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Sample records for adhesive binding mechanism

  1. Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binding Agents I-Adhesion to polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Orafai

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion of three commonly used pharmaceutical binding agents, HPMC , PVP and Gelatin to five different polymeric sheet materials was studied. After conditioning, the bond strength of the specimens were measured by shear testing method using a suitablely designed apparatus. The results were correlated to the surface energies and the solubiiity parameters of the adherends. It is concluded that the thermodynamic properties and the solubility parameters are dominant when the mechanisms of adhesion are by adsorption and diffusion respectively.

  2. RNA-binding IMPs promote cell adhesion and invadopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikesaa, Jonas; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Oncofetal RNA-binding IMPs have been implicated in mRNA localization, nuclear export, turnover and translational control. To depict the cellular actions of IMPs, we performed a loss-of-function analysis, which showed that IMPs are necessary for proper cell adhesion, cytoplasmic spreading and inva......Oncofetal RNA-binding IMPs have been implicated in mRNA localization, nuclear export, turnover and translational control. To depict the cellular actions of IMPs, we performed a loss-of-function analysis, which showed that IMPs are necessary for proper cell adhesion, cytoplasmic spreading...... and invadopodia formation. Loss of IMPs was associated with a coordinate downregulation of mRNAs encoding extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins. The transcripts were present in IMP RNP granules, implying that IMPs were directly involved in the post-transcriptional control of the transcripts. In particular......-mediated invadopodia formation. Taken together, our results indicate that RNA-binding proteins exert profound effects on cellular adhesion and invasion during development and cancer formation....

  3. Ligand-mediated adhesive mechanics of two static, deformed spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Sarthok; Nguyen, Giang; Kotousov, Andrei; Roberts, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    A self-consistent model is developed to investigate attachment/detachment kinetics of two static, deformable microspheres with irregular surface and coated with flexible binding ligands. The model highlights how the microscale binding kinetics of these ligands as well as the attractive/repulsive potential of the charged surface affects the macroscale static deformed configuration of the spheres. It is shown that in the limit of smooth, neutrally charged surface (i.e., the dimensionless inverse Debye length, [Formula: see text]), interacting via elastic binders (i.e., the dimensionless stiffness coefficient, [Formula: see text]) the adhesion mechanics approaches the regime of application of the JKR theory, and in this particular limit, the contact radius, R c , scales with the particle radius, R, according to the scaling law, [Formula: see text]. We show that static, deformed, highly charged, ligand-coated surface of micro-spheres exhibit strong adhesion. Normal stress distribution within the contact area adjusts with the binder stiffness coefficient, from a maximum at the center to a maximum at the periphery of the region. Although reported in some in vitro experiments involving particle adhesion, until now a physical interpretation for this variation of the stress distribution for deformable, charged, ligand-coated microspheres is missing. Surface roughness results in a diminished adhesion with a distinct reduction in the pull-off force, larger separation gap, weaker normal stress and limited area of adhesion. These results are in agreement with the published experimental findings.

  4. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

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    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion.

  5. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of [ 3 H]serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of 125 I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF

  6. E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1) is a novel adiponectin binding protein on cell adhesion

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    Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Nana; Uekita, Hiromi; Kochi, Ikoi; Matsumoto, Akane; Niinaga, Ryu [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kihara, Shinji, E-mail: skihara@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Background: Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-derived bioactive molecule with anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Although anti-diabetic effects are mostly mediated by the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, the anti-atherogenic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results: In this study, we identified E-selectin ligand (ESL)-1 as a novel APN-binding protein by mass spectrometry analysis of HepG2 cell-derived immunoprecipitant with an anti-APN antibody. Cell adhesion assays using fluorescence-labelled monocyte cell line THP-1 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) revealed that APN-pre-treated THP-1 cells had reduced binding ability to HUVECs. This APN-mediated suppressive effect on monocyte binding to endothelial cells was partially abrogated by targeting ESL-1 with shRNA in THP-1 cells. In addition, serial mutagenesis analysis disclosed that five extracellular amino acids close to the N-terminus of ESL-1 were essential for binding with APN. Conclusion: Our results highlight the fact that interaction between APN and ESL-1 could provide a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic properties of APN. - Highlights: • E-selectin ligand (ESL)-1 was identified as an adiponectin (APN)-binding protein. • ESL-1 bound to APN at its N-terminal 6th-10th amino acids. • shESL-1 reduced the suppressive effect of APN on adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. • Interaction with ESL may be involved in the anti-atherogenic effects of APN.

  7. E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1) is a novel adiponectin binding protein on cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Nana; Uekita, Hiromi; Kochi, Ikoi; Matsumoto, Akane; Niinaga, Ryu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Kihara, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-derived bioactive molecule with anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Although anti-diabetic effects are mostly mediated by the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, the anti-atherogenic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results: In this study, we identified E-selectin ligand (ESL)-1 as a novel APN-binding protein by mass spectrometry analysis of HepG2 cell-derived immunoprecipitant with an anti-APN antibody. Cell adhesion assays using fluorescence-labelled monocyte cell line THP-1 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) revealed that APN-pre-treated THP-1 cells had reduced binding ability to HUVECs. This APN-mediated suppressive effect on monocyte binding to endothelial cells was partially abrogated by targeting ESL-1 with shRNA in THP-1 cells. In addition, serial mutagenesis analysis disclosed that five extracellular amino acids close to the N-terminus of ESL-1 were essential for binding with APN. Conclusion: Our results highlight the fact that interaction between APN and ESL-1 could provide a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic properties of APN. - Highlights: • E-selectin ligand (ESL)-1 was identified as an adiponectin (APN)-binding protein. • ESL-1 bound to APN at its N-terminal 6th-10th amino acids. • shESL-1 reduced the suppressive effect of APN on adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. • Interaction with ESL may be involved in the anti-atherogenic effects of APN.

  8. Cell adhesion to fibrillin-1: identification of an Arg-Gly-Asp-dependent synergy region and a heparin-binding site that regulates focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bax, Daniel V; Mahalingam, Yashithra; Cain, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    We have defined the molecular basis of cell adhesion to fibrillin-1, the major structural component of extracellular microfibrils that are associated with elastic fibres. Using human dermal fibroblasts, and recombinant domain swap fragments containing the Arg-Gly-Asp motif, we have demonstrated...... a requirement for upstream domains for integrin-alpha(5)beta(1)-mediated cell adhesion and migration. An adjacent heparin-binding site, which supports focal adhesion formation, was mapped to the fibrillin-1 TB5 motif. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed two arginine residues that are crucial for heparin binding...

  9. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation. (paper)

  10. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation.

  11. Regulative mechanisms of chondrocyte adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Fehrenbach, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Interaction between chondrocytes and extracellular matrix is considered a key factor in the generation of grafts for matrix-associated chondrocyte transplantation. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of differentiation status on cellular attachment. Adhesion of chondrocytes...... to collagen type II increased after removal from native cartilage up to the third day in monolayer in a dose-dependent manner. Following dedifferentiation after the second passage, adhesion to collagen types I (-84%) and II (-46%) decreased, whereas adhesion to fibrinogen (+59%) and fibronectin (+43......%) increased. A cartilage construct was developed based on a clinically established collagen type I scaffold. In this matrix, more than 80% of the cells could be immobilized by mechanisms of adhesion, filtration, and cell entrapment. Confocal laser microscopy revealed focal adhesion sites as points of cell...

  12. Adhesion mechanisms of nanoparticle silver to substrate materials: identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Sungchul; Baldwin, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticle silver (NPS) conductors are increasingly being investigated for printed electronics applications. However, the adhesion mechanism of the nanoparticle silver to substrate materials has not been identified yet. In particular, the adhesion of NPS to organic materials such as the widely used polyimide Kapton HN and Kapton FPC dry films is concerned with low adhesion strength because the processed polymer surface is chemically inert. Moreover, its adhesion to substrate materials such as benzocyclobutene (BCB), copper and aluminum was found to be very weak. Therefore, in this paper, the mechanisms of NPS adhesion to organic and inorganic materials are identified as the first step in improving NPS adhesion strength. Improving the adhesion strength of NPS will be the key issue for printed electronics applications. The adhesion of NPS to substrate materials was found to be mainly attributed to van der Waals forces based on particle adhesion mechanisms. This finding provides the initiative of developing an adhesion prediction model of NPS to substrate materials in order to provide guidelines for improving the NPS adhesion strength to the substrate materials used in printed electronics.

  13. Mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to model biomaterial surfaces: Establising a link between thrombosis and infection

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    Higashi, Julie Miyo

    Infections involving Staphylococcus epidermidis remain a life threatening complication associated with the use of polymer based cardiovascular devices. One of the critical steps in infection pathogenesis is the adhesion of the bacteria to the device surface. Currently, mechanisms of S. epidermidis adhesion are incompletely understood, but are thought to involve interactions between bacteria, device surface, and host blood elements in the form of adsorbed plasma proteins and surface adherent platelets. Our central hypothesis is that elements participating in thrombosis also promote S. epidermidis adhesion by specifically binding to the bacterial surface. The adhesion kinetics of S. epidermidis RP62A to host modified model biomaterial surface octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) under hydrodynamic shear conditions were characterized. Steady state adhesion to adsorbed proteins and surface adherent platelets was achieved at 90-120 minutes and 60-90 minutes, respectively. A dose response curve of S. epidermidis adhesion in the concentration range of 10sp7{-}10sp9 bac/mL resembled a multilayer adsorption isotherm. Increasing shear stress was found to LTA, and other LTA blocking agents significantly decreased S. epidermidis adhesion to the fibrin-platelet clots, suggesting that this interaction between S. epidermidis and fibrin-platelet clots is specific. Studies evaluated the adhesion of S. epidermidis to polymer immobilized heparin report conflicting results. Paulsson et al., showed that coagulase negative staphylococci adhered in comparable numbers to both immobilized heparin and nonheparinized surfaces, while exhibiting significantly greater adhesion to both surfaces than S. aureus. Preadsorption of the surfaces with specific heparin binding plasma proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen significantly increased adhesion. It was postulated that immobilized heparin contained binding sites for the plasma proteins, exposing bacteria binding domains of the

  14. E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1) is a novel adiponectin binding protein on cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Nana; Uekita, Hiromi; Kochi, Ikoi; Matsumoto, Akane; Niinaga, Ryu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Kihara, Shinji

    2016-02-05

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-derived bioactive molecule with anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Although anti-diabetic effects are mostly mediated by the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, the anti-atherogenic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified E-selectin ligand (ESL)-1 as a novel APN-binding protein by mass spectrometry analysis of HepG2 cell-derived immunoprecipitant with an anti-APN antibody. Cell adhesion assays using fluorescence-labelled monocyte cell line THP-1 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) revealed that APN-pre-treated THP-1 cells had reduced binding ability to HUVECs. This APN-mediated suppressive effect on monocyte binding to endothelial cells was partially abrogated by targeting ESL-1 with shRNA in THP-1 cells. In addition, serial mutagenesis analysis disclosed that five extracellular amino acids close to the N-terminus of ESL-1 were essential for binding with APN. Our results highlight the fact that interaction between APN and ESL-1 could provide a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic properties of APN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori blood-group antigen-binding adhesion 2 and sialic acid binding adhesion genes among dyspeptic patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Yousefi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this research was to analyze blood-group antigen-binding adhesion (babA2 and sialic acid binding adhesion (sabA genotypes status in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori isolates and their relationship with clinical outcomes. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens were homogenized and placed in Brucella agar medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 3 antibiotics and were cultured at 37 °C under microaerophilic conditions and incubated for 4-7 days. H. pylori was identified by typical morphology, gram-staining and urease tests, and babA2 and sabA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: From a total of 100 H. pylori isolates; babA2 and sabA genes were detected in 23.0 and 26.4%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between these genes and clinical outcomes (P < 0.050. Conclusion: We found that the babA2 status was not related to clinical outcomes in Tabriz, Iran. However, sabA was a promoting determinant for disease, and multivariate analysis disclosed sabA to be an independent marker of non-ulcer diseases in our subjects.

  16. Variation in one residue associated with the metal ion-dependent adhesion site regulates αIIbβ3 integrin ligand binding affinity.

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    Joel Raborn

    Full Text Available The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the β I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the β3 residue Ala(252 and corresponding Ala in the β1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the β2 and β7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS of integrins α4β7 and αLβ2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the α2β1, α5β1, αVβ3, and αIIbβ3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the αIIbβ3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala(252 to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant αIIbβ3 integrin β I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion.

  17. New insights into the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion by free energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doro, Fabio; Saladino, Giorgio; Belvisi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional domain swapping is an important mode of protein association leading to the formation of stable dimers. Monomers associating via this mechanism mutually exchange a domain to form a homodimer. Classical cadherins, an increasingly important target for anticancer therapy, use domain...... swapping to mediate cell adhesion. However, despite its importance, the molecular mechanism of domain swapping is still debated. Here, we study the conformational changes that lead to activation and dimerization via domain swapping of E-cadherin. Using state-of-the-art enhanced sampling atomistic......" mechanism in which monomers in an active conformational state bind to form a homodimer, analogous to the conformational selection mechanism often observed in ligand-target binding. Moreover, we find that the open state population is increased in the presence of calcium ions at the extracellular boundary...

  18. N-terminal and C-terminal heparin-binding domain polypeptides derived from fibronectin reduce adhesion and invasion of liver cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Nan-Hong; Chen, Yan-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Li, Xiu-Jin; Wu, Yong; Zou, Qi-Lian; Chen, Yuan-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to be a large multifunction glycoprotein with binding sites for many substances, including N-terminal and C-terminal heparin-binding domains. We investigated the effects of highly purified rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 polypeptides originally cloned from the two heparin-binding domains on the adhesion and invasion of highly metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (MHCC97H) and analyzed the underlying mechanism involved. The MHCC97H cells that adhered to FN in the presence of various concentrations of rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 polypeptides were stained with crystal violet and measured, and the effects of rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 on the invasion of the MHCC97H cells were then detected using the Matrigel invasion assay as well as a lung-metastasis mouse model. The expression level of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphotyrosyl protein was examined by Western blot, and the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) was analyzed by gelatin zymography and the electrophoretic mobility band-shift assay (EMSA), respectively. Both of the polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 inhibited adhesion and invasion of MHCC97H cells; however, rhFNHC36 exhibited inhibition at a lower dose than rhFNHN29. These inhibitory effects were mediated by integrin αvβ3 and reversed by a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. Polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 abrogated the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), resulting in the decrease of integrin αv, β3 and β1 expression as well as the reduction of MMP-9 activity. Polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 could potentially be applicable to human liver cancer as anti-adhesive and anti-invasive agents

  19. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  20. Comparing the mechanical influence of vinculin, focal adhesion kinase and p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, Anna H.; Diez, Gerold; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Cytoskeletal reorganization is an ongoing process when cells adhere, move or invade extracellular substrates. The cellular force generation and transmission are determined by the intactness of the actomyosin-(focal adhesion complex)-integrin connection. We investigated the intracellular course of action in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in the focal adhesion proteins vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the nuclear matrix protein p53 using magnetic tweezer and nanoparticle tracking techniques. Results show that the lack of these proteins decrease cellular stiffness and affect cell rheological behavior. The decrease in cellular binding strength was higher in FAK- to vinculin-deficient cells, whilst p53-deficient cells showed no effect compared to wildtype cells. The intracellular cytoskeletal activity was lowest in wildtype cells, but increased in the following order when cells lacked FAK+p53 > p53 > vinculin. In summary, cell mechanical processes are differently affected by the focal adhesion proteins vinculin and FAK than by the nuclear matrix protein, p53.

  1. Mechanical Entrapment Is Insufficient and Intercellular Adhesion Is Essential for Metastatic Cell Arrest in Distant Organs

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    Olga V. Glinskii

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we challenge a common perception that tumor embolism is a size-limited event of mechanical arrest, occurring in the first capillary bed encountered by blood-borne metastatic cells. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical entrapment alone, in the absence of tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel walls, is not sufficient for metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvasculature. The in vivo metastatic deposit formation assay was used to assess the number and location of fluorescently labeled tumor cells lodged in selected organs and tissues following intravenous inoculation. We report that a significant fraction of breast and prostate cancer cells escapes arrest in a lung capillary bed and lodges successfully in other organs and tissues. Monoclonal antibodies and carbohydrate-based compounds (anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen antibody, anti-galectin-3 antibody, modified citrus pectin, and lactulosyl-L-leucine, targeting specifically β-galactoside-mediated tumor-endothelial cell adhesive interactions, inhibited by >90% the in vivo formation of breast and prostate carcinoma metastatic deposits in mouse lung and bones. Our results indicate that metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvessels is not a consequence of mechanical trapping, but is supported predominantly by intercellular adhesive interactions mediated by cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen and β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3. Efficient blocking of β-galactoside-mediated adhesion precludes malignant cell lodging in target organs.

  2. Characteristics of the wood adhesion bonding mechanism using hydroxymethyl resorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Gardner; Charles E. Frazier; Alfred W. Christiansen

    2006-01-01

    A recent collaborative effort among the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory, Virginia Tech, and the University of Maine has explored the possible bonding mechanisms contributing to durable wood adhesive bonding using hydroxymethyl resorcinol (HMR) surface treatment. Current adhesive bonding mechanisms include: mechanical interlocking, electronic or electrostatic theory,...

  3. Integrin-mediated signal transduction linked to Ras pathway by GRB2 binding to focal adhesion kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hanks, S K; Hunter, T; van der Geer, P

    The cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (FAK) localizes with surface integrin receptors at sites where cells attach to the extracellular matrix. Increased FAK tyrosine phosphorylation occurs upon integrin engagement with fibronectin. Here we show that adhesion of murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts to fibronectin promotes SH2-domain-mediated association of the GRB2 adaptor protein and the c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) with FAK in vivo, and also results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In v-Src-transformed NIH3T3, the association of v-Src, GRB2 and Sos with FAK is independent of cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GRB2 SH2 domain binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. Mutation of tyrosine residue 925 of FAK (YENV motif) to phenylalanine blocks GRB2 SH2-domain binding to FAK in vitro. Our results show that fibronectin binding to integrins on NIH3T3 fibroblasts promotes c-Src and FAK association and formation of an integrin-activated signalling complex. Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 925 upon fibronectin stimulation creates an SH2-binding site for GRB2 which may link integrin engagement to the activation of the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  4. The emerin-binding transcription factor Lmo7 is regulated by association with p130Cas at focal adhesions

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    Michele A. Wozniak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations in the nuclear inner membrane protein, emerin, cause X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD. X-EDMD is characterized by contractures of major tendons, skeletal muscle weakening and wasting, and cardiac conduction system defects. The transcription factor Lmo7 regulates muscle- and heart-relevant genes and is inhibited by binding to emerin, suggesting Lmo7 misregulation contributes to EDMD disease. Lmo7 associates with cell adhesions and shuttles between the plasma membrane and nucleus, but the regulation and biological consequences of this dual localization were unknown. We report endogenous Lmo7 also associates with focal adhesions in cells, and both co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with p130Cas, a key signaling component of focal adhesions. Lmo7 nuclear localization and transcriptional activity increased significantly in p130Cas-null MEFs, suggesting Lmo7 is negatively regulated by p130Cas-dependent association with focal adhesions. These results support EDMD models in which Lmo7 is a downstream mediator of integrin-dependent signaling that allows tendon cells and muscles to adapt to and withstand mechanical stress.

  5. Focal adhesions, stress fibers and mechanical tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, Keith, E-mail: Keith_Burridge@med.unc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, 12-016 Lineberger, CB#7295, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Guilluy, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.guilluy@univ-nantes.fr [Inserm UMR-S1087, CNRS UMR-C6291, L' institut du Thorax, and Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2016-04-10

    Stress fibers and focal adhesions are complex protein arrays that produce, transmit and sense mechanical tension. Evidence accumulated over many years led to the conclusion that mechanical tension generated within stress fibers contributes to the assembly of both stress fibers themselves and their associated focal adhesions. However, several lines of evidence have recently been presented against this model. Here we discuss the evidence for and against the role of mechanical tension in driving the assembly of these structures. We also consider how their assembly is influenced by the rigidity of the substratum to which cells are adhering. Finally, we discuss the recently identified connections between stress fibers and the nucleus, and the roles that these may play, both in cell migration and regulating nuclear function. - Highlights: • The different types of stress fiber and focal adhesion are described. • We discuss the controversy about tension and assembly of these structures. • We describe the different models used to investigate assembly of these structures. • The influence of substratum rigidity is discussed. • Stress fiber connections to the nucleus are reviewed.

