear bond strength values with both pad designs.

  12. Evaluation of the bond strength of different adhesive agents to a resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadas, Muhammed; Cantekin, Kenan; Gumus, Husniye; Ateş, Sabit Melih; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of different adhesive agents to TheraCal LC and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and examined the morphologic changes of these materials with different surface treatments. A total of 120 specimens, 60 of MTA Angelus (AMTA), and 60 of TheraCal LC, were prepared and divided into six subgroups according to the adhesive agent used; these agents included Scotchbond Multipurpose, Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, Clearfil S(3) Bond, OptiBond All-in-One, and G-aenial Bond. After application of adhesive agents, Filtek Z250 composite resin was placed onto the specimens. Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine, followed by examination of the fractured surfaces. The surface changes of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance. Although no significant differences were found among the bond strengths of different adhesives to AMTA (p = 0.69), a significant difference was found in terms of bond strengths of different adhesives to the TheraCal LC surface (p TheraCal LC compared to the bond with other adhesives. TheraCal LC bonded significantly more strongly than AMTA regardless of the adhesive agents tested. Resin-modified calcium silicate showed higher bond strength than AMTA in terms of the composite bond to these materials with different bonding systems. On the other hand, the highest shear bond-strength values were found for composite bonds with the combination of TheraCal LC and the total-etch adhesive system. SCANNING 38:403-411, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ionic bonding of lanthanides, as influenced by d- and f-atomic orbitals, by core-shells and by relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wen-Xin; Xu, Wei; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-03-15

    Lanthanide trihalide molecules LnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) were quantum chemically investigated, in particular detail for Ln = Lu (lutetium). We applied density functional theory (DFT) at the nonrelativistic and scalar and SO-coupled relativistic levels, and also the ab initio coupled cluster approach. The chemically active electron shells of the lanthanide atoms comprise the 5d and 6s (and 6p) valence atomic orbitals (AO) and also the filled inner 4f semivalence and outer 5p semicore shells. Four different frozen-core approximations for Lu were compared: the (1s(2) -4d(10) ) [Pd] medium core, the [Pd+5s(2) 5p(6) = Xe] and [Pd+4f(14) ] large cores, and the [Pd+4f(14) +5s(2) 5p(6) ] very large core. The errors of LuX bonding are more serious on freezing the 5p(6) shell than the 4f(14) shell, more serious upon core-freezing than on the effective-core-potential approximation. The LnX distances correlate linearly with the AO radii of the ionic outer shells, Ln(3+) -5p(6) and X(-) -np(6) , characteristic for dominantly ionic Ln(3+) -X(-) binding. The heavier halogen atoms also bind covalently with the Ln-5d shell. Scalar relativistic effects contract and destabilize the LuX bonds, spin orbit coupling hardly affects the geometries but the bond energies, owing to SO effects in the free atoms. The relativistic changes of bond energy BE, bond length Re , bond force k, and bond stretching frequency vs do not follow the simple rules of Badger and Gordy (Re ∼BE∼k∼vs ). The so-called degeneracy-driven covalence, meaning strong mixing of accidentally near-degenerate, nearly nonoverlapping AOs without BE contribution is critically discussed.

  14. F-111 Adhesive Bonded Repairs Assessment Program - Progress Report 2: Analysis of FM300-2K Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    areas of honeycomb- core stiffened aluminium panels, which exist across the fuselage and are used for most control surfaces. The honeycomb panels...typically are manufactured by adhesively bonding an upper and lower aluminium skin to aluminium honeycomb-core. The structure provides added stiffness to... aluminium doubler of similar thickness to the skin thickness is bonded over the exposed core with a prescribed overlap length (Figure 1). The purpose

  15. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  16. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives.Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12. Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05. Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation.No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987. There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1. Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918. However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion.Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives.

  17. Exposed Dentin: Influence of Cleaning Procedures and Simulated Pulpal Pressure on Bond Strength of a Universal Adhesive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare various pre-treatments serving as cleaning procedures of dentin on the bond strength of resin composite promoted by a universal adhesive system applied either in the absence or presence of simulated pulpal pressure. Materials and Methods Prior to application of the adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal) and resin composite (Filtek Z250), ground dentin surfaces were given one of five pre-treatments either without or with simulated pulpal pressure: 1) no pre-treatment, adhesive system in “self-etch” mode, 2) phosphoric acid etching, adhesive system in “total-etch” mode, 3) polishing with pumice on prophylaxis cup, 4) air abrasion with AIR-FLOW PLUS powder, 5) air abrasion with AIR-FLOW PERIO powder; n = 20/group of pre-treatment. After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), micro shear bond strength was measured and data analyzed with parametric ANOVA including Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing followed by Student’s t tests (significance level: α = 0.05). Results The ANOVA found type of pre-treatment and simulated pulpal pressure to have no significant effect on dentin bond strength. The explorative post-hoc tests showed a negative effect of simulated pulpal pressure for phosphoric acid etching (adhesive system in “total-etch” mode; p = 0.020), but not for the other four pre-treatments (all p = 1.000). Conclusion Air abrasion with powders containing either erythritol and chlorhexidine (AIR-FLOW PLUS) or glycine (AIR-FLOW PERIO) yielded dentin bond strengths similar to no pre-treatment, phosphoric acid etching, or polishing with pumice. Simulated pulpal pressure reduced the bond strength only when the self-etch adhesive system was used in total-etch mode. PMID:28081572

  18. In vitro microtensile bond strength of four adhesives tested at the gingival and pulpal walls of class II restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purk, John H.; Healy, Matthew; Dusevich, Vladimir; Glaros, Alan; Eick, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Background The authors compared the microtensile bond strength of teeth restored with four adhesives at the gingival and pulpal cavity walls of Class II resin-based composite restorations. Methods Five pairs of extracted third molars received two Class II preparations/restorations in each tooth. The authors randomly assigned each preparation to one of four adhesive groups: Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Dental Adhesive (SBMP) (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), Clearfil SE Bond (CFSE) (Kuraray America, New York City), Prime & Bond NT (PBNT) (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del.) and PQ1 (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah). They restored the teeth and obtained microtensile specimens from each cavity wall. Specimens were tested on a testing machine until they failed. Results The mean (± standard deviation) bond strengths (in megapascals) were as follows: SBMP (pulpal), 36.4 (17.2); SBMP (gingival), 29.7 (15.3); CFSE (pulpal), 50.8 (13.6); CFSE (gingival), 50.2 (14.0); PBNT (pulpal), 38.3 (19.2); PBNT (gingival), 38.9 (17.7); PQ1 (pulpal), 58.7 (8.7); and PQ1 (gingival), 54.5 (18.5). A two-way analysis of variance found an adhesive effect (P .05). Conclusions PQ1 and CFSE performed the best. The results showed no significant difference in microtensile bond strength at the gingival wall versus the pulpal wall. Clinical Implications Under in vitro conditions, a total-etch ethanol-based adhesive (PQ1) failed cohesively more often than did the other adhesives tested. PMID:17012721

  19. Adhesive-Bonded Composite Joint Analysis with Delaminated Surface Ply Using Strain-Energy Release Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadegani, Alireza; Yang, Chihdar; Smeltzer, Stanley S. III

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to determine the strain energy release rate due to an interlaminar crack of the surface ply in adhesively bonded composite joints subjected to axial tension. Single-lap shear-joint standard test specimen geometry with thick bondline is followed for model development. The field equations are formulated by using the first-order shear-deformation theory in laminated plates together with kinematics relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. The system of second-order differential equations is solved to using the symbolic computation tool Maple 9.52 to provide displacements fields. The equivalent forces at the tip of the prescribed interlaminar crack are obtained based on interlaminar stress distributions. The strain energy release rate of the crack is then determined by using the crack closure method. Finite element analyses using the J integral as well as the crack closure method are performed to verify the developed analytical model. It has been shown that the results using the analytical method correlate well with the results from the finite element analyses. An attempt is made to predict the failure loads of the joints based on limited test data from the literature. The effectiveness of the inclusion of bondline thickness is justified when compared with the results obtained from the previous model in which a thin bondline and uniform adhesive stresses through the bondline thickness are assumed.

  20. An in vitro comparison of adhesive techniques and rotary instrumentation on shear bond strength of nanocomposite with simulated pulpal pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Hegde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of composite to tooth using different adhesive techniques and rotary instruments under simulated pulpal pressure. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molars were randomly divided into two groups of 30 samples each (group I and II, according to the adhesive technique followed (i.e. total etch and self etch groups. Each group was further divided into two sub-groups (Sub-groups A and B of 15 samples each according to the cutting instrument (diamond abrasive or carbide burs used. Class II cavities were made with diamond abrasive or carbide burs, and restored with nano-composite under positive intra-pulpal pressure. Shear bond strength of the specimens were recorded simultaneously. Results: After statistical evaluation using two-way ANOVA and t-test, the mean shear bond strength values of the groups are as follows: Group IA- 4.69 MPa, Group IB-6.15 MPa, Group IIA-4.3 MPa, and Group IIB-6.24 MPa. It was seen that group IIB showed highest bond strength followed by group IB. Group II A showed the least bond strength. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, diamond abrasive gave better bond strength than carbide bur with both the adhesive techniques.

  1. In vitro analysis of bond strength of self-etching adhesives applied on superficial and deep dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugenio J; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, João C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three adhesive systems to superficial and deep dentine using the microtensile bond strength test (microTBS). The occlusal enamel of thirty human third molars was removed to expose a flat surface of superficial or deep dentin. For each type of surface, the test specimens were randomly divided into three groups which underwent the application of a conventional two-step adhesive system [Single Bond (SB)] as the control group (n=10), a two-bottle self-etching system [One Coat SE Bond (OCSE)] (n=10) and a one bottle one-step system [Clearfil S3 Bond (CFS3)] (n=10). Adhesives were applied, a 5-mm high "crown" as built-up with resin composite Z250 (3M) and the specimens with a cross-sectional area of 0.7 +/- 0.1 mm2 were tested in tension (0.5 mm/min). Four fractured sticks from each tooth were randomly selected and the dentin side was gently abraded with a 1200-grit SiC paper etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s and air dried. SEM micrographs at 70X and 2400X magnification were taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to calculate the area of tubular dentin (ATD) and tubular density (TD) with Image Pro Plus 5. Two-way ANOVA (dentin depth-adhesive) showed higher bond strength values for SB. However the values did not depend on dentin depth. Linear regression showed a significant relationship between bond strength and area of intertubular dentin for SB (p = 0.004), and a significant inverse relationship between tubular density and bond strength for CFS3 (p = 0.009). OCSE exhibited a tendency that was similar to SB and opposite to CFS3, but was not statistically significant. The conventional two-step adhesive had higher bond strength values. The use of digital image analysis facilitates the manipulation of data and contributes to the interpretation of the behavior of new adhesive systems.

  2. Dry adhesive bonding of nanoporous inorganic membranes to microfluidic devices using the OSTE(+) dual-cure polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharil, Farizah; Forsberg, Fredrik; Liu, Yitong; Bettotti, Paolo; Kumar, Neeraj; Niklaus, Frank; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Gylfason, Kristinn B.

    2013-02-01

    We present two transfer bonding schemes for incorporating fragile nanoporous inorganic membranes into microdevices. Such membranes are finding increasing use in microfluidics, due to their precisely controllable nanostructure. Both schemes rely on a novel dual-cure dry adhesive bonding method, enabled by a new polymer formulation: OSTE(+), which can form bonds at room temperature. OSTE(+) is a novel dual-cure ternary monomer system containing epoxy. After the first cure, the OSTE(+) is soft and suitable for bonding, while during the second cure it stiffens and obtains a Young’s modulus of 1.2 GPa. The ability of the epoxy to react with almost any dry surface provides a very versatile fabrication method. We demonstrate the transfer bonding of porous silicon and porous alumina membranes to polymeric microfluidic chips molded into OSTE(+), and of porous alumina membranes to microstructured silicon wafers, by using the OSTE(+) as a thin bonding layer. We discuss the OSTE(+) dual-cure mechanism, describe the device fabrication and evaluate the bond strength and membrane flow properties after bonding. The membranes bonded to OSTE(+) chips delaminate at 520 kPa, and the membranes bonded to silicon delaminate at 750 kPa, well above typical maximum pressures applied to microfluidic circuits. Furthermore, no change in the membrane flow resistance was observed after bonding.

  3. Effects of etching and adhesive applications on the bond strength between composite resin and glass-ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijen Pamir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study determined the effects of various surface treatment modalities on the bond strength of composite resins to glass-ionomer cements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional (KetacTM Molar Quick ApplicapTM or resin-modified (PhotacTM Fil Quick AplicapTM glass-ionomer cements were prepared. Two-step etch-rinse & bond adhesive (AdperTM Single Bond 2 or single-step self-etching adhesive (AdperTM PromptTM L-PopTM was applied to the set cements. In the etch-rinse & bond group, the sample surfaces were pre-treated as follows: (1 no etching, (2 15 s of etching with 35% phosphoric acid, (3 30 s of etching, and (4 60 s of etching. Following the placement of the composite resin (FiltekTM Z250, the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine and the data obtained were analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis (p=0.05. Then, the fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The bond strength of the composite resin to the conventional glass-ionomer cement was significantly lower than that to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (p0.05. However, a greater bond strength was obtained with 30 s of phosphoric acid application. CONCLUSIONS: The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement improved the bond strength of the composite resin to the glass-ionomer cement. Both etch-rinse & bond and self-etching adhesives may be used effectively in the lamination of glass-ionomer cements. However, an etching time of at least 30 s appears to be optimal.

  4. Evaluation of dental adhesive systems with amalgam and resin composite restorations: comparison of microleakage and bond strength results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, A L; Evans, D B; Maxson, B B

    2000-01-01

    A variety of laboratory tests have been developed to assist in predicting the clinical performance of dental restorative materials. Additionally, more than one methodology is in use for many types of tests performed in vitro. This project assessed and compared results derived from two specific laboratory testing methods, one for bond strength and one for microleakage. Seven multi-purpose dental adhesives were tested with the two methodologies in both amalgam and resin composite restorations. Bond strength was determined with a punch-out method in sections of human molar dentin. Microleakage was analyzed with a digital imaging system (Image-Pro Plus, Version 1.3) to determine the extent of dye penetration in Class V preparations centered at the CEJ on both the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molar teeth. There were 32 treatment groups (n = 10); seven experimental (dental adhesives) and one control (copal varnish, 37% phosphoric acid) followed by restoration with either amalgam or resin composite. Specimens were thermocycled 500 times in 5 degrees and 55 degrees C water with a one-minute dwell time. Bond strength and microleakage values were determined for each group. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests demonstrated an interaction between restorative material and adhesive system with a significant difference among adhesives (p resin composite restorations than in the amalgam restorations. Bond strength testing was more discriminating than microleakage evaluation in identifying differences among materials.

  5. Loading and fracture response of CFRP-to-steel adhesively bonded joints with thick adherents – Part I: Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    There is a gap in the existing standardized testing procedures (ASTM and ISO) for evaluating the stiffness and strength of composite-to-metal adhesively bonded joints. Thus, there is much effort made in this field towards understanding the impact of the geometric parameters to the loading...

  6. Influence of nanofillers on the thermal and mechanical behavior of DGEBA-based adhesives for bonded-in timber connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z.; Ansell, M. P.; Smedley, D.

    2006-09-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into the thermal behavior and mechanical properties of a room-temperature-cured epoxy adhesive (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA) cross-linked with polyetheramines and filled with different fillers, namely nanosilica, liquid rubber (CTBN), and clay, are reported. The nanosilica and liquid rubber increased the flexural strength and elastic modulus of the adhesive systems; the addition of clay particles raised the elastic modulus significantly, but embrittled the adhesive. Establishing a correct cure time is very important for bonded-in timber structures, as it will affect the bond strength. A study on the effect of cure time on the flexural strength was carried out, from which it follows that the adhesives should be cured for at least 20 days at room temperature. The damping characteristics and the glass-transition temperature of the adhesives were determined by using a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The results showed that the filled adhesives had a higher storage modulus, which was in agreement with the elastic moduli determined from static bending tests. The introduction of the fillers increased its glass-transition temperature considerably.

  7. Effect of postoperative peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubickova, A; Dudek, M; Comba, L; Housova, D; Bradna, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with several adhesive systems. Combined cylindrical Class V cavities located half in enamel and half in dentin were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molars. The cavities were bonded with the self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE-Bond (CLF), Adper Prompt (ADP), and iBond (IBO) and an etch-and-rinse adhesive Gluma Comfort Bond (GLU) and restored with a microhybrid composite Charisma. Experimental groups were treated 25 times for eight hours per day with a peroxide bleaching gel Opalescence PF 20, while the control groups were stored in distilled water for two months and then subjected to a microleakage test using a dye penetration method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the etching and penetration abilities of the adhesives and morphology of debonded restoration-enamel interfaces after the microleakage tests. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests at p=0.05. The microleakage of all GLU groups was low and not significantly affected by peroxide bleaching. Low microleakage was recorded for CLF control groups, but after bleaching, a small but significant increase in microleakage at the enamel margin indicated its sensitivity to peroxide bleaching. For ADP and IBO control groups, the microleakage at the enamel margins was significantly higher than for GLU and CLF and exceeded that at the dentin margins. Bleaching did not induce any significant changes in the microleakage. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that in our experimental setup, decreased adhesion and mechanical resistance of the ADP- and IBO-enamel interfaces could be more important than the chemical degradation effects induced by the peroxide bleaching gel.

  8. Effect of a functional monomer (MDP) on the enamel bond durability of single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsubota, Keishi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Berry, Thomas P; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of the functional monomer, 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), on the enamel bond durability of single-step self-etch adhesives through integrating fatigue testing and long-term water storage. An MDP-containing self-etch adhesive, Clearfil Bond SE ONE (SE), and an experimental adhesive, MDP-free (MF), which comprised the same ingredients as SE apart from MDP, were used. Shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) were measured with or without phosphoric acid pre-etching. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 6 months, or 1 yr. Although similar SBS and SFS values were obtained for SE with pre-etching and for MF after 24 h of storage in distilled water, SE with pre-etching showed higher SBS and SFS values than MF after storage in water for 6 months or 1 yr. Regardless of the pre-etching procedure, SE showed higher SBS and SFS values after 6 months of storage in distilled water than after 24 h or 1 yr. To conclude, MDP might play an important role in enhancing not only bond strength but also bond durability with respect to repeated subcritical loading after long-term water storage.

  9. Analysis of the nonlinear behavior of adhesives in bonded assemblies - Comparison of TAST and Arcan tests

    OpenAIRE

    Cognard, J; Creac' Hcadec, R; Sohier, L; Davies, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study in which the shear behavior of a structural epoxy adhesive has been measured using the standard thick adherend shear test (TAST) specimen and a modified Arcan test A. numerical study of the TAST test taking into account the nonlinear behavior of the adhesive and the finite deformations of the adhesive joint, shows that there is a localization of plastic zones close to the adhesive-substrate interface near the free edge of the adhesive. Experimental tests carried o...

  10. Effects of residual water on microtensile bond strength of one-bottle dentin adhesive systems with different solvent bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-xing; HUANG Cui; ZHENG Tie-li; WANG Sa; CHENG Xiang-rong

    2005-01-01

    Background The wet-bonding technique is recommended for the one-bottle dentin adhesive systems, but the moisture concept varies widely among the instructions of manufacturers as well as among investigators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dentin surface moisture on the microtensile bond strength(s) of an ethanol/water-based adhesive system and an acetone-based system to dentin. Methods Forty intact human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were used. Superficial occlusal flat dentin surfaces of these premolars were exposed, finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Under four wet and dry conditions (overwet, blot dry, one-second dry and desiccated), resin composite was bonded to dentin by using Single Bond (SB) or Prime & Bond NT (PB) according to the manufacturers' instructions. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned in the "x" and "y" directions to obtain bonded beams with a cross-sectional area of 0.81 mm2 with a slow-speed diamond saw. The bonded specimens were tested in tension at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure of the bonds. Failure modes were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The mean bond strengths were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Turkey's test. Results The bond strength of the overwet/SB, blot dry/SB, one-second dry/SB and desiccated/SB groups was 10.87 Mpa, 22.47 Mpa, 24.91 Mpa and 12.99 Mpa, respectively. The bond strength of the overwet/PB, blot dry/PB, one-second dry/PB and desiccated/PB groups was 10.02 Mpa, 20.67 Mpa, 21.82 Mpa and 10.09 Mpa, respectively. For both SB and PB, the blot dry group and one-second dry group revealed significantly higher bond strengths than the overwet and desiccated groups (P<0.05). Conclusions In order to achieve the highest bond strength to dentin, keeping the dentin surface in an appropriately moist condition is critical for the one-bottle dentin adhesive systems with ethanol/water or acetone solvent.

  11. The shear bond strength of MTA with three different types of adhesive systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength of MTA with three different types of adhesive systems- self-adhering flowable composite, etch and rinse adhesive system and self etch adhesive system. Methodology: MTA specimens (n = 60 were prepared using cylindrical acrylic blocks, having a central cavity with 4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. MTA was mixed and placed in the prepared cavity, and was covered with a moist cotton pellet and temporary filling material. The specimens were divided into 3 groups which were further divided into 2 sub-groups (45 Minutes and 24 hours. After the application of bonding agents composite resin was placed over the MTA surface. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength and readings were statically analyzed. Result: After 24 hrs the mean value of etch and rinse group was significantly higher than self etch and the self adhering composite groups. Among the 45 minutes groups there were no significant difference. Conclusion: In single visit after 45 minutes self adhering flowable can be used successfully as a final restorative material in place of conventional flowable composite without using any alternative adhesive system over MTA.

  12. Effect of reactive adhesives on the tensile bond strength of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials to methyl methacrylate tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sato, Masayuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    The effect of new adhesives on the bond strength of elastomeric impression materials to acrylic trays was evaluated. Two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Fusion and Imprinsis) with reactive adhesives and one (Examix) with a conventional adhesive were tested. Flat, double-sided plates of auto-polymerizing methyl methacrylate (10 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared with one of the adhesives. Five specimens were prepared by injecting each impression material into a 2-mm gap between the two plates. Tensile tests were conducted until separation failure occurred. The mean bond strengths of Fusion (1.0 MPa) and Imprinsis (0.8 MPa) were significantly greater than that of Examix (0.2 MPa). On the contrary, one of five Fusion showed adhesive failure mode while all the Imprinsis exhibited mixed failure. The conflicting results were presumably attributed to the mean tear strength of Fusion (0.8 N/mm) being higher than that of Imprinsis (0.5 N/mm).

  13. Adhesive Bonding and Self-Curing Characteristics of α-Starch Based Composite Binder for Green Sand Mould/Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia ZHOU; Jinzong YANG; Guohui QU

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between different components in α-starch based composite binder for green sand mould/core were investigated by using XRD, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra and SEM. Several adhesive hardening structures and theories of the binder at room temperature were proposed according to the interactions between various compositions. Thus,the reasons for the binder to have excellent combination properties and unique adhesive bonding and self-curing characteristics were explained by these theories successfully. And the theories are of great directive importance to design and development of composite binder for green sand mould/core.