  6. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Sato, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified. (paper)

  7. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tramacere

    Full Text Available The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa. In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  8. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  9. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Shin Nishitani

    Full Text Available A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7 expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  10. Role of surface layer collagen binding protein from indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum 91 in adhesion and its anti-adhesion potential against gut pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Human feacal isolates were ascertain as genus Lactobacillus using specific primer LbLMA1/R16-1 and further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primers Lpl-3/Lpl-2. 25 L. plantarum strains were further assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to immobilized human collagen type-1. Surface proteins were isolated from selected L. plantarum 91(Lp91) strain. The purified collagen binding protein (Cbp) protein was assessed for its anti-adhesion activity against enteric Escherichia coli 0157:H7 pathogen on immobilized collagen. Four L. plantarum strains displayed high degree of hydrophobicity and significant adhesion to collagen. A 72 kDa protein was purified which reduced 59.71% adhesion of E. coli 0157:H7 on immobilized collagen as compared to control well during adhesion assay. Cbp protein is the major influencing factor in inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7 adhesion with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Hydrophobicity and adhesion potential are closely linked attributes precipitating in better colonization potential of the lactobacillus strains. Cbp is substantiated as a crucial surface protein contributing in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. The study can very well be the platform for commercialization of indigenous probiotic strain once their functional attributes are clinically explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The cancer cell adhesion resistome: mechanisms, targeting and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickreuter, Ellen; Cordes, Nils

    2017-06-27

    Cell adhesion-mediated resistance limits the success of cancer therapies and is a great obstacle to overcome in the clinic. Since the 1990s, where it became clear that adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix is an important mediator of therapy resistance, a lot of work has been conducted to understand the fundamental underlying mechanisms and two paradigms were deduced: cell adhesion-mediated radioresistance (CAM-RR) and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Preclinical work has evidently demonstrated that targeting of integrins, adapter proteins and associated kinases comprising the cell adhesion resistome is a promising strategy to sensitize cancer cells to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Moreover, the cell adhesion resistome fundamentally contributes to adaptation mechanisms induced by radiochemotherapy as well as molecular drugs to secure a balanced homeostasis of cancer cells for survival and growth. Intriguingly, this phenomenon provides a basis for synthetic lethal targeted therapies simultaneously administered to standard radiochemotherapy. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the cell adhesion resistome and highlight targeting strategies to override CAM-RR and CAM-DR.

  12. Mechanisms of Probe Tack Adhesion of Model Acrylic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrout, Hamed; Creton, Costantino; Ahn, Dongchan; Shull, Kenneth R.

    1997-03-01

    The adhesion mechanisms of model acrylate homopolymers and copolymers are studied with an instrumented probe tack test. A video camera positioned under the transparent glass substrate records the bonding and debonding process while the force displacement curve is acquired. This setup allows to couple the observation of the cavitation and fibrillation mechanisms, occurring during the debonding of the film from the stainless steel probe, with the mechanical measurement of stress and strain. The transitions between different debonding mechanisms are critically dicussed in terms of the bulk and surface properties of the adhesive and its molecular structure.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus-Fibronectin Interactions with and without Fibronectin-Binding Proteins and Their Role in Adhesion and Desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.P.; Boks, N.P.; Vries, de J.; Kaper, H.J.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion and residence-time-dependent desorption of two Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without fibronectin (Fn) binding proteins (FnBPs) on Fn-coated glass were compared under flow conditions. To obtain a better understanding of the role of Fn-FnBP binding, the adsorption enthalpies of Fn

  14. Staphylococcus aureus-fibronectin interactions with and without fibronectin-binding proteins and their role in adhesion and desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Chun; Boks, Niels P; de Vries, Jacob; Kaper, Harm; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Hendrik; van der Mei, Henderina

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion and residence-time-dependent desorption of two Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without fibronectin (Fn) binding proteins (FnBPs) on Fn-coated glass were compared under flow conditions. To obtain a better understanding of the role of Fn-FnBP binding, the adsorption enthalpies of Fn

  15. Cellular and molecular investigations of the adhesion and mechanics of Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskhan, Asma Omar

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to quantify the adherence and mechanical properties of an array of L. monocytogenes strains and their surface biopolymers. First, eight L. monocytogenes strains that represented the two major lineages of the species were compared for their adherence and mechanics at cellular and molecular levels. Our results indicated that strains of lineage' II were characterized by higher adhesion and Young's moduli, longer and more rigid surface biopolymers and lower specific and nonspecific forces when compared to lineage' I strains. Additionally, adherence and mechanical properties of eight L. monocytogenes epidemic and environmental strains were probed. Our results pointed to that environmental and epidemic strains representative of a given lineage were similar in their adherence and mechanical properties when investigated at a cellular level. However, when the molecular properties of the strains were considered, epidemic strains were characterized by higher specific and nonspecific forces, shorter, denser and more flexible biopolymers compared to environmental strains. Second, the role of environmental pH conditions of growth on the adhesion and mechanics of a pathogenic L. monocytogenes EGDe was investigated. Our results pointed to a transition in the adhesion energies for cells cultured at pH 7. In addition, when the types of molecular forces that govern the adhesion were quantified using Poisson statistical approach and using a new proposed method, specific hydrogen-bond energies dominated the bacterial adhesion process. Such a finding is instrumental to researchers designing methods to control bacterial adhesion. Similarly, bacterial cells underwent a transition in their mechanical properties. We have shown that cells cultured at pH 7 were the most rigid compared to those cultured in lower or higher pH conditions of growth. Due to transitions observed in adherence and mechanics when cells were cultured at pH 7, we hypothesized that

  16. Contact mechanics, friction and adhesion with application to quasicrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Bo; Carbone, Giuseppe; Samoilov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the origin of friction and adhesion between hard solids such as quasicrystals. We emphasize the fundamental role of surface roughness in many contact mechanics problems, in particular for friction and adhesion between solid bodies. The most important property of rough surfaces...

  17. Cyclophilin B binding to platelets supports calcium-dependent adhesion to collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, F; Durieux, S; Denys, A; Carpentier, M; Spik, G

    1999-08-01

    We have recently reported that cyclophilin B (CyPB), a secreted cyclosporine-binding protein, could bind to T lymphocytes through interactions with two types of binding sites. The first ones, referred to as type I, involve interactions with the conserved domain of CyPB and promote the endocytosis of surface-bound ligand, while the second type of binding sites, termed type II, are represented by glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Here, we further investigated the interactions of CyPB with blood cell populations. In addition to lymphocytes, CyPB was found to interact mainly with platelets. The binding is specific, with a dissociation constant (kd) of 9 +/- 3 nmol/L and the number of sites estimated at 960 +/- 60 per cell. Platelet glycosaminoglycans are not required for the interactions, but the binding is dramatically reduced by active cyclosporine derivatives. We then analyzed the biologic effects of CyPB and found a significant increase in platelet adhesion to collagen. Concurrently, CyPB initiates a transmembranous influx of Ca(2+) and induces the phosphorylation of the P-20 light chains of myosin. Taken together, the present results demonstrate for the first time that extracellular CyPB specifically interacts with platelets through a functional receptor related to the lymphocyte type I binding sites and might act by regulating the activity of a receptor-operated membrane Ca(2+) channel.

  18. Water permeability, hybrid layer long-term integrity and reaction mechanism of a two-step adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Geneviève; Dabsie, Firas; Delannée, Mathieu; Akon, Bernadette; Sharrock, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate the reaction mechanism of formation of the hybrid layer by a HEMA-containing self-etch adhesive and to study fluid filtration, contact angle and interfacial ultrastructure by SEM following a 1 year ageing period. Acidic behaviour and chemical interactions between Silorane System Adhesive and dentine were studied by potentiometric titrations, atomic absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity of the adhesive was evaluated using the sessile drop method and dentine permeability by hydraulic conductance. The morphological study of the dentine/adhesive system interface was conducted using SEM. The Silorane System Adhesive behaved as a multi-acid with several different pK(a) values. When the adhesive was in contact with dentine, the acid was progressively consumed and calcium ions were released. The acrylate substituted phosphonate bound strongly to apatite crystals. The polyacrylic acid copolymer reacted with calcium ions and formed an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). Water contact angle measurements showed rapid spreading on primer (angles reached 15 degrees at 30s) and larger contact angles when the Silorane bonding layer was added (from over 60 degrees to 44 degrees ). A thick, homogeneous hybrid layer was observed both initially and after 1 year of ageing, with a corresponding hydraulic conductance of -48.50% initially and -52.07% at 12 months. The Silorane System Adhesive is capable of both dissolving calcium ions and binding to apatite surfaces. The results showed the hydrophilicity of the adhesive, which formed an IPN-like hybrid layer that conserved adequate impermeability over a 1-year period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain Across-Species Scaling of Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey A Gilman

    Full Text Available One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C is the change in extension (Δ relative to a change in force (F while loading a gecko's adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF. Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2-100 g. We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis. We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic "model gecko" system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of

  20. Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain Across-Species Scaling of Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Casey A; Imburgia, Michael J; Bartlett, Michael D; King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2015-01-01

    One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C) is the change in extension (Δ) relative to a change in force (F) while loading a gecko's adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF). Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2-100 g). We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis). We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic "model gecko" system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring) of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of adhesion in

  1. Quantifying cellular mechanics and adhesion in renal tubular injury using single cell force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamantouras, Eleftherios; Hills, Claire E; Squires, Paul E; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2016-05-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis represents the major underlying pathology of diabetic nephropathy where loss of cell-to-cell adhesion is a critical step. To date, research has predominantly focussed on the loss of cell surface molecular binding events that include altered protein ligation. In the current study, atomic force microscopy single cell force spectroscopy (AFM-SCFS) was used to quantify changes in cellular stiffness and cell adhesion in TGF-β1 treated kidney cells of the human proximal tubule (HK2). AFM indentation of TGF-β1 treated HK2 cells showed a significant increase (42%) in the elastic modulus (stiffness) compared to control. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that increased cell stiffness is accompanied by reorganization of the cytoskeleton. The corresponding changes in stiffness, due to F-actin rearrangement, affected the work of detachment by changing the separation distance between two adherent cells. Overall, our novel data quantitatively demonstrate a correlation between cellular elasticity, adhesion and early morphologic/phenotypic changes associated with tubular injury. Diabetes affects many patients worldwide. One of the long term problems is diabetic nephropathy. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy single cell force spectroscopy (AFM- SCFS) to study cellular stiffness and cell adhesion after TGF1 treatment in human proximal tubule kidney cells. The findings would help further understand the overall disease mechanism in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beneficial characteristics of mechanically functional amyloid fibrils evolutionarily preserved in natural adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostaert, Anika S; Jarvis, Suzanne P [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-01-31

    While biological systems are notorious for their complexity, nature sometimes displays mechanisms that are elegant in their simplicity. We have recently identified such a mechanism at work to enhance the mechanical properties of certain natural adhesives. The mechanism is simple because it utilizes a non-specific protein folding and subsequent aggregation process, now thought to be generic for any polypeptide under appropriate conditions. This non-specific folding forms proteinaceous crossed {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils, which are usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show evidence for the beneficial mechanical characteristics of these fibrils discovered in natural adhesives. We suggest that amyloid protein quaternary structures should be considered as a possible generic mechanism for mechanical strength in a range of natural adhesives and other natural materials due to their many beneficial mechanical features and apparent ease of self-assembly.

  3. Beneficial characteristics of mechanically functional amyloid fibrils evolutionarily preserved in natural adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaert, Anika S; Jarvis, Suzanne P

    2007-01-01

    While biological systems are notorious for their complexity, nature sometimes displays mechanisms that are elegant in their simplicity. We have recently identified such a mechanism at work to enhance the mechanical properties of certain natural adhesives. The mechanism is simple because it utilizes a non-specific protein folding and subsequent aggregation process, now thought to be generic for any polypeptide under appropriate conditions. This non-specific folding forms proteinaceous crossed β-sheet amyloid fibrils, which are usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show evidence for the beneficial mechanical characteristics of these fibrils discovered in natural adhesives. We suggest that amyloid protein quaternary structures should be considered as a possible generic mechanism for mechanical strength in a range of natural adhesives and other natural materials due to their many beneficial mechanical features and apparent ease of self-assembly

  4. 25 Years of Tension over Actin Binding to the Cadherin Cell Adhesion Complex: The Devil is in the Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W James; Weis, William I

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 25 years, there has been a conceptual (re)evolution in understanding how the cadherin cell adhesion complex, which contains F-actin-binding proteins, binds to the actin cytoskeleton. There is now good synergy between structural, biochemical, and cell biological results that the cadherin-catenin complex binds to F-actin under force. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of adhesion and subsequent actions of a haematopoietic stem cell line, HPC-7, in the injured murine intestinal microcirculation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean P J Kavanagh

    Full Text Available Although haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs migrate to injured gut, therapeutic success clinically remains poor. This has been partially attributed to limited local HSC recruitment following systemic injection. Identifying site specific adhesive mechanisms underpinning HSC-endothelial interactions may provide important information on how to enhance their recruitment and thus potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. This study determined (i the integrins and inflammatory cyto/chemokines governing HSC adhesion to injured gut and muscle (ii whether pre-treating HSCs with these cyto/chemokines enhanced their adhesion and (iii whether the degree of HSC adhesion influenced their ability to modulate leukocyte recruitment.Adhesion of HPC-7, a murine HSC line, to ischaemia-reperfused (IR injured mouse gut or cremaster muscle was monitored intravitally. Critical adhesion molecules were identified by pre-treating HPC-7 with blocking antibodies to CD18 and CD49d. To identify cyto/chemokines capable of recruiting HPC-7, adhesion was monitored following tissue exposure to TNF-α, IL-1β or CXCL12. The effects of pre-treating HPC-7 with these cyto/chemokines on surface integrin expression/clustering, adhesion to ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and recruitment in vivo was also investigated. Endogenous leukocyte adhesion following HPC-7 injection was again determined intravitally.IR injury increased HPC-7 adhesion in vivo, with intestinal adhesion dependent upon CD18 and muscle adhesion predominantly relying on CD49d. Only CXCL12 pre-treatment enhanced HPC-7 adhesion within injured gut, likely by increasing CD18 binding to ICAM-1 and/or CD18 surface clustering on HPC-7. Leukocyte adhesion was reduced at 4 hours post-reperfusion, but only when local HPC-7 adhesion was enhanced using CXCL12.This data provides evidence that site-specific molecular mechanisms govern HPC-7 adhesion to injured tissue. Importantly, we show that HPC-7 adhesion is a modulatable event in IR injury and

  6. Image Restoration and Analysis of Influenza Virions Binding to Membrane Receptors Reveal Adhesion-Strengthening Kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W Lee

    Full Text Available With the development of single-particle tracking (SPT microscopy and host membrane mimics called supported lipid bilayers (SLBs, stochastic virus-membrane binding interactions can be studied in depth while maintaining control over host receptor type and concentration. However, several experimental design challenges and quantitative image analysis limitations prevent the widespread use of this approach. One main challenge of SPT studies is the low signal-to-noise ratio of SPT videos, which is sometimes inevitable due to small particle sizes, low quantum yield of fluorescent dyes, and photobleaching. These situations could render current particle tracking software to yield biased binding kinetic data caused by intermittent tracking error. Hence, we developed an effective image restoration algorithm for SPT applications called STAWASP that reveals particles with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.2 while preserving particle features. We tested our improvements to the SPT binding assay experiment and imaging procedures by monitoring X31 influenza virus binding to α2,3 sialic acid glycolipids. Our interests lie in how slight changes to the peripheral oligosaccharide structures can affect the binding rate and residence times of viruses. We were able to detect viruses binding weakly to a glycolipid called GM3, which was undetected via assays such as surface plasmon resonance. The binding rate was around 28 folds higher when the virus bound to a different glycolipid called GD1a, which has a sialic acid group extending further away from the bilayer surface than GM3. The improved imaging allowed us to obtain binding residence time distributions that reflect an adhesion-strengthening mechanism via multivalent bonds. We empirically fitted these distributions using a time-dependent unbinding rate parameter, koff, which diverges from standard treatment of koff as a constant. We further explain how to convert these models to fit ensemble-averaged binding data

  7. Mechanism of adhesion of epoxy resin to steel surface; Tekko hyomen to epoxy jushino secchaku mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    In the present research, an adhesion-breaking test and a molecular-scale model experiment were conducted to elucidate the adhesion mechanism of epoxy resin (R) to the cold rolled steel sheet (CR) and galvanized steel sheet (GI). As for the adhesive joint strength in the humid environment, the GI is inferior in residual strength to the CR. The GI joint fracture is an interfacial fracture between the plating and adhesive agent, while the CR joint fracture is a combination of cohesive fracture and interfacial fracture. It is attributable to the difference in adhesion mechanism of R and degradation due to humidity between the surface solely of zinc and iron-containing surface. The adhesion state of R to the zinc oxide and iron oxide was observed by temperature-programed desorption in an ultrahigh vacuum. On each of both oxides, the R chemically adsorbs through bond scission between the phenoxy oxide and carbon. If the water dissociatively adsorbs onto the surface, the bond is destroyed between the zinc oxide and R. The formation of interfacial chemical bond contributes to the adhesion of R to the CR and GI. In case of GI, this band is destroyed by the interfacial infiltration of water, while it is not done in case of CR. The CR excels the GI in adhesive durability. 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Surface science. Adhesion and friction in mesoscopic graphite contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Elad; Lörtscher, Emanuel; Rawlings, Colin; Knoll, Armin W; Duerig, Urs

    2015-05-08

    The weak interlayer binding in two-dimensional layered materials such as graphite gives rise to poorly understood low-friction characteristics. Accurate measurements of the adhesion forces governing the overall mechanical stability have also remained elusive. We report on the direct mechanical measurement of line tension and friction forces acting in sheared mesoscale graphite structures. We show that the friction is fundamentally stochastic in nature and is attributable to the interaction between the incommensurate interface lattices. We also measured an adhesion energy of 0.227 ± 0.005 joules per square meter, in excellent agreement with theoretical models. In addition, bistable all-mechanical memory cell structures and rotational bearings have been realized by exploiting position locking, which is provided solely by the adhesion energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Fibronectin-bound α5β1 integrins sense load and signal to reinforce adhesion in less than a second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeyer, Nico; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Costell, Mercedes; Fässler, Reinhard; Müller, Daniel J.

    2017-12-01

    Integrin-mediated mechanosensing of the extracellular environment allows cells to control adhesion and signalling. Whether cells sense and respond to force immediately upon ligand-binding is unknown. Here, we report that during adhesion initiation, fibroblasts respond to mechanical load by strengthening integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin (FN) in a biphasic manner. In the first phase, which depends on talin and kindlin as well as on the actin nucleators Arp2/3 and mDia, FN-engaged α5β1 integrins activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src in less than 0.5 s to steeply strengthen α5β1- and αV-class integrin-mediated adhesion. When the mechanical load exceeds a certain threshold, fibroblasts decrease adhesion and initiate the second phase, which is characterized by less steep adhesion strengthening. This unique, biphasic cellular adhesion response is mediated by α5β1 integrins, which form catch bonds with FN and signal to FN-binding integrins to reinforce cell adhesion much before visible adhesion clusters are formed.

  10. Construction of multifunctional proteins for tissue engineering: epidermal growth factor with collagen binding and cell adhesive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi Imen, Elloumi; Nakamura, Makiko; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

    2009-01-01

    The development of different techniques based on natural and polymeric scaffolds are useful for the design of different biomimetic materials. These approaches, however, require supplementary steps for the chemical or physical modification of the biomaterial. To avoid such steps, in the present study, we constructed a new multifunctional protein that can be easily immobilized onto hydrophobic surfaces, and at the same time helps enhance specific cell adhesion and proliferation onto collagen substrates. A collagen binding domain was fused to a previously constructed protein, which had an epidermal growth factor fused to a hydrophobic peptide that allows for cell adhesion. The new fusion protein, designated fnCBD-ERE-EGF is produced in Escherichia coli, and its abilities to bind to collagen and promote cell proliferation were investigated. fnCBD-ERE-EGF was shown to keep both collagen binding and cell growth-promoting activities comparable to those of the corresponding unfused proteins. The results obtained in this study also suggest the use of a fnCBD-ERE-EGF as an alternative for the design of multifunctional ECM-bound growth factor based materials.