  14. Effect of the application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste and adhesive systems on bond durability of a fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Catelan, Anderson; Sasaki, Robson Tetsuo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the previous application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (MI Paste, MI) and adhesive systems on the bond durability of a fissure sealant. Ninety-eight enamel blocks were obtained from proximal surfaces of erupted third molars. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n = 7) according to the previous application of MI (with and without) and the adhesive systems used (no adhesive system; hydrophobic resin of a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system; etch-and-rinse single-bottle adhesive system; all-in-one adhesive system; two-step self-etching adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and all-in-one adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and two-step self-etching adhesive system). A fissure sealant (Fluroshield) was applied and photoactivated for 20 s. Beams (~0.7 mm(2)) were prepared for the microtensile bond strength test, which was executed after 24 h or 6 months of water storage. Fractured specimens were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures/Tukey's test (P adhesive systems presented higher means than those groups where MI was not applied. Higher frequency of cohesive failures was observed for groups with MI. Applying a CPP-ACP containing paste on enamel before adhesive systems was an effective method to increase bond durability of the sealant tested.

  15. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on bond durability of fiber posts cemented with etch-and-rinse adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Sarafraz, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was undertaken to investigate whether use of an adhesive penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), improves bond stability of fiber posts to root dentin using two two-step etch-and-rinse resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into 4 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation, based on the fiber post/cement used with and without DMSO pretreatment. Acid-etched root dentin was treated with 5% DMSO aqueous solution for 60 seconds or with distilled water (control) prior to the application of Excite DSC/Variolink II or One-Step Plus/Duo-link for post cementation. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, push-out bond strength (P-OBS) test was performed immediately or after 1-year of water storage in each group. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test (α=.05). RESULTS A significant effect of time, DMSO treatment, and treatment × time interaction were observed (P.05). CONCLUSION DMSO-wet bonding might be a beneficial method in preserving the stability of resin-dentin bond strength over time when fiber post is cemented with the tested etch-and-rinse adhesive cements. PMID:27555893

  16. Influence of drying time of adhesive systems on the bond strength between resin cement and feldspathic ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Feitosa, Sabrina Alves; Institute of Science and Technology – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – School of Dentistry – Graduate Program in Restorative Dentistry (Prosthetic Dentistry Unit) – São José dos Campos – SP – Brazil.; Moura, Isabela Gomes; Institute of Science and Technology – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – School of Dentistry – Graduate Program in Restorative Dentistry (Operative Dentistry Unit) – São José dos Campos – SP – Brazil.; Corazza, Pedro Henrique; Post-graduation Program in Dentistry – Dental School – University of Passo Fundo – Passo Fundo – RS – Brazil.; Bergolli, Cesar Dalmolin; Faculty of Dentistry – Prosthetic Dentistry Unit – Federal University of Pelotas (UFPEL) – RS – Brazil.; Pagani, Clóvis; Institute of Science and Technology – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – School of Dentistry – Department of Restorative Dentistry – São José dos Campos – SP – Brazil.; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio A; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Division of Prosthodontics – Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) – Natal – RN – Brazil.; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Rio Grande do Sul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of drying times of two total-etch & rinse adhesives on the resin bond strength to a feldsphatic ceramic, before and after aging. Material and Methods: Feldsphatic-ceramic CAD-CAM bars were cut into blocks (12×10×4 mm) with a cutting machine (N = 32). Impressions were made of each ceramic block with silicone putty material and the negative space was filled with a composite resin. The bonding ceramic surface was etched with hydrofluoric acid, silan...

  17. Adhesive dentistry and endodontics. Part 2: bonding in the root canal system-the promise and the problems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard S

    2006-12-01

    One of the recent trends in endodontics has been the development of bonded obturating materials, in an effort to provide a more effective seal coronally and apically. Materials utilizing dentin adhesive technology have been borrowed from restorative dentistry and adapted to obturating materials. This review discusses the obstacles to effective bonding in the root canal system, the progress that has been made, and possible strategies for improved materials in the future. Much of the literature reviewed and many of the principles discussed are taken from the restorative dentistry literature and applied to the unique environment of the root canal system.

  18. In vitro evaluation of influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of one-bottle adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujella B.P Suryakumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of one-bottle adhesive systems - (the V generation at various stages during the bonding procedure and to investigate the effect of the contaminant removing treatments on the recovery of bond strengths. Materials and Methods: In this study the V generation one-bottle system - (Adper Single Bond was tested. Fifty caries-free human molars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth each: Group I had 15 second etching with 35% Ortho Phosphoric acid, 15 second rinse and blot dried (Uncontaminated; Group II contaminated and blot dried; Group III contaminated and completely dried; Group IV contaminated, washed, blot dried; Group V contaminated, retched washed, and blot dried. The bonding agent was applied and resin composite (Z-100 3M ESPE was bonded to the treated surfaces using the Teflon mold. The specimens in each group were then subjected to shear bond strength testing in an Instron Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm / minute and the data were subjected to one way ANOVA for comparison among the groups (P<0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the group that was dried with strong oil-free air after contamination (Group III and the other groups. When the etched surface was contaminated by saliva, there was no statistical difference between the just blot dry, wash, or the re-etching groups (Groups II, IV, V if the dentin surface was kept wet before priming. When the etched dentin surface was dried (Group III the shear bond strength decreased considerably. Conclusion: The bond strengths to the tooth structure of the recent dentin bonding agents are less sensitive to common forms of contamination than assumed. Re-etching without additional mechanical preparation is sufficient to provide or achieve the expected bond strength.

  19. Comparative evaluation of pH, bond strength and washability in four common denture adhesives in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Bahrami

    2015-12-01

    at 0.05. Results: Professional and Corega adhesives had more neutral pH than that of Fittydent and Fixodent which were more acidic. Washability test showed no remaining mass of any adhesive and there was not any statistically significant difference between groups (P>0.05. Fittydent and Corega adhesives showed higher bond strength than that of Professional and Fixodent and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Professional and Corega adhesives had less acidity. Thus they cause less harmful effects on the oral mucosa than that of Fittydent and Fixodent and should be indicated in patients with little-tolerant oral mucousa such as diabetous, iron-deficiency anemia and hypertention. All the groups had acceptable washability. Fittydent and Corega had higher bond strength than that of Professional and Fixodent. Therefore in complete-denture-wearers who require more retention as a result of severe ridge resorption, macrotruma, and maladaptiivity, Fittydent and Corega seems to be more acceptable.

  20. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Niloofar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi; Sattari, Hasti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05). In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond. PMID:25878683

  1. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05. In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond.

  2. Push-out bond strength of different translucent fiber posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, João Fernando; Pedriali, Maria Beatriz Bergonse Pereira; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Moura, Sandra Kiss; de de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the bond strength of different translucent fiber posts in the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into five groups according to the fiber post used: Reforpost (opaque [control]), exacto, white post, radix, and Macro-Lock Illusion X-RO. The roots were subjected to chemomechanical preparation and cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. The teeth were sectioned into slices of the different root thirds and tested for bond strength (push-out). Two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test were used to verify statistical differences between groups (P 0.05). However, the performance of the posts demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05). RDX had a lower performance in the apical third (P < 0.05). The other fiber posts had the same performance irrespective of the root third evaluated. The predominant failure pattern was adhesive between resin cement and root dentin. Conclusion: In general, the different translucent fiber posts showed the same performance. Yet, translucent fiber posts did not show superior bond strength compared with the opaque fiber post in any of the root thirds evaluated. PMID:27994324

  3. Effect of Numbers of Load Cycling on the Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Total Etch Adhesives to Dentin

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    AR Daneshkazemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today load cycling is used for similarity of invitro and invivo studies, though different results were reported in different studies. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of load cycling on micro tensile bond strength of two total etch adhesives to dentin. Methods: Enamel of 48 molar teeth were removed to expose the superficial dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups, and were restored with Single bond (SB, ExciTE and Synergy composite. Then the teeth of each group were divided to 4 equal sub groups. Moreover, load cycling of 0, 50, 100, 200 k load cycle with 50 newton load was used. In each sub group, 12 hour glass slabs with 1mm2 thickness were made. Then the samples were loaded by Dartec testing machine (Model HC/10 with 1 mm/min cross head speed to make the fracture occur. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, t-test, Bonferroni tests. Results: The most micro tensile bond strength belonged to ExciTE without load cycling and lowest refered to SB with 200 k. There was a significant difference between the groups (p ExciTE= 0.0001, p SB = 0.001. Micro tensile bond strength in SB group was significantly lower than ExciTE (p= 0.001. Moreover, load cycling had negative effect on micro tensile bond strength. Conclusion: By increasing load cycling, micro tensile bond strength of both bondings decreased significantly

  4. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

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    Pooran Samimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB and Prompt L-Pop (PLP adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1 Immediate light-curing, (2 delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3 self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P 0.05. PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study.

  5. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Predictive Modeling of Structural Adhesive Bonding. Factors Affecting the Durability of Titanium/Epoxy Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    translational , rotational and vibra- .. .. tional transitions. The frequency of vibrational transi- tions is in the infrared range between...1933(1981). 106. W. Brockmann, 0. -D. Henneman , H. Kollek, Int. J. , Adhes. and Adhes., 33, January, 1982. 107. M. Natan, J. D. Venables, J. Adhesion

  6. Analysis of Self-Adhesive Resin Cement Microshear Bond Strength on Leucite-Reinforced Glass-Ceramic with/without Pure Silane Primer or Universal Adhesive Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of self-adhesive resin (SA) cement on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic using silane or universal adhesive. Materials and Methods. Ceramic blocks were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid and divided into three groups (n = 16): (1) negative control (NC) without treatment; (2) Single Bond Universal (SBU); (3) RelyX Ceramic Primer as positive control (PC). RelyX Unicem resin cement was light-cured, and μSBS was evaluated with/without thermocycling. The μSBS was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The fractured surfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results. Without thermocycling, μSBS was highest for PC (30.50 MPa ± 3.40), followed by SBU (27.33 MPa ± 2.81) and NC (20.18 MPa ± 2.01) (P 0.05). PC and NC predominantly fractured by cohesive failure within the ceramic and mixed failure, respectively. Conclusion. SBU treatment improves μSBS between SA cement and glass ceramics, but to a lower value than PC, and the improvement is eradicated by thermocycling. NC exhibited the lowest μSBS, which remained unchanged after thermocycling. PMID:26557660

  7. Analysis of Self-Adhesive Resin Cement Microshear Bond Strength on Leucite-Reinforced Glass-Ceramic with/without Pure Silane Primer or Universal Adhesive Surface Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS of self-adhesive resin (SA cement on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic using silane or universal adhesive. Materials and Methods. Ceramic blocks were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid and divided into three groups (n=16: (1 negative control (NC without treatment; (2 Single Bond Universal (SBU; (3 RelyX Ceramic Primer as positive control (PC. RelyX Unicem resin cement was light-cured, and μSBS was evaluated with/without thermocycling. The μSBS was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The fractured surfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results. Without thermocycling, μSBS was highest for PC (30.50 MPa ± 3.40, followed by SBU (27.33 MPa ± 2.81 and NC (20.18 MPa ± 2.01 (P0.05. PC and NC predominantly fractured by cohesive failure within the ceramic and mixed failure, respectively. Conclusion. SBU treatment improves μSBS between SA cement and glass ceramics, but to a lower value than PC, and the improvement is eradicated by thermocycling. NC exhibited the lowest μSBS, which remained unchanged after thermocycling.

  8. Experimental Studies on the Bonding Strength and Fracture Behavior of Incompatible Materials Bonded by Mechanical Adhesion in Multilayer Rotational Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löhner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotational molding is a plastic processing method that allows for the production of seamless, hollow parts. Defined shaping of the polymeric material only takes place on the outer surface where contact to the tooling is given. The inner surface forms by surface tension effects. By sequential adding of materials, complex multilayer build-up is possible. Besides pure, single materials, filled, or multiphase systems can be processed as well. In this work, possibilities to generate bonding between supposedly incompatible materials by adding a mix-material interlayer are investigated. Interlock mechanisms on a microscale dimension occur and result in mechanical bonding between the used materials, polyethylene (PE and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPE-U. The bonding strength between the materials was investigated to reveal the correlations between processing parameters, resulting layer build-up, and bonding strength. The failure behavior was analyzed and inferences to the influence of the varied parameters were drawn.

  9. Crack path selection and shear toughening effects due to mixed mode loading and varied surface properties in beam-like adhesively bonded joints

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Youliang

    2014-01-01

    Structural adhesives are widely used with great success, and yet occasional failures can occur, often resulting from improper bonding procedures or joint design, overload or other detrimental service situations, or in response to a variety of environmental challenges. In these situations, cracks can start within the adhesive layer or debonds can initiate near an interface. The paths taken by propagating cracks can affect the resistance to failure and the subsequent service lives of the bond...

  10. Environmental Aging of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M Structural Adhesive in Composite to Composite Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Miner, Gilda A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Baughman, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites have found increased usage in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance is not well established. In this study, adhesive bonds were prepared by the secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminate. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of single-lap-shear (SLS) specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The aging results of strength retention and failure modes to date are reported.

  11. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation in a Weak Ligand Field: Leveraging Open Shell First Row Transition Metal Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirik, Paul James

    2017-01-12

    Unique features of Earth abundant transition metal catalysts are reviewed in the context of catalytic carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. Aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine iron and cobalt dihalide compounds, when activated with alkyl aluminum reagents, form highly active catalysts for the polymerization of ethylene. Open shell iron and cobalt alkyl complexes have been synthesized that serve as single component olefin polymerization catalysts. Reduced bis(imino)pyridine iron- and cobalt dinitrogen compounds have also been discovered that promote the unique [2+2] cycloaddition of unactivated terminal alkenes. Electronic structure studies support open shell intermediates, a deviation from traditional strong field organometallic compounds that promote catalytic C-C bond formation.

  12. Do different dentin tubular patterns of primary molars affect the bond strength of total-etching and self-etching adhesive systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Castilhos Ruschel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the tensile bond strength of self-etching and total-etching adhesive systems to the different dentin surfaces of primary molars and to analyze the resin-dentin interface. Methodology: In this in vitro study, dentin samples 35 to 65% distant from the pulp (intermediate dentin were obtained from buccal and lingual surfaces at the middle third of the crown of fi rst and second primary molars. Dentin surfaces were prepared with 400 and 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Three adhesive systems (Prime & Bond NT, AdheSE and Clear fi l SE Bond were tested on the fi rst and second primary molar surfaces (n=15; inverted truncated cones of resin composite with a 2.0 mm bonding diameter were built. After 24 hour storage in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were submitted to the tensile bond strength test. To analyze the resin-dentin interface under scanning electron microscopy, samples were prepared with the same three adhesive systems (n=5. Results: No differences between fi rst and second primary molar dentin substrates could be observed in mean bond strength values (ANOVA; p>0.05. The following mean bond strength values (MPa were obtained: 15.65±3.70 (Prime & Bond NT, 19.47±7.09 (AdheSE and 17.14 ±5.35 (Clear fi l SE Bond. There were no statistically signi fi cant differences between the self-etching adhesive systems. The presence of hybrid a layer and tags were observed in all groups. Conclusions: Contemporary adhesive systems showed similar behaviors on both dentin tubular surfaces of primary molars. Follow-up studies of the clinical performance of these materials are needed.

  13. Influence of Temporary Cements on the Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Cement to the Metal Coronal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; De Aguiar, Caio Rocha; Jacob, Eduardo Santana; Macedo, Ana Paula; De Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Antunes, Rossana Pereira de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluated the influence of temporary cements (eugenol-containing [EC] or eugenol-free [EF]) on the tensile strength of Ni-Cr copings fixed with self-adhesive resin cement to the metal coronal substrate. Thirty-six temporary crowns were divided into 4 groups (n=9) according to the temporary cements: Provy, Dentsply (eugenol-containing), Temp Cem, Vigodent (eugenol-containing), RelyX Temp NE, 3M ESPE (eugenol-free) and Temp Bond NE, Kerr Corp (eugenol-free). After 24 h of temporary cementation, tensile strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and 1 kN (100 kgf) load cell. Afterwards, the cast metal cores were cleaned by scraping with curettes and air jet. Thirty-six Ni-Cr copings were cemented to the cast metal cores with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). Tensile strength tests were performed again. In the temporary cementation, Temp Bond NE (12.91 ± 2.54) and Temp Cem (12.22 ± 2.96) presented the highest values of tensile strength and were statistically similar to each other (p>0.05). Statistically significant difference (pcementation of Ni-Cr copings with self-adhesive resin cement. In addition, Temp Cem (120.68 ± 48.27) and RelyX Temp NE (103.04 ± 26.09) showed intermediate tensile strength values. In conclusion, the Provy eugenol-containing temporary cement was associated with the highest bond strength among the resin cements when Ni-Cr copings were cemented to cast metal cores. However, the eugenol cannot be considered a determining factor in increased bond strength, since the other tested cements (1 eugenol-containing and 2 eugenol-free) were similar.

  14. Bond-Strengthening in Staphylococcal Adhesion to Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Niels P.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Norde, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent bacterial adhesion forces of four strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces were investigated. Initial adhesion forces differed significantly between the two surfaces and hovered around -0.4 nN. No unambiguous effect of substratum surface hydrophobi

  15. Effect of Adhesive Type on the Shear Bond Strength of Metal Brackets to Two Ceramic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased number of adult patients requesting orthodontic treatment result in bonding bracket to ceramic restorations more than before. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to two types of ceramic bases with conventional orthodontic bonding resin and a new nano-filled composite resin.Twenty four feldespathic porcelain and 24 lithium disilicate ceramic disks were fabricated. All of the samples were conditioned by sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid and silane. Maxillary incisor metal brackets were bonded to half of the disks in each group by conventional orthodontic bonding resin and the other half bonded with a nano-filled composite. The samples then were thermocycled for 2000 cycle between 5-55° C. Shear bond strength was measured and the mode of failure was examined. Randomly selected samples were also evaluated by SEM.The lowest bond strength value was found infeldespathic ceramic bonded by nano-filled composite (p<0.05. There was not any statistically significant difference between other groups regarding bond strength. The mode of failure in the all groups except group 1 was cohesive and porcelain damages were detected.Since less damages to feldspathic porcelain was observed when the nano-filled composite was used to bond brackets, the use of nano-filled composite resins can be suggested for bonding brackets to feldspathic porcelain restorations.

  16. Vibroacoustic study on a multilayered functionally graded cylindrical shell with poroelastic core and bonded-unbonded configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshjou, K.; Talebitooti, R.; Kornokar, M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for sound transmission through a multilayered cylindrical shell with bonded-unbonded (BU) configuration. The multilayered cylindrical shell, which is composed of an outer layer of functionally graded material (FGM) and an inner isotropic layer with a poroelastic core and an air gap, is assumed to be infinitely long and is subjected to a plane wave on its external sidewall. To describe the poroelastic core, the extended full method (EFM) is applied based on Biot's theory. Contrary to previous methods, the EFM completely models the poroelastic cylindrical shell in three dimensions. In addition, the motions of both FGM and isotropic shells are described with the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Unlike the simplified method, the EFM does not need to identify the frequency ranges where one of the airborne or frame waves is dominant in BU configuration. In fact, utilizing the EFM for BU configuration permits obtaining the sound transmission loss (TL) irrespective of the dominant wave, which significantly reduces the computational work. Moreover, comparing with the previous models, the EFM provides more accurate results as it does not ignore any term in the modeling. Furthermore, the advantages of the BU-FGM shell in enhancing the TL are demonstrated with respect to the BB-isotropic configuration. It is shown that presence of the FGM in addition to the poroelastic material in a structure yields thermal insulation and improves soundproofing characteristics in a broadband frequency range.

  17. A Fracture-Based Criterion for Debonding Strength of Adhesive-Bonded Double-Strap Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawit Santisukpotha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the debonding strength of adhesive-bonded double-strap steel joints. A fracture-based criterion was formulated in terms of a stress singularity parameter, i.e., the stress intensity factor, which governs the magnitude of a singular stress field near the joint ends. No existing crack was assumed. A total of 24 steel joint specimens were tested under constant amplitude fatigue loadings at stress ratio of 0.2 and frequency of 2 Hz. The joint stiffness ratio was slightly less than one to control the maximum adhesive stresses at the joint ends. To detect the debonding, a simple and practical technique was developed. The test results showed that the interfacial failure near the steel/adhesive corner was a dominant failure mode. The failure was brittle and the debonding life was governed by the crack initiation stage. The finite element analysis was employed to calculate the stress intensity factors and investigate the effects of the adhesive layer thickness, lap length and joint stiffness ratio on the debonding strength.

  18. Bonding Ni-Cr alloy to tooth structure with adhesive resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, B; Scherer, W; Cooper, H; Kokoletsos, N; Koifman, V

    1992-01-01

    This study was to determine the shear bond strengths of Ni-Cr alloy to Ni-Cr alloy (Group I), Ni-Cr alloy to enamel (Group II), and Ni-Cr alloy to dentin (Group III) using Imperva Dual, DC Metabond, All-Bond, Geristore, and Panavia. All bonded specimens were thermocycled 2000 x (5 degrees C-55 degrees C) after 24 hours and subjected to shear bond testing on a Universal Instron Testing Machine. In all groups of the study, Imperva Dual and CB Metabond had significantly (p bond values than Panavia.

  19. Further Investigation Into the Use of Laser Surface Preparation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Crow, Allison; Zetterberg, Anna; Hopkins, John; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Belcher, Tony; Blohowiak, Kay Y.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive bonding offers many advantages over mechanical fastening, but requires robust materials and processing methodologies before it can be incorporated in primary structures for aerospace applications. Surface preparation is widely recognized as one of the key steps to producing robust and predictable bonds. This report documents an ongoing investigation of a surface preparation technique based on Nd:YAG laser ablation as a replacement for the chemical etch and/or abrasive processes currently applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Laser ablation imparts both topographical and chemical changes to a surface that can lead to increased bond durability. A laser based process provides an alternative to chemical-immersion, manual abrasion, and grit blast process steps which are expensive, hazardous, environmentally unfriendly, and less precise. In addition, laser ablation is amenable to process automation, which can improve reproducibility to meet quality standards for surface preparation. An update on work involving adhesive property testing, surface characterization, surface stability, and the effect of laser surface treatment on fatigue behavior is presented. Based on the tests conducted, laser surface treatment is a viable replacement for the immersion chemical surface treatment processes. Testing also showed that the fatigue behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is comparable for surfaces treated with either laser ablation or chemical surface treatment.

  20. Effect of Re-Application of Microbrush on Micro Tensile Bond Strength of an Adhesive to Dentin

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    Seied Majid Mosavi Nasab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Re-application of microbrush may affect the micro tensile bond strength of adhesives to dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of re-application of microbrushes on the micro tensile bond strength of an adhesive to dentin.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted molars teeth were collected and enamel of occlusal surface were removed to expose superficial dentin. Then superficial dentin was etched, washed and partially air dried.According to the times of application of microbrush, teeth were divided into two test groups. In group 1, newmicrobrushs were used, but in group 2, the ones that were already used for twice were included. Ambar dentin bonding agent (FGM/Brazil was applied to the etched dentin with microbrushes according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Then the crown of teeth was built up with LLiss (FGM/Brazil composite resin. The teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction to obtain 1mm slabs. Then 50 hourglass- shape samples were made from 30 teeth (25 Specimens per group. The microtensile bond strength of the specimens was tested using MTD500 (SD Mechatronik, Germany. The data were statistically analyzed by T-test.Results: The mean values for the microtensile bond strength were 30.49±7.18 and 23.61±9.06 MPa±SD for the first and second groups, respectively. There was significant difference between the groups (P=0.005.Conclusion: Microbrushes should not be used for more than one cavity preparation.

  1. Cα-H···O=C hydrogen bonds contribute to the specificity of RGD cell-adhesion interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphries Martin J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD cell adhesion sequence occurs in several extracellular matrix molecules known to interact with integrin cell-surface receptors. Recently published crystal structures of the extracellular regions of two integrins in complex with peptides containing or mimicking the RGD sequence have identified the Arg and Asp residues as key specificity determinants for integrin recognition, through hydrogen bonding and metal coordination interactions. The central Gly residue also appears to be in close contact with the integrin surface in these structures. Results When hydrogen atoms are modelled on the central Gly residue with standard stereochemistry, the interaction between this residue and a carbonyl group in the integrin surface shows all the hallmarks of Cα-H···O=C hydrogen bonding, as seen in the collagen triple helix and in many crystal structures of small organic molecules. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulations of the docking of RGD-containing fragments on integrin surfaces support the occurrence of these interactions. There appears to be an array of four weak and conventional hydrogen bonds lining up the RGD residues with main chain carbonyl groups in the integrin surface. Conclusions The occurrence of weak Cα-H···O=C hydrogen bonds in the RGD-integrin interaction highlights the importance of the conserved Gly residue in the RGD motif and its contribution to integrin-ligand binding specificity. Our analysis shows how weak hydrogen bonds may also play important biological roles by contributing to the specificity of macromolecular recognition.

  2. Effect Of 2% Chlorhexidine Application on the Bonding Effectiveness of Different Dentin Adhesives in Normal and Caries Affected Dentin in Primary Teeth: an in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farrokh gisour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective:The bond strength of adhesives to dentin is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the efficacy of dental adhesives.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine on 24 hour shear bond strength of different adhesives in normal and caries affected dentin in primary teeth. Materials and Methods:Sixty extracted human primary molars were selected and sectioned in two halves and after preparing a flat surface of superficial dentin, were randomly divided into 12 groups; according to dentin condition (normal and caries affected, type of adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond [SE], Clearfil S3Bond [S3 ], Single Bond2 [S2 ] and treatment (with chlorhexidine [2%CHX] and without 2%CHX . In S2 group, after etching, CHX were applied and in SE and S3 groups were applied before use of bonding agents. Then composite was attached to the prepared surfaces and cured. The samples were maintained in distilled water at 37 ˚C for 24 hours and then thermocycled. Shear bond strength was calculated. Mode of failures was examined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Results:There were no significant differences in shear bond strength between the different types of adhesives (P=0.9, use of CHX (P=0.22 and type of dentin (P=0.9. The dominant fracture pattern was mixed. Conclusion:2% CHX had no effect on 24 hour shear bond strength of adhesive systems to normal and caries affected dentin in primary teeth.

  3. A Mechanistic study of Plasma Treatment Effects on Demineralized Dentin Surfaces for Improved Adhesive/Dentin Interface Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that non-thermal plasma treatment of demineralized dentin significantly (p<0.05) improved adhesive/dentin bonding strength for dental composite restoration as compared with the untreated controls. This study is to achieve mechanistic understanding of the plasma treatment effects on dentin surface through investigating the plasma treated dentin surfaces and their interaction with adhesive monomer, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The plasma treated dentin surfaces from human third molars were evaluated by water contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that plasma-treated dentin surface with subsequent HEMA immersion (Plasma/HEMA Treated) had much lower water contact angle compared with only plasma-treated (Plasma Treated) or only HEMA immersed (HEMA Treated) dentin surfaces. With prolong water droplet deposition time, water droplets spread out completely on the Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces. SEM images of Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces verified that dentin tubules were opened-up and filled with HEMA monomers. Extracted type I collagen fibrils, which was used as simulation of the exposed dentinal collagen fibrils after acid etching step, were plasma treated and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. FT-IR spectra of the Plasma/HEMA Treated collage fibrils showed broadened amide I peak at 1660 cm−1 and amide II at 1550 cm−1, which indicate secondary structure changes of the collagen fibrils. CD spectra indicated that 67.4% collagen helix structures were denatured after plasma treatment. These experimental results demonstrate that non-thermal argon plasma treatment was very effective in loosing collagen structure and enhancing adhesive monomer penetration, which are beneficial to thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tag formation, and consequently enhance adhesive/dentin interface bonding. PMID:25267936

  4. The Environmental and Impact Resistance of Adhesively Bonded Thermoplastic Fibre Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Compact tension specimen DCB Double cantilever beam specimen DGEBA Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A DMTA Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis ELS End...based upon a DGEBA resin. Starter cracks had been inserted into the adhesive layer, and the joints were loaded at various constant rates of displacement...plot. 3 66 I_ Chapter Two: Literature Survey An example of an uptake plot for an epoxy adhesive, based on DGEBA -DMP epoxide, in water at 45°C is shown in

  5. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM BOND STRENGTHS OF A GOLD STANDARD TWO-STEP SELF-ETCH ADHESIVE SYSTEM TO DENTIN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Safa TUNCER; Tekçe, Neslihan; Dial PASHAEV; DEMİRCİ, Mustafa; Canan BAYDEMİR

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the micro tensile bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system following 1 year storage in water.Materials and Methods: 10 sound human molar teeth were used for micro tensile bond strength test. Two-step self-etch dentin adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond®) was applied to the flat dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Composite blocks (Z-250; 3M ESPE) of 5 mm in height have been prepared by using layering technique. Teeth were ...

  6. In vitro bond strength and fatigue stress test evaluation of different adhesive cements used for fixed space maintainer cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Cantekin, Kenan; Delikan, Ebru; Cetin, Secil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this research were to (1) compare the shear-peel bond strength (SPBS) of a band of a fixed space maintainer (SM) cemented with five different adhesive cements; and (2) compare the survival time of bands of SM with each cement type after simulating mechanical fatigue stress. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five teeth were used to assess retentive strength and another 50 teeth were used to assess the fatigue survival time. SPBS was determined with a universal testing m...

  7. Comparative evaluation and influence on shear bond strength of incorporating silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in orthodontic adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aileni Kaladhar; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj B; Patil, Santosh R; Vankhre, Mallikarjun; Khan, Mohammed Yaser Ahmed; Kumar, Thamtam Ramana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on shear bond strength (SBS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted premolars divided into four groups with thirty specimens in each group. Group 1 (control): brackets (American Orthodontics) were bonded with Transbond XT primer. Groups 2, 3, and 4: brackets (American Orthodontics) were bonded with adhesives incorporated with Ag, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles in the concentration of 1.0% nanoparticles of Ag, 1.0% TiO2, and 1.0% ZnO weight/weight, respectively. An Instron universal testing machine AGS-10k NG (SHIMADZU) was used to measure the SBS. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and then, the normal distribution of the data was confirmed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. One-way ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures were used to compare between groups. In all statistical tests, the significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). Results: A significant difference was observed between control (mean [standard deviation (SD)] 9.43 [3.03], confidence interval [CI]: 8.30–10.56), Ag (mean [SD]: 7.55 [1.29], CI: 7.07–8.03), ZnO (mean [SD]: 6.50 [1.15], CI: 6.07–6.93), and TiO2 (mean [SD]: 6.33 [1.51], CI: 5.77–0.89) with SBS (F = 16.8453, P < 0.05) at 5% level of significance. Conclusion: Incorporation of various nanoparticles into adhesive materials in minimal amounts may decrease SBS and may lead to the failure of bracket or adhesive. The limitation of this study is that it is an in vitro research and these results may not be comparable to what the expected bond strengths observed in vivo. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate biological effects of adding such amounts of nanoparticles and approve such adhesives as clinically sustainable. PMID:27843887

  8. The Mechanical Properties of Castor Seed Shell-polyester Matrix Composites

    OpenAIRE

    S.C. Nwigbo; T.C. Okafor; C.U. Atuanya

    2013-01-01

    A composite with a polyester matrix reinforced with chemically modified shells of castor seed (Ricinus communis) was produced. The effect of the shell (filler) on the mechanical properties of the composite was experimentally quantified. A preliminary study was earlier carried out the shell in terms of their chemical constituents, functional group and mechanical strength. The shell was ground and chemically treated to enhance good bonding and adhesion to the matrix. Composites were fabricated ...

  9. Biomechanics of P-selectin PSGL-1 bonds: Shear threshold and integrin-independent cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhihua; Goldsmith, Harry L.; MacIntosh, Fiona A.; Shankaran, Harish; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-leukocyte adhesion may contribute to thrombosis and inflammation. We examined the heterotypic interaction between unactivated neutrophils and either thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) stimulated platelets or P-selectin bearing beads (Ps-beads) in suspension. Cone-plate viscometers were used to apply controlled shear rates from 14-3000/s. Platelet-neutrophil and bead-neutrophil adhesion analysis was performed using both flow cytometry and high-speed videomicroscopy. We observed that while blocking antibodies against either P-selectin or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) alone inhibited platelet-neutrophil adhesion by ~60% at 140/s, these reagents completely blocked adhesion at 3000/s. Anti-Mac-1 alone did not alter platelet-neutrophil adhesion rates at any shear rate, though in synergy with selectin antagonists it abrogated cell binding. Unstimulated neutrophils avidly bound Ps-beads and activated platelets in an integrin-independent manner, suggesting that purely selectin-dependent cell adhesion is possible. In support of this, antagonists against P-selectin or PSGL-1 dissociated previously formed platelet-neutrophil and Ps-bead neutrophil aggregates under shear in a variety of experimental systems, including in assays performed with whole blood. In studies where medium viscosity and shear rate were varied, a subtle shear threshold for P-selectin PSGL-1 binding was also noted at shear rates<100/s and at force loading rates of ~300pN/sec. Results are discussed in light of biophysical computations that characterize the collision between unequal size particles in linear shear flow. Overall, our studies reveal an integrin-independent regime for cell adhesion that may be physiologically relevant.

  10. Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Adhesive Oxides on the Metal-Ceramic Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Enghardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the influence of selected base metals, which act as oxide formers, on the metal-ceramic bond of dental veneer systems. Using ion implantation techniques, ions of Al, In and Cu were introduced into near-surface layers of a noble metal alloy containing no base metals. A noble metal alloy with base metals added for oxide formation was used as a reference. Both alloys were coated with a low-temperature fusing dental ceramic. Specimens without ion implantation or with Al2O3 air abrasion were used as controls. The test procedures comprised the Schwickerath shear bond strength test (ISO 9693-1, profile height (surface roughness measurements (ISO 4287; ISO 4288; ISO 25178, scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging, auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Ion implantation resulted in no increase in bond strength. The highest shear bond strengths were achieved after oxidation in air and air abrasion with Al2O3 (41.5 MPa and 47.8 MPa respectively. There was a positive correlation between shear bond strength and profile height. After air abrasion, a pronounced structuring of the surface occurred compared to ion implantation. The established concentration shifts in alloy and ceramic could be reproduced. However, their positive effects on shear bond strength were not confirmed. The mechanical bond appears to be of greater importance for metal-ceramic bonding.

  11. DETERMINATION OF BONDING PERFORMANCES OF MODIFIED POLYVINYLACETATE (PVAc AND KLEBIT 303 (K.303 ADHESIVES IN DIFFERENT HOT-SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ALTINOK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performances of woods bonded with polyvinylacetate (PVAc and Klebit 303 (K.303 thermoplastics glues and PVAc+UF and K.303+UF thermoset glues that were modified with Urea-fomaldehyde were investiguted at various temperatures. In total, 320 experimental samples were investigated at various temperatures which were prepared from pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L., beech wood (Fagus orientalis L. and were bonded with PVAc, K.303, PVAc+UF, K.303+UF glues. After these experimental samples were held for two hours at 20 °C, 40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C temperature, tensile test was applied according TS EN 205. It was found that the adhesion performance of unmodified PVAc and K.303 bonded samples decreases when temperature increases, moreover, this retuction is smaller in samples bonded with PVAc+UF and K.303+UF in comparison to unmodified glues and in samples of beech wood in comparison to pine wood.

  12. Ab initio determination of bond length dependence of the correlated valence shell Hamiltonian of CH: Comparison with semiempirical theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hosung; Freed, Karl F.

    1984-01-01

    The exact ab initio effective valence shell Hamiltonian, which is mimicked by semiempirical theories of valence, is calculated for CH at 11 bond lengths using quasidegenerate many-body perturbation theory to incorporate extensive correlation contributions. Least squares fits of the bond length dependence of the calculated CH matrix elements provide simple formulas which are compared with the intuitive forms introduced into semiempirical theories. Some of the semiempirical formulas, e.g., one-center, one-electron integrals and two-center, two-electron integrals, are in good agreement with our correlated ab initio calculations, while others display substantial departures. For example, the bond length dependence of one-center, two-electron integrals, which are assumed to be independent of bond length in semiempirical theories, is substantial but physically understandable. Corrections are found to the assumed proportionality of resonance and overlap integrals. The bond length dependence of nonclassical three-electron integrals is presented along with the hybrid and exchange integrals that are ignored in zero differential overlap methods.

  13. Thermal insulation attaching means. [adhesive bonding of felt vibration insulators under ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved isolation system is provided for attaching ceramic tiles of insulating material to the surface of a structure to be protected against extreme temperatures of the nature expected to be encountered by the space shuttle orbiter. This system isolates the fragile ceramic tiles from thermally and mechanically induced vehicle structural strains. The insulating tiles are affixed to a felt isolation pad formed of closely arranged and randomly oriented fibers by means of a flexible adhesive and in turn the felt pad is affixed to the metallic vehicle structure by an additional layer of flexible adhesive.

  14. Analysis of an adhesively bonded single lap joint subjected to eccentric loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    is benchmarking of computational tools. The test is based on a Single Lap Joint subjected to Eccentric Loading (SLJ-EL). The basic concept that lies behind this configuration is that the applied in-plane tensile load leads the adhesive layer to develop normal stresses, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses...... space and a previously developed mixed-mode model is utilized for the adhesive layer, under the framework of Cohesive Zone Modeling (CZM) techniques. The numerical results are in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental measurements, as regards both the linear and non-linear region...

  15. Effects of Platinum Additions and Sulfur Impurities on the Microstructure and Scale Adhesion Behavior of Single-Phase CVD Aluminide Bond Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.; Zhang, Y.

    1999-02-28

    The adhesion of alumina scales to aluminide bond coats is a life-limiting factor for some advanced thermal barrier coating systems. This study investigated the effects of aluminide bond coat sulfur and platinum contents on alumina scale adhesion and coating microstructural evolution during isothermal and cyclic oxidation testing at 1150 C. Low-sulfur NiAl and NiPtAl bond coats were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Lowering the sulfur contents of CVD NiAl bond coatings significantly improved scale adhesion, but localized scale spallation eventually initiated along coating grain boundaries. Further improvements in scale adhesion were obtained with Pt additions. The observed influences of Pt additions included: (1) mitigation of the detrimental effects of high sulfur levels, (2) drastic reductions in void growth along the scale-metal interface, (3) alteration of the oxide-metal interface morphology, and (4) elimination of Ta-rich oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales during thermal cycling. The results of this study also suggested that the microstructure (especially the grain size) of CVD aluminide bond coatings plays a significant role in scale adhesion.

  16. Experimental research on refractory performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP sheets bonded with an inorganic adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wen-zhong; WAN Fu-xiong; LI Shi-guang

    2010-01-01

    To meet the requirement of fire endurance for concrete structures strengthened with CFRP sheets,this study develops an inorganic adhesive whose strength at 600℃ is not lower than that at normal room temper ature.The inorganic adhesive is then used to bond CFRP sheets on reinforced concrete beams in order to strengthen them.The fire protection of the CFRP sheets is done using the thick-type fireproofing coatings for tunnel(TFCT)and steel structure(TFCSS)respectively.Four specimens are tested in the furnace together.Specimens are exposed to fire for 1.5 h in according to the ISO834 standard fire curve,and then naturally cooled for 1 h.In the tests,the largest displacements at the mid-span positions of specimens are only from1/1400 to 1/318 of actual span corresponding to the highest temperatures from 300 ℃ to 470 ℃.After the specimens are naturally cooled to the normal temperature and the fireproofing coatings are then removed,it can be seen that the CFRP sheets keep in a good state,which indicates that CFRP sheets can be tightly bonded on the concrete and work well together with the concrete beams during and after fire.Besides,the tests also verify that the fire performance of TFCT is superior to TFCSS for the strengthened beams.

  17. Impact of Resin Content on Swelling Pressure of Three Layer Perticleboard Bonded with Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Medved

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When particleboards are exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and expand in all directions. The degree of swelling or expansion depends on the type of adhesive used, its share, and the time of exposure and pressure used at hot pressing. The expansion of particleboard, exposed to water or high moisture content, is accompanied by swelling and/or expansion pressure. The purpose of this paper is to present the impact of adhesive share on thickness swelling and swelling pressure of three layer particleboard bonded with ureaformaldehyde adhesive. The resin content was altered in both layers; in core layer it was between 6 and 9 %, and in surface layer between 11 and 13 %. Thickness swelling and swelling pressure were determined with 24-hour immersion test. For the swelling pressure measurement, special force gauge device was used. The biggest changes in swelling and pressure were observed when the resin content was changed in core layer. The fastest change in swelling and swelling pressure was observed in the fi rst few hours after immersion in water.

  18. Effect of adhesive resin type for bonding to zirconia using two surface pretreatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samimi, P.; Hasankhani, A.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Mirmohammadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This laboratory study evaluated the short-term adhesive properties of one 10-MDP-containing and two MDP-free resin composite cements, using two types of zirconia surface pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Eighteen sintered zirconia disks (Procera, Nobel Biocare) were randomly divided int

  19. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Three Different Types of Bioactive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yi Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the acid neutralizing ability and shear bond strength (SBS of three different types of orthodontic adhesives containing bioactive glasses (BAGs. 45S5, 45S5F and S53P4 BAGs were prepared using the melting technique and ground to fine particles. Orthodontic adhesives containing three types of BAGs were prepared as follows: 52.5% 45S5 BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5_A; 61.25% 45S5 BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5_B; 52.5% 45S5F BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5F_A; 61.25% 45S5F BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5F_B; 52.5% S53P4 BAG + 17.5% glass (S53P4_A; 61.25% S53P4 BAG + 8.75% glass (S53P4_B; and 70.0% glass (BAG_0. To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution, and pH changes were measured. SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. For all of the BAG-containing adhesives, the one with 61.25% of BAG showed a significantly greater increase of pH than the one with 52.5% of BAG (p < 0.05. Groups with 61.25% of BAG showed lower SBS than samples with 52.5% of BAG. 45S5F_A showed no significant difference of SBS compared to BAG_0 (p > 0.05. The adhesive containing 61.25% of 45S5F BAG exhibited clinically acceptable SBS and acid neutralizing properties. Therefore, this composition is a suitable candidate to prevent white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

  20. Effect of adhesive thickness and concrete strength on FRP-Concrete Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    López González, Julio César; Fernandez Gomez, Jaime Antonio; González Valle, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening, repairing, or rehabilitating concrete structures has become more and more popular in the last 10 years. Irrespective of the type of strengthening used, design is conditioned, among others, by concrete-composite bond failure, normally attributed to stress at the interface between these two materials. Single shear, double shear, and notched beam tests are the bond tests most commonly used by the scientific community to esti...

  1. Micromorphology analysis and bond strength of two adhesives to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-prepared vs. bur-prepared fluorosed enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Jowkar, Zahra; Fekrazad, Reza; Khalafi-Nezhad, Abolfazl

    2014-10-01

    Preservation of enamel during composite veneer restorations of fluorosed teeth could be achieved by conservative preparation with Erbium lasers. This study evaluated the effect of fluorosed enamel preparation with Er,Cr:YSGG vs. conventional diamond bur on the micromorphology and bond strength of a self-etch and an etch-and-rinse adhesives. Er,Cr:YSGG laser or diamond bur preparation was performed on the flattened midbuccal surfaces of 70 extracted human premolars with moderate fluorosis (according to Thylstrup and Fejerskov index, TFI = 4-6). Adper Single Bond (SB) with acid etching for 20 or 40 s and Clearfil SE Bond (SEB) alone or with additional etching was applied in four laser groups. The same adhesive procedures were used in three bur groups except for 40 s of etching along with SB. After restoration, microshear bond strength was measured (MPa). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tamhane tests (α = 0.05). Six additional specimens were differently prepared and conditioned for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The highest and lowest bond strengths were obtained for bur-prepared/SB (39.5) and laser-prepared/SEB (16.9), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.001). The different adhesive procedures used associated to two adhesives exhibited insignificantly lower bonding in laser-prepared groups compared to bur-prepared ones (P > 0.05), with the exception of additional etching/SEB, which bonded significantly higher to bur-prepared (36.4) than to laser-prepared enamel (18.7, P = 0.04). Morphological analyses revealed a delicate etch pattern with exposed enamel prisms on laser-prepared fluorosed enamel after acid etching and less microretentive pattern after self-etching primer. The etch-and-rinse adhesive was preferred in the laser-prepared fluorosed enamel in terms of bonding performance.

  2. METHODS FOR STRENGTHENING OF ADHESION BONDS BETWEEN SURFACE OF USED MOLDING SAND AND ORGANIC BINDER WHILE OBTAINING ACTIVATED MINERAL POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. N. Kovalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Value of adhesion bond between mineral surface of acid quartz materials and organic binder (bitumen has a great significance while forming structure of asphalt concrete strengthening. It has been established theoretically and experimentally that that the bond is insignificant and it causes premature destruction of structure for asphalt-binding substance and finally asphalt concrete. In this connection the relevant objective of the paper is a search for efficient methods for strengthening of adhesion bonds between the indicated structural components. A development for obtaining mineral powders from used molding sand activated by various hydrofobisation methods plays rather important role in that matter. The development of several methods for obtainment of activated mineral powders from used molding sand and also know-how pertaining to behavior of asphalt concrete formed on their basis have made it possible to create rational technologies which are applicable under operational conditions of the specified asphalt concrete plants in any region. The executed investigations on hydrofobisation of particles surface for the used molding sand with the help of sodium alkyl siliconates have established the basis for development of new efficient method for obtaining activated mineral powders from the used molding sand. The method presupposes treatment of the used molding sand in the process of mill flow in a ball drum while using sodium ethyl siliconate (0.3–0.7 % as compared with the mass of mineral raw material. Juvenile particle surface of fresh milled powder from the used molding sand has a maximum activity among the known filling compounds in relation to althin and this phenomenon can be explained by additional structure-forming impact of chemically active organic foundry binding agents which are contained in the used molding sand. That particular property allows to use widely powder from the used molding sand which contains uncured althin as a

  3. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  4. Moisture Absorption Characteristics of Epoxy Based Adhesive Reinforced with CTBN and Ceramic Particles for Bonded-in Timber Connection: Fickian or Non-Fickian Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z.; Ansell, M. P.; Smedley, D.

    2011-02-01

    For in-situ bonding of pultruded rod into timber structural members, such as in the construction of bonded-in timber connection, strengthening and repair of timber structures, the adhesive used must be thixotropic, room temperature cure, environmentally stable and friendly and applied at without pressure. This study investigates the moisture absorption characteristics of three adhesives specially formulated for bonded-in timber connections where the adhesives are reinforced with nano- and micro-particles denoted as CB10TSS (standard adhesive), Albipox (CB10TSS/CTBN) and Timberset (ceramics filled adhesive) with the aim to improve mechanical properties and raise glass transition temperature. The effect of high temperatures and high humidity on the properties of adhesives were determined following conditioning at different temperatures (20°C, 30°C and 50°C) and relative humidities (65%, 75% and 95%) and soaking in water at 20°C In all cases the properties of Albipox were least affected by environment but Timberset exhibited the lowest moisture uptake. Exposure to humid environments at temperatures 20°C and 30°C for CB10TSS and Albipox and 50°C for Timberset resulted in water uptake characterized as Fickian which had only a modest effect on properties. However, exposure to humid environments at temperature (50°C) which is higher than Tg resulted in non-Fickian uptake of water for CB10TSS and Albipox and a more adverse effect on properties.