  11. Mechanism of mast cell adhesion to human tenocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Nassab, Paulina; Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; McCormack, Robert G; Scott, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells and fibroblasts are two key players involved in many fibrotic and degenerative disorders. In the present study we examined the nature of binding interactions between human mast cells and tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes). In the mast cell-fibroblast co-culture model, mast cells were shown to spontaneously bind to tenocytes, in a process that was partially mediated by α5β1 integrin receptors. The same receptors on mast cells significantly mediated binding of these cells to tissue culture plates in the presence of tenocyte-conditioned media; the tenocyte-derived fibronectin in the media was shown to also play a major role in these binding activities. Upon binding to tenocytes or tissue culture plates, mast cells acquired an elongated phenotype, which was dependent on α5β1 integrin and tenocyte fibronectin. Additionally, tenocyte-derived fibronectin significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the adhesion molecule, THY1, by mast cells. Our data suggests that α5β1 integrin mediates binding of mast cells to human tenocyte and to tenocyte-derived ECM proteins, in particular fibronectin. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi

    2006-01-01

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the α v -containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism

  13. The Src SH2 domain interacts dynamically with the focal adhesion kinase binding site as demonstrated by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Hanna E; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between the tyrosine kinases Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key step in signaling processes from focal adhesions. The phosphorylated tyrosine residue 397 in FAK is able to bind the Src SH2 domain. To establish the extent of the FAK binding motif, the binding affinity of the SH2 domain for phosphorylated and unphosphorylated FAK-derived peptides of increasing length was determined and compared with that of the internal Src SH2 binding site. It is shown that the FAK peptides have higher affinity than the internal binding site and that seven negative residues adjacent to the core SH2 binding motif increase the binding constant 30-fold. A rigid spin-label incorporated in the FAK peptides was used to establish on the basis of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement whether the peptide-protein complex is well defined. A large spread of the paramagnetic effects on the surface of the SH2 domain suggests that the peptide-protein complex exhibits dynamics, despite the high affinity of the peptide. The strong electrostatic interaction between the positive side of the SH2 domain and the negative peptide results in a high affinity but may also favor a dynamic interaction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: A quantitative proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-04-14

    Marine bioadhesives have unmatched performances in wet environments, being an inspiration for biomedical applications. In sea urchins specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, mediate reversible adhesion, being composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions, and a motile stem. After tube foot detachment, the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Sea urchin adhesive is composed by proteins and sugars, but so far only one protein, Nectin, was shown to be over-expressed as a transcript in tube feet discs, suggesting its involvement in sea urchin adhesion. Here we use high-resolution quantitative mass-spectrometry to perform the first study combining the analysis of the differential proteome of an adhesive organ, with the proteome of its secreted adhesive. This strategy allowed us to identify 163 highly over-expressed disc proteins, specifically involved in sea urchin reversible adhesion; to find that 70% of the secreted adhesive components fall within five protein groups, involved in exocytosis and microbial protection; and to provide evidences that Nectin is not only highly expressed in tube feet discs but is an actual component of the adhesive. These results give an unprecedented insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin adhesion, and opening new doors to develop wet-reliable, reversible, and ecological biomimetic adhesives. Sea urchins attach strongly but in a reversible manner to substratum, being a valuable source of inspiration for industrial and biomedical applications. Yet, the molecular mechanisms governing reversible adhesion are still poorly studied delaying the engineering of biomimetic adhesives. We used the latest mass spectrometry techniques to analyze the differential proteome of an adhesive organ and the proteome of its secreted adhesive, allowing us to uncover the key players in sea urchin reversible adhesion. We demonstrate, that Nectin, a protein previously pointed out as potentially

  15. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsin, Alexander; Grunze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity

  16. Mechanisms underlying the attachment and spreading of human osteoblasts: from transient interactions to focal adhesions on vitronectin-grafted bioactive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Paola; Scorzeto, Michele; Vassanelli, Stefano; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Ghezzo, Francesca; Messina, Grazia M L; Iucci, Giovanna; Battaglia, Valentina; Sivolella, Stefano; Bagno, Andrea; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Marletta, Giovanni; Dettin, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The features of implant devices and the reactions of bone-derived cells to foreign surfaces determine implant success during osseointegration. In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms underlying osteoblasts attachment and spreading, in this study adhesive peptides containing the fibronectin sequence motif for integrin binding (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD) or mapping the human vitronectin protein (HVP) were grafted on glass and titanium surfaces with or without chemically induced controlled immobilization. As shown by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, human osteoblasts develop adhesion patches only on specifically immobilized peptides. Indeed, cells quickly develop focal adhesions on RGD-grafted surfaces, while HVP peptide promotes filopodia, structures involved in cellular spreading. As indicated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, focal adhesions kinase activation is delayed on HVP peptides with respect to RGD while an osteogenic phenotypic response appears within 24h on osteoblasts cultured on both peptides. Cellular pathways underlying osteoblasts attachment are, however, different. As demonstrated by adhesion blocking assays, integrins are mainly involved in osteoblast adhesion to RGD peptide, while HVP selects osteoblasts for attachment through proteoglycan-mediated interactions. Thus an interfacial layer of an endosseous device grafted with specifically immobilized HVP peptide not only selects the attachment and supports differentiation of osteoblasts but also promotes cellular migration. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycan involvement in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautto, Liisa; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun; Leong, Andrea; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H; Peterson, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    The human eye is constantly bathed by tears, which protect the ocular surface via a variety of mechanisms. The O-linked glycans of tear mucins have long been considered to play a role in binding to pathogens and facilitating their removal in the tear flow. Other conjugated glycans in tears could similarly contribute to pathogen binding and removal but have received less attention. In the work presented here we assessed the contribution of glycan moieties, in particular the protein attached N-glycans, presented by the broad complement of tear proteins to the adhesion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of microbial keratitis and ulceration of the cornea. Our adhesion assay involved immobilising the macromolecular components of tears into the wells of a polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) microtitre filter plate and probing the binding of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Three P. aeruginosa strains were studied: a cytotoxic strain (6206) and an invasive strain (6294) from eye infections, and an invasive strain (320) from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The ocular isolates adhered two to three times more to human tears than to human saliva or porcine gastric mucin, suggesting ocular niche-specific adaptation. Support for the role of the N-glycans carried by human tear proteins in the binding and removal of P. aeruginosa from the eye was shown by: 1) pre-incubation of the bacteria with free component sugars, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialyl lactose (or combination thereof) inhibiting adhesion of all the P. aeruginosa strains to the immobilised tear proteins, with the greatest inhibition of binding of the ocular cytotoxic 6206 and least for the invasive 6294 strain; 2) pre-incubation of the bacteria with N-glycans released from the commercially available human milk lactoferrin, an abundant protein that carries N-linked glycans in tears, inhibiting the adhesion to tears of the ocular bacteria by up to 70%, which was significantly more

  18. Fibrous hyaluronic acid hydrogels that direct MSC chondrogenesis through mechanical and adhesive cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iris L; Khetan, Sudhir; Baker, Brendon M; Chen, Christopher S; Burdick, Jason A

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning has recently gained much interest due to its ability to form scaffolds that mimic the nanofibrous nature of the extracellular matrix, such as the size and depth-dependent alignment of collagen fibers within hyaline cartilage. While much progress has been made in developing bulk, isotropic hydrogels for tissue engineering and understanding how the microenvironment of such scaffolds affects cell response, these effects have not been extensively studied in a nanofibrous system. Here, we show that the mechanics (through intrafiber crosslink density) and adhesivity (through RGD density) of electrospun hyaluronic acid (HA) fibers significantly affect human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) interactions and gene expression. Specifically, hMSC spreading, proliferation, and focal adhesion formation were dependent on RGD density, but not on the range of fiber mechanics investigated. Moreover, traction-mediated fiber displacements generally increased with more adhesive fibers. The expression of chondrogenic markers, unlike trends in cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization, was influenced by both fiber mechanics and adhesivity, in which softer fibers and lower RGD densities generally enhanced chondrogenesis. This work not only reveals concurrent effects of mechanics and adhesivity in a fibrous context, but also highlights fibrous HA hydrogels as a promising scaffold for future cartilage repair strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical stability and adhesion of ceramic coatings deposited on steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, M.; Armann, A.; Moberg, L.; Sibieude, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two sorts of deformation experiment performed on coating/substrate systems. The coating/substrate systems were constituted by coatings of titanium nitride and chromium carbide, deposited in both cases on steel substrates. The formation experiments were cyclic bending tests on macroscopic samples with chromium carbide coatings, and straining experiments performed in a scanning electron microscope on samples with titanium nitride coatings. By the analysis of our experimental results we develop an attempt to correlate the mechanical stability of the systems with the interfacial adhesion, by taking into account the internal residual stresses as an adhesion parameter. For the samples with chromium carbide coatings, the evolution of internal stresses is detected from X-ray diffractometry and discussed in terms of the observed induced damaging mechanisms, in the cyclic tests. For the samples with titanium nitride coatings, we discussed the adhesion from the microstructural observations and from the critical parameters determined during the in-situ straining experiments. (orig.)

  20. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Leech Posterior Suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huashan Feng

    Full Text Available The posterior sucker of a leech represents a fascinating natural system that allows the leech to adhere to different terrains and substrates. However, the mechanism of adhesion and desorption has not yet to be elucidated. In order to better understand how the adhesion is performed, we analyzed the surface structure, adsorption movements, the muscles' distribution, physical characteristics, and the adsorption force of the leech posterior suckers by experimental investigation. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the obtained experimental results. First, the adhesion by the posterior sucker is wet adhesion, because the surface of the posterior sucker is smooth and the sealing can only be achieved on wet surfaces. Second, the deformation texture, consisting of soft collagen tissues and highly ductile epidermal tissues, plays a key role in adhering to rough surfaces. Finally, the adhesion and desorption is achieved by the synergetic operation of six muscle fibers working in different directions. Concrete saying, directional deformation of the collagen/epithermal interface driven by spatially-distributed muscle fibers facilitates the excretion of fluids in the sucker venter, thus allowing liquid sealing. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion strength is directly related to the size of the contact surface which is generated and affected by the sucker deformation. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers potential cues for developing innovative bio-inspired artificial adhesion systems.

  1. The fibronectin-binding integrins alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 differentially modulate RhoA-GTP loading, organization of cell matrix adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danen, Erik H J; Sonneveld, Petra; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels ...... receptors expressed on a cell dictates the ability of fibronectin to stimulate RhoA-mediated organization of cell matrix adhesions.......We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels...... of RhoA activity at later stages of cell spreading, which are associated with a translocation of focal contacts to peripheral cell protrusions, recruitment of tensin into fibrillar adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Expression of an activated mutant of RhoA stimulates alphavbeta3-mediated...

  2. Opto-acoustic microscopy reveals adhesion mechanics of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Maroun; Dehoux, Thomas; Liu, Liwang; Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated GHz-ultrasonic-based technologies have shown the ability to image single cell adhesion and stiffness simultaneously. Using this new modality, we here demonstrate quantitative indicators to investigate contact mechanics and adhesion processes of the cell. We cultured human cells on a rigid substrate, and we used an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope to generate acoustic pulses containing frequencies up to 100 GHz in the substrate. We map the reflection of the acoustic pulses at the cell-substrate interface to obtain images of the acoustic impedance of the cell, Zc, as well as of the stiffness of the interface, K, with 1 μm lateral resolution. Our results show that the standard deviation ΔZc reveals differences between different cell types arising from the multiplicity of local conformations within the nucleus. From the distribution of K-values within the nuclear region, we extract a mean interfacial stiffness, Km, that quantifies the average contact force in areas of the cell displaying weak bonding. By analogy with classical contact mechanics, we also define the ratio of the real to nominal contact areas, Sr/St. We show that Km can be interpreted as a quantitative indicator of passive contact at metal-cell interfaces, while Sr/St is sensitive to active adhesive processes in the nuclear region. The ability to separate the contributions of passive and active adhesion processes should allow gaining insight into cell-substrate interactions, with important applications in tissue engineering.

  3. Structure and function of ameloblastin as an extracellular matrix protein: adhesion, calcium binding, and CD63 interaction in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Luan, Xianghong

    2011-12-01

    The functional significance of extracellular matrix proteins in the life of vertebrates is underscored by a high level of sequence variability in tandem with a substantial degree of conservation in terms of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion interactions. Many extracellular matrix proteins feature multiple adhesion domains for successful attachment to substrates, such as integrin, CD63, and heparin. Here we have used homology and ab initio modeling algorithms to compare mouse ameloblastin (mAMBN) and human ameloblastin (hABMN) isoforms and to analyze their potential for cell adhesion and interaction with other matrix molecules as well as calcium binding. Sequence comparison between mAMBN and hAMBN revealed a 26-amino-acid deletion in mAMBN, corresponding to a helix-loop-helix frameshift. The human AMBN domain (174Q-201G), homologous to the mAMBN 157E-178I helix-loop-helix region, formed a helix-loop motif with an extended loop, suggesting a higher degree of flexibility of hAMBN compared with mAMBN, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation. Heparin-binding domains, CD63-interaction domains, and calcium-binding sites in both hAMBN and mAMBN support the concept of AMBN as an extracellular matrix protein. The high level of conservation between AMBN functional domains related to adhesion and differentiation was remarkable when compared with only 61% amino acid sequence homology. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Sliding-induced non-uniform pre-tension governs robust and reversible adhesion: a revisit of adhesion mechanisms of geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q H; Chen, B; Gao, H J; Zhang, Y W

    2012-02-07

    Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to explain the robust attachment and rapid, controllable detachment of geckos' feet on vertical walls or ceilings, yet, it is still debatable, which one is ultimately responsible for geckos' extraordinary capabilities for robust and reversible adhesion. In this paper, we re-examine some of the key movements of geckos' spatula pads and seta hairs during attachment and detachment, and propose a sequence of simple mechanical steps that would lead to the extraordinary properties of geckos observed in experiments. The central subject under study here is a linear distribution of pre-tension along the spatula pad induced by its sliding motion with respect to a surface. The resulting pre-tension, together with a control of setae's pulling force and angle, not only allows for robust and strong attachment, but also enables rapid and controllable detachment. We perform computational modelling and simulations to validate the following key steps of geckos' adhesion: (i) creation of a linear distribution of pre-tension in spatula through sliding, (ii) operation of an instability envelope controlled by setae's pulling force and angle, (iii) triggering of an adhesion instability leading to partial decohesion along the interface, and (iv) complete detachment of spatula through post-instability peeling. The present work not only reveals novel insights into the adhesion mechanism of geckos, but also develops a powerful numerical simulation approach as well as additional guidelines for bioinspired materials and devices.

  5. Lobule separator prosthesis to prevent adhesion of reconstructed ear lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adhesion is a band of scar tissue that binds two parts of the tissue together, which develops when the body's repair mechanisms respond to any tissue disturbance, such as surgery, infection, trauma, or radiation. Prevention of unwanted scar bands is of utmost importance to develop esthetic and healthy tissue. This article describes a technique to prevent the adhesion of the surgically reconstructed ear lobule with facial skin, using novel lobule separator prosthesis.

  6. Lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cell (EC) is stimulated by phorbol esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskard, D.; Cavender, D.; Ziff, M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on T cell adhesion to EC has been studied. The phorbol esters 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and 4-beta-phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate, but not the biologically inert 4-0-methyl-phorbol-12-13-didecanoate strongly increased the binding of 51 Cr-labeled T cells to human umbilical vein EC monolayers in microtiter wells. Increase in binding was observed at 0.3 ng/ml with maximal enhancement at 50 ng/ml. Both unstimulated and phorbol ester activated T cells displayed a substantially greater binding affinity for EC than for fibroblasts or plastic. Binding enhancement occurred within one minute, with maximal increase after 15 min. Preincubation studies showed that binding enhancement was entirely attributable to an effect on T cells, with no action on EC. Additive binding enhancement was seen when phorbol esters and reagents that increase adhesion by actions on EC (LPS, IL-1 and IFN-γ) were used together. Increase in adhesion of activated T lymphocytes to EC may explain the greater emigration of activated T cells than small resting T cells into inflammatory foci in vivo. The rapid onset of the phorbol effect suggests that this may be an important mechanism for immediate localization of circulating T cells in the cellular immune response, activated, perhaps, at the endothelial blood-tissue interface

  7. Strength and Failure Mechanism of Composite-Steel Adhesive Bond Single Lap Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics- (CFRP- steel single lap joints with regard to tensile loading with two levels of adhesives and four levels of overlap lengths were experimentally analyzed and numerically simulated. Both joint strength and failure mechanism were found to be highly dependent on adhesive type and overlap length. Joints with 7779 structural adhesive were more ductile and produced about 2-3 kN higher failure load than MA830 structural adhesive. Failure load with the two adhesives increased about 147 N and 176 N, respectively, with increasing 1 mm of the overlap length. Cohesion failure was observed in both types of adhesive joints. As the overlap length increased, interface failure appeared solely on the edge of the overlap in 7779 adhesive joints. Finite element analysis (FEA results revealed that peel and shear stress distributions were nonuniform, which were less severe as overlap length increased. Severe stress concentration was observed on the overlap edge, and shear failure of the adhesive was the main reason for the adhesive failure.

  8. Biofilm formation and binding specificities of CFA/I, CFA/II and CS2 adhesions of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Cfae-R181A mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Iram; Sakellaris, Harry

    2012-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are leading causes of childhood diarrhea in developing countries. Adhesion is the first step in pathogenesis of ETEC infections and ETEC pili designated colonization factor antigens (CFAs) are believed to be important in the biofim formation, colonization and host cell adhesions. As a first step, we have determined the biofilm capability of ETEC expressing various types of pili (CFA/I, CfaE-R181A mutant/CfaE tip mutant, CFA/II and CS2). Further, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay were developed to compare the binding specificity of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1 - CS3) and CS2 of ETEC, using extracted pili and piliated bacteria. CFA/II strain (E24377a) as well as extracted pili exhibited significantly higher binding both in biofilm and ELISA assays compared to non piliated wild type E24377a, CFA/I and CS2 strains. This indicates that co-expression of two or more CS2 in same strain is more efficient in increasing adherence. Significant decrease in binding specificity of DH5αF'lacI (q)/∆cotD (CS2) strain and MC4100/pEU2124 (CfaE-R181A) mutant strain indicated the important contribution of tip proteins in adherence assays. However, CS2 tip mutant strain (DH5αF'lacI (q)/pEU5881) showed that this specific residue may not be important as adhesions in these strains. In summary, our data suggest that pili, their minor subunits are important for biofilm formation and adherence mechanisms. Overall, the functional reactivity of strains co expressing various antigens, particularly minor subunit antigen observed in this study suggest that fewer antibodies may be required to elicit immunity to ETEC expressing a wider array of related pili.

  9. Mechanical analysis of CFRP-steel hybrid composites considering the interfacial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinhyeok; Sung, Minchang; Han, Sungjin; Shim, Wonbo; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2017-10-01

    Recently, hybrid composites of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and steel have attracted great attention from automotive engineers due to their high potential for lightweight and multi-materials structures. Interestingly, such hybrid composites have demonstrated increased breaking strain, i.e., the breaking strain of CFRP in the hybrid was larger than that of single CFRP. As such the mechanical properties of hybrid composites could not be calculated using the rule of mixture. In addition, such increase is strongly dependent on the adhesion between CFRP and steel. In this study, a numerical analysis model was built to investigate the mechanism behind increased breaking strain of CFRP in the hybrid structure. Using cohesive zone model, the adhesion between CFRP and steel was effectively considered. The numerical results showed that the simulated mechanical behavior of the hybrid composites did not change as much as observed in experimental as the interfacial adhesion varied. We will investigate this discrepancy in detail and will report new analysis method suitable for CFRP and steel hybrid composites.

  10. Coupling biochemistry and mechanics in cell adhesion: a model for inhomogeneous stress fiber contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, Achim; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2007-01-01

    Biochemistry and mechanics are closely coupled in cell adhesion. At sites of cell-matrix adhesion, mechanical force triggers signaling through the Rho-pathway, which leads to structural reinforcement and increased contractility in the actin cytoskeleton. The resulting force acts back to the sites of adhesion, resulting in a positive feedback loop for mature adhesion. Here, we model this biochemical-mechanical feedback loop for the special case when the actin cytoskeleton is organized in stress fibers, which are contractile bundles of actin filaments. Activation of myosin II molecular motors through the Rho-pathway is described by a system of reaction-diffusion equations, which are coupled into a viscoelastic model for a contractile actin bundle. We find strong spatial gradients in the activation of contractility and in the corresponding deformation pattern of the stress fiber, in good agreement with experimental findings

  11. Mechanics of load-drag-unload contact cleaning of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusomwan, Uyiosa A; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-14

    Contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with mushroom-shaped tips has been demonstrated recently using load-drag-unload cleaning procedures similar to that of the natural animal. However, the underlying mechanics of contact cleaning has yet to be fully understood. In this work, we present a detailed experiment of contact self-cleaning that shows that rolling is the dominant mechanism of cleaning for spherical microparticle contaminants, during the load-drag-unload procedure. We also study the effect of dragging rate and normal load on the particle rolling friction. A model of spherical particle rolling on an elastomer fibrillar adhesive interface is developed and agrees well with the experimental results. This study takes us closer to determining design parameters for achieving self-cleaning fibrillar adhesives.

  12. Receptor type I and type II binding regions and the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase site of cyclophilin B are required for enhancement of T-lymphocyte adhesion to fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Mathieu; Allain, Fabrice; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Durieux, Sandrine; Vanpouille, Christophe; Haendler, Bernard; Spik, Geneviève

    2002-04-23

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB), a cyclosporin A (CsA) binding protein, interacts with two types of binding sites at the surface of T-lymphocytes. The type I sites correspond to functional receptors involved in endocytosis and the type II sites to sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Mutational analysis of CyPB has revealed that W128, which is part of the CsA-binding pocket, is implicated in the binding to the functional type I receptors and that two amino acid clusters located in the N-terminus ensure the binding to GAGs. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity of CyPB is not required for receptor binding. We have recently demonstrated that CyPB enhances adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We intended to identify additional amino acids involved in the binding of CyPB to its functional type I receptor and to determine regions responsible for the stimulation of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte adhesion. We determined that residues R76, G77, K132, D155, and D158 of the calcineurin (CN) interacting region were implicated in the recognition of type I receptor but not of GAGs. We also found that two different changes in the N-terminal extension that abated binding to GAGs prevented adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to coated CyPB, whereas abbrogation of the PPIase activity had no effect. On the other hand, the adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to coated fibronectin was not stimulated by CyPB mutants devoid of either type I receptor or GAGs binding activity or by mutants of the PPIase site. Altogether, the results demonstrate that different regions of CyPB are involved in peripheral blood T-lymphocyte activation and imply a novel important physiological function for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity.