  5. Evaluation of the Wedge Cleavage Test for Assessment of Durability of Adhesive Bonded Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    applied to the adherends. Exposures of hundreds or thousands of hours are necessary to discriminate between pretreatments if conventional lap shear or peel ...was preceded by additional degreasing in a conventional non- caustic proprietary alkaline cleaning solution. Pickling was for 30 minutes at 62-65°C in...consistent with the lower peel strength given by anodised surfaces5 (c) Adhesive FMIOOO Crack lengths are shown in Table 3 and Fig 5. Fracture energies were

  6. Development of MDP-based one-step self-etch adhesive--effect of additional 4-META on bonding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hitoshi; Fujita, Kou; Iwai, Hirotoshi; Ikemi, Takuji; Goto, Haruhiko; Aida, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    We designed three experimental 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based one-step (EX) adhesives consisting of MDP, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate adhesives with different water contents (98.4, 196.8, and 294.4 mg/g), and 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride (4-META) or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-containing onestep adhesive. The effect of the amount of MDP-calcium (MDP-Ca) salt produced through demineralization of enamel and dentin on the bonding performance was examined. The efficacy of 4-META and HEMA was then discussed. When the amount of water in EX adhesive was increased, the production amount of MDP-Ca salt of enamel increased, but not the dentin. The enamel bond strength slightly increased with increasing the production amount of MDP-Ca salt, in contrast to the dentin. However, addition of 4-META in the EX adhesive (water content=98.4 mg/g) increased both bond strengths, although the production amounts of MDP-Ca salt significantly decreased. The 4-META enhances both bond strengths more effectively than the HEMA.

  7. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive/dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Ritts, Andy Charles; Staller, Corey; Yu, Qingsong; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and verify the effectiveness of plasma treatment for improving adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding by performing micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) test using the same-tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns to expose the dentin surface. For each dentin surface, one half of it was treated with a non-thermal argon plasma brush, while another half was shielded with glass slide and used as untreated control. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were then applied as directed. The teeth thus prepared were further cut into micro-bar specimens with cross-sectional size of 1×1 mm2, 1×2 mm2 and 1×3 mm2 for μTBS test. The test results showed that plasma treated specimens gave substantially stronger adhesive/dentin bonding than their corresponding same tooth controls. As compared with their untreated controls, plasma treatment gave statistically significant higher bonding strength for specimens having cross-sectional area of 1×1 mm2 and 1×2 mm2, with mean increases of 30.8% and 45.1%, respectively. Interface examination using optical and electron microscopy verified that plasma treatment improved the quality of the adhesive/dentin interface by reducing defects/voids and increasing the resin tag length in dentin tubules. PMID:23841788

  8. Dielectric Non-Destructive Testing of Adhesively Bonded and Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-31

    Transmission) has not proved a practical way of measuring water uptake in aluminium oxide powders and so an alternative method based on glancing angle FTIR...method is being use. It has been shown in the literature (Ageing of aluminium oxide surfaces and their subsequent reactivity towards bonding with

  9. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application proced

  10. In vitro analysis of shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index comparing light curing and self-curing composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the shear bond strength of self-curing (ConciseTM - 3M and Alpha Plast - DFL and light-curing composites (TransbondTM XT - 3M and Natural Ortho - DFL used in orthodontics bonding, associated to Morelli metal brackets, with further analysis of adhesive remnant index (ARI and enamel condition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM. METHODS: Forty human premolars, just extracted and stored in physiologic solution 0.9 % were used. Randomly, these samples were divided in four groups: G1 group, the brackets were bonded with ConciseTM - 3M composite; in G2 group, Alpha Plast - DFL composite was used; in G3 group, TransbondTM XT - 3M was used; in G4 group, Natural Ortho - DFL composite was used. These groups were submitted to shear strength tests in universal testing machine, at 0.5 mm per minute speed. RESULTS: Statistical difference between G3 and G4 groups was recorded, as G4 showing higher strength resistance than G3. In the other hand, there were no statistical differences between G1, G2 and G3 and G1, G2 and G4 groups. ARI analysis showed that there was no statistical difference between the groups, and low scores were recorded among then. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed the debonding spots and the enamel surface integrity. CONCLUSIONS: Shear bond strength was satisfactory and similar between the composites, however Natural Ortho - DFL revealed best comparing to TransbondTM XT - 3M.

  11. Design of a new, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive comprising a silane coupling agent, acidic adhesive monomers and dithiooctanoate monomers for bonding to varied metal and dental ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Negoro, Noriyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    A newly designed, light-curing adhesive was investigated for its bonding effectiveness to porcelain, alumina, zirconia, Au, Au alloy, Ag alloy, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy. Four experimental adhesives were prepared using varying contents of the following: a silane coupling agent [3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES)], acidic adhesive monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate(6-MHPA),6-methacryloyloxyhexyl3-phosphonopropionate(6-MHPP)and 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET)], and dithiooctanoate monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT)]. After all adherend surfaces were sandblasted and applied with an experimental adhesive, shear bond strengths (SBSs) of a light-curing resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to the adherend materials after 2,000 times of thermal cycling were measured. For the experimental adhesive which contained 3-MPTES (30.0 wt%), 6-MHPA (1.0 wt%), 6-MHPP (1.0 wt%), 4-MET (1.0 wt%), 6-MHDT (0.5 wt%) and 10-MDDT (0.5 wt%), it consistently yielded the highest SBS for all adherend surfaces in the range of 20.8 (4.8)-30.3 (7.9) MPa, with no significant differences among all the adherend materials (p>0.05). Therefore, the newly designed, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive was able to deliver high SBS to all the adherend materials tested.

  12. Asymptotic Sampling for Reliability Analysis of Adhesive Bonded Stepped Lap Composite Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Lund, Erik; Thomsen, Ole Thybo;

    2013-01-01

    Reliability analysis coupled with finite element analysis (FEA) of composite structures is computationally very demanding and requires a large number of simulations to achieve an accurate prediction of the probability of failure with a small standard error. In this paper Asymptotic Sampling, which...... failure in the composite and adhesive layers, respectively, and the results are compared with the target reliability level implicitly used in the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. The accuracy and efficiency of Asymptotic Sampling is investigated by comparing the results with predictions obtained using...

  13. Direct integration of MEMS, dielectric pumping and cell manipulation with reversibly bonded gecko adhesive microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnat, S.; King, H.; Wasay, A.; Sameoto, D.; Hubbard, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an approach to form a microfluidic environment on top of MEMS dies using reversibly bonded microfluidics. The reversible polymeric microfluidics moulds bond to the MEMS die using a gecko-inspired gasket architecture. In this study the formed microchannels are demonstrated in conjunction with a MEMS mechanical single cell testing environment for BioMEMS applications. A reversible microfluidics placement technique with an x-y and rotational accuracy of  ±2 µm and 1° respectively on a MEMS die was developed. No leaks were observed during pneumatic pumping of common cell media (PBS, sorbitol, water, seawater) through the fluidic channels. Thermal chevron actuators were successful operated inside this fluidic environment and a performance deviation of ~15% was measured compared to an open MEMS configuration. Latex micro-spheres were pumped using traveling wave di-electrophoresis and compared to an open (no-microfluidics) configuration with velocities of 24 µm s-1 and 20 µm s-1.

  14. Adhesion and cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.

  15. Adhesion and Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony von Fraunhofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.

  16. The Role of Host-derived Dentinal Matrix Metalloproteinases in Reducing Dentin Bonding of Resin Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shan-chuan; Kern, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteolytic enzymes trapped within mineralized dentin matrix, which have the ability to hydrolyze the organic matrix of demineralized dentin. After bonding with resins to dentin there are usually some exposed collagen fibrils at the bottom of the hybrid layer owing to imperfect resin impregnation of the demineralized dentin matrix. Exposed collagen fibrils might be affected by MMPs inducing hydrolytic degradation, which migh...

  17. Interfacial fracture of dentin adhesively bonded to quartz-fiber reinforced composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Renata M. [Department of Dental Materials and Pronsthodontics at Sao Jose dos Campos Dental Shool, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12245-820 (Brazil); Rahbar, Nima, E-mail: nrahbar@umassd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts 02720 (United States); Soboyejo, Wole [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of interfacial failure in a multilayered structure consisting of a dentin/resin cement/quartz-fiber reinforced composite (FRC). Slices of dentin close to the pulp chamber were sandwiched by two half-circle discs made of a quartz-fiber reinforced composite, bonded with bonding agent (All-bond 2, BISCO, Schaumburg) and resin cement (Duo-link, BISCO, Schaumburg) to make Brazil-nut sandwich specimens for interfacial toughness testing. Interfacial fracture toughness (strain energy release rate, G) was measured as a function of mode mixity by changing loading angles from 0 deg. to 15 deg. The interfacial fracture surfaces were then examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the failure modes when loading angles changed. A computational model was also developed to calculate the driving forces, stress intensity factors and mode mixities. Interfacial toughness increased from {approx} 1.5 to 3.2 J/m{sup 2} when the loading angle increases from {approx} 0 to 15 deg. The hybridized dentin/cement interface appeared to be tougher than the resin cement/quartz-fiber reinforced epoxy. The Brazil-nut sandwich specimen was a suitable method to investigate the mechanical integrity of dentin/cement/FRC interfaces.

  18. Bond strength of composite to dentin: effect of acid etching and laser irradiation through an uncured self-etch adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, F. L. A.; Carvalho, J. G.; Andrade, M. F.; Saad, J. R. C.; Hebling, J.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µ-TBS) of laser irradiation of etched/unetched dentin through an uncured self-etching adhesive. Dentinal surfaces were treated with Clearfil SE Bond Adhesive (CSE) either according to the manufacturer’s instructions (CSE) or without applying the primer (CSE/NP). The dentin was irradiated through the uncured adhesive, using an Nd:YAG laser at 0.75 or 1 W power settings. The adhesive was cured, composite crowns were built up, and the teeth were sectioned into beams (0.49 mm2) to be stressed under tension. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey statistics (α = 5%). Dentin of the fractured specimens and the interfaces of untested beams were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that non-etched irradiated surfaces presented higher µ-TBS than etched and irradiated surfaces (p 0.05). SEM showed solidification globules on the surfaces of the specimens. The interfaces were similar on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces. Laser irradiation of dentin through the uncured adhesive did not lead to higher µ-TBS when compared to the suggested manufacturer’s technique. However, this treatment brought benefits when performed on unetched dentin, since bond strengths were higher when compared to etched dentin.

  19. Hydrogen-bonded LbL Shells for Living Cell Surface Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    phospholipids into the lipid bilayer membrane, and cell decoration with/inclusion into biodegradable gel microparti- cles.7–11 However, for these strategies...polymer membrane. The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) ( PAH /PSS) coating is the mostly explored poly- electrolyte pair used to...this approach for cell surface engineering.42,43 As suggested, overall toxicity of the PAH /PSS LbL shells originates from the positive charge of

  20. Adhesion and bonding of Pt/Ni and Pt/Co overlayers: Density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Gabriela F.; Castellani, Norberto J.; Légaré, Pierre

    2006-04-01

    The electronic and energetic properties of bimetallic surfaces Pt/Ni(111) and Pt/Co(111) are examined using the FP-LAPW (Full-PotentialLinearized Augmented Plane Wave) method by means of spin-polarized and non-polarized calculations. We present both the results of the shifts in the d-band centers when one metal (Pt) is pseudomorfically deposited on another with smaller lattice constant (Ni, Co) and those corresponding to the surface and adhesion energies. The surface is modeled by a seven layer slab separated in z direction by a vacuum region of six substrate layers. The results obtained for pure Ni, Co and Pt surfaces are presented in order to compare with experimental and theoretical data reported in the literature

  1. Effects of tributylborane-activated adhesive and two silane agents on bonding computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Ayano; Taira, Yohsuke; Sawase, Takashi

    2017-01-09

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an experimental adhesive agent [methyl methacrylate-tributylborane liquid (MT)] and two adhesive agents containing silane on the bonding between a resin composite block of a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and a light-curing resin composite veneering material. The surfaces of CAD/CAM resin composite specimens were ground with silicon-carbide paper, treated with phosphoric acid, and then primed with either one of the two silane agents [Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SC) and GC Ceramic Primer II (GC)], no adhesive control (Cont), or one of three combinations (MT/SC, MT/GC, and MT/Cont). A light-curing resin composite was veneered on the primed CAD/CAM resin composite surface. The veneered specimens were subjected to thermocycling between 4 and 60 °C for 10,000 cycles, and the shear bond strengths were determined. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey-Kramer HSD test (α = 0.05, n = 8). MT/SC (38.7 MPa) exhibited the highest mean bond strengths, followed by MT/GC (30.4 MPa), SC (27.9 MPa), and MT/Cont (25.7 MPa), while Cont (12.9 MPa) and GC (12.3 MPa) resulted in the lowest bond strengths. The use of MT in conjunction with a silane agent significantly improved the bond strength. Surface treatment with appropriate adhesive agents was confirmed as a prerequisite for veneering CAD/CAM resin composite restorations.

  2. Shear Bond Strength of MDP-Containing Self-Adhesive Resin Cement and Y-TZP Ceramics: Effect of Phosphate Monomer-Containing Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Soo Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different phosphate monomer-containing primers on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods. Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with #600-grit SiC paper and divided into six groups (n=10. They were treated as follows: untreated (control, Metal/Zirconia Primer, Z-PRIME Plus, air abrasion, Metal/Zirconia Primer with air abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air abrasion. MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement was applied to the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens. After thermocycling, a shear bond strength test was performed. The surfaces of the Y-TZP specimens were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength values were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student–Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test (P<0.05. Results. The Z-PRIME Plus treatment combined with air abrasion produced the highest bond strength, followed by Z-PRIME Plus application, Metal/Zirconia Primer combined with air abrasion, air abrasion alone, and, lastly, Metal/Zirconia Primer application. The control group yielded the lowest results (P<0.05. Conclusion. The application of MDP-containing primer resulted in increased bond strength between Y-TZP ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cements.

  3. Lightning protection guidelines and test data for adhesively bonded aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzby, J. E.; Plumer, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The highly competitive marketplace and increasing cost of energy has motivated manufacturers of general aviation aircraft to utilize composite materials and metal-to-metal bonding in place of conventional fasteners and rivets to reduce weight, obtain smoother outside surfaces and reduce drag. The purpose of this program is protection of these new structures from hazardous lightning effects. The program began with a survey of advance-technology materials and fabrication methods under consideration for future designs. Sub-element specimens were subjected to simulated lightning voltages and currents. Measurements of bond line voltages, electrical sparking, and mechanical strength degradation were made to comprise a data base of electrical properties for new technology materials and basic structural configurations. The second hase of the program involved tests on full scale wing structures which contained integral fuel tanks and which were representative of examples of new technology structures and fuel systems. The purpose of these tests was to provide a comparison between full scale structural measurements and those obtained from the sub-element specimens.

  4. Hydrogen bond fluctuations of the hydration shell of the bromide anion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.L.A.; Bakker, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study the hydrogen bond dynamics of solutions of LiBr and NaBr in isotopically diluted water (2% HDO:D2O) with femtosecond spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. We study the frequency fluctuations of the O-H stretch vibrations of the HDO molecules and observe spectral dynamics with time constants o

  5. Comparison of the Shear Bond Strength of Light-cured and Chemically-cured Resin Adhesive%光固化和化学固化树脂粘接剂剪切强度的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张隆祺; 王野平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare the shear bond strength of light-cured and chemically-cured resin adhesive. Methods Twenty recently extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups of 10 each.: Group A, using the chemically-cured resin adhesive (Jing Jinenamel adhesive) and Group B, using the light-cured resin adhesive (Transbond XT,3M Unitek). The brackets were bonded to prepared enamel surfaces and the samples were placed in a water bath at 37℃ for 24 hours, then measured the shear bond strength and assessed the remaining adhesive after debonded. Results The shear bond strength and assessing the remaining adhesive after debonded both had no statistical significanct difference between two adhesives. Conclusion The light-cured and the chemically-cured resin adhesive both have strong bond strength, but the light-cured resin adhesive has the advantage to offer more sufficient time for positioning and bonding the brackets, so it is recommended for using.%-05)。结论光固化和化学固化树脂粘接剂均具有较强的粘接强度,但光固化树脂粘接剂能够为托槽的定位和粘接提供充足的时间,推荐使用。

  6. In vitro comparative bond strength of contemporary self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatz, Markus B; Phark, Jin-Ho; Ozer, Fusun; Mante, Francis K; Saleh, Najeed; Bergler, Michael; Sadan, Avishai

    2010-04-01

    This study compared shear bond strengths of six self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion. One hundred twenty zirconia samples were air-abraded (group SB; n = 60) or left untreated (group NO). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia samples with either BisCem (BC), Maxcem (MC), G-Cem (GC), RelyX Unicem Clicker (RUC), RelyX Unicem Applicator (RUA), or Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Shear bond strength was tested after thermocycling, and data were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Without abrasion, RUA (8.0 MPa), GC (7.9 MPa), and CSA (7.6 MPa) revealed significantly higher bond strengths than the other cements. Air-particle abrasion increased bond strengths for all test cements (p MDP/4-META) were superior to other compositions.

  7. The investigation of influence of adhesion promoters on adhesion bond between vulcanisate and zinc coated steel cord in products based on mixtures of natural and 1,4-cis-polybutadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojić Mirko T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixtures of elastomer compounds based on natural and 1,4-cispolybutadiene rubber of 80:20 ratio, were used for the investigation of adhesion promoters influence on adhesion of vulcanisate to steel cord. Ni-stearate and resorsynol-formaldehyde resin combined with hexamethylenetetramine in various mass ratios were included as adhesion promoters. Elastomer mixtures were prepared using a laboratory double mill, and the rheological and vulcanization characteristics were examined on a vulcameter provided with an oscillating disc, a higher temperature of 145 °C. The crosslinking of the mixture was carried out by press, at a temperature of 145 °C and specific pressure of 40 bar, in period of 45 minutes. A wide number of standardized methods for physical mechanical characterization of vulcanization prior and after accelerated aging were used. The adhesion of vulcanizate bond with zinc coated steel cord was determined according to the so called H-test, by measuring the pulling-out force of the cord from the vulcanized block, and the degree of coverage of cord with vulcanizate after separation. The results of examinations show significant dependence of physico-mechanical characteristics and adhesion forces on the type and amount of used adhesion promoters in experimental elastomer mixtures.

  8. The effect of subject age on the microtensile bond strengths of a resin and a resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive to tooth structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, William W; Tay, Franklin R; Looney, Stephen W; Ito, Shuichi; Haisch, Larry D; Pashley, David H

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the microtensile bond strengths of an etch-and-rinse resin adhesive to dentin and enamel and a resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive to dentin were determined on teeth known to have originated from subjects over 60 years of age. The same tests were repeated on teeth originating from young subjects. The resin adhesive was Prime & Bond NT (Caulk/Dentsply), while the resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive was Fuji Bond LC (GC America). Both were paired with the same hybrid resin composite, TPH3 (Caulk/Dentsply). Testing was performed after 48 hours using a "non-trimming" microtensile test at a crosshead speed of 0.6 mm/minute. No significant differences were observed between the young and aged teeth for any comparison (p > 0.05). SEM evaluation of the etched dentinal surfaces demonstrated less depth of decalcification in the intertubular areas of aged dentin, but there was no observable difference within the tubules of young and aged dentin.

  9. Effect of Dental Chair Light on Enamel Bonding of Orthodontic Brackets Using Light Cure Based Adhesive System: An In-Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anil; Shyagali, Tarulatha; Kohli, Sarvraj; Joshi, Rishi; Gupta, Abhishek; Tiwari, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the Dental chair light on the bond strength of light cured composite resin. Materials and Methods: Sixty therapeutically extracted human premolar teeth were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 specimens each. In both groups light cured composite resin (Transbond XT) and MBT premolar metal brackets (3M Unitek) was used to bond brackets. In group I and II light curing was done using Light-emitting diode light curing units without and with the dental chair light respectively. After bonding, all samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours and subsequently tested for shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores. Data was subjected to Mann Whitney U statistical test. Results: Results indicated that there was significantly higher shear bond strength (7.71 ± 1.90) for the Group II (composite cured with LED and dental chair light) compared with Group I (composite cured with LED LCU only) (5.74 ± 1.13).the obtained difference was statistically significant. There was no statistical significant difference between ARI scores in between the groups. Conclusions: light cure bonding with dental chair light switched on will produce greater bond strength than the conventional bonding. However, the ARI score were similar to both the groups. It is advised that the inexperienced orthodontist should always switch off the dental chair light while bonding for enough working time during the bracket placement. PMID:28077886

  10. THE EFFECTS OF EDGE BANDING THICKNESS OF ULUDAG FIR BONDED WITH SOME ADHESIVES ON WITHDRAWAL STRENGTHS OF BEECH DOWEL PINS IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Kurt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials and wooden dowels are being used increasingly in the construction of furniture frames and inner decoration. Yet there is little information available concerning the withdrawal strength of various fasteners, and, in particular, dowels in composite materials edged solid wood edge bandings. The aim of this study was to determine the withdrawal strengths of 6, 8, 10 mm diameter dowels produced from beech with respect to edge of a medium-density fiberboard (MDF or particleboard (PB edged with 5, 10 and 15 mm thickness of solid wood edge banding of uludag fir, bonded with different adhesives. According to TS 4539 standard, the effects of edge banding thickness, dimension of dowels, type of composite materials and type of adhesives used for edge banding on the withdrawal strength were determined. The highest (6.37 N/mm² withdrawal strength was obtained in beech dowels with 8 mm diameter for MDF with 5 mm thickness of solid wood edge banding of uludag fir bonded with D-VTKA adhesive. According to results, if the hole wall and the surface of dowel are smooth then the adhesives give better mechanical adhesion with dowels and composite materials.

  11. Effect of collagen cross-linkers on the shear bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to deep dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhamuri Srinivasulu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the shear bond strength of composite resin to deep dentin, bonded using a self-etch adhesive, after treatment with two collagen cross-linkers at varying time intervals. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human incisors were sectioned longitudinally into equal mesial and distal halves ( n = 60. The proximal deep dentin was exposed and the specimens were divided based on the surface treatment of dentin prior to bonding as follows: Group I ( n = 12, control: No prior dentin surface treatment; group II ( n = 24: Dentin surface pretreated with 10% sodium ascorbate; and group III ( n = 24: Dentin surface pretreated with 6.5% proanthocyanidin. Groups II and III were further divided into two subgroups based on the pre-treatment time of five and 10 min. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested using universal testing machine and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: Significantly higher shear bond strength to deep dentin was observed in teeth treated with 10% sodium ascorbate and 6.5% proanthocyanidin compared to control group. No significant difference was observed between 5 min and 10 min pre-treatment times. Conclusion: Dentin surface pre-treatment with both 10% sodium ascorbate and 6.5% proanthocyanidin resulted in significant improvement in bond strength of self-etch adhesive to deep dentin.

  12. Influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on bond durability of universal adhesives and surface free-energy characteristics of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel. Three universal adhesives and extracted human molars were used. Two no-pre-etching groups were prepared: ground enamel; and enamel after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 s to remove the smear layer. Four pre-etching groups were prepared: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 3, 5, 10, and 15 s. Shear bond strength (SBS) values of universal adhesive after no thermal cycling and after 30,000 or 60,000 thermal cycles, and surface free-energy values of enamel surfaces, calculated from contact angle measurements, were determined. The specimens that had been pre-etched showed significantly higher SBS and surface free-energy values than the specimens that had not been pre-etched, regardless of the aging condition and adhesive type. The SBS and surface free-energy values did not increase for pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. There were no significant differences in SBS values and surface free-energy characteristics between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times of longer than 3 s.

  13. Systèmes multimatériaux – Assemblage par collage Multimaterial systems – Adhesive bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuanna C. Dalla

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L'assemblage par collage multimatériaux (métal/composite, métal/verre, métal/plastiques, verre/plastiques… offre de nombreux avantages par rapport aux techniques d'assemblages traditionnelles (pas d'affaiblissement des matériaux par la température, tenues en fatigue et à la corrosion améliorées, esthétisme, étanchéité…. Cependant la qualité et la durabilité à long terme des assemblages collés dépendent d'une bonne conception de ces assemblages : Le choix de préparations de surfaces efficaces, robustes, facilement industrialisables et respectueuses de l'environnement, Le choix d'adhésifs aptes à répondre au cahier des charges fonctionnel de l'assemblage (performances mécaniques, thermiques, chimiques… dont la mise en œuvre est compatible avec les contraintes d'industrialisation (cadences, temps de manipulation des pièces, environnement du poste collage…, Le dessin et le dimensionnement de la liaison de façon à transmettre les efforts mécaniques spécifiés dans la plage de températures de fonctionnement des pièces collées (en tenant compte des dilatations différentielles des matériaux assemblés. Cette démarche sera développée en donnant l'état de l'art actuel et les avancées les plus récentes sur les trois thèmes cités ci-dessus. Adhesive-bonding offers many advantages over traditional joining techniques (no weakening of materials by temperature, required fatigue and improved corrosion resistance, aesthetics, sealing… for multimaterial assembly (metal/composite, metal/glass, metal/plastic, glass/plastic…. However the quality and long term durability of bonded assemblies depend on a correct design of the joint: Choice of eco-efficient surfaces preparations, robust, and easily processed, Choice of adhesive in good adequation with the functional specifications of the assembly (mechanical performance, thermal, chemical… whose implementation is compatible with industrialization constraints

  14. Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Andreza Talaveira da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement. OBJECTIVE: this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C, medium (M and apical (A thirds of the root. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group: group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37°C for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity. RESULTS: Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05. Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3% than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%, ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0% and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3% (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity.

  15. Is the bonding of self-adhesive cement sensitive to root region and curing mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOING, Thaynara Faelly; GOMES, Giovana Mongruel; GOMES, João Carlos; REIS, Alessandra; GOMES, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate the influence of two curing techniques on the degree of conversion (DC) of resin cements and on bond strength (BS) of fiber posts in different regions of root dentin. Material and Methods Twenty single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post spaces were prepared. The roots were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), according to the activation mode of the resin cement RelyX™ U200 (3M ESPE Saint Paul, MN, USA): conventional (continuous activation mode) and soft-start activation mode (Ramp). The posts (WhitePost DC/FGM) were cemented according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and, after one week, the roots were cross-sectioned into six discs each of 1-mm thickness, and the cervical, medium, and apical thirds of the root canals were identified. The DC was evaluated under micro-Raman spectroscopy and the BS was evaluated by the push-out test. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results Neither the activation mode nor the root regions affected the DC of the resin cement. Higher BS was achieved in the soft-start group (p=0.036); lower BS was observed in the apical third compared to the other root regions (p<0.001). Irrespective of the activation mode and root region, the mixed failure mode was the most prevalent. Conclusion The BS of fiber posts to root canals can be improved by soft-started polymerization. The DC was not affected by the curing mode. PMID:28198970

  16. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to three different liners: TheraCal LC, Biodentine, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using universal adhesive: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velagala L Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the bonding ability of resin composite (RC to three different liners: TheraCal LC TM (TLC, a novel resin-modified (RM calcium silicate cement, Biodentine TM (BD, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC using an universal silane-containing adhesive and characterizing their failure modes. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted intact human molars with occlusal cavity (6-mm diameter and 2-mm height were mounted in acrylic blocks and divided into three groups of 10 samples each based on the liner used as Group A (TLC, Group B (BD, and Group C (RMGIC. Composite post of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm height was then bonded to each sample using universal adhesive. Shear bond strength (SBS analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. Results: No significant difference was observed between group A and group C (P = 0.573 while group B showed the least bond strength values with a highly significant difference (P = 0.000. The modes of failure were predominantly cohesive in Groups A and B (TLC and BD while RMGIC showed mixed and adhesive failures. Conclusions: Hence, this present study concludes that the bond strength of composite resin to TLC and RMGIC was similar and significantly higher than that of BD following application of universal adhesive.

  17. Adhesive force measurement between HOPG and zinc oxide as an indicator for interfacial bonding of carbon fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brendan A; Galan, Ulises; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-07-22

    Vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have recently been utilized as an interphase to increase the interfacial strength of carbon fiber composites. It was shown that the interaction between the carbon fiber and the ZnO nanowires was a critical parameter in adhesion; however, fiber based testing techniques are dominated by local defects and cannot be used to effectively study the bonding interaction directly. Here, the strength of the interface between ZnO and graphitic carbon is directly measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using oxygen plasma treated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and an AFM tip coated with ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis is used to compare the surface chemistry of HOPG and carbon fiber and to quantify the presence of various oxygen functional groups. An indirect measurement of the interfacial strength is then performed through single fiber fragmentation testing (SFF) on functionalized carbon fibers coated with ZnO nanowires to validate the AFM measurements. The SFF and AFM methods showed the same correlation, demonstrating the capacity of the AFM method to study the interfacial properties in composite materials. Additionally, the chemical interactions between oxygen functional groups and the ionic structure of ZnO suggest that intermolecular forces at the interface are responsible for the strong interface.

  18. A Comparison of the Detectability of Dry Contact Kissing Bonds in Adhesive Joints Using Longitudinal, Shear and High Power Ultrasonic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherhood, C. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Guild, F. J.

    2003-03-01

    This paper details a study on the detectability of dry contact kissing bonds in adhesive joints using three ultrasonic inspection techniques. Conventional normal incidence longitudinal and shear wave inspection were conducted on dry contact kissing bonds using a standard immersion transducer and an EMAT respectively. The detectability of the dry contact kissing bonds was assessed by calculating the reflection coefficient of the interface at varying loads for a number of surface roughnesses. A high power ultrasonic method was also employed to determine the non-linear behavior of the adhesive interface. The non-linearity of the interface was determined by the ratio of the amplitudes of the first harmonic and fundamental frequencies of the transmitted waveform. It was found that the high power technique showed the greatest sensitivity to kissing bonds at low contact pressures, however at high loads conventional longitudinal wave testing was more sensitive. It was also noted that a combination of two or more techniques could provide enhanced information about the kissing bond compared to a single technique alone.

  19. Effect of different concentrations of specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Chaharom, Mohammad-Esmaeel; Abed-Kahnamoui, Mehdi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Gharouni, Mahya

    2017-01-01

    Background Considering the probability of chemical and enzymatic reactions between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dentin structure and their specific inhibitors, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of specific inhibitor of MMPs (galardin) on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin. Material and Methods Forty-eight sound human premolars were mounted in self-cured acrylic resin after removal of the enamel on the buccal and lingual surfaces. The dentin surfaces achieved were polished and prepared with 600-grit silicon carbide paper. The samples were divided into 3 groups (n=16) based on the concentration of galardin used (with no galardin, galardin at a high concentration and galardin at a low concentration). In addition, 96 composite resin blocks, measuring 3 mm in height and diameter, were prepared. The composite resin blocks were bonded to the buccal and lingual surface dentin with Rely-X Unicem (RXC) and Speed CEM (SPC) self-adhesive resin cements, respectively, according to manufacturers’ instructions. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the shear bond strength values were determined in MPa and fracture modes were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni test (α=0.05). Results The shear bond strength of galardin at high concentration was significantly higher than that in the control group and galardin at a low concentrations (PDental Bonding.

  20. Influence of the LED curing source and selective enamel etching on dentin bond strength of self-etch adhesives in class I composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Araújo, Cíntia Tereza Pimenta; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the LED curing unit and selective enamel etching on dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) for self-etch adhesives in class I composite restorations. On 96 human molars, box-shaped class I cavities were made maintaining enamel margins. Self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE - CSE and Clearfil S(3) - S3) were used to bond a microhybrid composite. Before adhesive application, half of the teeth were enamel acid-etched and the other half was not. Adhesives and composites were cured with the following light curing units (LCUs): one polywave (UltraLume 5 - UL) and two single-peak (FlashLite 1401 - FL and Radii Cal - RD) LEDs. The specimens were then submitted to thermomechanical aging and longitudinally sectioned to obtain bonded sticks (0.9 mm(2)) to be tested in tension at 0.5 mm/min. The failure mode was then recorded. The μTBS data were submitted to a three-way ANOVA and Tukey's (α = 0.05). For S3, the selective enamel-etching provided lower μTBS values (20.7 ± 2.7) compared to the non-etched specimens (26.7 ± 2.2). UL yielded higher μTBS values (24.1 ± 3.2) in comparison to the photoactivation approach with FL (18.8 ±3.9) and RD (19.9 ±1.8) for CSE. The two-step CSE was not influenced by the enamel etching (p ≥ 0.05). Enamel acid etching in class I composite restorations affects the dentin μTBS of the one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S(3), with no alterations for Clearfil SE bond strength. The polywave LED promoted better bond strength for the two-step adhesive compared to the single-peak ones.

  1. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to three different liners: TheraCal LC, Biodentine, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using universal adhesive: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa, Velagala L; Bhargavi Dhamaraju; Indira Priyadharsini Bollu; Tandri S Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate the bonding ability of resin composite (RC) to three different liners: TheraCal LC TM (TLC), a novel resin-modified (RM) calcium silicate cement, Biodentine TM (BD), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) using an universal silane-containing adhesive and characterizing their failure modes. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted intact human molars with occlusal cavity (6-mm diameter and 2-mm height) were mounted in acrylic blocks and divided into th...

  2. Effects of surface treatments and storage times on the tensile bond strength of adhesive cements to noble and base metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmann, Paulo Afonso; Santos, Jose Fortunato Ferreira; May, Liliana Gressler; Pereira, Joao Eduardo da Silva; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluated two resin cements and a glass-ionomer cement and their bond strength to gold-palladium (Au-Pd), silver-palladium (Ag-Pd), and nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloys, utilizing three surface treatments over a period of six months. Eight hundred ten pieces were cast (in a button shape flat surfaces) in one of three alloys. Each alloy group was assigned to three other groups, based on the surface treatment utilized. Specimens were fabricated by bonding similar buttons in using one of three adhesive cements. The 405 pairs were thermocycled and stored in saline solution (0.9% NaCl) at 37 degrees C. The tensile bond strengths were measured in a universal testing machine after storage times of 2, 90, or 180 days. The highest mean bond strength value was obtained with the base metal alloy (10.9 +/- 8.6 MPa). In terms of surface treatment, oxidation resulted in the highest mean bond strength (13.7 +/- 7.3 MPa), followed by sandblasting (10.3 +/- 5.5 MPa) and polishing (3.0 +/- 6.4 MPa). Panavia Ex (13.2 +/- 9.3 MPa) showed significantly higher bond strengths than the other two cements, although the storage time reduced all bond strengths significantly.

  3. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of two self-etching adhesives (sixth and seventh generation on dentin of primary and permanent teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate shear bond strength of two self-etching adhesives (sixth and seventh generation on dentin of primary and permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surface of 64 human anterior teeth (32 primary and 32 permanent divided into four groups of 16 each. Groups A and C were treated with Contax (sixth generation, while groups B and D were treated with Clearfil S3 (seventh generation. A teflon mold was used to build the composite (Filtek Z-350 cylinders on the dentinal surface of all the specimens. Shear bond strength was tested for all the specimens with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparison, followed by student′s unpaired ′t′ test for group-wise comparison. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in shear bond strength among the study groups except that primary teeth bonded with Contax exhibited significantly lesser shear bond strength than permanent teeth bonded with Clearfil S3. Conclusion: This study revealed that Clearfil S3 could be of greater advantage in pediatric dentistry than Contax because of its fewer steps and better shear bond strength in dentin of both primary and permanent teeth.

  4. Resistência de união à dentina de quatro sistemas adesivos Bond strength of four adhesive systems to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rocha de Oliveira Carrilho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a resistência adesiva de quatro sistemas adesivos, composicionalmente diferentes, aplicados à dentina humana. Doze dentes terceiros molares humanos tiveram o esmalte oclusal removido para exposição de uma superfície plana de dentina, na qual foram realizados os procedimentos de adesão. Os dentes foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos, considerando-se o sistema adesivo e a resina composta a serem empregados: Grupo 1 - Single Bond + P60 (SB; Grupo 2 - Bond 1 + Surefil (B1; Grupo 3 - Prime & Bond NT + Alert (NT e Grupo 4 - Prime & Bond 2.1 + TPH (2.1. Após 24 h de armazenagem em água destilada a 37ºC, os dentes foram seccionados, longitudinalmente, em cortes perpendiculares entre si, para que fossem obtidos espécimes em formato de um paralelogramo com secção transversal retangular de 0,8 mm² de área e 10 mm de comprimento, em média. Os espécimes foram submetidos ao teste de microtração. A análise de variância (alfa = 0,05 demonstrou não haver diferença significante entre os valores médios de resistência obtidos pelos quatro adesivos, embora a análise dos espécimes que sofreram fratura precoce tenha evidenciado menor sensibilidade para o sistema SB.The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the bond strength of four adhesive systems to dentin. Twelve human third molars had their occlusal enamel removed in order to expose a flat dentinal surface, on which the adhesive procedures were carried out. The teeth were divided into four groups, according to the employed adhesive system and composite resin: Group 1 - Single Bond + P60 (SB; Group 2 - Bond 1 + Surefil (B1; Group 3 - Prime & Bond NT + Alert (NT; and Group 4 - Prime & Bond 2.1 + TPH (2.1. After 24 h in distilled water at 37ºC, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned in two perpendicular directions in order to obtain parallelogram-shaped specimens with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm² and 10 mm of length, on the

  5. Erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser for caries removal: influence on bonding of a self-etching adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Arlene; Marques, Márcia Martins; Soler, Julia Maria Pavan; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the dental substrates obtained after the use of different caries removal techniques on bonding of a self-etching system. Forty, extracted, carious, human molars were ground to expose flat surfaces containing caries-infected dentine surrounded by sound dentine. The caries lesions of the specimens were removed or not (control--G1) either by round steel burs and water-cooled, low speed, handpiece (G2), or by irradiation with an erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (2W, 20 Hz, 35.38 J/cm(2), fiber G4 handpiece with 0.2826 mm(2), non-contact mode at a 2 mm distance, 70% air/20% water--G3) or using a chemo-mechanical method (Carisolv--G4). Caries-infected, caries-affected and sound dentines were submitted to a bonding system followed by construction of a resin-based composite crown. Hour-glass shaped samples were obtained and submitted to a micro-tensile bond test. The bond strength data were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA), complemented by Tukey's test (P bond strengths than did samples of caries-affected dentine, except for the groups treated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The highest bond strengths were observed with the sound dentine treated with burs and Carisolv. The bond strengths to caries-affected dentine were similar in all groups. Additionally, bonding to caries-affected dentine of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Carisolv groups was similar to bonding to caries-infected dentine. Thus, caries-affected dentine is not an adequate substrate for adhesion. Moreover, amongst the caries removal methods tested, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation was the poorest in providing a substrate for bonding with the tested self-etching system.

  6. Adhesives, silver amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The most recent advancement in silver amalgam is use of resin formulations to bond metal to tooth both chemically &/or physically, Since, historically, amalgam has been used successfully without adhesion to tooth, obvious clinical question is: Why is bonding now desirable? Two major clinical reasons to bond are: (1) Adhesive can increase fracture resistance of amalgam restored teeth & decrease cusp fractures; & (2) Seal provided by adhesive can greatly decrease, & often eliminate post-operative sensitivity. Following report summarizes CRA laboratory study of shear bond strength & sealing capability of 23 commercial adhesives used to bond 2 types of silver amalgam to tooth structure.

  7. Study on adhesively-bonded surface of tapered double cantilever specimen made of aluminum foam affected with shear force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪鹏; CHO Jae-ung

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum foam is widely used in diverse areas to minimize the weight and maximize the absorption of shock energy in lightweight structures and various bio-materials. It presents a number of advantages, such as low density, incombustibility, non-rigidity, excellent energy absorptivity, sound absorptivity and low heat conductivity. The aluminum foam with an air cell structure was placed under the TDCB Mode II tensile load by using Landmark equipment manufactured by MTS to examine the shear failure behavior. The angle of the tapered adhesively-bonded surfaces of specimens was designated as a variable, and three models were developed with the inclined angles differing from one another at 6°, 8° and 10°. The specimens with the inclined angles of 6°, 8° and 10° have the maximum reaction forces of 168 N, 194 N when the forced displacements are 6, 5 and 4.2 mm respectively. There are three specimens with the inclined angles of 10°, 8° and 6° in the order of maximum reaction force. As the analysis result, the maximum equivalent stresses of 0.813 MPa and 0.895 MPa happened when the forced displacements of 6 mm and 5 mm proceeded at the models of 6° and 8°, respectively. A simulation was carried out on the basis of finite element method and the experimental design. The results of the experiment and the simulation analysis are shown not different from each other significantly. Thus, only a simulation could be confirmed to be performed in substitution of an experiment, which is costly and time-consuming in order to determine the shearing properties of materials made of aluminum foam with artificial data.

  8. Interfacial and surface characterization of two self-etching adhesive systems and a total-etch adhesive after bonding to ground and unground bovine enamel--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Gabriela; Vargas, Marcos A; Geurtsen, Werner

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the enamel surface and interface morphology of two self-etching adhesive systems (SAS) vs a total-etch control, after bonding to ground and unground enamel using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Thirty bovine incisors were used in this study. The buccal enamel surface of 15 teeth was ground flat to resemble freshly cut enamel. The rest of the teeth were left intact. Two SAS, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Kuraray) and Prompt L-Pop (3M-ESPE), and a conventional adhesive system, Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M-ESPE, control), were used to condition the surface of unground and ground enamel on 12 teeth. A composite button was bonded to the remaining 18 teeth; a cross-section (1 mm thick) was obtained from each and the bonded interface was polished. All specimens were dehydrated in ascending grades of ethanol, gold-sputter-coated, and observed under FESEM (Hitachi S-4000) to evaluate the ultrastructural morphology of the enamel surface and the enamel-dentin interface. The etching patterns and adhesive penetration varied according to the aggressiveness of the SAS, with CSE being the mildest and H3PO4 being the most aggressive. There were no significant differences on the ultrastructural morphology of the enamel surface between unground and ground specimens. It appears that microporosities within enamel prisms provide sufficient enamel-resin hybridization in unground enamel. The enamel dissolution pattern and depth of infiltration depend on the type of SAS used, with no significant differences in unground and ground enamel.

  9. Analysis of the moisture effect on the mechanical behaviour of an adhesively bonded joint under proportional multi-axial loads

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, N.; Creac' Hcadec, R; Cognard, J. Y.; Davies, Peter; Le Gac, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to identify the 3D behaviour of an adhesive in an assembly, and to take into account the effect of ageing in a marine environment. To that end, three different tests were employed. Gravimetric analyses were used to determine the water diffusion kinetics in the adhesive. Bulk tensile tests were performed to highlight the effects of humid ageing on the adhesive behaviour. Modified Arcan tests were performed for several ageing times to obtain the experimental databa...

  10. A simple beam model to analyse the durability of adhesively bonded tile floorings in presence of shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple beam model for the evaluation of tile debonding due to substrate shrinkage is presented. The tile-adhesive-substrate package is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam laying on a two-layer elastic foundation. An effective discrete model for inter-tile grouting is introduced with the aim of modelling workmanship defects due to partial filled groutings. The model is validated using the results of a 2D FE model. Different defect configurations and adhesive typologies are analysed, focusing the attention on the prediction of normal stresses in the adhesive layer under the assumption of Mode I failure of the adhesive.

  11. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Moslemi; Faezeh Fotouhi Ardakani; Fatemeh Javadi; Zahra Khalili Sadrabad; Zahra Shadkar; Mohammad Saeid Shadkar

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third m...

  12. Effect of green tea extract on bonding durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARVALHO, Carolina; FERNANDES, Fernando Pelegrim; FREITAS, Valeria da Penha; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany; TURSSI, Cecilia Pedroso; AMARAL, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Green tea extract has been advocated as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor; however, its effect on bond durability to caries-affected dentin has never been reported. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two MMP inhibitors (2% chlorhexidine and 2% green tea extract), applied after acid etching, on bond durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin. Material and Methods Occlusal enamel was removed from third molars to expose the dentin surface, and the molars were submitted to a caries induction protocol for 15 days. After removal of infected dentin, specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (15 seconds) and randomly divided into three groups, according to the type of dentin pretreatment (n=10): NT: no treatment; GT: 2% green tea extract; CLX: 2% chlorhexidine. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, and composite resin restorations were built on the dentin. After 24 hours, at 37°C, the resin-tooth blocks were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface in the form of sticks (0.8 mm2 of adhesive area) and randomly subdivided into two groups according to when they were to be submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing: immediately or 6 months after storage in distilled water. Data were reported in MPa and submitted to two-way ANOVA for completely randomized blocks, followed by Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results After 24 hours, there was no significant difference in the μTBS of the groups. After 6 months, the GT group had significantly higher μTBS values. Conclusion It was concluded that the application of 2% green tea extract was able to increase bond durability of the etch-and-rinse system to dentin. Neither the application of chlorhexidine nor non-treatment (NT - control) had any effect on bond strength after water storage. PMID:27383701

  13. Effect of Water Storage on the Micro-shear Bond Strength of Two Self-etch Adhesives to Enamel and Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jaberi Ansari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the influence of storage time on micro-shear bond strength of two self-etching materials to enamel and dentin.Materials and Methods: Human third molar teeth were sectioned to 1.5 mm thick beams and randomly divided into 2 groups. In group I, SE Bond and in group II, Tri-S Bond was used to bond a composite rod (AP-X to each treated surface. Specimens were prepared according to manufacturer instructions. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to water storage time; 1 day, 6 and 12 months. Microshear bond strengths were determined under a crosshead speed of 1mm/min using a universal testing machine and expressed in MPa. Data was statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc test.Results: Micro-shear bond strength of two adhesives to enamel and dentin showed a slight but not significant decrease over time (P>0.5. After one day, the mean bond strength of enamel in groups I and II were 39.47 and 34.65 MPa and in dentin were 45.20 and 36.0 MPa respectively. There was no statistically significant differencebetween two materials (P=0.190, P=0.082. After six months the bond strength in group I and II was 35.93 and 35.18 MPa for enamel, and 38.27and 35.19 MPa for dentin respectively, these differences was not statistically significant (P=0.520, P=0.179.After one year, the bond strength of enamel in groups I and II, were 34.47and 29.91MPa, and in dentin were 33.86 and 32.53 MPa respectively which was not statistically significant (P=0.609, P=0.991.Conclusion: The micro-shear bond strength of both adhesives to enamel and dentin decreased slightly over time; however these decreases were not statistically significant.