  13. Binding energy and mechanical stability of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotube serpentines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Junhua; Lu, Lixin; Rabczuk, Timon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Geblinger et al. [Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 195 (2008)] and Machado et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 105502 (2013)] reported the experimental and molecular dynamics realization of S-like shaped single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the so-called CNT serpentines. We reported here results from continuum modeling of the binding energy γ between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates as well as the mechanical stability of the CNT serpentine formation. The critical length for the mechanical stability and adhesion of different CNT serpentines are determined in dependence of E i I i , d, and γ, where E i I i and d are the CNT bending stiffness and distance of the CNT translation period. Our continuum model is validated by comparing its solution to full-atom molecular dynamics calculations. The derived analytical solutions are of great importance for understanding the interaction mechanism between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates

  14. Opto-acoustic microscopy reveals adhesion mechanics of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Maroun; Dehoux, Thomas; Liu, Liwang; Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated GHz-ultrasonic-based technologies have shown the ability to image single cell adhesion and stiffness simultaneously. Using this new modality, we here demonstrate quantitative indicators to investigate contact mechanics and adhesion processes of the cell. We cultured human cells on a rigid substrate, and we used an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope to generate acoustic pulses containing frequencies up to 100 GHz in the substrate. We map the reflection of the acoustic pulses at the cell-substrate interface to obtain images of the acoustic impedance of the cell, Z c , as well as of the stiffness of the interface, K, with 1 μm lateral resolution. Our results show that the standard deviation ΔZ c reveals differences between different cell types arising from the multiplicity of local conformations within the nucleus. From the distribution of K-values within the nuclear region, we extract a mean interfacial stiffness, K m , that quantifies the average contact force in areas of the cell displaying weak bonding. By analogy with classical contact mechanics, we also define the ratio of the real to nominal contact areas, S r /S t . We show that K m can be interpreted as a quantitative indicator of passive contact at metal-cell interfaces, while S r /S t is sensitive to active adhesive processes in the nuclear region. The ability to separate the contributions of passive and active adhesion processes should allow gaining insight into cell-substrate interactions, with important applications in tissue engineering.

  15. Hakai reduces cell-substratum adhesion and increases epithelial cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Rigueiro, Teresa; Valladares-Ayerbes, Manuel; Haz-Conde, Mar; Aparicio, Luis A; Figueroa, Angélica

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic regulation of cell-cell adhesions is crucial for developmental processes, including tissue formation, differentiation and motility. Adherens junctions are important components of the junctional complex between cells and are necessary for maintaining cell homeostasis and normal tissue architecture. E-cadherin is the prototype and best-characterized protein member of adherens junctions in mammalian epithelial cells. Regarded as a tumour suppressor, E-cadherin loss is associated with poor prognosis in carcinoma. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Hakai was the first reported posttranslational regulator of the E-cadherin complex. Hakai specifically targetted E-cadherin for internalization and degradation and thereby lowered epithelial cell-cell contact. Hakai was also implicated in controlling proliferation, and promoted cancer-related gene expression by increasing the binding of RNA-binding protein PSF to RNAs encoding oncogenic proteins. We sought to investigate the possible implication of Hakai in cell-substratum adhesions and invasion in epithelial cells. Parental MDCK cells and MDCK cells stably overexpressing Hakai were used to analyse cell-substratum adhesion and invasion capabilities. Western blot and immunofluoresecence analyses were performed to assess the roles of Paxillin, FAK and Vinculin in cell-substratum adhesion. The role of the proteasome in controlling cell-substratum adhesion was studied using two proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and MG132. To study the molecular mechanisms controlling Paxillin expression, MDCK cells expressing E-cadherin shRNA in a tetracycline-inducible manner was employed. Here, we present evidence that implicate Hakai in reducing cell-substratum adhesion and increasing epithelial cell invasion, two hallmark features of cancer progression and metastasis. Paxillin, an important protein component of the cell-matrix adhesion, was completely absent from focal adhesions and focal contacts in Hakai-overexpressing MDCK cells. The

  16. A mucus adhesion promoting protein, MapA, mediates the adhesion of Lactobacillus reuteri to Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Uchimura, Tai; Satoh, Eiichi

    2006-07-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is one of the dominant lactobacilli found in the gastrointestinal tract of various animals. A surface protein of L. reuteri 104R, mucus adhesion promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor of this strain. We investigated the relation between MapA and adhesion of L. reuteri to human intestinal (Caco-2) cells. Quantitative analysis of the adhesion of L. reuteri strains to Caco-2 cells showed that various L. reuteri strains bind not only to mucus but also to intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, purified MapA bound to Caco-2 cells, and this binding inhibited the adhesion of L. reuteri in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these observations, the adhesion of L. reuteri appears due to the binding of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. Further, far-western analysis indicated the existence of multiple receptor-like molecules in Caco-2 cells.

  17. Mechanisms of adhesion in geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Peattie, Anne M

    2002-12-01

    The extraordinary adhesive capabilities of geckos have challenged explanation for millennia, since Aristotle first recorded his observations. We have discovered many of the secrets of gecko adhesion, yet the millions of dry, adhesive setae on the toes of geckos continue to generate puzzling new questions and valuable answers. Each epidermally-derived, keratinous seta ends in hundreds of 200 nm spatular tips, permitting intimate contact with rough and smooth surfaces alike. Prior studies suggested that adhesive force in gecko setae was directly proportional to the water droplet contact angle (θ) , an indicator of the free surface energy of a substrate. In contrast, new theory suggests that adhesion energy between a gecko seta and a surface (W(GS)) is in fact proportional to (1 + cosθ), and only for θ > 60°. A reanalysis of prior data, in combination with our recent study, support the van der Waals hypothesis of gecko adhesion, and contradict surface hydrophobicity as a predictor of adhesion force. Previously, we and our collaborators measured the force production of a single seta. Initial efforts to attach a seta failed because of improper 3D orientation. However, by simulating the dynamics of gecko limbs during climbing (based on force plate data) we discovered that, in single setae, a small normal preload, combined with a 5 μm displacement yielded a very large adhesive force of 200 microNewton (μN), 10 times that predicted by whole-animal measurements. 6.5 million setae of a single tokay gecko attached maximally could generate 130 kg force. This raises the question of how geckos manage to detach their feet in just 15 ms. We discovered that simply increasing the angle that the setal shaft makes with the substrate to 30° causes detachment. Understanding how simultaneous attachment and release of millions of setae are controlled will require an approach that integrates levels ranging from molecules to lizards.

  18. Photocrosslinked nanocomposite hydrogels from PEG and silica nanospheres: Structural, mechanical and cell adhesion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Rivera, Christian; Wu, Chia-Jung; Chan, Burke K.; Schmidt, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    Photopolymerized hydrogels are extensively investigated for various tissue engineering applications, primarily due to their ability to form hydrogels in a minimally invasive manner. Although photocrosslinkable hydrogels provide necessary biological and chemical characteristics to mimic cellular microenvironments, they often lack sufficient mechanical properties. Recently, nanocomposite approaches have demonstrated potential to overcome these deficits by reinforcing the hydrogel network with. In this study, we investigate some physical, chemical, and biological properties of photocrosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-silica hydrogels. The addition of silica nanospheres significantly suppresses the hydration degree of the PEG hydrogels, indicating surface interactions between the silica nanospheres and the polymer chains. No significant change in hydrogel microstructure or average pore size due to the addition of silica nanospheres was observed. However, addition of silica nanospheres significantly increases both the mechanical strength and the toughness of the hydrogel networks. The biological properties of these nanocomposite hydrogels were evaluated by seeding fibroblast cells on the hydrogel surface. While the PEG hydrogels showed minimum cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation, the addition of silica nanospheres enhanced initial cell adhesion, promoted cell spreading and increased the metabolic activity of the cells. Overall, results indicate that the addition of silica nanospheres improves the mechanical stiffness and cell adhesion properties of PEG hydrogels and can be used for biomedical applications that required controlled cell adhesion. - Graphical abstract: Structural, mechanical and biological properties of photocrosslinked nanocomposite hydrogels from silica and poly(ethylene oxide) are investigated. Silica reinforce the hydrogel network and improved mechanical strength. Addition of induces cell adhesion characteristic properties for various

  19. Quantitative measurement of changes in adhesion force involving focal adhesion kinase during cell attachment, spread, and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Su, H.-W.; Lee, C.-C.; Tang, M.-J.; Su, F.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical protein for the regulation of integrin-mediated cellular functions and it can enhance cell motility in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induction. We utilized optical trapping and cytodetachment techniques to measure the adhesion force between pico-Newton and nano-Newton (nN) for quantitatively investigating the effects of FAK on adhesion force during initial binding (5 s), beginning of spreading (30 min), spreadout (12 h), and migration (induced by HGF) in MDCK cells with overexpressed FAK (FAK-WT), FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK), as well as normal control cells. Optical tweezers was used to measure the initial binding force between a trapped cell and glass coverslide or between a trapped bead and a seeded cell. In cytodetachment, the commercial atomic force microscope probe with an appropriate spring constant was used as a cyto-detacher to evaluate the change of adhesion force between different FAK expression levels of cells in spreading, spreadout, and migrating status. The results demonstrated that FAK-WT significantly increased the adhesion forces as compared to FRNK cells throughout all the different stages of cell adhesion. For cells in HGF-induced migration, the adhesion force decreased to almost the same level (∼600 nN) regardless of FAK levels indicating that FAK facilitates cells to undergo migration by reducing the adhesion force. Our results suggest FAK plays a role of enhancing cell adhesive ability in the binding and spreading, but an appropriate level of adhesion force is required for HGF-induced cell migration

  20. Combined modeling of cell aggregation and adhesion mediated by receptor–ligand interactions under shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Du

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell aggregation and adhesion to endothelial cells under shear flow are crucial to many biological processes such as thrombi formation, inflammatory cascade, and tumor metastasis, in which these cellular interactions are mainly mediated by the underlying receptor–ligand bindings. While theoretical modeling of aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics of interacting cells have been well studied separately, how to couple these two processes remains unclear. Here we develop a combined model that couples cellular aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics under shear flow. The impacts of shear rate (or shear stress and molecular binding affinity were elucidated. This study provides a unified model where the action of a fluid flow drives cell aggregation and adhesion under the modulations of the mechanical shear flow and receptor–ligand interaction kinetics. It offers an insight into understanding the relevant biological processes and functions.

  1. Mechanical and Anti-bacterial Properties of Dental Adhesive Containing Diamond Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab Ebadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanoparticle diamond incorporated in an experimental dental adhesive formulation is valuated by examining the mechanical properties and shear bond strength of the system. Diamond nanoparticles were incorporated into the dentin adhesive system in different concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 weight percentages. The suspensions were ultrasonicated to facilitate the nano-particle dispersion in an adhesive solution containing ethanol, bis-GMA, UDMA, TMPTMA, HEMA  and photo-initiator  system. Diametral  tensile  strength, fexural strength, fexural modulus, depth of cure and microshear bond strength of the adhesive system were measured. The adhesive-dentin interface was then observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at a signifcant level of P>0.05. No signifcant difference was observed between the diametral tensile strength of the adhesive. At nanoparticle content level of 0.1% (by wt, however, 85% increase in fexural strength and 13% enhancement in fexural modulus were observed. Microshear bond strength test revealed 70% and 79% improvements of adhesion force in systems containing 0.1% and 0.2% nanoparticles, respectively. Although the neat diamond nanoparticles revealed antibacterial activity, the adhesive containing different percentages of the nano particles did not show any antibacterial activities when tested against, Staphilococcus Aureus, Staphilococcus Streptococcus, Staphilococcus ephidermidis, Saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis bacteries.

  2. Pathogen-Specific Binding Soluble Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam Regulates Phagocytosis via Membrane-Bound Dscam in Crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Jie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam gene is an extraordinary example of diversity that can produce thousands of isoforms and has so far been found only in insects and crustaceans. Cumulative evidence indicates that Dscam may contribute to the mechanistic foundations of specific immune responses in insects. However, the mechanism and functions of Dscam in relation to pathogens and immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the genome organization and alternative Dscam exons from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. These variants, designated EsDscam, potentially produce 30,600 isoforms due to three alternatively spliced immunoglobulin (Ig domains and a transmembrane domain. EsDscam was significantly upregulated after bacterial challenge at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, bacterial specific EsDscam isoforms were found to bind specifically with the original bacteria to facilitate efficient clearance. Furthermore, bacteria-specific binding of soluble EsDscam via the complete Ig1–Ig4 domain significantly enhanced elimination of the original bacteria via phagocytosis by hemocytes; this function was abolished by partial Ig1–Ig4 domain truncation. Further studies showed that knockdown of membrane-bound EsDscam inhibited the ability of EsDscam with the same extracellular region to promote bacterial phagocytosis. Immunocytochemistry indicated colocalization of the soluble and membrane-bound forms of EsDscam at the hemocyte surface. Far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated homotypic interactions between EsDscam isoforms. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble Dscam regulates hemocyte phagocytosis via bacteria-specific binding and specific interactions with membrane-bound Dscam as a phagocytic receptor.

  3. Neural cell adhesion molecule-180-mediated homophilic binding induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) down-regulation and uncouples the inhibitory function of EGFR in neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays important roles in neuronal development, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. NCAM homophilic binding mediates cell adhesion and induces intracellular signals, in which the fibroblast growth factor receptor plays a prominent role. Recent studies...... this NCAM-180-induced EGFR down-regulation involves increased EGFR ubiquitination and lysosomal EGFR degradation. Furthermore, NCAM-180-mediated EGFR down-regulation requires NCAM homophilic binding and interactions of the cytoplasmic domain of NCAM-180 with intracellular interaction partners, but does...

  4. Quantal concept of T-cell activation: adhesion domains as immunological synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackmann, Erich

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion micro-domains (ADs) formed during encounters of lymphocytes with antigen-presenting cells (APC) mediate the genetic expression of quanta of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2). The IL-2-induced activation of IL-2 receptors promotes the stepwise progression of the T-cells through the cell cycle, hence their name, immunological synapses. The ADs form short-lived reaction centres controlling the recruitment of activators of the biochemical pathway (the kinases Lck and ZAP) while preventing the access of inhibitors (phosphatase CD45) through steric repulsion forces. CD45 acts as the generator of adhesion domains and, through its role as a spacer protein, also as the promoter of the reaction. In a second phase of T-cell-APC encounters, long-lived global reaction spaces (called supramolecular activation complexes (SMAC)) form by talin-mediated binding of the T-cell integrin (LFA-1) to the counter-receptor ICAM-1, resulting in the formation of ring-like tight adhesion zones (peripheral SMAC). The ADs move to the centre of the intercellular adhesion zone forming the central SMAC, which serve in the recycling of the AD. We propose that cell stimulation is triggered by integrating the effect evoked by the short-lived adhesion domains. Similar global reaction platforms are formed by killer cells to destruct APC. We present a testable mechanical model showing that global reaction spaces (SMAC or dome-like contacts between cytotoxic cells and APC) form by self-organization through delayed activation of the integrin-binding affinity and stabilization of the adhesion zones by F-actin recruitment. The mechanical stability and the polarization of the adhering T-cells are mediated by microtubule-actin cross-talk.

  5. A legged anchoring mechanism for capsule endoscopes using micropatterned adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Paul; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new concept for an anchoring mechanism to enhance existing capsule endoscopes. The mechanism consists of three actuated legs with compliant feet lined with micropillar adhesives to be pressed into the intestine wall to anchor the device at a fixed location. These adhesive systems are inspired by gecko and beetle foot hairs. Single-leg and full capsule mathematical models of the forces generated by the legs are analyzed to understand capsule performance. Empirical friction models for the interaction of the adhesives with an intestinal substrate were experimentally determined in vitro using dry and oil-coated elastomer micropillar arrays with 140 microm pillar diameter, 105 microm spacing between pillars, and an aspect ratio of 1:1 on fresh porcine small intestine specimens. Capsule prototypes were also tested in a simulated intestine environment and compared with predicted peristaltic loads to assess the viability of the proposed design. The experimental results showed that a deployed 10 gr capsule robot can withstand axial peristaltic loads and anchor reliably when actuation forces are greater than 0.27 N using dry micropillars. Required actuation forces may be reduced significantly by using micropillars coated with a thin silicone oil layer.

  6. Host factors that modify Plasmodium falciparum adhesion to endothelial receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Attaher, Oumar; Swihart, Bruce; Barry, Amadou; Diarra, Bacary S; Kanoute, Moussa B; Cisse, Kadidia B; Dembele, Adama B; Keita, Sekouba; Gamain, Benoît; Gaoussou, Santara; Issiaka, Djibrilla; Dicko, Alassane; Duffy, Patrick E; Fried, Michal

    2017-10-24

    P. falciparum virulence is related to adhesion and sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IE) in deep vascular beds, but the endothelial receptors involved in severe malaria remain unclear. In the largest ever study of clinical isolates, we surveyed adhesion of freshly collected IE from children under 5 years of age in Mali to identify novel vascular receptors, and examined the effects of host age, hemoglobin type, blood group and severe malaria on levels of IE adhesion to a panel of endothelial receptors. Several novel molecules, including integrin α3β1, VE-cadherin, ICAM-2, junctional adhesion molecule-B (JAM-B), laminin, and cellular fibronectin, supported binding of IE from children. Severe malaria was not significantly associated with levels of IE adhesion to any of the 19 receptors. Hemoglobin AC, which reduces severe malaria risk, reduced IE binding to the receptors CD36 and integrin α5β1, while hemoglobin AS did not modify IE adhesion to any receptors. Blood groups A, AB and B significantly reduced IE binding to ICAM-1. Severe malaria risk varies with age, but age significantly impacted the level of IE binding to only a few receptors: IE binding to JAM-B decreased with age, while binding to CD36 and integrin α5β1 significantly increased with age.

  7. A Novel Domain Cassette Identifies Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 Proteins Binding ICAM-1 and Is a Target of Cross-Reactive, Adhesion-Inhibitory Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Jørgensen, Louise; Rask, Thomas Salhøj

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral Plasmodium falciparum malaria is characterized by adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the cerebral microvasculature. This has been linked to parasites expressing the structurally related group A subset of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of IE...... to ICAM-1. The ICAM-1-binding capacity of DC4 was mapped to the C-terminal third of its Duffy-binding-like beta 3 domain. DC4 was the target of broadly cross-reactive and adhesion-inhibitory IgG Abs, and levels of DC4-specific and adhesion-inhibitory IgG increased with age among P. falciparum......-exposed children. Our study challenges earlier conclusions that group A PfEMP1 proteins are not central to ICAM-1-specific IE adhesion and support the feasibility of developing a vaccine preventing cerebral malaria by inhibiting cerebral IE sequestration. The Journal of Immunology, 2013, 190: 240-249....

  8. Design and Optimal Research of a Non-Contact Adjustable Magnetic Adhesion Mechanism for a Wall-Climbing Welding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall-climbing welding robots (WCWRs can replace workers in manufacturing and maintaining large unstructured equipment, such as ships. The adhesion mechanism is the key component of WCWRs. As it is directly related to the robot's ability in relation to adsorbing, moving flexibly and obstacle-passing. In this paper, a novel non-contact adjustably magnetic adhesion mechanism is proposed. The magnet suckers are mounted under the robot's axils and the sucker and wall are in non-contact. In order to pass obstacles, the sucker and the wheel unit can be pulled up and pushed down by a lifting mechanism. The magnetic adhesion force can be adjusted by changing the height of the gap between the sucker and the wall by the lifting mechanism. In order to increase the adhesion force, the value of the sucker's magnetic energy density (MED is maximized by optimizing the magnet sucker's structure parameters with a finite element method. Experiments prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism has enough adhesion force and that the WCWR can complete wall-climbing work within a large unstructured environment.

  9. Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A

    2010-01-01

    The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.

  10. A bio-inspired swellable microneedle adhesive for mechanical interlocking with tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yun; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Park, Kyeng Min; Cho, Woo Kyung; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving significant adhesion to soft tissues while minimizing tissue damage poses a considerable clinical challenge. Chemical-based adhesives require tissue-specific reactive chemistry, typically inducing a significant inflammatory response. Staples are fraught with limitations including high-localized tissue stress and increased risk of infection, and nerve and blood vessel damage. Here inspired by the endoparasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, which swells its proboscis to attach to its host’s intestinal wall, we have developed a biphasic microneedle array that mechanically interlocks with tissue through swellable microneedle tips, achieving ~3.5-fold increase in adhesion strength compared with staples in skin graft fixation, and removal force of ~4.5 N cm-2 from intestinal mucosal tissue. Comprising a poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) swellable tip and non-swellable polystyrene core, conical microneedles penetrate tissue with minimal insertion force and depth, yet high adhesion strength in their swollen state. Uniquely, this design provides universal soft tissue adhesion with minimal damage, less traumatic removal, reduced risk of infection and delivery of bioactive therapeutics.

  11. Large deformation contact mechanics of a pressurized long rectangular membrane. II. Adhesive contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    In part I of this work, we presented a theory for adhesionless contact of a pressurized neo-Hookean plane-strain membrane to a rigid substrate. Here, we extend our theory to include adhesion using a fracture mechanics approach. This theory is used to study contact hysteresis commonly observed in experiments. Detailed analysis is carried out to highlight the differences between frictionless and no-slip contact. Membrane detachment is found to be strongly dependent on adhesion: for low adhesion, the membrane ‘pinches-off’, whereas for large adhesions, it detaches unstably at finite contact (‘pull-off’). Expressions are derived for the critical adhesion needed for pinch-off to pull-off transition. Above a threshold adhesion, the membrane exhibits bistability, two stable states at zero applied pressure. The condition for bistability for both frictionless and no-slip boundary conditions is obtained explicitly. PMID:24353472

  12. Nonimmune immunoglobulin binding and multiple adhesion characterize Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes of placental origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Niloofar; Namusoke, Fatuma; Chêne, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    The harmful effects of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) are engendered by the heavy sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs in the placenta. It is well documented that this process is mediated by interactions of parasite-encoded variant surface antigens and placental receptors...... and adhesion to multiple receptors (IgG/IgM/HA/CSA) rather than the exclusive binding to CSA is a characteristic of fresh Ugandan placental isolates. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the pathogenesis of placental malaria and have implications for the ongoing efforts to develop a global...