  14. Effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution conditioning on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempts to improve bond strength of self-etch adhesives can enhance the durability of composite restorations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of collagen and smear layer removal with sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) and EDTA on micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of self-etch adhesives to dentin. Settings and Design: It was an in-vitro study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were divided into eight groups and their crowns were ground perpendicular to their long axis to expose dentin. The teeth were polished with silicon-carbide papers. The groups were treated as follows: No conditioning, 0.5-M EDTA conditioning, 2.5% NaOCl conditioning, NaOCl + EDTA conditioning. The surfaces were rinsed and blot-dried. Clearfil S3 and I-Bond were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and restored with Z100 composite. After 500 cycles of thermo-cycling between 5°C and 55°C, the samples were sectioned and tested for μTBS. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. Results: The highest μTBS was recorded with Clearfil S3 + NaOCl + EDTA, and the lowest was recorded with I-Bond without conditioning. μTBS in EDTA-and EDTA + NaOCl-treated groups was significantly higher than the control and NaOCl-conditioned groups. Conclusions: Application of EDTA or EDTA + NaOCl before one-step self-etch adhesives increased μTBS. PMID:23833459

  15. Microleakage of bonded amalgam restorations using different adhesive agents with dye under vacuum: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Parolia

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Significance: Bonded amalgam restorations prevent over-preparation and reduce the tooth flexure. GIC type I under amalgam provides chemical bonding in between amalgam and tooth structure and thus reduces the microleakage.

  16. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhadji El Haddar, Youssef; Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Atash, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s(3) Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U) for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h). The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (p < 0.001). Conclusion. It can be concluded that the Er:YAG laser is as efficient as diamond bur concerning microleakage values in adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation.

  17. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Sanhadji El Haddar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s3 Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h. The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (p<0.001. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the Er:YAG laser is as efficient as diamond bur concerning microleakage values in adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation.

  18. Effect of aluminum chloride hemostatic agent on microleakage of class V composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmood; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mozafari, Aysan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Since hemostatic agents can induce changes on enamel and dentin surfaces and influence composite resin adhesion, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the aluminum chloride hemostatic agent on the gingival margin microleakage of class V (Cl V) composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive. Study design: Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 60 sound bovine permanent incisors. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed 1.5 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 30. In group 1, the cavities were restored without the application of a hemostatic agent; in group 2, the cavities were restored after the application of the hemostatic agent. In both groups all-in-one adhesive and Z250 composite resin were used to restore the cavities with the incremental technique. After finishing and polishing, the samples underwent a thermocycling procedure, followed by immersion in 2% basic fuschin solution for 24 hours. The samples were sectioned and gingival microleakage was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare microleakage between the two groups. Statistical significance was defined at Padhesive with aluminum chloride hemostatic agent significantly increases restoration gingival margin microleakage. Key words:All-in-one adhesive resin, composite resin restoration, hemostatic agent, microleakage. PMID:22322497

  19. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Aircraft Fluid Exposure on T800H/3900-2 Composites Bonded with AF-555M Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Lowther, Sharon E.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Connell, John W.; Blasini, Sheila Roman

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites and structural adhesives have found increased usage on commercial and military aircraft in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance has not been well established. In this study, single lap shear specimens (SLS) were fabricated by secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminates. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of the SLS specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually using an optical microscope for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C (180 F) and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The effect of this exposure on lap shear strength and failure modes to date is reported. In addition, the effects of water, saline water, deicing fluid, JP-5 jet fuel and hydraulic fluid on both the composite material and the adhesive bonds were investigated. The up to date results on the effects of these exposures will be discussed.

  20. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 2: Effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asuka; Matsumoto, Mariko; Higashi, Mami; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning on resin cement bonding to CAD/CAM resin blocks. One of two resin cements, PANAVIA V5 (PV5) or PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX (PSA), were bonded to one of 24 CAD/CAM blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK). Each cement group was divided into four subgroups: no cleaning (Ctl), ultrasonic cleaning (Uc), acid cleaning (Ac) and Uc+Ac. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBSs) were measured immediately and 1, 3, and 6 months after water storage. Block surfaces after each treatment were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (pbonding durability with non-contaminated CAD/CAM resin blocks.

  1. Thin and thick layers of resin-based sealer cement bonded to root dentine compared: Adhesive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Epita S; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate tensile and shear bond strengths of one epoxy (AH) and two methacrylate resin-based sealers (EZ and RS) in thin and thick layers bonded to root dentine. An alignment device was prepared for accurate positioning of 20 root dentine cylinders in a predefined gap of 0.1 or 1 mm. Sealer was placed in the interface. Bond strength tests were conducted. Mode of failures and representative surfaces were evaluated. Data were analysed using anova and post-hoc tests, with P layer of sealer produced higher bond strength, except for the shear bond strength of EZ. Significant differences between thin and thick layers were found only in tensile bond strengths of AH and RS. Mixed type of failure was constantly found with all sealers. Bond strengths of thick layers of resin-based sealers to root dentine tended to be higher than with thin layers.

  2. Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested.

  3. Comparison of shear bond strength of self-etching fluoride releasing adhesives with and without pumice prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Shobbana Devi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Fluoride releasing adhesives combined with antibacterial monomer can play a vital role in reducing white spot lesions by enhancing the cariostatic effect especially in noncompliant\\medically compromised patients.

  4. Analysis of the Influence of Hydrostatic Stress on the Behaviour of an Adhesive in a Bonded Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Cognard, J. Y.; Creac' Hcadec, R; Maurice, J.; Davies, Peter; Peleau, Michel; da Silva, L. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Generally, adhesives are viscoelastic-plastic materials, for which the development of viscosity and plasticity varies depending on the type of adhesive and the stress state. Various models exist to represent the yield surface, or the so-called elastic limit, taking into account the two stress invariants, hydrostatic stress and von Mises equivalent stress. Moreover, to develop precise pressure-dependent constitutive models, it is necessary to have a large experimental database in order to accu...

  5. 一种可粘接 PPC/PE 的复合胶粘剂的制备%Preparation of Composite Adhesive Bonding of PPC/PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江翀; 陈立功; 张建威

    2016-01-01

    Methyl Ethylene Carbonate(PPC)can be completely biodegraded,and due to the need of production,the polar PPC needs to be bonded with non-polar PE together,but because both frontal polarity is large,general adhesive is hard to make them bond. Aiming at this problem,a composite adhesive was prepared with using maleic anhydride grafted modified PPC and PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH as main base material,and adding EVA to strengthen the bonding strength of the system. The results show that when the quality ratio of PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH and EVA is 3 ∶ 3 ∶ 2,their adhesive effect is the best.%聚甲基乙撑碳酸酯(PPC)能完全被生物降解,由于生产上的需要,极性的 PPC 需要与非极性的 PE 粘结在一起,由于两者额极性相差较大,一般胶粘剂很难使两者相粘结。针对该问题,制备了一种复合胶粘剂,通过马来酸酐接枝改性 PPC,以 PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH 为主要基体材料,并加入 EVA 以增强体系的粘接强度。结果表明:当 PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH 和 EVA三者的质量配比为3∶3∶2时粘接效果最好。

  6. Influence of artificial aging on the shear bond strength of zirconia-composite interfaces after pretreatment with new 10-MDP adhesive systems

    OpenAIRE

    p.c pott; Stiesch, M; M Eisenburger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in-vitro study investigates the bond strength of different zirconia composites  with three different modern adhesive systems after artificial aging using thermocycling and water storage. Methods: A total of 90 specimens of zirconia (InCoris, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim) were ground using a 165 µm grit rotating diamond disc. Thirty specimens were additionally treated with either Futurabond U “FBU” (VOCO GmbH), or Futurabond M+ “FBM” (VOCO GmbH) or Futurabond M+ in combination...

  7. The evaluation of surface and adhesive bonding properties for cold rolled steel sheet for automotive treated by Ar/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Joo; Lee, Sang Kon; Kim Byung Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun Whan [Sungwoo Hitech Technical Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Cold rolled steel sheet for automotive was treated by Ar/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma to improve the adhesive bonding strength. Through the contact angle test and calculation of surface free energy for cold rolled steel sheet, the changes of surface properties were investigated before and after plasma treatment. The contact angle was decreased and surface free energy was increased after plasma treatment. And the change of surface roughness and morphology were observed by AFM(Atomic Force Microscope). The surface roughness of steel sheet was slightly changed. Based on Taguchi method, single lap shear test was performed to investigate the effect of experimental parameter such as plasma power, treatment time and flow rate of O{sub 2} gas. Results shows that the bonding strength of steel sheet treated in Ar/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma was improved about 20% compared with untreated sheet.

  8. Preliminary reliability test of lateral-current-injection GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate fabricated by adhesive wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kai; Inoue, Daisuke; Hiratani, Takuo; Amemiya, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-02-01

    A preliminary reliability test was performed for lateral-current-injection GaInAsP/InP membrane Distributed Feedback (DFB) lasers fabricated by multi-regrowth and adhesive wafer bonding. The measurement was conducted for lasers with two different types of p-side electrode: Ti/Au and Au/Zn/Au. The device with the Au/Zn/Au electrode, which had better current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, showed no degradation of differential quantum efficiency and threshold current after continuous aging for 310 h at a bias current density of 5 kA/cm2. This result indicates that the multi-regrowth and bonding process for the GaInAsP/InP membrane DFB laser will not impact the initial reliability.

  9. Water interaction and bond strength to dentin of dye-labelled adhesive as a function of the addition of rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Linda; BIM, Odair; LOPES, Adolfo Coelho de Oliveira; FRANCISCONI-DOS-RIOS, Luciana Fávaro; MAENOSONO, Rafael Massunari; D’ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface. PMID:27556201

  10. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 1: Effects of sandblasting and silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Mami; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawaguchi, Asuka; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of sandblasting and silanization on resin cement bond strengths to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Twenty four blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK) were divided into two resin cement groups (PANAVIA V5 [PV5] and PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX [PSA]), and further divided into four subgroups representing different surface treatment methods: no treatment (Ctl), silanization (Si), sandblasting (Sb), and Sb+Si. After resin application, microtensile bond strengths (μTBSs) were measured immediately, 1, 3 and 6 months after water storage. In addition, surfaces resulting from each of the treatment methods were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three-way analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (p<0.001, F=370), 'resin cement' (p<0.001, F=103, PSAbond strength was achieved with Sb+Si treatment. SEM revealed that sandblasting roughened surfaces.

  11. Strength and failure analysis of inverse Z joints bonded with Vinylester Atlac 580 and Flexo Tix adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adin, Hamit [Univ. of Batman, Batman (Turkmenistan); Turgut, Aydin [University of Firat, Elazig (Turkmenistan)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, the tensile strength and failure loads of the inverse Z joints were analyzed both experimentally and numerically by using two adhesives with different properties under a tensile load. Vinylester Atlac 580 and Flexo Tix were used as adhesives and the joints were prepared with two different composite materials. Initially, the mechanical properties of the adhesives were specified using bulk specimens. Then, the stress analyses were performed using three dimensional finite element method (3 D FEM) via Ansys (V.10.0.1). The experimental results were compared with the numerical results and they were found quite reasonable. According to the test results, it can be seen that when the adherend thickness is increased, the stress increases as well. The most appropriate value of the adherend thickness is identified as t = 5 mm. Furthermore, it was observed that the lowest failure load was obtained at t = 3 mm the thickness for each specimen.

  12. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied.

  13. Micromorphology and bond strength evaluation of adhesive interface of a self-adhering flowable composite resin-dentin: Effect of surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Saadat, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin surface treatment on the micromorphology and shear bond strength (SBS) of a self-adhering flowable composite, Vertis Flow (VF). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from sixty extracted human molars were divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the following surface treatments: (G1) control, no treatment; (G2) self-etching adhesive, Optibond All-in-One; (G3) phosphoric acid etching for 15 s; (G4) polyacrylic acid for 10 s; (G5) EDTA for 60 s; and G6) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 15 s. After restoration using VF, SBS was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test (α = 0.05). Six additional specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. SBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (P < 0.001). SBS of six groups from the highest to the lowest were as follows: (G3) 13.5(A); (G5) 8.98(AB); (G2) 8.85(AB); (G4) 8.21(AB); (G1) 7.53(BC); and (G6) 4.49(C) (groups with the same superscript letter were statistically similar). Morphological analysis revealed numerous long resin tags at the adhesive interface for acid-etched group, with a few short resin tags for the control group and small gap formation for NaOCl-treated group. In conclusion, dentin surface treatments tested differently affected bonding performance of VF; only acid-etching effectively improved this.

  14. An adhesive bond state classification method for a composite skin-to-spar joint using chaotic insonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.

    2010-07-01

    The combination of chaotically amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves and time series prediction algorithms has shown the ability to locate and classify various bond state damage conditions of a composite bonded joint. This study examines the ability of a new two-part supervised learning classification scheme not only to classify disbond size but also to classify whether a bond for which there is no baseline data is undamaged or has some form of disbond. This classification is performed using data from a similarly configured composite bond for which baseline data are available. The test structures are analogous to a wing skin-to-spar bonded joint. An active excitation signal is imparted to the structure through a macro fiber composite (MFC) patch on one side of the bonded joint and sensed using an equivalent MFC patch on the opposite side of the joint. There is an MFC actuator/sensor pair for each bond condition to be identified. The classification approach compares features derived from an autoregressive (AR) model coefficient vector cross-assurance criterion.

  15. 用于复合材料胶接的先进胶黏剂体系的研究与应用%Research and Application of Advanced Adhesive Systems for Composite Bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海涛; 邹贤武; 赵中杰

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion Systems for Composite Bonding discussed in this paper include film adhesives, foaming adhesives, primers, paste and repair adhesives. The state-of- the-art film adhesives, foaming adhesives and primers could be used for composite secondary or co-cure bonding by 177℃ (350 °F )or 121℃ (250 °F )cure cycle. Longer out time is also another property of an advanced adhesive. The main property of adhesives used for composite repairs is their lower cure temperatures relative to the cure temperature during composite manufacturing. Adhesion systems for composite bonding and repair adhesives shall be durable to meet the requirement of service.%本文所讨论的复合材料胶接体系包括胶膜、发泡胶、底胶、糊状胶黏剂以及修补用胶黏剂.先进的胶膜、发泡胶、底胶可以采用177℃(350下)或121℃(250 ℉F)两种固化工艺,用于复合材料的二次胶接和共固化胶接.较长的外置时间也是胶接体系先进性的另一个方面.用于复合材料修补的胶黏剂的主要先进特性为其固化温度低于复合材料制件制造时的固化温度.用于复合材料胶接制造的胶接体系和修补用的胶黏剂体系还应具备满足使用要求的耐久性能.

  16. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  17. Shear Bond Strength of an Etch-and-rinse Adhesive to Er:YAG Laser- and/or Phosphoric Acid-treated Dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhshi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Er:YAG laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin; therefore, it has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the shear bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to dentin surfaces following Er:YAG laser and/or phosphoric acid etching. Materials and methods. The roots of 75 sound maxillary premolars were sectioned below the CEJ and the crowns were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin with the buccal surfaces facing up. The buccal surfaces were ground using a diamond bur and polished until the dentin was exposed; the samples were randomly divided into five groups (n=15) according to the surface treatment: (1) acid etching; (2) laser etching; (3) laser etching followed by acid etching; (4) acid etching followed by laser etching and (5) no acid etching and no laser etching (control group). Composite resin rods (Point 4, Kerr Co) were bonded to treated dentin surfaces with an etch-and-rise adhesive system (Optibond FL, Kerr Co) and light-cured.After storage for two weeks at 37°C and 100% humidity and then thermocycling, bond strength was measured with a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests (P<0.05). Results. Mean shear bond strength for acid etching (20.1±1.8 MPa) and acid+laser (15.6±3.5 MPa) groups were significantly higher than those for laser+acid (15.6±3.5 MPa), laser etching (14.1±3.4 MPa) and control (8.1±2.1 MPa) groups. However, there were no significant differences between acid etching and acid+laser groups, and between laser+acid and laser groups. Conclusion. When the cavity is prepared by bur, it is not necessary to etch the dentin surface by Er:YAG laser following acid etching and acid etching after laser etching. PMID:23875083

  18. Loading and fracture response of CFRP-to-steel adhesively bonded joints with thick adherents – Part II: Numerical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    . The traction increase part of the cohesive laws is given by an exponential function, which describes the elastoplastic adhesive response, and the traction decrease part is given by a linear function, which describes damage initiation and propagation. By using this model, it was achieved to calculate...

  19. A Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints Including Geometric Nonlinearity, Nonlinear Viscoelasticity, Moisture Diffusion, and Delayed Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    code. List no more than two levels of an organizacional hierarchy. Display the name of the orgaaization exactly as it should appear in Government in...Performing Organizacion Name and Address 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Center forAdhesion Science

  20. Push-out bond strength of different translucent fiber posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fernando Bazzo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In general, the different translucent fiber posts showed the same performance. Yet, translucent fiber posts did not show superior bond strength compared with the opaque fiber post in any of the root thirds evaluated.

  1. Bond strength of adhesive systems to human tooth enamel Resistência adesiva de sistemas adesivos ao esmalte dentário humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cachuté Paradella

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro three adhesive systems: a total etching single-component system (G1 Prime & Bond 2.1, a self-etching primer (G2 Clearfil SE Bond, and a self-etching adhesive (G3 One Up Bond F, through shear bond strength to enamel of human teeth, evaluating the type of fracture through stereomicroscopy, following the ISO guidance on adhesive testing. Thirty sound premolars were bisected mesiodistally and the buccal and lingual surfaces were embedded in acrylic resin, polished up to 600-grit sandpapers, and randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 20. Composite resin cylinders were added to the tested surfaces. The specimens were kept in distilled water (37°C/24 h, thermocycled for 500 cycles (5°C-55°C and submitted to shear testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The type of fracture was analyzed under stereomicroscopy and the data were submitted to Anova, Tukey and Chi-squared (5% statistical analyses. The mean adhesive strengths were G1: 18.13 ± 6.49 MPa, (55% of resin cohesive fractures; G2: 17.12 ± 5.80 MPa (90% of adhesive fractures; and G3: 10.47 ± 3.14 MPa (85% of adhesive fractures. In terms of bond strength, there were no significant differences between G1 and G2, and G3 was significantly different from the other groups. G1 presented a different type of fracture from that of G2 and G3. In conclusion, although the total etching and self-etching systems presented similar shear bond strength values, the types of fracture presented by them were different, which can have clinical implications.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro três sistemas adesivos: um monocomponente com condicionamento ácido total (G1 Prime & Bond 2.1, um "primer" autocondicionante (G2 Clearfil SE Bond e um adesivo autocondicionante (G3 One Up Bond F, através de resistência ao cisalhamento ao esmalte de dentes humanos, avaliando o tipo de fratura por estereomicroscopia, seguindo as normas ISO para testes

  2. 渗透树脂与牙本质直接粘接的体外研究%Adhesive performance of infiltrating resin bonded on dentin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐仁韬; 冯琳; 高学军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the adhesive interface and micro-tensile bond strength(μTBS) of infiltrating resin directly bonded to normal dentin.Methods Twenty extracted human molars were collected and ground to expose fresh dentin surface.An infiltrating resin(ICON,DMG,Germany) was served as experimental group and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive(Kuraray,Japan) as control group.Following the application of primer(Kuraray,Japan),the specimens were applied infiltrating resin or adhesive respectively and blocks of composite resin were built up.The adhesive interfaces were observed using scanning electron microscope(SEM) and the μTBS was measured by micro-tensile test before and after thermal cycling.Results The infiltrating resin could penetrate into micro-structure of dentin created by SE Bond primer.A layer of about 180 μm-long and dense resin tags was observed under SEM in infiltrating resin group.The μTBSs were (35± 10) MPa before and (35±9) MPa after thermal cycling respectively in infiltrating resin group,and the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05).The μTBSs were (38±8) MPa before and (24±7) MPa after thermal cycling respectively in control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).After thermal cycling,the μTBS of infiltrating resin group was significant higher than that of control group.Conclusions The infiltrating resin could penetrate into the micro-structure of dentin created by SE Bond primer.The bond strength and the bonding durability of infiltrating resin were similar to that of SE Bond adhesive.%目的 研究渗透树脂与牙本质直接粘接的微观形态及微拉伸强度,为临床应用提供参考.方法 选取20颗新鲜离体牙,磨除表面釉质和部分牙本质,将渗透树脂(ICON infiltrate,DMG,德国)与牙本质和复合树脂直接粘接制备树脂-牙块(渗透树脂组),对照组粘接剂为自酸蚀粘接剂(Clearfil SE Bond adhesive,Kuraray,日本),每组10个树脂-牙块.

  3. Effect of thione primers on adhesive bonding between an indirect composite material and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Shimoe, Saiji; Hirata, Isao; Matsumura, Hideo; Nikawa, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of primers on the shear bond strength of an indirect composite material joined to a silverpalladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy (Castwell). Disk specimens were cast from the alloy and were air-abraded with alumina. Eight metal primers were applied to the alloy surface. A light-polymerized indirect composite material (Solidex) was bonded to the alloy. Shear bond strength was determined both before and after the application of thermocycling. Two groups primed with Metaltite (thione) and M. L. Primer (sulfide) showed the greatest post-thermocycling bond strength (8.8 and 6.5 MPa). The results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis suggested that the thione monomer (MTU-6) in the Metaltite primer was strongly adsorbed onto the Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy surface even after repeated cleaning with acetone. The application of either the thione (MTU-6) or sulfide primer is effective for enhancing the bonding between a composite material and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

  4. Surface characterization in composite and titanium bonding: Carbon fiber surface treatments for improved adhesion to thermoplastic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of anodization in NaOH, H2SO4, and amine salts on the surface chemistry of carbon fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surfaces of carbon fibers after anodization in NaOH and H2SO4 were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), angular dependent XPS, UV absorption spectroscopy of the anodization bath, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and polar/dispersive surface energy analysis. Hercules AS-4, Dexter Hysol XAS, and Union Carbide T-300 fibers were examined by STEM, angular dependent XPS, and breaking strength measurement before and after commercial surface treatment. Oxygen and nitrogen were added to the fiber surfaces by anodization in amine salts. Analysis of the plasmon peak in the carbon 1s signal indicated that H2SO4 anodization affected the morphological structure of the carbon fiber surface. The work of adhesion of carbon fibers to thermoplastic resins was calculated using the geometric mean relationship. A correlation was observed between the dispersive component of the work of adhesion and the interfacial adhesion.

  5. Eight-year randomized clinical evaluation of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    and no significant difference in overall clinical performance between the two adhesives. Fracture was the main reason for failure. Clinical relevance: The one-step self-etch adhesive showed a good long-term clinical effectiveness in combination with the nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations.......Objectives: The aimof this study is to observe the durability of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations, placed with two different adhesive systems, in an 8-year follow-up. Methods: Seventy-eight participants received at random at least two Class II restorations of the ormocer......-based nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X) bonded with either a one-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno III) or a control two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite). The 165 restorations were evaluated using slightly modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then yearly during 8 years...