  13. Linker length dependent binding of a focal adhesion kinase derived peptide to the Src SH3-SH2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Hanna E; Venkata, Bharat Somireddy; Drijfhout, Jan W; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2011-02-18

    The interaction between a peptide encompassing the SH3 and SH2 binding motifs of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Src SH3-SH2 domains has been investigated with NMR spectroscopy and calorimetry. The binding to both motifs is anti-cooperative. Reduction of the long linker connecting the motifs does not lead to cooperativity. Short linkers that do not allow simultaneous intramolecular binding of the peptide to both motifs cause peptide-mediated dimerisation, even with a linker of only three amino acids. The role of the SH3 binding motif is discussed in view of the independent nature of the SH interactions. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Ras suppressor Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of the adaptor protein PINCH1 and participates in adhesion-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, Gerard W.; Chopp, Treasa; Qi Shengmei; Cutler, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    Rsu-1 is a highly conserved leucine rich repeat (LRR) protein that is expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells. Rsu-1 was identified based on its ability to inhibit transformation by Ras, and previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed cells and human tumor cell lines. Using GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening, the LIM domain protein, PINCH1, was identified as the binding partner of Rsu-1. PINCH1 is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and it has been implicated in the regulation of adhesion functions. Subdomain mapping in yeast revealed that Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of PINCH1, a region not previously identified as a specific binding domain for any other protein. Additional testing demonstrated that PINCH2, which is highly homologous to PINCH1, except in the LIM 5 domain, does not interact with Rsu-1. Glutathione transferase fusion protein binding studies determined that the LRR region of Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1. Transient expression studies using epitope-tagged Rsu-1 and PINCH1 revealed that Rsu-1 co-immunoprecipitated with PINCH1 and colocalized with vinculin at sites of focal adhesions in mammalian cells. In addition, endogenous P33 Rsu-1 from 293T cells co-immunoprecipitated with transiently expressed myc-tagged PINCH1. Furthermore, RNAi-induced reduction in Rsu-1 RNA and protein inhibited cell attachment, and while previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited Jun kinase activation, the depletion of Rsu-1 resulted in activation of Jun and p38 stress kinases. These studies demonstrate that Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1 in mammalian cells and functions, in part, by altering cell adhesion

  15. A Discovery Strategy for Selective Inhibitors of c-Src in Complex with the Focal Adhesion Kinase SH3/SH2-binding Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroco, Jamie A; Baumgartner, Matthew P; Rust, Heather L; Choi, Hwan Geun; Hur, Wooyoung; Gray, Nathanael S; Camacho, Carlos J; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    The c-Src tyrosine kinase co-operates with the focal adhesion kinase to regulate cell adhesion and motility. Focal adhesion kinase engages the regulatory SH3 and SH2 domains of c-Src, resulting in localized kinase activation that contributes to tumor cell metastasis. Using assay conditions where c-Src kinase activity required binding to a tyrosine phosphopeptide based on the focal adhesion kinase SH3-SH2 docking sequence, we screened a kinase-biased library for selective inhibitors of the Src/focal adhesion kinase peptide complex versus c-Src alone. This approach identified an aminopyrimidinyl carbamate compound, WH-4-124-2, with nanomolar inhibitory potency and fivefold selectivity for c-Src when bound to the phospho-focal adhesion kinase peptide. Molecular docking studies indicate that WH-4-124-2 may preferentially inhibit the 'DFG-out' conformation of the kinase active site. These findings suggest that interaction of c-Src with focal adhesion kinase induces a unique kinase domain conformation amenable to selective inhibition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The intermediate filament protein vimentin binds specifically to a recombinant integrin α2/β1 cytoplasmic tail complex and co-localizes with native α2/β1 in endothelial cell focal adhesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreis, Stephanie; Schoenfeld, Hans-Joachim; Melchior, Chantal; Steiner, Beat; Kieffer, Nelly

    2005-01-01

    Integrin receptors are crucial players in cell adhesion and migration. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with their short α and β cytoplasmic tails will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which integrins mediate bi-directional signaling across the plasma membrane. Integrin α2β1 is a major collagen receptor but to date, only few proteins have been shown to interact with the α2 cytoplasmic tail or with the α2β1 complex. In order to identify novel binding partners of a α2β1cytoplasmic domain complex, we have generated recombinant GST-fusion proteins, incorporating the leucine zipper heterodimerization cassettes of Jun and Fos. To ascertain proper functionality of the recombinant proteins, interaction with natural binding partners was tested. GST-α2 and GST-Jun α2 bound His-tagged calreticulin while GST-β1 and GST-Fos β1 proteins bound talin. In screening assays for novel binding partners, the immobilized GST-Jun α2/GST-Fos β1 heterodimeric complex, but not the single subunits, interacted specifically with endothelial cell-derived vimentin. Vimentin, an abundant intermediate filament protein, has previously been shown to co-localize with αvβ3-positive focal contacts. Here, we provide evidence that this interaction also occurs with α2β1-enriched focal adhesions and we further show that this association is lost after prolonged adhesion of endothelial cells to collagen

  17. Use of Adhesion Promoters in Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihlářová Denisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of asphalt binder as a significant binder in road constructions is to permanently bind aggregates of different compositions and grain sizes. The asphalt binder itself does not have suitable adhesiveness, so after a period of time, bare grains can appear. This results in a gradual separation of the grains from an asphalt layer and the presence of potholes in a pavement. Adhesion promoters or adhesive agents are important and proven promoters in practice. They are substances mainly based on the fatty acids of polyamides which should increase the reliability of the asphalt’s binder adhesion to the aggregates, thus increasing the lifetime period of the asphalt mixture as well as its resistance to mechanical strain. The amount of a promoter or agent added to the asphalt mixture is negligible and constitutes about 0.3% of the asphalt’s binder weight. Nevertheless, even this quantity significantly increases the adhesive qualities of an asphalt binder. The article was created in cooperatation with the Slovak University of Technology, in Bratislava, Slovakia, and focuses on proving the new AD2 adhesive additive and comparing it with the Addibit and Wetfix BE promoters used on aggregates from the Skuteč - Litická and Bystřec quarries.

  18. A novel CD44-binding peptide from the pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 hemopexin domain impairs adhesion and migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Bailón, Elvira; Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Albar, Juan Pablo; García-Marco, José A; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2014-05-30

    (pro)MMP-9 binds to CLL cells through the PEX9 domain and contributes to CLL progression. To biochemically characterize this interaction and identify potential therapeutic targets, we prepared GST-PEX9 forms containing structural blades B1B2 or B3B4. We recently described a sequence in blade B4 (P3 sequence) that bound α4β1 integrin and partially impaired cell adhesion and migration. We have now studied the possible contribution of the B1B2 region to cell interaction with PEX9. CLL cells bound to GST-B1B2 and CD44 was the primary receptor. GST-B1B2 inhibited CLL cell migration as effectively as GST-B3B4. Overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the B1B2 region identified the sequence FDAIAEIGNQLYLFKDGKYW, present in B1 and contained in peptide P6, as the most effective site. P6 inhibited cell adhesion to PEX9 in a dose-dependent manner and with an IC50 value of 90 μM. P6 also inhibited cell adhesion to hyaluronan but had no effect on adhesion to VCAM-1 (α4β1 integrin ligand), confirming its specific interaction with CD44. Spatial localization analyses mapped P6 to the central cavity of PEX9, in close proximity to the previously identified P3 sequence. Both P6 and P3 equally impaired cell adhesion to (pro)MMP-9. Moreover, P6 synergistically cooperated with P3, resulting in complete inhibition of CLL cell binding to PEX9, chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration. Thus, P6 is a novel sequence in PEX9 involved in cell-PEX9/(pro)MMP-9 binding by interacting with CD44. Targeting both sites, P6 and P3, should efficiently prevent (pro)MMP-9 binding to CLL cells and its pathological consequences. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Binding affinity and adhesion force of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme with soil particles related to the isoelectric point of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Yeasmin, Shabina; Islam, Md Saiful; Islam, Md Shariful

    2017-07-01

    The binding affinity of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme (OphB) with soil particles in relation to the isoelectric point (pI) was studied. Immobilization of OphB with soil particles was observed by confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The calculated pI of OphB enzyme was increased from 8.69 to 8.89, 9.04 and 9.16 by the single, double and triple mutant of OphB enzyme, respectively through the replacement of negatively charged aspartate with positively charged histidine. Practically, the binding affinity was increased to 5.30%, 11.50%, and 16.80% for single, double and triple mutants, respectively. In contrast, enzyme activity of OphB did not change by the mutation of the enzyme. On the other hand, adhesion forces were gradually increased for wild type OphB enzyme (90 pN) to 96, 100 and 104 pN for single, double and triple mutants of OphB enzyme, respectively. There was an increasing trend of binding affinity and adhesion force by the increase of isoelectric point (pI) of OphB enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shape and Dynamics of Adhesive Cells: Mechanical Response of Open Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuehua; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2017-05-01

    Cell adhesion is an essential biological process. However, previous theoretical and experimental studies ignore a key variable, the changes of cellular volume and pressure, during the dynamic adhesion process. Here, we treat cells as open systems and propose a theoretical framework to investigate how the exchange of water and ions with the environment affects the shape and dynamics of cells adhered between two adhesive surfaces. We show that adherent cells can be either stable (convex or concave) or unstable (spontaneous rupture or collapse) depending on the adhesion energy density, the cell size, the separation of two adhesive surfaces, and the stiffness of the flexible surface. Strikingly, we find that the unstable states vanish when cellular volume and pressure are constant. We further show that the detachments of convex and concave cells are very different. The mechanical response of adherent cells is mainly determined by the competition between the loading rate and the regulation of the cellular volume and pressure. Finally, we show that as an open system the detachment of adherent cells is also significantly influenced by the loading history. Thus, our findings reveal a major difference between living cells and nonliving materials.

  1. New Mechanisms of Mercury Binding to Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, K. L.; Manceau, A.; Gasper, J. D.; Ryan, J. N.; Aiken, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury can be immobilized in the aquatic environment by binding to peat, a solid form of natural organic matter. Binding mechanisms can vary in strength and reversibility, and therefore will control concentrations of bioreactive mercury, may explain rates of mercury methylation, and are important for designing approaches to improve water quality using natural wetlands or engineered phytoremediation schemes. In addition, strong binding between mercury and peat is likely to result in the fixation of mercury that ultimately resides in coal. The mechanisms by which aqueous mercury at low concentrations reacts with both dissolved and solid natural organic matter remain incompletely understood, despite recent efforts. We have identified three distinct binding mechanisms of divalent cationic mercury to solid peats from the Florida Everglades using EXAFS spectroscopic data (FAME beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)) obtained on experimental samples as compared to relevant references including mercury-bearing solids and mercury bound to various organic molecules. The proportions of the three molecular configurations vary with Hg concentration, and two new configurations that involve sulfur ligands occur at Hg concentrations up to about 4000 ppm. The binding mechanism at the lowest experimental Hg concentration (60-80 ppm) elucidates published reports on the inhibition of metacinnabar formation in the presence of Hg-bearing solutions and dissolved natural organic matter, and also, the differences in extent of mercury methylation in distinct areas of the Florida Everglades.

  2. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  3. EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/GLASS BEAD COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; ZHU Jin; LI Ge; ZHU Shanguang

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and glass bead was investigated by scanning electron microscope and parallel-plate rheometer. Effect of interfacial adhesion on the crystallization and mechanical properties of PET/glass bead composites was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter and mechanical testers.The results obtained indicate that the glass bead has a heterogeneous nucleation effect on the PET crystallization. Although better interfacial adhesion is advantageous to the increase of the tensile strength of the composite, yet it is unfavorable to the crystallization of PET. It should be pointed out that the crystallization rate of filled PET is always higher than that of pure PET, regardless of the state of interfacial adhesion.

  4. A peptide derived from a trans-homophilic binding site in neural cell adhesion molecule induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler, Lene B; Soroka, Vladislav; Korshunova, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a key role in neural development, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. The crystal structure of a fragment of NCAM comprising the three N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like modules indicates that the first and second Ig modules bind to each other, t...

  5. Syndecan-4 and integrins: combinatorial signaling in cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1999-01-01

    It is now becoming clear that additional transmembrane components can modify integrin-mediated adhesion. Syndecan-4 is a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan whose external glycosaminoglycan chains can bind extracellular matrix ligands and whose core protein cytoplasmic domain can signal...... during adhesion. Two papers in this issue of JCS demonstrate, through transfection studies, that syndecan-4 plays roles in the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers. Overexpression of syndecan-4 increases focal adhesion formation, whereas a partially truncated core protein that lacks the binding...... site for protein kinase C(&agr;) and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of focal adhesion formation. Focal adhesion induction does not require interaction between heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan and ligand but can occur when non-glycanated core protein...

  6. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  7. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  8. A mechanics approach to the study of pressure sensitive adhesives and human skin for transdermal drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Marc Barry

    Transdermal drug delivery is an alternative approach to the systemic delivery of pharmaceuticals where drugs are administered through the skin and absorbed percutaneously. This method of delivery offers several advantages over more traditional routes; most notably, the avoidance of the fast-pass metabolism of the liver and gut, the ability to offer controlled release rates, and the possibility for novel devices. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are used to bond transdermal drug delivery devices to the skin because of their good initial and long-term adhesion, clean removability, and skin and drug compatibility. However, an understanding of the mechanics of adhesion to the dermal layer, together with quantitative and reproducible test methods for measuring adhesion, have been lacking. This study utilizes a mechanics-based approach to quantify the interfacial adhesion of PSAs bonded to selected substrates, including human dermal tissue. The delamination of PSA layers is associated with cavitation in the PSA followed by the formation of an extensive cohesive zone behind the debond tip. A quantitative metrology was developed to assess the adhesion and delamination of PSAs, such that it could be possible to easily distinguish between the adhesive characteristics of different PSA compositions and to provide a quantitative basis from which the reliability of adhesive layers bonded to substrates could be studied. A mechanics-based model was also developed to predict debonding in terms of the relevant energy dissipation mechanisms active during this process. As failure of transdermal devices may occur cohesively within the PSA layer, adhesively at the interface between the PSA and the skin, or cohesively between the corneocytes that comprise the outermost layer of the skin, it was also necessary to explore the mechanical and fracture properties of human skin. The out-of-plane delamination of corneocytes was studied by determining the strain energy release rate during

  9. Mac-2 binding protein is a cell-adhesive protein of the extracellular matrix which self-assembles into ring-like structures and binds beta1 integrins, collagens and fibronectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, T; Brakebusch, C; Engel, J

    1998-01-01

    Human Mac-2 binding protein (M2BP) was prepared in recombinant form from the culture medium of 293 kidney cells and consisted of a 92 kDa subunit. The protein was obtained in a native state as indicated by CD spectroscopy, demonstrating alpha-helical and beta-type structure, and by protease resis...... in the extracellular matrix of several mouse tissues....... in solid-phase assays to collagens IV, V and VI, fibronectin and nidogen, but not to fibrillar collagens I and III or other basement membrane proteins. The protein also mediated adhesion of cell lines at comparable strength with laminin. Adhesion to M2BP was inhibited by antibodies to integrin beta1...

  10. A density functional theory-based investigation of adhesion of poly(butylene terephthalate) on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Melanie; Roman, Tanglaw; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki; Ando, Naoki; Naritomi, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the adhesion of PBT on aluminum using density functional theory-based calculations. The geometric structure of the PBT monomer is first relaxed then an aluminum atom is connected to the monomer in different orientations. We calculate their total energies and determine the orientation that gives the strongest binding between the monomer and the aluminum atom. Binding is strongest when the Al connects linearly with the carbonyl oxygen in the ester group. We present binding mechanisms and total energy relationships for the different orientations

  11. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor); Stein, Bland A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Society, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers Conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  12. Nature's Mechanisms for Tough, Self-healing Polymers and Polymer Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Spider silk^2 and the natural polymer adhesives in abalone shells^3 and bone^4,5 can give us insights into nature's mechanisms for tough, self-healing polymers and polymer adhesives. The natural polymer adhesives in biomaterials have been optimized by evolution. An optimized polymer adhesive has five characteristics. 1) It holds together the strong elements of the composite. 2) It yields just before the strong elements would otherwise break. 3) It dissipates large amounts of energy as it yields. 4) It self heals after it yields. 5) It takes just a few percent by weight. Both natural polymer adhesives and silk rely on sacrificial bonds and hidden length for toughness and self-healing.^6 A relatively large energy, of order 100eV, is required to stretch a polymer molecule after a weak bond, a sacrificial bond, breaks and liberates hidden length, which was previously hidden, typically in a loop or folded domain, from whatever was stretching the polymer. The bond is called sacrificial if it breaks at forces well below the forces that could otherwise break the polymer backbone, typically greater than 1nN. In many biological cases, the breaking of sacrificial bonds has been found to be reversible, thereby also providing a ``self-healing'' property to the material.^2-4 Individual polymer adhesive molecules based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length can supply forces of order 300pN over distances of 100s of nanometers. Model calculations show that a few percent by weight of adhesives based on these principles could be optimized adhesives for high performance composite materials including nanotube and graphene sheet composites. ^2N. Becker, E. Oroudjev, S. Mutz et al., Nature Materials 2 (4), 278 (2003). ^3B. L. Smith, T. E. Schaffer, M. Viani et al., Nature 399 (6738), 761 (1999). ^4J. B. Thompson, J. H. Kindt, B. Drake et al., Nature 414 (6865), 773 (2001). ^5G. E. Fantner, T. Hassenkam, J. H. Kindt et al., Nature Materials 4, 612 (2005). ^6G. E. Fantner, E. Oroudjev, G

  13. Syndecan proteoglycans and cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Oh, E S; Couchman, J R

    1998-01-01

    It is now becoming clear that a family of transmembrane proteoglycans, the syndecans, have important roles in cell adhesion. They participate through binding of matrix ligand to their glycosaminoglycan chains, clustering, and the induction of signaling cascades to modify the internal microfilament...... organization. Syndecans can modulate the type of adhesive responses induced by other matrix ligand-receptor interactions, such as those involving the integrins, and so contribute to the control of cell morphology, adhesion and migration....

  14. Homophilic and Heterophilic Interactions of Type II Cadherins Identify Specificity Groups Underlying Cell-Adhesive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brasch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Type II cadherins are cell-cell adhesion proteins critical for tissue patterning and neuronal targeting but whose molecular binding code remains poorly understood. Here, we delineate binding preferences for type II cadherin cell-adhesive regions, revealing extensive heterophilic interactions between specific pairs, in addition to homophilic interactions. Three distinct specificity groups emerge from our analysis with members that share highly similar heterophilic binding patterns and favor binding to one another. Structures of adhesive fragments from each specificity group confirm near-identical dimer topology conserved throughout the family, allowing interface residues whose conservation corresponds to specificity preferences to be identified. We show that targeted mutation of these residues converts binding preferences between specificity groups in biophysical and co-culture assays. Our results provide a detailed understanding of the type II cadherin interaction map and a basis for defining their role in tissue patterning and for the emerging importance of their heterophilic interactions in neural connectivity. : Type II cadherins are a family of vertebrate cell adhesion proteins expressed primarily in the CNS. Brasch et al. measure binding between adhesive fragments, revealing homophilic and extensive selective heterophilic binding with specificities that define groups of similar cadherins. Structures reveal common adhesive dimers, with residues governing cell-adhesive specificity. Keywords: cell adhesion, crystal structure, hemophilic specificity, heterophilic specificity, neural patterning, synaptic targeting, cadherin

  15. A sequential binding mechanism in a PDZ domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N; Bach, Anders; Engström, Åke

    2009-01-01

    that ligand binding involves at least a two-step process. By using an ultrarapid continuous-flow mixer, we then detected a hyperbolic dependence of binding rate constants on peptide concentration, corroborating the two-step binding mechanism. Furthermore, we found a similar dependence of the rate constants...