  6. Eight-year randomized clinical evaluation of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aimof this study is to observe the durability of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations, placed with two different adhesive systems, in an 8-year follow-up. Methods: Seventy-eight participants received at random at least two Class II restorations of the ormocer......-based nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X) bonded with either a one-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno III) or a control two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite). The 165 restorations were evaluated using slightly modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then yearly during 8 years...... and no significant difference in overall clinical performance between the two adhesives. Fracture was the main reason for failure. Clinical relevance: The one-step self-etch adhesive showed a good long-term clinical effectiveness in combination with the nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations....

  7. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Ramkrishna Belwalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25 using silane as a control (Group A and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05. Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface.

  8. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  9. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Fotouhi Ardakani, Faezeh; Javadi, Fatemeh; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad) and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding). Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa). The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa). The statistical difference between this two groups was significant (P value = 0/0038). The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = 16/427 ± 1/79) and without laser preparation (mean = 12/85 ± 1/90) were statistically significant too (P value = 0/01). Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength.

  10. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Moslemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding. Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa. The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa. The statistical difference between this two groups was significant (P value = 0/0038. The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = 16/427±1/79 and without laser preparation (mean = 12/85±1/90 were statistically significant too (P value = 0/01. Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength.

  11. A 200 kHz Q-Switched Adhesive-Free Bond Composite Nd:YVO4 Laser using a Double-Crystal RTP Electro-optic Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-Ji; CHEN Xin-Yu; WANG Chao; WU Chun-Ting; LIU Rui; JIN Guang-Yong

    2012-01-01

    A diode-end-pumped electro-optic (EO) Q-switched adhesive-free bond composite Nd:YVO4 laser operating at a repetition rate of 200 kHz is reported. A pair of RbTiOPOi (RTP) crystals are used as a high repetition EO Q-switch. At the repetition rate of 200kHz, the maximum average output power of 11.8 W at wavelength 1064 nm and full width at half maximum of pulses of 16.65 ns are achieved at an incident pump power of 27 W, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 43.7% and a slope efficiency of 44.6%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest repetition rate reported on the EO Q-switched laser by using RTP crystals.%A diode-end-pumped electro-optic (EO) Q-switched adhesive-free bond composite Nd:YVO4 laser operating at a repetition rate of 200 kHz is reported.A pair of RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystals are used as a high repetition EO Q-switch.At the repetition rate of 200kHz,the maximum average output power of 11.8 W at wavelength 1064 nm and full width at half maximum of pulses of 16.65ns are achieved at an incident pump power of 27 W,corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 43.7% and a slope efficiency of 44.6%,respectively.To the best of our knowledge,this is the highest repetition rate reported on the EO Q-switched laser by using RTP crystals.

  12. Resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem com compósitos utilizando potencializador de adesão Shear bond strength of composites using an adhesion booster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo de Morais

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento dos compósitos Transbond XT e Concise Ortodôntico utilizando o potencializador de adesão Ortho Primer. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 90 incisivos bovinos divididos em seis grupos (n=15. Todos os dentes receberam profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento do esmalte com ácido fosfórico. No Grupo I, utilizou-se Transbond XT de maneira convencional. O Grupo II foi semelhante ao I, porém, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés do XT Primer. No Grupo III, após condicionamento, o esmalte foi contaminado com saliva, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer e colagem com Transbond XT. No Grupo IV, utilizou-se o Concise Ortodôntico de maneira convencional. O Grupo V foi semelhante ao IV, porém, utilizou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés da resina fluida. No Grupo VI, após condicionamento, o esmalte foi contaminado com saliva, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer e colagem com Concise. Os corpos de prova foram armazenados em água destilada em estufa a 37ºC por 24h e submetidos ao ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5%. RESULTADOS: a resistência da colagem no Grupo IV foi estatisticamente superior à dos Grupos II, III e VI (p0,05. O Transbond XT e o Concise utilizados convencionalmente obtiveram os maiores valores adesivos. O Ortho Primer em esmalte seco atuou efetivamente como agente de união dos compósitos avaliados. Em esmalte contaminado, a colagem com Concise obteve baixa resistência adesiva.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the Transbond XT and Concise Orthodontics composites using the Ortho Primer adhesion booster. METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 bovine incisors divided in 6 groups (n=15. All teeth were submitted to prophylaxes with pumice stone and etching with phosphoric acid. In Group I the Transbond XT was used conventionally. Group II was similar to Group I, however, Ortho Primer was used instead of XT

  13. Electronic structure and bond length dependence of the effective valence shell Hamiltonian of S2 as studied by quasidegenerate many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Freed, Karl F.

    1987-03-01

    The effective valence shell Hamiltonian (Hv) of S2 is calculated as a function of internuclear distance using quasidegenerate many-body perturbation theory with the full valence space spanned by eight valence orbitals. Calculated potential curves and excitation energies for several valence states are in good agreement with experiment and are compared with configuration interaction calculations using the same primitive basis. In order to test assumptions of semiempirical theories, we also perform a more approximate calculation of Hv in which the valence space is constructed as the union of the atomic valence spaces with the atomic orbitals taken from atomic SCF calculations. A new and important feature of this approximate, correlated Hv is the use of optimized valence and excited orbitals as determined from a constrained SCF procedure. The matrix elements of this approximate, correlated Hv are transformed to the original nonorthogonal atomic valence basis, and their bond length dependences are fit with simple analytical functions. Some calculated Hv matrix elements agree with the forms commonly postulated for semiempirical integrals, while others display quite different behavior. An example of the latter are the one-center, two-electron integrals which depend significantly on bond length in marked contrast to semiempirical theories which assume them to be bond length independent.

  14. Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. III. Oxidative degradation and stabilization of grafted layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, S.; Yamamoto, F.

    1978-09-01

    Vapor-phase mutual grafting of methyl acrylate (MA) onto polyethylene (PE) and subsequent saponification treatment produce a surface graft having a high adhesive bondability, which results from the presence of a hydrolized homopolymer layer (consisting of only monomer componenet) on an inner graft copolymer layer consisting of both PE and monomer components. The oxidative deterioration and the stabilization of the grated surface layer have been investigated to clarify the long-term stability of the adhesive bondability. The bondability rapidly disappears with accelerated weatherly followed by acetone extraction treatment, whereas it is kept unchanged during thermal-oxidative aging at 100/sup 0/C. Microscopic and attenuated total resonance (ATR) infrared spectroscopic observations of the degreaded surfaces show that the bondability loss is due to degradiative removal of the surface homopolymer layer. The addition of combinations of conventional antioxidants and ultraviolet absorbers stabilizes the grafted surface layer against thermal-oxidative and photo-oxidative degradation and thus extends the bondability rentention time. The stabilization is more effective in the grafts of carbon black-containing PE, where carbon black is present in the inner-graft copolymer layer.

  15. SEM/XPS analysis of fractured adhesively bonded graphite fibre surface resin-rich/graphite fibre composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of graphite fiber-reinforced polyimide were fabricated allowing the resin to accumulate at the composite surface. These surface resin-rich composites were then bonded together and tested for lap shear strength both before and after thermal aging. Lap shear strength did not appear to show a significant improvement over that previously recorded for resin-poor samples and was shown to decrease with increasing aging time and temperature.

  16. Sol-Gel Technology for Low-VOC, Nonchromated Adhesive Bonding Applications SERDP; Project PP-1113, Task 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Steve Risser of Battelle and Henry Zheng of Chemat Technology, Inc. were team members who contributed to PP-1113 efforts that are not documented in...High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) spray gun (Binks Model M1-G). Baseline specimens were bonded with 3M Company AF 163-2M (0.06 pounds per square foot ...first experiment. During that experiment, a nearly flat -top beam spatial profile was used. Two laser fluence levels were evaluated: a level

  17. 评价新型粘接剂在不同粘接模式下的牙本质粘接性能%Evaluation of the dentin bonding property of a novel universal adhesive under different adhesive modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俐; 王朝阳

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价1种新型单瓶型多模式粘接剂在不同粘接模式下与牙本质的粘接强度和粘接耐久性。方法制作3组牙本质/复合树脂粘接试件,其中每组牙本质在粘接前接受不同的表面调节。包括不处理(空白对照),Singlebond Universal粘接剂自酸蚀模式下调节牙本质,Singlebond Universal粘接剂在酸蚀冲洗模式下调节牙本质。测量各组粘接试件水储24 h和180 d的微拉伸粘接强度值并进行统计分析。以扫描电子显微镜观察各组试件的粘接界面。结果不论老化前还是老化后,3组间的粘接强度均存在显著性差异,其中空白组的粘接强度值最低,另两组间则无显著性差异。人工老化使空白组的粘接强度值显著下降,而对另两组则并无显著影响。结论 Singlebond Universal粘接剂在自酸蚀粘接模式和酸蚀冲洗粘接模式下均能够形成与牙本质良好的粘接。%s: Objective To evaluate the dentin bonding strength and durability of a novel universal adhesive used in self⁃etch mode and etching⁃rinsing mode. Methods Three groups of dentin/composite resin bonding specimens were prepared, which received three kinds of dentin conditioning, including no treatment (control), Singlebond Universal in self⁃etch mode and in etching⁃rinsing mode. Micro tensile bond strength ( MTBS) after 24 hours’ and 180 days’ water storage was tested. The three different dentin/composite resin bonding interfaces were observed by a scanning electron microscope. Results Statistical differences existed in the bonding strength a⁃mong three groups both before and after aging, and the control group demonstrated the lowest bonding strength, while the other groups showed no significant differences. Artificial aging significantly decreased the bonding strength of the control group, while it exerted no effect on the other two groups. Conclusion Application of Singlebond Universal can demonstrate

  18. Effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution conditioning on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Kasraei

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: It was an in-vitro study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were divided into eight groups and their crowns were ground perpendicular to their long axis to expose dentin. The teeth were polished with silicon-carbide papers. The groups were treated as follows: No conditioning, 0.5-M EDTA conditioning, 2.5% NaOCl conditioning, NaOCl + EDTA conditioning. The surfaces were rinsed and blot-dried. Clearfil S3 and I-Bond were applied according to manufacturers′ instructions and restored with Z100 composite. After 500 cycles of thermo-cycling between 5±C and 55±C, the samples were sectioned and tested for μTBS. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. Results: The highest μTBS was recorded with Clearfil S3 + NaOCl + EDTA, and the lowest was recorded with I-Bond without conditioning. μTBS in EDTA-and EDTA + NaOCl-treated groups was significantly higher than the control and NaOCl-conditioned groups. Conclusions: Application of EDTA or EDTA + NaOCl before one-step self-etch adhesives increased μTBS.

  19. Bonding and Insulating Properties of Silicate Inorganic Adhesive%硅酸盐无机胶黏剂的粘结和绝缘性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇航; 段德莉; 张月来; 王鹏; 李曙

    2012-01-01

    For studying the bonding and insulating properties of inorganic adhesive, different compositions of silicate adhesive samples were prepared in this paper. The morphologies of the solidified adhesives were observed by the microscope and SEM. The bonding force was determined by low-loaded tensile testing machine and the insulation resistance of sample was measured under various temperature and saturated vapor environment. The results indicated that the bonding-strength of sample is greatly improved by the decrescent SiO2/M2O modulus ratio of liquid composition, the wide sizes and distributions of the solid powders as well as the proper ratio between solid and liquid component. The insulating property of sample deteriorates with temperature rising, and sample with more content of alkali metal ion shows lower critical temperature and quicker downtrend. Sample’s insulating resistance obviously decreased when it was under saturated vapor environment, which might be greatly improved by heat treating, but it can also deteriorate by the increase of both alkali ion content and micro crack of adhesive.%制备了不同成分配比的耐高温硅酸盐胶黏剂,用体视显微镜、扫描电镜观察胶体的形貌,用低载荷拉伸试验机测试其粘结力,并分析试样在高温条件下及饱和水蒸汽环境中的绝缘性能。结果表明:随着硅酸盐胶黏剂的液相组分中SiO2/M2O模数比变小、固相粉末粒度分布范围变宽及液固相质量比的适当调节,其粘结强度均有较大的提升;胶黏剂绝缘的性能随着温度的升高而恶化并存在绝缘电阻大幅下降的临界温度,碱金属离子含量的增加降低其临界温度并加快其下降趋势;在饱和水蒸气环境中胶黏剂绝缘性能普遍降低,对固化后的胶体进行高温热处理使其绝缘性能有较大提升,但碱金属离子含量和胶体微观裂纹会降低其绝缘性能。

  20. Comparison of two methods of visual magnification for removal of adhesive flash during bracket placement using two types of orthodontic bonding agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Estefania Queiroga de Santana e; Nobrega, Maria de Lourdes Martins; Dametto, Fabio Roberto; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra; Pinheiro, Fabio Henrique de Sá Leitão

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods of visual magnification (operating microscope and light head magnifying glass) for removal of composite flash around orthodontic metal brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded in the center of the clinical crown of sixty well-preserved human premolars. Half of the sample was bonded with conventional Transbond XT (3M Unitek TM, USA), whereas the other half was bonded with Transbond TM Plus Color Change (3M Unitek TM, USA). For each type of composite, the choice of method to remove the flash was determined by randomly distributing the teeth into the following subgroups: A (removal by naked eye, n = 10), B (removal with the aid of light head magnifying glass, under 4x magnification, n = 10), and C (removal with the aid of an operating microscope, under 40x magnification, n = 10). Brackets were debonded and teeth taken to a scanning electron microscope (SS-x-550, Shimadzu, Japan) for visualization of their buccal surface. Quantification of composite flash was performed with Image Pro Plus software, and values were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s post-hoc test at 5% significance level. Results: Removal of pigmented orthodontic adhesive with the aid of light head magnifying glass proved, in general, to be advantageous in comparison to all other methods. Conclusion: There was no advantage in using Transbond TM Plus Color Change alone. Further studies are necessary to draw a more definitive conclusion in regards to the benefits of using an operating microscope. PMID:28125139

  1. Influence of artificial aging on the shear bond strength of zirconia-composite interfaces after pretreatment with new 10-MDP adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    p.c pott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in-vitro study investigates the bond strength of different zirconia composites  with three different modern adhesive systems after artificial aging using thermocycling and water storage. Methods: A total of 90 specimens of zirconia (InCoris, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim were ground using a 165 µm grit rotating diamond disc. Thirty specimens were additionally treated with either Futurabond U “FBU” (VOCO GmbH, or Futurabond M+ “FBM” (VOCO GmbH or Futurabond M+ in combination with the DCA activator “FBMD” (VOCO GmbH. One of the three different types of composites – BifixSE “BS”, BifixQM “BQ” or GrandioSO “G” (VOCO GmbH – was bonded to the ten specimens of each group. All of the specimens underwent artificial aging using thermocycling between 5°C and 55°C for 5000 cycles followed by water storage for 100 days. Shear bond strength (SBS was determined in a universal testing machine. The type of failure was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. The data were compared to existing data without artificial aging. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and the Tukey test. Results: FBM and FBMD had higher SBS than FBU in combination with all tested composites, except BifixSE. In nearly all groups, artificial aging had no effect, with the exception of the combination of FBMD with BifixSE, in which there was a significant decrease in SBS after the aging process (p

  2. Beta-1 integrin-mediated adhesion may be initiated by multiple incomplete bonds, thus accounting for the functional importance of receptor clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitte, Joana; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Eymeric, Philippe; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne

    2004-06-01

    The regulation of cell integrin receptors involves modulation of membrane expression, shift between different affinity states, and topographical redistribution on the cell membrane. Here we attempted to assess quantitatively the functional importance of receptor clustering. We studied beta-1 integrin-mediated attachment of THP-1 cells to fibronectin-coated surfaces under low shear flow. Cells displayed multiple binding events with a half-life of the order of 1 s. The duration of binding events after the first second after arrest was quantitatively accounted for by a model assuming the existence of a short-time intermediate binding state with 3.6 s(-1) dissociation rate and 1.3 s(-1) transition frequency toward a more stable state. Cell binding to surfaces coated with lower fibronectin densities was concluded to be mediated by single molecular interactions, whereas multiple bonds were formed intermediate state. Receptor aggregation was induced by treating cells with neutral antiintegrin antibody and antiimmunoglobulin antibodies. A semiquantitative confocal microscopy study suggested that this treatment increased between 40% and 100% the average number of integrin receptors located in a volume of approximately 0.045 microm(3) surrounding each integrin. This aggregation induced up to 2.7-fold increase of the average number of bonds. Flow cytometric analysis of fluorescent ligand binding showed that THP-1 cells displayed low-affinity beta-1 integrins with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. It is concluded that the initial step of cell adhesion was mediated by multiple incomplete bonds rather than a single equilibrium-state ligand receptor association. This interpretation accounts for the functional importance of integrin clustering.

  3. QUALITY OF Pinus elliottii PARTICLE BOARDS BONDED WITH POLYURETHANE ADHESIVE UNDER VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to produce homogeneous layer particle boards with residues of Pinus elliottii wood adhered with polyurethane adhesive to castor oil plant base and to evaluate the effect of the combination of pressure and temperature in the quality of the particle boards produced. To do so, 12 particle boards were manufactured, subdivided into four treatments in function of the pressure (2.0; 3.0; 3.5; and 3.5 MPa and temperature (90; 90; 50; and 60 ºC. The particleboards were sectioned in test samples, and accomplished by physical-mechanical tests for the determination of density, swelling and absorption of water (0-2h; 2-24h; e 0-24h; rupture module and elasticity module in static bending, internal ligation and screw withdrawal. The particle boards pressed with pressure of 3.0 MPa and temperature of 90 ºC and that with pressure of 3.5 MPa and temperature of 60 ºC presented the best  results. The higher temperature of pressing was the predominant variable in the quality of those particle boards manufactured.

  4. Tensile bond srength between composite resin using different adhesive systems Avaliação da resistência à ruptura por tração entre resina composta e diversos adesivos dentinários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Dias

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the tensile bond strength (TBS among nine adhesive systems and one composite resin. The groups were made as follows: Single Bond/3M (G1, Etch & Prime 3.0 /Degussa (G2, Bond 1/Jeneric/Pentron (G3, Prime & Bond 2.1/Dentsply (G4, OptiBond FL/Kerr (G5, Stae/SDI (G6, Snap Bond/ Copalite-Cooley & Cooley (G7, Prime & Bond NT/Dentsply (G8, Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus/3M (G9. The control group (G10 was made only with the composite resin (Z100/3M. One hundred specimens were made, 10 for each group. There were significant differences on TBS among groups. G3 showed the hightest TBS in comparison to other tested groups. G10 presented higher TBS than all groups. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar in vitro a resistência de união entre uma resina composta e nove sistemas adesivos dentinários. Os adesivos estudados foram assim agrupados: Single Bond/3M (G1, Etch & Prime 3.0/ Degussa (G2, Bond 1/Jeneric/Pentron (G3, Prime & Bond 2.1/Dentsply (G4, OptiBond FL/Kerr (G5, Stae/SDI (G6, Snap Bond/Copalite (G7, Prime & Bond NT/Dentsply (G 8, Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus/3M (G9. O Grupo controle (G10. foi confeccionado somente com a resina composta (Z100/3M. Foram confeccionados 100 espécimes, 10 para cada grupo. Houve diferenças estatísticas significantes entre os grupos. O grupo 3 foi o que mostrou a mais alta resistência em comparação aos nove testados. O grupo controle (G10 apresentou a mais alta resistência entre todos os Grupos.  

  5. Eight-year randomized clinical evaluation of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aimof this study is to observe the durability of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations, placed with two different adhesive systems, in an 8-year follow-up. Methods: Seventy-eight participants received at random at least two Class II restorations of the ormocer-based nan......Objectives: The aimof this study is to observe the durability of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations, placed with two different adhesive systems, in an 8-year follow-up. Methods: Seventy-eight participants received at random at least two Class II restorations of the ormocer......-based nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X) bonded with either a one-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno III) or a control two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite). The 165 restorations were evaluated using slightly modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then yearly during 8 years...... and no significant difference in overall clinical performance between the two adhesives. Fracture was the main reason for failure. Clinical relevance: The one-step self-etch adhesive showed a good long-term clinical effectiveness in combination with the nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations....

  6. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  7. The Mechanical Properties of Castor Seed Shell-polyester Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A composite with a polyester matrix reinforced with chemically modified shells of castor seed (Ricinus communis was produced. The effect of the shell (filler on the mechanical properties of the composite was experimentally quantified. A preliminary study was earlier carried out the shell in terms of their chemical constituents, functional group and mechanical strength. The shell was ground and chemically treated to enhance good bonding and adhesion to the matrix. Composites were fabricated using a hand lay-up or contact mould method for different percentage compositions of the filler. Tests, with respect to the mechanical properties (i.e., tensile, flexural and creep response were carried out. The result obtained was compared with the unreinforced polyester plate. It was observed that the inclusion of the filler (shell added strength to the composite. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was taken on the composite samples to study the morphology of the composites.

  8. VCAM-1-targeted core/shell nanoparticles for selective adhesion and delivery to endothelial cells with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation under shear flow and cellular magnetic resonance imaging in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong Yang,1 Fenglong Zhao,1 Ying Li,1 Mingming Xu,1 Li Li,1 Chunhui Wu,1 Hirokazu Miyoshi,2 Yiyao Liu11Department of Biophysics, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2Radioisotope Research Center, University of Tokushima, Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, JapanAbstract: Multifunctional nanomaterials with unique magnetic and luminescent properties have broad potential in biological applications. Because of the overexpression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 receptors in inflammatory endothelial cells as compared with normal endothelial cells, an anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibody can be used as a targeting ligand. Herein we describe the development of multifunctional core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles with the ability to target inflammatory endothelial cells via VCAM-1, magnetism, and fluorescence imaging, with efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast characteristics. Superparamagnetic iron oxide and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC were loaded successfully inside the nanoparticle core and the silica shell, respectively, creating VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC nanoparticles that were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry, zeta potential assay, and fluorescence microscopy. The VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC nanoparticles typically had a diameter of 355 ± 37 nm, showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and cumulative and targeted adhesion to an inflammatory subline of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-CS activated by lipopolysaccharide. Further, our data show that adhesion of VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC nanoparticles to inflammatory HUVEC-CS depended on both shear stress and duration of exposure to stress. Analysis of internalization into HUVEC-CS showed that the efficiency of delivery of VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC nanoparticles was

  9. Preparation and Properties of Starch-Based Composite Adhesive for Wood Bonding%木材用淀粉基复合胶黏剂的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王必囤; 顾继友; 左迎峰; 张彦华

    2012-01-01

    Starch adhesive was synthesized with com starch oxidized by sodium hypochlorite sodium, and then starch-isocyanate composite adhesive was prepared by blending modification with functional inner-crosslinking agent ( isocyanate). The effects of pH, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration, PVA dosage, starch content, and mixing ratio of isocyanate on the bonding properties of the starch adhesive were studied under different experimental conditions. The best bonding strength and water resistance were obtained as PVA concentration 10% , ratio of starch to PVA 3:5, ratio of starch to water 3 '· 8, and using oxidized modified starch. XPS analysis shows that chemical bond formation between isocyanate and hydroxyl of starch adhesive and wood is key to improving bonding strength and water resistance. The modified starch adhesive exhibits better adhesive properties, which meet the application requirements for type II plywood.%采用次氯酸钠对玉米淀粉进行氧化制备淀粉胶黏剂,再用功能内交联剂(异氰酸酯)共混改性制备淀粉基复合胶黏剂.考查了复合胶黏剂体系的pH、PVA质量分数与用量、淀粉用量、异氰酸酯加入比例对淀粉基复合胶黏剂胶接性能的影响.胶接实验结果表明:利用变性的氧化淀粉,PVA质量分数为10%,PVA加入比例为3/5,淀粉与水比为3/8时,获得最佳的胶结强度和耐水性能.采用XPS分析胶层化学结构,结果表明:异氰酸酯与淀粉胶黏剂、木材中的羟基反应形成化学键结合是提高胶接强度和耐水性关键所在.所制得的改性淀粉胶黏剂性能更加优异,符合Ⅱ类胶合板的使用要求.