  16. Relationships between surface coverage ratio and powder mechanics of binary adhesive mixtures for dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Jonas; Frenning, Göran; Bramer, Tobias; Thalberg, Kyrre; Alderborn, Göran

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this paper was to study relationships between the content of fine particles and the powder mechanics of binary adhesive mixtures and link these relationships to the blend state. Mixtures with increasing amounts of fine particles (increasing surface coverage ratios (SCR)) were prepared using Lactopress SD as carrier and micro particles of lactose as fines (2.7 µm). Indicators of unsettled bulk density, compressibility and flowability were derived and the blend state was visually examined by imaging. The powder properties studied showed relationships to the SCR characterised by stages. At low SCR, the fine particles predominantly gathered in cavities of the carriers, giving increased bulk density and unchanged or improved flow. Thereafter, increased SCR gave a deposition of particles at the enveloped carrier surface with a gradually more irregular adhesion layer leading to a reduced bulk density and a step-wise reduced flowability. The mechanics of the mixtures at a certain stage were dependent on the structure and the dynamics of the adhesion layer and transitions between the stages were controlled by the evolution of the adhesion layer. It is advisable to use techniques based on different types of flow in order to comprehensively study the mechanics of adhesive mixtures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Akt1 binds focal adhesion kinase via the Akt1 kinase domain independently of the pleckstrin homology domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, M D; Zeng, B; Wang, S

    2015-10-01

    Akt1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are protein kinases that play key roles in normal cell signaling. Individually, aberrant expression of these kinases has been linked to a variety of cancers. Together, Akt1/FAK interactions facilitate cancer metastasis by increasing cell adhesion under conditions of increased extracellular pressure. Pathological and iatrogenic sources of pressure arise from tumor growth against constraining stroma or direct perioperative manipulation. We previously reported that 15 mmHg increased extracellular pressure causes Akt1 to both directly interact with FAK and to phosphorylate and activate it. We investigated the nature of the Akt1/FAK binding by creating truncations of recombinant FAK, conjugated to glutathione S-transferase (GST), to pull down full-length Akt1. Western blots probing for Akt1 showed that FAK/Akt1 binding persisted in FAK truncations consisting of only amino acids 1-126, FAK(NT1), which contains the F1 subdomain of its band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin (FERM) domain. Using FAK(NT1) as bait, we then pulled down truncated versions of recombinant Akt1 conjugated to HA (human influenza hemagglutinin). Probes for GST-FAK(NT1) showed Akt1-FAK binding to occur in the absence of the both the Akt1 (N)-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and its adjacent hinge region. The Akt1 (C)-terminal regulatory domain was equally unnecessary for Akt1/FAK co-immunoprecipitation. Truncations involving the Akt1 catalytic domain showed that the domain by itself was enough to pull down FAK. Additionally, a fragment spanning from the PH domain to half way through the catalytic domain demonstrated increased FAK binding compared to full length Akt1. These results begin to delineate the Akt1/FAK interaction and can be used to manipulate their force-activated signal interactions. Furthermore, the finding that the N-terminal half of the Akt1 catalytic domain binds so strongly to FAK when cleaved from the rest of the protein may suggest a means

  18. Syndecan-4 and focal adhesion function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Two groups have now reported the viability of mice that lack syndecan-4. These mice have wound healing/angiogenesis problems, and fibroblasts from these animals differ in adhesion and migration from normal. This is consistent with recent in vitro data indicating a need for signaling via syndecan-4...... for focal adhesion formation, and reports that overexpression of proteins that bind syndecan-4 can modify cell adhesion and migration....

  19. Adhesion in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesionSurface cleaning as it pertains to adhesionWays to improve adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion  (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesi

  20. Biomimetic approaches to modulate cellular adhesion in biomaterials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmany, Maria B; Van Dyke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins possess critical biological characteristics that provide a platform for cellular adhesion and activation of highly regulated signaling pathways. However, ECM-based biomaterials can have several limitations, including poor mechanical properties and risk of immunogenicity. Synthetic biomaterials alleviate the risks associated with natural biomaterials but often lack the robust biological activity necessary to direct cell function beyond initial adhesion. A thorough understanding of receptor-mediated cellular adhesion to the ECM and subsequent signaling activation has facilitated development of techniques that functionalize inert biomaterials to provide a biologically active surface. Here we review a range of approaches used to modify biomaterial surfaces for optimal receptor-mediated cell interactions, as well as provide insights into specific mechanisms of downstream signaling activation. In addition to a brief overview of integrin receptor-mediated cell function, so-called "biomimetic" techniques reviewed here include (i) surface modification of biomaterials with bioadhesive ECM macromolecules or specific binding motifs, (ii) nanoscale patterning of the materials and (iii) the use of "natural-like" biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  2. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  3. Molecular dynamics investigations on the interfacial energy and adhesive strength between C{sub 60}-filled carbon nanotubes and metallic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Jenn-Kun [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan (China); Huang, Pei-Hsing, E-mail: phh@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wei-Te; Hsu, Yi-Cheng [Department of Biomechatronics Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    The mechanical and adhesive properties of C{sub 60}@(10,10) carbon nanopeapods (CNPs) adhering to gold surfaces are investigated by atomistic simulations. The effects of C{sub 60} fill density, tube length, surrounding temperature, and peeling velocity on the adhesion behavior are studied. Results show that the interfacial binding energy of CNPs (which depends on the C{sub 60} fill density and temperature) is 2.0∼4.4% higher than that of (10,10) single-walled CNTs and 3.4∼4.7% lower than that of (5,5)@(10,10) double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs). Despite their lower interfacial binding energy, CNPs have a higher adhesive strength than that of DWCNTs (1.53 nN vs. 1.4 nN). Distinct from the inner tubes of DWCNTs, which have continuum mechanical properties, the discrete C{sub 60} molecules that fill CNPs exhibit unique composite mechanical properties, with high flexibility and bend-buckling resistance. The bend-buckling forces for CNPs filled with a low/medium fill density of C{sub 60} are approximately constant. When the fill density is 1 C{sub 60} molecule per nanometer length, the bend-buckling force dramatically increases. - Highlights: • Adhesion and peeling behaviors of CNPs on metallic substrates are investigated. • Effects of C60 density, CNP length, temperature, and peeling velocity are studied. • CNPs have a higher adhesive strength than that of DWCNTs (1.53 nN vs. 1.4 nN). • Discrete C{sub 60} molecules that fill CNPs exhibit unique composite mechanical properties.

  4. Insights into adhesion of abalone: A mechanical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Sai; Liu, Jianlin

    2018-01-01

    Many living creatures possess extremely strong capability of adhesion, which has aroused great attention of many scientists and engineers. Based on the self-developed equipment, we measured the normal and shear adhesion strength of the abalone underwater and out of water on different contact surfaces. It is found that the adhesion force of the abalone can amount to 200 or 300 times its body weight. The effects of wettability and roughness of the surface, and the frictional coefficient of mucus on the adhesion strength have been discussed. The theoretical calculation manifests that the normal adhesion force mainly stems from the suction pressure, van der Waals force and capillary force of the pedal, and their limit values are given. These findings may provide some inspirations to engineer new-typed materials, micro-devices, adhesives and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Model of SNARE-mediated membrane adhesion kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Warner

    Full Text Available SNARE proteins are conserved components of the core fusion machinery driving diverse membrane adhesion and fusion processes in the cell. In many cases micron-sized membranes adhere over large areas before fusion. Reconstituted in vitro assays have helped isolate SNARE mechanisms in small membrane adhesion-fusion and are emerging as powerful tools to study large membrane systems by use of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs. Here we model SNARE-mediated adhesion kinetics in SNARE-reconstituted GUV-GUV or GUV-supported bilayer experiments. Adhesion involves many SNAREs whose complexation pulls apposing membranes into contact. The contact region is a tightly bound rapidly expanding patch whose growth velocity v(patch increases with SNARE density Gamma(snare. We find three patch expansion regimes: slow, intermediate, fast. Typical experiments belong to the fast regime where v(patch ~ (Gamma(snare(2/3 depends on SNARE diffusivities and complexation binding constant. The model predicts growth velocities ~10 - 300 microm/s. The patch may provide a close contact region where SNAREs can trigger fusion. Extending the model to a simple description of fusion, a broad distribution of fusion times is predicted. Increasing SNARE density accelerates fusion by boosting the patch growth velocity, thereby providing more complexes to participate in fusion. This quantifies the notion of SNAREs as dual adhesion-fusion agents.

  6. PECVD low-permittivity organosilicate glass coatings: Adhesion, fracture and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Youbo; Xiang Yong [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsui, Ting Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanotechnology Institute, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vlassak, Joost J. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)], E-mail: vlassak@esag.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    The structure and mechanical behavior of organosilicate glass (OSG) coatings have been analyzed as a function of composition and UV irradiation time. A decrease in the OSG carbon content results in more networking bonds and increased connectivity; UV irradiation increases the connectivity by severing weak terminal bonds and stabilizes the network through local bond rearrangements. These structure modifications lead to a significant improvement in the stiffness, hardness, and fracture energy of these coatings. The networking bond density and mean connectivity number correlate well with the mechanical behavior of the OSG films, although network bond density weighted by bond energy is a more appropriate measure. The adhesion energy of silicon nitride to OSG is significantly higher than the cohesive energy of the OSG as a result of interface densification and crack-tip shielding. Subcritical fracture measurements in aqueous environments show that the detrimental effect of water on adhesion surpasses the effect of network connectivity.

  7. Insights on Structural Characteristics and Ligand Binding Mechanisms of CDK2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2 is a crucial regulator of the eukaryotic cell cycle. However it is well established that monomeric CDK2 lacks regulatory activity, which needs to be aroused by its positive regulators, cyclins E and A, or be phosphorylated on the catalytic segment. Interestingly, these activation steps bring some dynamic changes on the 3D-structure of the kinase, especially the activation segment. Until now, in the monomeric CDK2 structure, three binding sites have been reported, including the adenosine triphosphate (ATP binding site (Site I and two non-competitive binding sites (Site II and III. In addition, when the kinase is subjected to the cyclin binding process, the resulting structural changes give rise to a variation of the ATP binding site, thus generating an allosteric binding site (Site IV. All the four sites are demonstrated as being targeted by corresponding inhibitors, as is illustrated by the allosteric binding one which is targeted by inhibitor ANS (fluorophore 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate. In the present work, the binding mechanisms and their fluctuations during the activation process attract our attention. Therefore, we carry out corresponding studies on the structural characterization of CDK2, which are expected to facilitate the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of kinase proteins. Besides, the binding mechanisms of CDK2 with its relevant inhibitors, as well as the changes of binding mechanisms following conformational variations of CDK2, are summarized and compared. The summary of the conformational characteristics and ligand binding mechanisms of CDK2 in the present work will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the bioactivities of CDK2.

  8. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchenbuechler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  9. Effect of small peptide (P-15) on HJMSCs adhesion to hydroxyap-atite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Tong, Xin; Hu, QinGang; Mou, YongBin; Qin, HaiYan

    2016-02-01

    P-15, a synthetic peptide of 15-amino acids, has been tested in clinical trials to enhance cell adhesion and promote osseointe- gration. This feature of P-15 has also inspired the development of designing new bone substitute materials. Despite the increasing applications of P-15 in bone graft alternatives, few studies focus on the mechanism of cell adhesion promoted by P-15 and the mechanical property changes of the cells interacting with P-15. In this article, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) based single cell indentation force spectroscopy to study the impact of P-15 on the stiffness and the adhesion ability of human jaw bone mesenchymal stem cells (HJMSCs) to hydroxyapatite (HA). We found that the stiffness of HJMSCs increases as the concentration of P-15 grows in short culture intervals and that the adhesion forces between HJMSCs and HA particles in both the presence and absence of P-15 are all around 30pN. Moreover, by calculating the binding energy of HJMSCs to HA particles mixed with and without P-15, we proved that P-15 could increase the adhesion energy by nearly four times. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also exploited to study the morphology of HJMSCs cultured in the presence and absence of P-15 on HA disc surface for a short term. Apparent morphological differences were observed between the cells cultured with and without P-15. These results explain the probable underlying adhesion mechanism of HJMSC promoted by P-15 and can serve as the bases for the design of bone graft substitute materials.

  10. Binding equilibrium and kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands in cell adhesion: Insights from computational model systems and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, Thomas R.; Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adhesion of cell membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. In this article, we review recent results from simulations and theory that lead to novel insights on how the binding equilibrium and kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring and molecular properties of the proteins. Simulations and theory both indicate that the binding equilibrium constant K2D and the on- and off-rate constants of anchored receptors and ligands in their 2-dimensional (2D) membrane environment strongly depend on the membrane roughness from thermally excited shape fluctuations on nanoscales. Recent theory corroborated by simulations provides a general relation between K2D and the binding constant K3D of soluble variants of the receptors and ligands that lack the membrane anchors and are free to diffuse in 3 dimensions (3D). PMID:27294442

  11. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannat, Risat A; Hammer, Daniel A; Robbins, Gregory P; Ricart, Brendon G; Dembo, Micah

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micromachined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the K D of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against β 2 -integrins leads to a significant reduction, but not an elimination, of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation.

  12. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannat, Risat A; Hammer, Daniel A [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 240 Skirkanich Hall, 210 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Robbins, Gregory P; Ricart, Brendon G [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 311A Towne Building, 220 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dembo, Micah, E-mail: hammer@seas.upenn.ed [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micromachined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the K{sub D} of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against {beta}{sub 2}-integrins leads to a significant reduction, but not an elimination, of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation.

  13. The effect of interlayer adhesion on the mechanical behaviors of macroscopic graphene oxide papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Liu, Lu-Qi; Zu, Sheng-Zhen; Peng, Ke; Zhou, Ding; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-03-22

    High mechanical performances of macroscopic graphene oxide (GO) papers are attracting great interest owing to their merits of lightweight and multiple functionalities. However, the loading role of individual nanosheets and its effect on the mechanical properties of the macroscopic GO papers are not yet well understood. Herein, we effectively tailored the interlayer adhesions of the GO papers by introducing small molecules, that is, glutaraldehyde (GA) and water molecules, into the gallery regions. With the help of in situ Raman spectroscopy, we compared the varied load-reinforcing roles of nanosheets, and further predicted the Young's moduli of the GO papers. Systematic mechanical tests have proven that the enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength of the GA-treated GO paper arose from the improved load-bearing capability of the nanosheets. On the basis of Raman and macroscopic mechanical tests, the influences of interlayer adhesions on the fracture mechanisms of the strained GO papers were inferred.

  14. Strain-specific diversity of mucus-binding proteins in the adhesion and aggregation properties of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Parker, Mary L; Vibert-Vallet, Amandine; Bongaerts, Roy J; Roos, Stefan; Walter, Jens; Juge, Nathalie

    2010-11-01

    Mucus-binding proteins (MUBs) have been revealed as one of the effector molecules involved in mechanisms of the adherence of lactobacilli to the host; mub, or mub-like, genes are found in all of the six genomes of Lactobacillus reuteri that are available. We recently reported the crystal structure of a Mub repeat from L. reuteri ATCC 53608 (also designated strain 1063), revealing an unexpected recognition of immunoglobulins. In the current study, we explored the diversity of the ATCC 53608 mub gene, and MUB expression levels in a large collection of L. reuteri strains isolated from a range of vertebrate hosts. This analysis revealed that the MUB was only detectable on the cell surface of two highly related isolates when using antibodies that were raised against the protein. There was considerable variation in quantitative mucus adhesion in vitro among L. reuteri strains, and mucus binding showed excellent correlation with the presence of cell-surface ATCC 53608 MUB. ATCC 53608 MUB presence was further highly associated with the autoaggregation of L. reuteri strains in washed cell suspensions, suggesting a novel role of this surface protein in cell aggregation. We also characterized MUB expression in representative L. reuteri strains. This analysis revealed that one derivative of strain 1063 was a spontaneous mutant that expressed a C-terminally truncated version of MUB. This frameshift mutation was caused by the insertion of a duplicated 13 nt sequence at position 4867 nt in the mub gene, producing a truncated MUB also lacking the C-terminal LPxTG region, and thus unable to anchor to the cell wall. This mutant, designated 1063N (mub-4867(i)), displayed low mucus-binding and aggregation capacities, further providing evidence for the contribution of cell-wall-anchored MUB to such phenotypes. In conclusion, this study provided novel information on the functional attributes of MUB in L. reuteri, and further demonstrated that MUB and MUB-like proteins

  15. Hierarchical macroscopic fibrillar adhesives: in situ study of buckling and adhesion mechanisms on wavy substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina T; Kroner, Elmar; Fleck, Norman A; Arzt, Eduard

    2015-10-23

    Nature uses hierarchical fibrillar structures to mediate temporary adhesion to arbitrary substrates. Such structures provide high compliance such that the flat fibril tips can be better positioned with respect to asperities of a wavy rough substrate. We investigated the buckling and adhesion of hierarchically structured adhesives in contact with flat smooth, flat rough and wavy rough substrates. A macroscopic model for the structural adhesive was fabricated by molding polydimethylsiloxane into pillars of diameter in the range of 0.3-4.8 mm, with up to three different hierarchy levels. Both flat-ended and mushroom-shaped hierarchical samples buckled at preloads one quarter that of the single level structures. We explain this behavior by a change in the buckling mode; buckling leads to a loss of contact and diminishes adhesion. Our results indicate that hierarchical structures can have a strong influence on the degree of adhesion on both flat and wavy substrates. Strategies are discussed that achieve highly compliant substrates which adhere to rough substrates.

  16. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-10-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is required for Grb2 binding to FAK. Using a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach, the in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 binding site on FAK (Tyr-925) was detected after fibronectin stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells and was constitutively phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. In vitro, c-Src phosphorylated FAK Tyr-925 in a glutathione S-transferase-FAK C-terminal domain fusion protein, whereas FAK did not. Using epitope-tagged FAK constructs, transiently expressed in human 293 cells, we determined the effect of site-directed mutations on c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK. Mutation of FAK Tyr-925 disrupted Grb2 binding, whereas mutation of the c-Src binding site on FAK (Tyr-397) disrupted both c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK in vivo. These results support a model whereby Src-family PTKs are recruited to FAK and focal adhesions following integrin-induced autophosphorylation and exposure of FAK Tyr-397. Src-family binding and phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 creates a Grb2 SH2-domain binding site and provides a link to the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway. In Src-transformed cells, this pathway may be constitutively activated as a result of FAK Tyr-925 phosphorylation in the absence of integrin stimulation.

  17. The relative influence of metal ion binding sites in the I-like domain and the interface with the hybrid domain on rolling and firm adhesion by integrin alpha4beta7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, JianFeng; Takagi, Junichi; Xie, Can; Xiao, Tsan; Luo, Bing-Hao; Springer, Timothy A

    2004-12-31

    We examined the effect of conformational change at the beta(7) I-like/hybrid domain interface on regulating the transition between rolling and firm adhesion by integrin alpha(4)beta(7). An N-glycosylation site was introduced into the I-like/hybrid domain interface to act as a wedge and to stabilize the open conformation of this interface and hence the open conformation of the alpha(4) beta(7) headpiece. Wild-type alpha(4)beta(7) mediates rolling adhesion in Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) but firm adhesion in Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). Stabilizing the open headpiece resulted in firm adhesion in all divalent cations. The interaction between metal binding sites in the I-like domain and the interface with the hybrid domain was examined in double mutants. Changes at these two sites can either counterbalance one another or be additive, emphasizing mutuality and the importance of multiple interfaces in integrin regulation. A double mutant with counterbalancing deactivating ligand-induced metal ion binding site (LIMBS) and activating wedge mutations could still be activated by Mn(2+), confirming the importance of the adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS) in integrin activation by Mn(2+). Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of headpiece allostery in the conversion of rolling to firm adhesion.

  18. Impact of head and neck radiotherapy on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid Troconis, Cristhian Camilo; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the evidence regarding the impact of head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT) on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems. Searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases using "Radiotherapy", "Composite resins" and "Adhesive systems" as keywords. Selected studies were written in English and assessed the mechanical behavior of composite resins and/or adhesive systems when bonding procedure was conducted before and/or after a maximum radiation dose ≥50Gy, applied under in vitro or in vivo conditions. In total, 115 studies were found but only 16 were included, from which five evaluated the effect of in vitro HNRT on microhardness, wear resistance, diametral tensile and flexural strength of composite resins, showing no significant negative effect in most of reports. Regarding bond strength of adhesive systems, 11 studies were included from which five reported no meaningful negative effect when bonding procedure was conducted before simulated HNRT. Conversely, five studies showed that bond strength diminished when adhesive procedure was done after in vitro radiation therapy. Only two studies about dental adhesion were conducted after in vivo radiotherapy but the results were not conclusive. The mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems seems not to be affected when in vitro HNRT is applied after bonding procedure. However, bond strength of adhesive systems tends to decrease when simulated radiotherapy is used immediately before bonding procedure. Studies assessing dentin bond strength after in-vivo HNRT were limited and controversial. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclophilin B induces integrin-mediated cell adhesion by a mechanism involving CD98-dependent activation of protein kinase C-delta and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Aurélie; Denys, Agnès; Deligny, Audrey; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2008-02-01

    Initially identified as a cyclosporin-A binding protein, cyclophilin B (CyPB) is an inflammatory mediator that induces adhesion of T lymphocytes to fibronectin, by a mechanism dependent on CD147 and alpha 4 beta 1 integrins. Recent findings have suggested that another cell membrane protein, CD98, may cooperate with CD147 to regulate beta1 integrin functions. Based on these functional relationships, we examined the contribution of CD98 in the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB, by utilizing the responsive promonocyte cell line THP-1. We demonstrated that cross-linking CD98 with CD98-AHN-18 antibody mimicked the responses induced by CyPB, i.e. homotypic aggregation, integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin and activation of p44/42 MAPK. Consistent with previous data, immunoprecipitation confirmed the existence of a heterocomplex wherein CD147, CD98 and beta1 integrins were associated. We then demonstrated that CyPB-induced cell adhesion and p44/42 MAPK activation were dependent on the participation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and subsequent activation of protein kinase C-delta. Finally, silencing the expression of CD98 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB-induced cell responses, thus confirming the role of CD98 in the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, our results support a model whereby CyPB induces integrin-mediated adhesion via interaction with a multimolecular unit formed by the association between CD147, CD98 and beta1 integrins.