  10. 固化光源对正畸托槽光敏粘结剂抗剪切强度及粘结剂残留指数影响的研究%Effects of Light- curing Units on Shear Bond Strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of Light- curing Orthodontic Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖颖真; 丘雨蓓; 林珊

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of quartz-tungsten-halogen light(QTH) and LED curing systems on shear bond strength of resin adhesive (3M) and resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive (GC); and to provide evidences for clinical chose of curing lights and orthodontic adhesives. Methods: 48 freshly-extracted human premo-lars were randomly assigned into 4 bonding groups (n=12/group) , brackets were respectively bonded with different adhesives and Light-curing units. The shear bond strength of the adhesive system was evaluated with an Universal testing machine. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after bracket failure. Results: The shear bond strength and ARI of 3M was significant lager than GC(P<0. 05). No matter which adhensive was used, no significant difference was found in shear bond strength and ARI between the LED and QTH. Conclusion: Both two kinds of light curing adhensives can satisfy the clinic need of orthodontics. Resin- modified glass ionomer adhesive has significantly less incidences of enamel failure. Orthodontic adhesives cured with LED was statistically equivalent to those cured with a QTH. LED can save the time and be suggested for the polymerization of orthodontic bonding adhesives.%目的:研究普通卤素灯(QTH)和发光二级管灯(LED)对正畸托槽复合树脂光敏粘结剂(3M)和树脂加强型玻璃离子光敏粘结剂((C)抗剪切力的影响,为临床正畸粘结材料和固化光源的选择提供一定依据.方法:选取新鲜拔除的第一双尖牙48颗,随机分为4组,使用不同粘结材料和不同光源配合粘结标准网底方丝弓托槽,采用微机万能材料实验机对托槽的粘结强度进行检测,同时记录粘结剂残留指数(ARI).结果:3M抗剪切力及ARI值均显著大于GC(P<0.05);QTH和LED对3M和GC的抗剪切力及ARI值影响差别无统计学意义.结论:2种正畸光敏粘结剂抗剪切强度均符合临床要求,托槽去除后GC对牙面破坏较小;LED灯照可以节约

  11. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  12. Effect of adhesive painting way on microtensile bond strength%不同涂布方式对牙本质粘结微拉伸强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽静; 梁燕

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different painting ways of four dental adhesives on the bond strength to dentin. METHODS: A total of 80 intact human premolars extracted for orthodontic reansons were used. The teeth were randomly divided into 16 groups. The enamel of occlusal surfaces of these teeth was removed and surperficial dentin was exposed. Different paining methods, namely gentle painting (G) , vigorous painting (V) , 1 layer painting (1) and 2 layers painting (2) were used to apply the bonding adhesive and resin crowns were bonded. The microtensile bond strength of all specimens was tested by CMT7104 universal testing machine. RESULTS:The bond strength was as follows; G2 > V2 > V1 > G1. G2 group showed significantly higher bonding strength than the other three groups (P 0. 05 ). CONCLUSION: Painting methods of adhesive showed effect on microtensile dentin bond strength. Two layers gentle painting in the same direction showed higher bonding strength.%目的:观察不同涂布方式对4种牙本质粘结剂牙本质微拉伸粘结强度的影响.方法:选择80个离体前磨牙制备牙本质粘结面后,随机分为16组,每组5个,分别以轻涂(G)、重涂(V)、涂1层(1)、涂2层(2)等不同方式涂布牙本质粘结剂,并修复树脂“冠”.CMT7104型万能材料测试机测试各组试件的微拉伸强度.结果:不同涂布方式下4种牙本质粘结剂的微拉伸粘结强度依次是G2组>V2组>V1组>G1组;G2组明显高于其他3组(P <0.05);V1组和G1组间、V1和V2无明显统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:不同涂布方式对牙本质粘结剂微拉伸强度具有一定的影响,轻涂2遍(G2)获得的微拉伸强度最高.

  13. The adhesive properties of two bonding systems to tetracycline stained dentin%两种粘接剂对四环素牙本质粘接性能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹伶; 梁坤能; 程磊; 李继遥; 何利邦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the bonding properties of Single Bond 2 and SE Bond to tetracycline stained dentin in vitro.Methods Ten extracted tetracycline stained human teeth and ten extracted normal human teeth were collected and the occlusal dentin surfaces of all extracted teeth were exposed.The tetracycline stained teeth and normal teeth were divided into two groups, respectively and randomly, based on the adhesives applied.Total-etch adhesive(Single Bond 2) and self-etch adhesive(SE Bond) were used.After application of the adhesives to the dentin surfaces, composite crowns were built up.After 24 h water storage, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally into sticks(0.9 mm×0.9 mm bonding area) for micro tensile testing or micro Raman spectroscopy detection.Bonding strength(μTBS) and resin conversion rate were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.Results The tetracycline Single Bond 2 group presented lower bonding strength[(16.17±3.16) MPa] than the tetracycline SE Bond group[(25.82± 2.62) MPa], and also demonstrated lower bonding strength than the normal Single Bond 2 group[(29.13± 2.44) MPa] and the normal SE Bond group[(24.29±2.83) MPa](P<0.05), while there was no statistical differences among the other three groups(P>0.05).The resin conversion rate of tetracycline Single Bond 2 group[(55±6)%] was significantly lower than the tetracycline SE Bond group[(66±3)%](P<0.05) and also lower than the normal Single Bond 2 group[(64±5)%] and the normal SE Bond group[(65±4)%](P<0.05).No statistically significant differences were observed among the other three groups(P>0.05).Conclusions The bonding strength of total-etch adhesive system to the tetracycline stained dentin was significantly lower than that to the normal dentin.%目的 比较两种粘接剂对四环素牙本质与正常牙本质的粘接性能,为临床四环素牙本质粘接剂的选择提供参考.方法 从四川大学华西口腔医学院口腔颌面外科门诊收集牙冠

  14. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy study of physicochemical interaction between human dentin and etch-&-rinse adhesives in a simulated moist bond technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubaldini, Adriana L M; Baesso, Mauro L; Sehn, Elizandra

    2012-01-01

    systems: (a) 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydrate (4-META), and (b) HEMA. The Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy was performed before and after dentin treatment with 37% phosphoric acid, with adhesive systems and also for the adhesive systems...

  15. The influence of ionic strength on the adhesive bond stiffness of oral streptococci possessing different surface appendages as probed using AFM and QCM-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, Adam L. J.; Arun, Narasimhan; Kanger, Johannes S.; Busscher, Henk J.; Ivanov, Ivan E.; Camesano, Terri A.; Chen, Yun; Johannsmann, Diethelm; van der Mei, Henny C.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to surfaces poses threats to human-health, not always associated with adhering organisms, but often with their detachment causing contamination elsewhere. Bacterial adhesion mechanisms may not be valid for their detachment, known to proceed according to a visco-elastic mechanism.

  16. Current dental adhesives systems. A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Egle; Cumbo, Enzo; Cardoso, Rielson Jose A; Gallina, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry is based on the development of materials which establish an effective bond with the tooth tissues. In this context, adhesive systems have attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Successful adhesive bonding depends on the chemistry of the adhesive, on appropriate clinical handling of the material as well as on the knowledge of the morphological changes caused on dental tissue by different bonding procedures. This paper outlines the status of contemporary adhesive systems, with particular emphasis on chemical characteristics and mode of interaction of the adhesives with enamel and dentinal tissues. Dental adhesives are used for several clinical applications and they can be classified based on the clinical regimen in "etch-and-rinse adhesives" and "self-etch adhesives". Other important considerations concern the different anatomical characteristics of enamel and dentine which are involved in the bonding procedures that have also implications for the technique used as well as for the quality of the bond. Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems generally perform better on enamel than self-etching systems which may be more suitable for bonding to dentine. In order to avoid a possible loss of the restoration, secondary caries or pulp damage due to bacteria penetration or due to cytotoxicity effects of eluted adhesive components, careful consideration of several factors is essential in selecting the suitable bonding procedure and adhesive system for the individual patient situation.

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of Disbonding in Steel/Rubber Adhesive Bonding Structures by Using Lamb Waves%钢/橡胶胶接结构中脱粘缺陷的Lamb波定量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 刘松平

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of quantitative evaluation of disbonding in adhesive bonding structures, the -3 dB method based on Lamb waves was discussed. The experiments were carried out on steel rubber adhesive bonding structures with circular disbonding. The results showed that the amplitude of Lamb wave in disbonding area was higher than that in bond area, and the disbonding in the sample could be quantitatively estimated effectively by the -3 dB method.%针对胶接结构中脱粘缺陷的定量检测问题,探讨了一种基于Lamb波幅值的-3 dB法.对钢/橡胶结构中圆形脱粘缺陷进行了检测试验.结果表明,Lamb波信号在粘好区幅值较小,在脱粘区幅值较大.采用-3 dB法可以较好地对试样中的脱粘缺陷进行定量和定位.

  18. "Micro-tensile bond strength to dentine of a self-etch and a universal adhesive system in self-etch mode"

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ana Catarina Palmeirinha

    2014-01-01

    Tese de Mestrado, Medicina Dentária, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, 2014 The evolution of adhesive systems over the last years has had a strong influence in the actual restorative concepts. The growing need for less time consumer procedures and less sensitive techniques, led manufacturers to release a new type of dental adhesives known as „universal‟, „multi-mode‟ or „multi-purpose‟. This concept of adhesives gives dentists the possibility to choose which approach ...

  19. The dentinal surface: its influence on dentinal adhesion. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, J D; Cobb, C M; Chappell, R P; Spencer, P; Robinson, S J

    1991-12-01

    Three categories of dentinal adhesive are proposed: category I includes adhesives with shear bond strength values between 5 and 7 MPa; category II includes dentinal adhesives with shear bond strengths between 8 and 14 MPa; and category III includes adhesives with shear bond strength values up to 20 MPa. In part I of this article, photomicrographs of the dentinal smear layer and three category I first-generation dentin-adhesive interfaces are presented. The photomicrographs show that the wetting and penetration of the first-generation dentinal adhesives were not adequate to produce high shear bond strengths. When the category I adhesives were tested for shear bond strength, failures occurred at the interface or in the resin adhesive. Future articles will explain wetting and adhesive performance of category II and III adhesives.

  20. Adhesive-Bonded Ca(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3/Ba(Zn_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3 Layered Dielectric Resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ca(Mg_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 and Ba(Zn_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 ceramic cylinders with the same diameter were bonded by adhesive with low dielectric loss to yield the layered dielectric resonators, and the microwave dielectric characteristics were evaluated with TE_ 01δ mode. With increasing the Ba(Zn_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 thickness fraction, the resonant frequency (f_0) decreased, while the effective dielectric constant (ε_ r,eff ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ_f) increased. Good microwave dielectri...

  1. Tensile bond strength of adhesive systems: effects of primer and thermocycling Resistência à tração de sistemas adesivos: efeitos do “ primer” e dos ciclos térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tibiriçá AGUILAR

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of primer and thermocycling on the bond strength of multi-purpose adhesive systems applied to enamel, under tensile stress. The following bonding systems were applied, according to the manufacturers' instructions, on unground enamel buccal surfaces of 96 premolars, with or without the application of primer: Scotchbond MP, OptiBond FL, Amalgambond Plus and OptiBond (dual-cure. A composite resin (Z100, 3M was applied and light-cured in a cast metal hollow cone, which was previously fixed to the enamel surfaces. Half of the sample was subjected to 3,000 thermocycles (5-37ºC; 37-55ºC, dwell time of 60 s, and the other half was stored in water at 37ºC for the same period. The data were treated by means of ANOVA and no significant effects were detected, which indicates that tensile bond strength was not affected by the adhesive systems, application of primer or thermocycling.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar o efeito do "primer" e dos ciclos térmicos na resistência da união entre adesivos multiuso e esmalte dental, sob ensaios de tração. Os seguintes sistemas adesivos foram aplicados, de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes, na superfície vestibular (sem desgaste de 96 pré-molares com ou sem a aplicação prévia do "primer": Scotchbond MP, OptiBond FL, Amalgambond Plus e OptiBond - "dual cure". Após a aplicação do sistema adesivo, foi confeccionado um cone de resina composta (Z100, 3M, e fotoativado dentro de um molde metálico. Metade do total de espécimes foi submetida a 3.000 ciclos térmicos (5-37ºC; 37-55ºC, 60 s de imersão; a outra metade permaneceu imersa em água a 37ºC pelo mesmo tempo dispensado no procedimento anterior. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância (p = 0,05 e nenhum efeito significante foi detectado, indicando que a resistência de união não foi afetada pelo sistema adesivo, pela aplicação do "primer" ou pelos ciclos térmicos.

  2. Reactive Bonding Film for Bonding Carbon Foam Through Metal Extrusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chertok, Maxwell; Irving, Michael; Neher, Christian; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Ruby; Zheng, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Future tracking detectors, such as those under development for the High Luminosity LHC, will require mechanical structures employing novel materials to reduce mass while providing excellent strength, thermal conductivity, and radiation tolerance. Adhesion methods for such materials are under study at present. This paper demonstrates the use of reactive bonding film as an adhesion method for bonding carbon foam.

  3. Evaluation of Low Hazardous Air Pollutant Thermoset Adhesives for the Application of Rubber-to-Metal Bonding on Army Tank Pads and Road Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    rubber substrate during peel test (left) and after peel (right). ...............22  Figure 17. Asymetrical peel...crescent-shaped bond line is visible. All efforts were made to 23 Rubber to metal interface Figure 17. Asymetrical peel. maintain a straight bond

  4. Resistência de união à dentina de resinas compostas associadas a sistemas adesivos com e sem carga Bond strength of resin composites to dentin associated to filled and unfilled adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandyra A. YOUSSEF

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou in vitro duas marcas de adesivos de quarta geração do sistema simplificado (Optisolo - Kerr, com carga, e Single Bond - 3M, sem carga e duas marcas de resinas compostas (Prodigy - Kerr e Z100 - 3M, com o objetivo de verificação da adesividade na dentina. Oitenta corpos-de-prova, confeccionados a partir de molares humanos extraídos, foram incluídos em resina acrílica e desgastados até exposição de dentina no sentido longitudinal, e divididos em 4 grupos. Cones de resina composta foram aderidos a estes corpos-de-prova precedidos dos sistemas adesivos, seguindo a orientação dos fabricantes. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos a teste de tração numa máquina de ensaios Universal Mini-Instron 4442, a uma velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os resultados obtidos foram transformados em MPa de acordo com a área de adesão e submetidos a análise estatística pela ANOVA. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p 0,05.This study analyzed in vitro two brands of one-step adhesive systems of fourth generation (Optisolo - Kerr, filled; and Single Bond - 3M, unfilled and two composite resins (Prodigy - Kerr and Z100 - 3M, aiming at evaluating their bond strength to dentin. Eighty human extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin and grounded until dentin was exposed in longitudinal direction. The specimens were divided in 4 groups. Composite resin cones were bonded to the specimens using the mentioned adhesive systems, following the instructions of the manufacturers. The test-specimens were submitted to tensile tests using a 4442 Universal Mini-Instron Machine with the speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were converted into MPa, according to the area of adhesion, and submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA. There was significant statistical difference (p 0.05 between the composites (F = 0.43.

  5. Clinical Challenges on Adhesive Dentistry on its 60th Anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori MS, PhD, Neimar

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry allowed restoring lost tooth structures using Minimally Invasive direct or indirect bonded restorations. Adhesive systems and bonding techniques have been constantly evolving since the introduction of Sevriton Cavity Seal, in 1940 by Oskar Hagger. As we celebrate the 60th anniversary of adhesive dentistry in 2015 the future of the Minimally Invasive Adhesive Dentistry is more promising than ever. A better understanding of long-term resin-dentin bonds interaction is guiding ...

  6. Solvent-free thermoplastic-poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonding mediated by UV irradiation followed by gas-phase chemical deposition of an adhesion linker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S. Y.; Lee, N. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Here, we introduce a solvent-free strategy for bonding various thermoplastic substrates with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation followed by the gas-phase chemical deposition of aminosilane on the UV-irradiated thermoplastic substrates. The thermoplastic substrates were first irradiated with UV for surface hydrophilic treatment and were then grafted with vacuum-evaporated aminosilane, where the alkoxysilane side reacted with the oxidized surface of the thermoplastic substrate. Next, the amine-terminated thermoplastic substrates were treated with corona discharge to oxidize the surface and were bonded with PDMS, which was also oxidized via corona discharge. The two substrates were then hermetically sealed and pressed under atmospheric pressure for 30 min at 60 °C. This process enabled the formation of a robust siloxane bond (Si-O-Si) between the thermoplastic substrate and PDMS under relatively mild conditions using an inexpensive and commercially available UV lamp and Tesla coil. Various thermoplastic substrates were examined for bonding with PDMS, including poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and polystyrene (PS). Surface characterizations were performed by measuring the contact angle and performing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and the bond strength was analyzed by conducting various mechanical force measurements such as pull, delamination, leak and burst tests. The average bond strengths for the PMMA-PDMS, PC-PDMS, PET-PDMS and PS-PDMS assemblies were measured at 823.6, 379.3, 291.2 and 229.0 kPa, respectively, confirming the highly reliable performance of the introduced bonding strategy.

  7. Evaluación de la adherencia de uniones adhesivas metálicas con adhesivos epoxídicos modificados Evaluation of the adherence of bonded metallic joints with modified epoxy adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2008-03-01

    agents. The adhesive properties were investigated using the epoxy resins as independent systems as well as the modified resin. The adhesive properties of modified and unmodified epoxy resins were studied using steel alloy (ASTM A36 as adherent. The adherence has been evaluated using three geometric assays of steel-steel bonded joints. The rheological behavior of the adhesives was investigated under isothermal conditions. The rheological parameters associated with the curing reaction such as reaction rate, pot life and gel time of the pure adhesives were related to the chemical structure of the curing agents. The cloud point and the gel time of the modified adhesives were related to the morphology and the reaction rate, respectively. The morphology was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy. The adherence of the adhesive joints at different mechanical solicitations was related to the generated morphology by the dispersed phase of each modifier and the networks structures of the epoxy adhesives.

  8. Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维和Super-Bond C & B粘结剂固定下前牙松动牙疗效比较%Comparison of the clinical effect of Quartz splintTM high strength quartz fiber and Super-Bond C & B adhesive for anterior teeth loosening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维和Super-Bond C&B粘结剂固定慢性牙周炎下前牙松动牙的临床效果。方法:选取下前牙松动需要做牙周夹板松牙固定患者40例,随机分为两组。A组:在洁治、刮治和根面平整后,使用Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维做牙周固定;B组:在在洁治、刮治和根面平整后,使用Super-Bond C&B粘结剂做牙周固定。两组固定后即刻让患者对于固定物做出异物感评价。固定6个月后比较治疗前后的牙周探诊深度和牙周附着丧失情况。结果:两组治疗前后的牙周探诊深度和牙周附着丧失均比治疗前有明显减少,有统计学意义。组间比较,无统计学意义。固定后即刻异物感评价,B组优于A组,有统计学意义。结论:对于下前牙松动的患者,洁治、刮治和根面平整后使用Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维和Super-Bond C&B粘结剂牙周夹板固定,均可以使牙周状况明显改善。Super-Bond C&B粘结剂牙周夹板异物感小于Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维。%Objective To compare the clinical effect of Quartz splintTM high strength silica fiber and Super-Bond C&B adhesive in the treatment of anterior teeth loosening of the periodontal disease. Methods 40 patients with anterior teeth loosening need to be fixed in patients with loose teeth, and were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, scaling and root planing, the use of Quartz splintTM high strength quartz fiber periodontal fixed. In group B, scaling, root planing, the use of Super-Bond C&B adhesive periodontal fixation. A group and B group make foreign body sensation evaluation after fixation immediately. After 6 months of treatment, the depth of the periodontal probe and the loss of periodontal attachment were compared with that before and after the treatment. Results The depth of the periodontal probe and the loss of periodontal attachment in the A group and the B

  9. Bonding ability of adhesive resins to caries-affected and caries-infected dentin Capacidade de união de resinas adesivas à dentina afetada e infectada por cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yoshiyama

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridized dentin permits dental treatments that were previously impossible with conventional techniques, opening new frontiers in modern adhesive dentistry. We have investigated the adhesive property of current bonding systems to caries-infected dentin by a microtensile bond strength test (µTBS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and suggested that bonding resin could infiltrate into caries-infected dentin partially to embed carious bacteria within hybrid layers. We have named this concept of caries control as modified sealed restoration (MSR. On the other hand, Kuraray Medical Inc. (Tokyo, Japan has developed an antibacterial adhesive system (ABF, now marketed in USA as Protect Bond. So as to evaluate the effectiveness of ABF on root caries control, we have examine the microtensile bond strengths (µTBS of ABF to normal versus carious root dentin and the interfacial morphology by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ABF could form the hybrid-like structures by infiltrating into the surfaces of the root carious dentin, and the mean value of µTBS of ABF to root carious dentin was 23.0 MPa. These results suggested that MSR combined with ABF might be an advantageous minimal invasive therapy for root caries.As técnicas adesivas permitiram inovações nos tratamentos restauradores da atualidade. Este estudo investigou a qualidade de união de diferentes sistemas adesivos ao substrato dentinário afetado e infectado por cárie, através de testes de microtração e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura (MET. Os resultados sugerem que a resina adesiva pôde infiltrar na dentina infectada e envolver as bactérias na camada híbrida. Esse conceito de controle da cárie foi denominado de "Restauração-Selante Modificada" (RSM. Por outro lado, a empresa Kuraray Med. Inc .(Japão desenvolveu um sistema adesivo com propriedades anti-bacterianas (ABF, o qual é comercializado nos EUA como Protect Bond. Para avaliar a efetividade do

  10. Efficient C-O and C-N bond forming cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by core-shell structured Cu/Cu2O nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Elshewy, Ahmed M.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen and Nitrogen containing compounds are of utmost importance due to their interesting and diverse biological activities. The construction of the C-O and C–N bonds is of significance as it opens avenues for the introduction of ether and amine linkages in organic molecules. Despite significant advancements in this field, the construction of C-O and C–N bonds is still a major challenge for organic chemists, due to the involvement of harsh reaction conditions or the use of expensive catalysts or ligands in many cases. Thus, it is a challenge to develop alternative, milder, cheaper and more reproducible methodologies for the construction of these types of bonds. Herein, we introduce a new efficient ligand free catalytic system for C-O and C-N bond formation reactions.

  11. 三种牙本质黏结剂从涂布到光固化挥发时间对其微拉伸强度的影响%Effects of Volatilization Time of Three Dentin Adhesives before Light Curing on Micro-tensile Bond Strength to Dentin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗璇; 张晓晞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop quantitative indicators for evaluating the effects of volatilization time of three dentin