  20. Competitive endothelial adhesion between Plasmodium falciparum isolates under physiological flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the microvasculature of major organs involves a sequence of events that is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum infections are commonly composed of multiple subpopulations of parasites with varied adhesive properties. A key question is: do these subpopulations compete for adhesion to endothelium? This study investigated whether, in a laboratory model of cytoadherence, there is competition in binding to endothelium between pRBC infected with P. falciparum of variant adhesive phenotypes, particularly under flow conditions. Methods Four different P. falciparum isolates, of known adherence phenotypes, were matched in pairs, mixed in different proportions and allowed to bind to cultured human endothelium. Using in vitro competitive static and flow-based adhesion assays, that allow simultaneous testing of the adhesive properties of two different parasite lines, adherence levels of paired P. falciparum isolates were quantified and analysed using either non-parametric Wilcoxon's paired signed rank test or Student paired test. Results Study findings show that P. falciparum parasite lines show marked differences in the efficiency of adhesion to endothelium. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum variants will compete for adhesion to endothelia and variants can be ranked by their efficiency of binding. These findings suggest that variants from a mixed infection will not show uniform cytoadherence and so may vary in their ability to cause disease.

  1. Photo-crosslinkable cyanoacrylate bioadhesive: shrinkage kinetics, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of adhesives containing TMPTMA and POSS nanostructures as crosslinking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasaban, S; Atai, M; Imani, M; Zandi, M; Shokrgozar, M-A

    2011-11-01

    The study investigates the photo-polymerization shrinkage behavior, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of cyanoacrylate bioadhesives containing POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents. Adhesives containing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and different percentages of POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents were prepared. The 1-phenyl-1, 2-propanedione (PPD) was incorporated as photo-initiator into the adhesive in 1.5, 3, and 4 wt %. The shrinkage strain of the specimens was measured using bonded-disk technique. Shrinkage strain, shrinkage strain rate, maximum and time at maximum shrinkage strain rate were measured and compared. Mechanical properties of the adhesives were also studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Biocompatibility of the adhesives was examined by MTT method. The results showed that shrinkage strain increased with increasing the initiator concentration up to 3 wt % in POSS-containing and 1.5 wt % in TMPTMA-containing specimens and plateaued out at higher concentrations. By increasing the crosslinking agent, shrinkage strain, and shrinkage strain rate increased and the time at maximum shrinkage strain rate decreased. The study indicates that the incorporation of crosslinking agents into the cyanoacrylate adhesives resulted in improved mechanical properties. Preliminary MTT studies also revealed better biocompatibility profile for the adhesives containing crosslinking agents comparing to the neat specimens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Relative Influence of Metal Ion Binding Sites in the I-like Domain and the Interface with the Hybrid Domain on Rolling and Firm Adhesion by Integrin α4β7*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, JianFeng; Takagi, Junichi; Xie, Can; Xiao, Tsan; Luo, Bing-Hao; Springer, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of conformational change at the β7 I-like/hybrid domain interface on regulating the transition between rolling and firm adhesion by integrin α4β7. An N-glycosylation site was introduced into the I-like/hybrid domain interface to act as a wedge and to stabilize the open conformation of this interface and hence the open conformation of the α4β7 headpiece. Wild-type α4β7 mediates rolling adhesion in Ca2+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ but firm adhesion in Mg2+ and Mn2+. Stabilizing the open headpiece resulted in firm adhesion in all divalent cations. The interaction between metal binding sites in the I-like domain and the interface with the hybrid domain was examined in double mutants. Changes at these two sites can either counterbalance one another or be additive, emphasizing mutuality and the importance of multiple interfaces in integrin regulation. A double mutant with counterbalancing deactivating ligand-induced metal ion binding site (LIMBS) and activating wedge mutations could still be activated by Mn2+, confirming the importance of the adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS) in integrin activation by Mn2+. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of headpiece allostery in the conversion of rolling to firm adhesion. PMID:15448154

  3. Adhesive properties of a symbolic bacterium from a wood-boreing marine shipworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, S.H.; Greene, R.V.; Griffin, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    Adhesive properties of cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from a marine shipworm are described. 35 S-labeled cells of the shipworm bacterium bound preferentially Whatman no.1 cellulose filter paper, compared with its binding to other cellulose substrata or substrata lacking cellulose. The ability of the bacteria to bind to Whatman no. 1 filter paper was significantly reduced by glutaraldehyde or heat treatment of cells. Pretreatment of cells with azide, valinomycin, gramicidin-D, bis-hexafluoroacetylacetone (1799), or carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone inhibited adhesion activity. Cells pretreated with pronase or trypsin also exhibited reduced binding activity, but chymotrypsin and peptidase had no effect on adhesion activity. Cellodextrins and methyl cellulose 15 inhibited the adhesion of the shipworm bacteria to filter paper, whereas glucose, cellobiose, and soluble carboxymethyl cellulose had no significant effect. The divalent cation chelators EDTA and EGTA [ethylene hlycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid] had little or no effect on adhesive properties of shipworm bacteria. Also, preabsorbing the substratum with extracellular endoglucanase isolated from the ship worm bacterium or 1% bovine serum albumin had no apparent effect on bacterial binding. Low concentration (0.01%) of sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized a fraction from whole cells, which appeared to be involved in cellular binding activity. After removal of sodium dodecyl, sulfate, several proteins in this fraction associated with intact cells. These cells exhibited up to 50% enhanced binding to filter paper in comparison to cells which had not been exposed to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized fraction

  4. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  5. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  6. Adhesion forces and coaggregation between vaginal staphylococci and lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Younes

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections are the most common ailments afflicting women. They are treated with dated antimicrobials whose efficacy is diminishing. The process of infection involves pathogen adhesion and displacement of indigenous Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus jensenii. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to reestablish lactobacilli in this microbiome through probiotic administration. We hypothesized that lactobacilli displaying strong adhesion forces with pathogens would facilitate coaggregation between the two strains, ultimately explaining the elimination of pathogens seen in vivo. Using atomic force microscopy, we found that adhesion forces between lactobacilli and three virulent toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains, were significantly stronger (2.2-6.4 nN than between staphylococcal pairs (2.2-3.4 nN, especially for the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (4.0-6.4 nN after 120 s of bond-strengthening. Moreover, stronger adhesion forces resulted in significantly larger coaggregates. Adhesion between the bacteria occurred instantly upon contact and matured within one to two minutes, demonstrating the potential for rapid anti-pathogen effects using a probiotic. Coaggregation is one of the recognized mechanisms through which lactobacilli can exert their probiotic effects to create a hostile micro-environment around a pathogen. With antimicrobial options fading, it therewith becomes increasingly important to identify lactobacilli that bind strongly with pathogens.

  7. FAK dimerization controls its kinase-dependent functions at focal adhesions

    KAUST Repository

    Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Gervasi, Nicolas; Arsenieva, Diana A.; Walkiewicz, Katarzyna; Boutterin, Marie Claude; Ortega, Á lvaro Darí o; Leonard, Paul G.; Seantier, Bastien; Gasmi, Laï la; Bouceba, Tahar; Kadaré , Gress; Girault -, Jean Antoine; Arold, Stefan T.

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) controls adhesion-dependent cell motility, survival, and proliferation. FAK has kinase-dependent and kinase-independent functions, both of which play major roles in embryogenesis and tumor invasiveness. The precise mechanisms of FAK activation are not known. Using x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and biochemical and functional analyses, we show that the key step for activation of FAK's kinase-dependent functions-autophosphorylation of tyrosine-397-requires site-specific dimerization of FAK. The dimers form via the association of the N-terminal FERM domain of FAK and are stabilized by an interaction between FERM and the C-terminal FAT domain. FAT binds to a basic motif on FERM that regulates co-activation and nuclear localization. FAK dimerization requires local enrichment, which occurs specifically at focal adhesions. Paxillin plays a dual role, by recruiting FAK to focal adhesions and by reinforcing the FAT:FERM interaction. Our results provide a structural and mechanistic framework to explain how FAK combines multiple stimuli into a site-specific function. The dimer interfaces we describe are promising targets for blocking FAK activation. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. FAK dimerization controls its kinase-dependent functions at focal adhesions

    KAUST Repository

    Brami-Cherrier, Karen

    2014-01-30

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) controls adhesion-dependent cell motility, survival, and proliferation. FAK has kinase-dependent and kinase-independent functions, both of which play major roles in embryogenesis and tumor invasiveness. The precise mechanisms of FAK activation are not known. Using x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and biochemical and functional analyses, we show that the key step for activation of FAK\\'s kinase-dependent functions-autophosphorylation of tyrosine-397-requires site-specific dimerization of FAK. The dimers form via the association of the N-terminal FERM domain of FAK and are stabilized by an interaction between FERM and the C-terminal FAT domain. FAT binds to a basic motif on FERM that regulates co-activation and nuclear localization. FAK dimerization requires local enrichment, which occurs specifically at focal adhesions. Paxillin plays a dual role, by recruiting FAK to focal adhesions and by reinforcing the FAT:FERM interaction. Our results provide a structural and mechanistic framework to explain how FAK combines multiple stimuli into a site-specific function. The dimer interfaces we describe are promising targets for blocking FAK activation. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Bacterial adhesion to host tissues : mechanisms and consequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Michael, 1947

    2002-01-01

    "This book is about the adhesion of bacteria to their human hosts. Although adhesion is essential for maintaining members of the normal microflora in/on their host, it is also the crucial first stage in any infectious disease...

  10. Human plasma fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W B; Grunkemeier, J M; Horbett, T A

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to further investigate the role of fibrinogen adsorbed from plasma in mediating platelet adhesion to polymeric biomaterials. Polystyrene was used as a model hydrophobic polymer; i.e., we expected that the role of fibrinogen in platelet adhesion to polystyrene would be representative of other hydrophobic polymers. Platelet adhesion was compared to both the amount and conformation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The strategy was to compare platelet adhesion to surfaces preadsorbed with normal, afibrinogenemic, and fibrinogen-replenished afibrinogenemic plasmas. Platelet adhesion was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method, which was found to be closely correlated with adhesion of 111In-labeled platelets. Fibrinogen adsorption from afibrinogenemic plasma to polystyrene (Immulon I(R)) was low and polystyrene preadsorbed with fibrinogen-replenished afibrinogenemic plasma. Addition of even small, subnormal concentrations of fibrinogen to afibrinogenemic plasma greatly increased platelet adhesion. In addition, surface-bound fibrinogen's ability to mediate platelet adhesion was different, depending on the plasma concentration from which fibrinogen was adsorbed. These differences correlated with changes in the binding of a monoclonal antibody that binds to the Aalpha chain RGDS (572-575), suggesting alteration in the conformation or orientation of the adsorbed fibrinogen. Platelet adhesion to polystyrene preadsorbed with blood plasma thus appears to be a strongly bivariate function of adsorbed fibrinogen, responsive to both low amounts and altered states of the adsorbed molecule. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Plasmodium Falciparum: Adhesion Phenotype of Infected Erythrocytes Using Classical and Mini-Column Cytoadherence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalantari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes to host cells is an impor­tant trait for parasite survival and has a major role in pathology of malaria disease. Infections with P. falciparum usually consist of several subpopulations of parasites with different adhesive proper­ties. This study aimed to compare relative sizes of various binding subpopulations of different P. falciparum isolates. It also investigated the adhesive phenotype of a laboratory P. falciparum line, A4, using different binding techniques.Methods: Seven different P. falciparum isolates (ITG, A4, 3D7 and four field isolates were cultivated to late trophozoite and schizont and then cytoadherence to cell differentiation 36 (CD36, intercellu­lar cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (V-CAM and E-selectin were examined. The relative binding sizes of parasite subpopulations to human receptors were meas­ured by mini-column cytoadherence method. The adhesion phenotype of P. falciparum-A4 line was evaluated by in vitro static, flow-based and mini-column binding assays.Results: The relative binding size of ITG, A4 and 3D7 clones to a column made with CHO/ICAM-1 was 68%, 54% and 0%, respectively. The relative binding sizes of these lines to CHO/CD36 were 59.7%, 28.7% and 0%, respectively. Different field isolates had variable sizes of respective CD36 and ICAM1-binding subpopulations. A4 line had five different subpopulations each with different binding sizes.Conclusion: This study provided further evidence that P. falciparum isolates have different binding subpopulations sizes in an infection. Furthermore, measurement of ICAM-1 or CD36 binding subpopula­tions may practical to study the cytoadherence phenotypes of P. falciparum field isolates at the molecular level.

  12. Probing multivalency in ligand–receptor-mediated adhesion of soft, biomimetic interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schmidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many biological functions at cell level are mediated by the glycocalyx, a dense carbohydrate-presenting layer. In this layer specific interactions between carbohydrate ligands and protein receptors are formed to control cell–cell recognition, cell adhesion and related processes. The aim of this work is to shed light on the principles of complex formation between surface anchored carbohydrates and receptor surfaces by measuring the specific adhesion between surface bound mannose on a concanavalin A (ConA layer via poly(ethylene glycol-(PEG-based soft colloidal probes (SCPs. Special emphasis is on the dependence of multivalent presentation and density of carbohydrate units on specific adhesion. Consequently, we first present a synthetic strategy that allows for controlled density variation of functional groups on the PEG scaffold using unsaturated carboxylic acids (crotonic acid, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid as grafting units for mannose conjugation. We showed by a range of analytic techniques (ATR–FTIR, Raman microscopy, zeta potential and titration that this synthetic strategy allows for straightforward variation in grafting density and grafting length enabling the controlled presentation of mannose units on the PEG network. Finally we determined the specific adhesion of PEG-network-conjugated mannose units on ConA surfaces as a function of density and grafting type. Remarkably, the results indicated the absence of a molecular-level enhancement of mannose/ConA interaction due to chelate- or subsite-binding. The results seem to support the fact that weak carbohydrate interactions at mechanically flexible interfaces hardly undergo multivalent binding but are simply mediated by the high number of ligand–receptor interactions.

  13. In vitro effects of ATG-Fresenius on immune cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, I; Seitz-Merwald, I; Schleger, S; Kaczmarek, I; Kur, F; Beiras-Fernandez, A

    2013-06-01

    ATG-Fresenius, a purified rabbit polyclonal anti-human T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin is used for induction immunosuppression as well as prevention and treatment of acute rejection episodes among patients receiving solid organ transplants. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of ATG-Fresenius upon immune cell adhesion, which may explain its activity to mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury. Human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from umbilical vein or peripheral blood were incubated 20 to 24 hours before analysis. HUVEC were incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL ATG-Fresenius or reference polyclonal rabbit immunoglobulin G. Analysis of immune cell adhesion to endothelial cells was studied in cocultures of PBMCs and adherent HUVEC. Endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules CD62E and CD54 was determined by flow cytometry. The numbers of T-, B- and natural killer cells attached to HUVEC were also determined by flow cytometry. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. We showed that ATG-Fresenius binds to endothelial cells particularly activated ones expressing increased levels of E-selectin and ICAM-1. The increased binding of ATG-Fresenius to activated endothelial cells was consistent with its known binding to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and selectins. We also showed that ATG-Fresenius inhibited adhesion of prestimulated immune cells to activated endothelium. We demonstrated dose-dependent binding of ATG-Fresenius to activated endothelial cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA-cisplatin binding mechanism peculiarities studied with single molecule stretching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafuli, F. A. P.; Cesconetto, E. C.; Ramos, E. B.; Rocha, M. S.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a method to determine the DNA-cisplatin binding mechanism peculiarities by monitoring the mechanical properties of these complexes. To accomplish this task, we have performed single molecule stretching experiments by using optical tweezers, from which the persistence and contour lengths of the complexes can be promptly measured. The persistence length of the complexes as a function of the drug total concentration in the sample was used to deduce the binding data, from which we show that cisplatin binds cooperatively to the DNA molecule, a point which so far has not been stressed in binding equilibrium studies of this ligand.

  15. Adhesion signaling promotes protease‑driven polyploidization of glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercapide, Javier; Lorico, Aurelio

    2014-11-01

    An increase in ploidy (polyploidization) causes genomic instability in cancer. However, the determinants for the increased DNA content of cancer cells have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether adhesion induces polyploidization in human U87MG glioblastoma cells. For this purpose, we employed expression vectors that reported transcriptional activation by signaling networks implicated in cancer. Signaling activation induced by intercellular integrin binding elicited both extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and Notch target transcription. Upon the prolonged activation of both ERK and Notch target transcription induced by integrin binding to adhesion protein, cell cultures accumulated polyploid cells, as determined by cell DNA content distribution analysis and the quantification of polynucleated cells. This linked the transcriptional activation induced by integrin adhesion to the increased frequency of polyploidization. Accordingly, the inhibition of signaling decreased the extent of polyploidization mediated by protease‑driven intracellular invasion. Therefore, the findings of this study indicate that integrin adhesion induces polyploidization through the stimulation of glioblastoma cell invasiveness.

  16. Fragment-based quantum mechanical calculation of protein-protein binding affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqian; Liu, Jinfeng; Li, Jinjin; He, Xiao

    2018-04-29

    The electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (EE-GMFCC) method has been successfully utilized for efficient linear-scaling quantum mechanical (QM) calculation of protein energies. In this work, we applied the EE-GMFCC method for calculation of binding affinity of Endonuclease colicin-immunity protein complex. The binding free energy changes between the wild-type and mutants of the complex calculated by EE-GMFCC are in good agreement with experimental results. The correlation coefficient (R) between the predicted binding energy changes and experimental values is 0.906 at the B3LYP/6-31G*-D level, based on the snapshot whose binding affinity is closest to the average result from the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculation. The inclusion of the QM effects is important for accurate prediction of protein-protein binding affinities. Moreover, the self-consistent calculation of PB solvation energy is required for accurate calculations of protein-protein binding free energies. This study demonstrates that the EE-GMFCC method is capable of providing reliable prediction of relative binding affinities for protein-protein complexes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Mechanisms of Adhesion of Enteromorpha Clathrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-24

    extracellular polymer was responsible for adhesion to a substrate (21,23,26,39,40,42,59,62,63,74,78, 86,91). The adhesion of Chlorella vulgaris may also depend...marine Chlorella vulgaris to glass. Can. J. Microbiol. 21:1025-1031. 88. Van Baalen, C., 1962. Studies on marine blue-green .4 algae. Bot. Mar. 4:129...also been observed with the unicellular green alga, Chlorella (68). Other negatively charged groups that could be present are phosphatidic groups (46

  18. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. A unique bivalent binding and inhibition mechanism by the yatapoxvirus interleukin 18 binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Krumm

    Full Text Available Interleukin 18 (IL18 is a cytokine that plays an important role in inflammation as well as host defense against microbes. Mammals encode a soluble inhibitor of IL18 termed IL18 binding protein (IL18BP that modulates IL18 activity through a negative feedback mechanism. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL18BPs, which contribute to virulence. Previous structural and functional studies on IL18 and IL18BPs revealed an essential binding hot spot involving a lysine on IL18 and two aromatic residues on IL18BPs. The aromatic residues are conserved among the very diverse mammalian and poxviruses IL18BPs with the notable exception of yatapoxvirus IL18BPs, which lack a critical phenylalanine residue. To understand the mechanism by which yatapoxvirus IL18BPs neutralize IL18, we solved the crystal structure of the Yaba-Like Disease Virus (YLDV IL18BP and IL18 complex at 1.75 Å resolution. YLDV-IL18BP forms a disulfide bonded homo-dimer engaging IL18 in a 2∶2 stoichiometry, in contrast to the 1∶1 complex of ectromelia virus (ECTV IL18BP and IL18. Disruption of the dimer interface resulted in a functional monomer, however with a 3-fold decrease in binding affinity. The overall architecture of the YLDV-IL18BP:IL18 complex is similar to that observed in the ECTV-IL18BP:IL18 complex, despite lacking the critical lysine-phenylalanine interaction. Through structural and mutagenesis studies, contact residues that are unique to the YLDV-IL18BP:IL18 binding interface were identified, including Q67, P116 of YLDV-IL18BP and Y1, S105 and D110 of IL18. Overall, our studies show that YLDV-IL18BP is unique among the diverse family of mammalian and poxvirus IL-18BPs in that it uses a bivalent binding mode and a unique set of interacting residues for binding IL18. However, despite this extensive divergence, YLDV-IL18BP binds to the same surface of IL18 used by other IL18BPs, suggesting that all IL18BPs use a conserved inhibitory mechanism by blocking a putative receptor-binding

  20. Mathematical modeling of cell adhesion in shear flow: application to targeted drug delivery in inflammation and cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sameer; Eggleton, Charles D; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in diverse biological processes that occur in the dynamic setting of the vasculature, including inflammation and cancer metastasis. Although complex, the naturally occurring processes that have evolved to allow for cell adhesion in the vasculature can be exploited to direct drug carriers to targeted cells and tissues. Fluid (blood) flow influences cell adhesion at the mesoscale by affecting the mechanical response of cell membrane, the intercellular contact area and collisional frequency, and at the nanoscale level by modulating the kinetics and mechanics of receptor-ligand interactions. Consequently, elucidating the molecular and biophysical nature of cell adhesion requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the synthesis of fundamentals from hydrodynamic flow, molecular kinetics and cell mechanics with biochemistry/molecular cell biology. To date, significant advances have been made in the identification and characterization of the critical cell adhesion molecules involved in inflammatory disorders, and, to a lesser degree, in cancer metastasis. Experimental work at the nanoscale level to determine the lifetime, interaction distance and strain responses of adhesion receptor-ligand bonds has been spurred by the advent of atomic force microscopy and biomolecular force probes, although our current knowledge in this area is far from complete. Micropipette aspiration assays along with theoretical frameworks have provided vital information on cell mechanics. Progress in each of the aforementioned research areas is key to the development of mathematical models of cell adhesion that incorporate the appropriate biological, kinetic and mechanical parameters that would lead to reliable qualitative and quantitative predictions. These multiscale mathematical models can be employed to predict optimal drug carrier-cell binding through isolated parameter studies and engineering optimization schemes, which will be essential for developing

  1. Design and fabrication of polymer based dry adhesives inspired by the gecko adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kejia

    There has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties: the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this thesis, easy, scalable methods, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques are presented to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provide anisotropic adhesion properties. In the first part of the study, the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function are measured. Consistent with the Peel Zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. Contact mechanics of the synthetic array were highly anisotropic, consistent with the frictional adhesion model and gecko-like. Based on the original design, a new design of gecko-like dry adhesives was developed which showed superior tribological properties and furthermore showed anisotropic adhesive properties without the need for tilt in the structures. These adhesives can be used to reversibly suspend weights from vertical surfaces (e.g., walls) and, for the first time to our knowledge, horizontal surfaces (e.g., ceilings) by simultaneously and judiciously activating anisotropic friction and adhesion forces. Furthermore, adhesion properties between artificial gecko-inspired dry adhesives and rough substrates with varying roughness are studied. The results suggest that both adhesion and friction forces on a rough substrate depends significantly on the

  2. A detailed analysis of adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, I; Zheng, Z W; Johnson, K L

    2004-01-01

    As length scales decrease, adhesive forces become increasingly important. These adhesive forces contribute to the normal load in experiments conducted on thin layered systems using micro-probe instruments such as the surface force apparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). Adhesion between these thin-layer systems was analysed by Sridhar et al (1997 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1710) for the SFA geometry and Johnson and Sridhar (2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 683) for AFM using a numerical SJF (Sridhar-Johnson-Fleck) version of the JKR (Johnson-Kendal-Roberts) theory. In this paper, adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe is investigated using the SJF model in detail. When the substrate is rigid, the non-dimensional pull-off force may differ from the JKR value of -0.5 by as much as 90%. Computations of the contact size at zero load and pull-off force are presented for a range of values of adhesion energy. Finally, empirical relations for the contact load and contact compliance as a function of contact radius were obtained from the numerical data for practical layer-substrate material systems

  3. Exploring the binding sites and binding mechanism for hydrotrope encapsulated griseofulvin drug on γ-tubulin protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhadip Das

    Full Text Available The protein γ-tubulin plays an important role in centrosomal clustering and this makes it an attractive therapeutic target for treating cancers. Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, has recently been used to inhibit proliferation of various types of cancer cells. It can also affect the microtubule dynamics by targeting the γ-tubulin protein. So far, the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are not properly identified and the exact mechanism by which the drug binds to it is an area of intense speculation and research. The aim of the present study is to investigate the binding mechanism and binding affinity of griseofulvin on γ-tubulin protein using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Since the drug griseofulvin is sparingly soluble in water, here we also present a promising approach for formulating and achieving delivery of hydrophobic griseofulvin drug via hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS cluster. We observe that the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are mainly formed by the H8, H9 helices and S7, S8, S14 strands and the hydrophobic interactions between the drug and γ-tubulin protein drive the binding process. The release of the drug griseofulvin from the SCS cluster is confirmed by the coordination number analysis. We also find hydrotrope-induced alteration of the binding sites of γ-tubulin protein and the weakening of the drug-protein interactions.

  4. Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability onMicroarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C.; Asphahani,Fareid; Zhang, Miqin

    2007-01-19

    Single cell patterning holds important implications forbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, medicine, and bioinformatics. Thechallenge for single cell patterning is to produce small islands hostingonly single cells and retaining their viability for a prolonged period oftime. This study demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses acovalently bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern cells withimproved single cell adhesion and prolonged cellular viabilityon goldpatterned SiO2 substrates. The underlying hypothesis is that celladhesion is regulated bythe type, availability, and stability ofeffective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound shortpeptides would promote cell spreading and, thus, single cell adhesion andviability. The effectiveness of this approach and the underlyingmechanism for the increased probability of single cell adhesion andprolonged cell viability by short peptides were studied by comparingcellular behavior of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells on threemodelsurfaces whose gold electrodes were immobilized with fibronectin,physically adsorbed Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, and covalently boundLys-Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, respectively. The surface chemistry and bindingproperties were characterized by reflectance Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy. Both short peptides were superior to fibronectin inproducing adhesion of only single cells, whereas the covalently boundpeptide also reduced apoptosis and necrosisof adhered cells. Controllingcell spreading by peptide binding domains to regulate apoptosis andviability represents a fundamental mechanism in cell-materialsinteraction and provides an effective strategy in engineering arrays ofsingle cells.

  5. Non-Catalytic Functions of Pyk2 and Fyn Regulate Late Stage Adhesion in Human T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2012-01-01

    T cell activation drives the protective immune response against pathogens, but is also critical for the development of pathological diseases in humans. Cytoskeletal changes are required for downstream functions in T cells, including proliferation, cytokine production, migration, spreading, and adhesion. Therefore, investigating the molecular mechanism of cytoskeletal changes is crucial for understanding the induction of T cell-driven immune responses and for developing therapies to treat immune disorders related to aberrant T cell activation. In this study, we used a plate-bound adhesion assay that incorporated near-infrared imaging technology to address how TCR signaling drives human T cell adhesion. Interestingly, we observed that T cells have weak adhesion early after TCR activation and that binding to the plate was significantly enhanced 30–60 minutes after receptor activation. This late stage of adhesion was mediated by actin polymerization but was surprisingly not dependent upon Src family kinase activity. By contrast, the non-catalytic functions of the kinases Fyn and Pyk2 were required for late stage human T cell adhesion. These data reveal a novel TCR-induced signaling pathway that controls cellular adhesion independent of the canonical TCR signaling cascade driven by tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:23300847

  6. Role of Polysaccharides on Mechanical and Adhesion Properties of Flax Fibres in Flax/PLA Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijo Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alkali and enzymatic treatments on flax fibre morphology, mechanical, and adhesion properties was investigated. The multilength scale analysis allows for the correlation of the fibre's morphological changes induced by the treatments with mechanical properties to better explain the adherence properties between flax and PLA. The atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed the removal of primary layers, upon treatments, down to cellulose microfibrils present in the secondary layers. The variation in mechanical properties was found to be dependent, apart from the crystalline content, on interaction between cellulose microfibrils and encrusting polysaccharides, pectins and hemicelluloses, in the secondary layers. Finally, microbond tests between the modified fibres and PLA emphasize the important role of the outer fibre's surface on the overall composite properties. It was observed here that gentle treatments of the fibres, down to the oriented microfibrils, are favourable to a better adherence with a PLA drop. This paper highlights the important role of amorphous polymers, hemicellulose and pectin, in the optimisation of the adhesion and mechanical properties of flax fibres in the biocomposite.

  7. Investigation of surface properties and adhesion mechanisms in the combination of different layers, with the aid of surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olschewski, T.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the investigations was to characterize the surface properties of organic coating materials and inorganic substrates, which are relevant in the context of microstructure technique developments and to obtain information on the adhesion mechanisms present. Two systems were examined which play an important part in micro-technique, i.e.: for the LIGA process and in the development of micro-sensors based on Chem FET's for chemical analysis. For these systems, i.e.: PMMA/TiO 2 and PVC adipate/Si 3 N 4 , adhesion mechanisms were expected, which occur particularly frequently in adhesive combination of polymers with inorganic substrates, i.e.: the mechanical gearing between polymer molecules and substrate structures and a chemical interaction between the boundary layers of the organic top coating and the inorganic substrate. (orig./DG) [de

  8. An Evolutionary-Conserved Function of Mammalian Notch Family Members as Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akihiko; Yoshino, Miya; Hikosaka, Mari; Okuyama, Kazuki; Zhou, Lan; Sakano, Seiji; Yagita, Hideo; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion. PMID:25255288

  9. Adhesion and multi-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Adhesion is a multidisciplinary science relevant to many practical fields. The main application of adhesion is bonding by adhesives. This technique is widely used in the industrial world and more specifically in the advanced technical domains. Adhesion is also involved in multi-component materials such as coatings, multilayer materials, polymer blends, composite materials... The multidisciplinary aspect of adhesion is well demonstrated by considering the wide variety of concepts, models and theories proposed for its description. An example of the adhesion between a fiber and a matrix in a composite material will lead to a general model relating the molecular properties of the interface to its capacity of stress transfer and hence to the macroscopic mechanical properties of the composite. This relationship is valid whatever the fiber (glass, carbon, polymeric) or the polymer matrix (thermoplastics, thermosetting). Any deviation from this model can be attributed to the existence of an interfacial zone or interphase exhibiting properties, mainly mechanical properties, different from the bulk matrix. Two examples are examined: the first one deals with the creation of a trans crystalline interphase in a semi-crystalline thermoplastic matrix and the second one is concerned with the formation of a pseudo glassy interphase in an elastomer matrix. These examples stress the need for complementary approaches in the understanding of adhesion phenomena at different levels of knowledge, from molecular to macroscopic. They also show how important it is to understand the mechanisms of formation of inter phases in order to be able to master the performance of multicomponent materials. (Author)

  10. DC8 and DC13 var genes associated with severe malaria bind avidly to diverse endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Avril

    Full Text Available During blood stage infection, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE bind to host blood vessels. This virulence determinant enables parasites to evade spleen-dependent killing mechanisms, but paradoxically in some cases may reduce parasite fitness by killing the host. Adhesion of infected erythrocytes is mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1, a family of polymorphic adhesion proteins encoded by var genes. Whereas cerebral binding and severe malaria are associated with parasites expressing DC8 and DC13 var genes, relatively little is known about the non-brain endothelial selection on severe malaria adhesive types. In this study, we selected P. falciparum-IEs on diverse endothelial cell types and demonstrate that DC8 and DC13 var genes were consistently among the major var transcripts selected on non-brain endothelial cells (lung, heart, bone marrow. To investigate the molecular basis for this avid endothelial binding activity, recombinant proteins were expressed from the predominant upregulated DC8 transcript, IT4var19. In-depth binding comparisons revealed that multiple extracellular domains from this protein bound brain and non-brain endothelial cells, and individual domains largely did not discriminate between different endothelial cell types. Additionally, we found that recombinant DC8 and DC13 CIDR1 domains exhibited a widespread endothelial binding activity and could compete for DC8-IE binding to brain endothelial cells, suggesting they may bind the same host receptor. Our findings provide new insights into the interaction of severe malaria adhesive types and host blood vessels and support the hypothesis that parasites causing severe malaria express PfEMP1 variants with a superior ability to adhere to diverse endothelial cell types, and may therefore endow these parasites with a growth and transmission advantage.

  11. Predictive modelling of a novel anti-adhesion therapy to combat bacterial colonisation of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul A; Huebinger, Ryan M; Keen, Emma; Krachler, Anne-Marie; Jabbari, Sara

    2018-05-01

    As the development of new classes of antibiotics slows, bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is becoming an increasing problem. A potential solution is to develop treatment strategies with an alternative mode of action. We consider one such strategy: anti-adhesion therapy. Whereas antibiotics act directly upon bacteria, either killing them or inhibiting their growth, anti-adhesion therapy impedes the binding of bacteria to host cells. This prevents bacteria from deploying their arsenal of virulence mechanisms, while simultaneously rendering them more susceptible to natural and artificial clearance. In this paper, we consider a particular form of anti-adhesion therapy, involving biomimetic multivalent adhesion molecule 7 coupled polystyrene microbeads, which competitively inhibit the binding of bacteria to host cells. We develop a mathematical model, formulated as a system of ordinary differential equations, to describe inhibitor treatment of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection in the rat. Benchmarking our model against in vivo data from an ongoing experimental programme, we use the model to explain bacteria population dynamics and to predict the efficacy of a range of treatment strategies, with the aim of improving treatment outcome. The model consists of two physical compartments: the host cells and the exudate. It is found that, when effective in reducing the bacterial burden, inhibitor treatment operates both by preventing bacteria from binding to the host cells and by reducing the flux of daughter cells from the host cells into the exudate. Our model predicts that inhibitor treatment cannot eliminate the bacterial burden when used in isolation; however, when combined with regular or continuous debridement of the exudate, elimination is theoretically possible. Lastly, we present ways to improve therapeutic efficacy, as predicted by our mathematical model.

  12. Connective tissue growth factor inhibits gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis by blocking integrin α3β1-dependent adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung-Nien; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Chia-I; Chang, King-Jeng; Lee, Po-Huang; Lee, Hsinyu

    2015-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays important roles in normal and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CTGF in peritoneal metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism in gastric cancer progression. CTGF expression levels for wild-type and stable overexpression clones were determined by Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Univariate and multivariate analyses, immunohistochemistry, and survival probability analyses were performed on gastric cancer patients. The extracellular matrix components involved in CTGF-regulated adhesion were determined. Recombinant CTGF was added to cells or coinoculated with gastric cancer cells into mice to evaluate its therapeutic potential. CTGF overexpression and treatment with the recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell adhesion. In vivo peritoneal metastasis demonstrated that CTGF-stable transfectants markedly decreased the number and size of tumor nodules in the mesentery. Statistical analysis of gastric cancer patient data showed that patients expressing higher CTGF levels had earlier TNM staging and a higher survival probability after the surgery. Integrin α3β1 was the cell adhesion molecule mediating gastric cancer cell adhesion to laminin, and blocking of integrin α3β1 prevented gastric cancer cell adhesion to recombinant CTGF. Coimmunoprecipitation results indicated that CTGF binds to integrin α3. Coinoculation of recombinant CTGF and gastric cancer cell lines in mice showed effective inhibition of peritoneal dissemination. Our results suggested that gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis is mediated through integrin α3β1 binding to laminin, and CTGF effectively blocks the interaction by binding to integrin α3β1, thus demonstrating the therapeutic potential of recombinant CTGF in gastric cancer patients.

  13. Tissue organization by cadherin adhesion molecules: dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms of morphogenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Carien M.; Leckband, Deborah; Yap, Alpha S.

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cadherin-based tissue morphogenesis. Tissue physiology is profoundly influenced by the distinctive organizations of cells in organs and tissues. In metazoa, adhesion receptors of the classical cadherin family play important roles in establishing and maintaining such tissue organization. Indeed, it is apparent that cadherins participate in a range of morphogenetic events that range from support of tissue integrity to dynamic cellular rearrangements. A comprehensive understanding of cadherin-based morphogenesis must then define the molecular and cellular mechanisms that support these distinct cadherin biologies. Here we focus on four key mechanistic elements: the molecular basis for adhesion through cadherin ectodomains; the regulation of cadherin expression at the cell surface; cooperation between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulation by cell signaling. We discuss current progress and outline issues for further research in these fields. PMID:21527735

  14. Gigaseal Mechanics: Creep of the Gigaseal under the Action of Pressure, Adhesion, and Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Patch clamping depends on a tight seal between the cell membrane and the glass of the pipet. Why does the seal have such high electric resistance? Why does the patch adhere so strongly to the glass? Even under the action of strong hydrostatic, adhesion, and electrical forces, it creeps at a very low velocity. To explore possible explanations, we examined two physical models for the structure of the seal zone and the adhesion forces and two respective mechanisms of patch creep and electric conductivity. There is saline between the membrane and glass in the seal, and the flow of this solution under hydrostatic pressure or electroosmosis should drag a patch. There is a second possibility: the lipid core of the membrane is liquid and should be able to flow, with the inner monolayer slipping over the outer one. Both mechanisms predict the creep velocity as a function of the properties of the seal and the membrane, the pipet geometry, and the driving force. These model predictions are compared with experimental data for azolectin liposomes with added cholesterol or proteins. It turns out that to obtain experimentally observed creep velocities, a simple viscous flow in the seal zone requires ∼10 Pa·s viscosity; it is unclear what structure might provide that because that viscosity alone severely constrains the electric resistance of the gigaseal. Possibly, it is the fluid bilayer that allows the motion. The two models provide an estimate of the adhesion energy of the membrane to the glass and membrane’s electric characteristics through the comparison between the velocities of pressure-, adhesion-, and voltage-driven creep. PMID:25295693

  15. Cell adhesion monitoring of human induced pluripotent stem cell based on intrinsic molecular charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Haruyo; Sakata, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    We have shown a simple way for real-time, quantitative, non-invasive, and non-label monitoring of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell adhesion by use of a biologically coupled-gate field effect transistor (bio-FET), which is based on detection of molecular charges at cell membrane. The electrical behavior revealed quantitatively the electrical contacts of integrin-receptor at the cell membrane with RGDS peptide immobilized at the gate sensing surface, because that binding site was based on cationic α chain of integrin. The platform based on the bio-FET would provide substantial information to evaluate cell/material bio-interface and elucidate biding mechanism of adhesion molecules, which could not be interpreted by microscopic observation.

  16. Role of seta angle and flexibility in the gecko adhesion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Congcong; Alex Greaney, P.

    2014-08-01

    A model is developed to describe the reversible nature of gecko dry adhesion. The central aspect of this model is that the seta can be easily peeled away from the contacting surface by a small moment at the contact tip. It is shown that this contact condition is very sensitive, but can result in robust adhesion if individual setae are canted and highly flexible. In analogy to the "cone of friction," we consider the "adhesion region"—the domain of normal and tangential forces that maintain adhesion. Results demonstrate that this adhesion region is highly asymmetric enabling the gecko to adhere under a variety of loading conditions associated with scuttling horizontally, vertically, and inverted. Moreover, under each of these conditions, there is a low energy path to de-adhesion. In this model, obliquely canted seta (as possessed by geckos) rather than vertically aligned fibers (common in synthetic dry adhesive) provides the most robust adhesion.

  17. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Baranowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract.

  19. Contributions of chemical and mechanical surface properties and temperature effect on the adhesion at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awada, Houssein; Noel, Olivier; Hamieh, Tayssir; Kazzi, Yolla; Brogly, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool to investigate surface properties of model systems at the nanoscale. However, to get semi-quantitative and reproducible data with the AFM, it is necessary to establish a rigorous experimental procedure. In particular, a systematic calibration procedure of AFM measurements is necessary before producing reliable semi-quantitative data. In this paper, we study the contributions of the chemical and mechanical surface properties or the temperature influence on the adhesion energy at a local scale. To reach this objective, two types of model systems were considered. The first one is composed of rigid substrates (silicon wafers or AFM tips covered with gold) which were chemically modified by molecular self-assembling monolayers to display different surface properties (methyl and hydroxyl functional groups). The second one consists of model polymer networks (cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane) of variable mechanical properties. The comparison of the force curves obtained from the two model systems shows that the viscoelastic contributions dominate for the adhesion with polymer substrates, whereas, chemical contributions dominate for the rigid substrates. The temperature effect on the adhesion energy is also reported. Finally, we propose a relation for the adhesion energy at the nanoscale. This relation relates the energy measured during the separation of the contact to the three parameters: the surface properties of the polymer, the energy dissipated within the contact zone and the temperature.

  20. Mechanical coupling between transsynaptic N-cadherin adhesions and actin flow stabilizes dendritic spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazeau, Anaël; Garcia, Mikael; Czöndör, Katalin; Perrais, David; Tessier, Béatrice; Giannone, Grégory; Thoumine, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of neuronal dendritic spines is a critical indicator of synaptic function. It is regulated by several factors, including the intracellular actin/myosin cytoskeleton and transcellular N-cadherin adhesions. To examine the mechanical relationship between these molecular components, we performed quantitative live-imaging experiments in primary hippocampal neurons. We found that actin turnover and structural motility were lower in dendritic spines than in immature filopodia and increased upon expression of a nonadhesive N-cadherin mutant, resulting in an inverse relationship between spine motility and actin enrichment. Furthermore, the pharmacological stimulation of myosin II induced the rearward motion of actin structures in spines, showing that myosin II exerts tension on the actin network. Strikingly, the formation of stable, spine-like structures enriched in actin was induced at contacts between dendritic filopodia and N-cadherin–coated beads or micropatterns. Finally, computer simulations of actin dynamics mimicked various experimental conditions, pointing to the actin flow rate as an important parameter controlling actin enrichment in dendritic spines. Together these data demonstrate that a clutch-like mechanism between N-cadherin adhesions and the actin flow underlies the stabilization of dendritic filopodia into mature spines, a mechanism that may have important implications in synapse initiation, maturation, and plasticity in the developing brain. PMID:25568337

  1. Chemical functionalization of bioceramics to enhance endothelial cells adhesion for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcard, Françoise; Staedler, Davide; Comas, Horacio; Juillerat, Franziska Krauss; Sturzenegger, Philip N; Heuberger, Roman; Gonzenbach, Urs T; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine

    2012-09-27

    To control the selective adhesion of human endothelial cells and human serum proteins to bioceramics of different compositions, a multifunctional ligand containing a cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide, a tetraethylene glycol spacer, and a gallate moiety was designed, synthesized, and characterized. The binding of this ligand to alumina-based, hydroxyapatite-based, and calcium phosphate-based bioceramics was demonstrated. The conjugation of this ligand to the bioceramics induced a decrease in the nonselective and integrin-selective binding of human serum proteins, whereas the binding and adhesion of human endothelial cells was enhanced, dependent on the particular bioceramics.

  2. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  3. HAMLET binding to α-actinin facilitates tumor cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, Maria; Yu, Hao; Gisselsson, Lennart; Chao, Yinxia; Urbano, Alexander; Aits, Sonja; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-03-08

    Cell adhesion is tightly regulated by specific molecular interactions and detachment from the extracellular matrix modifies proliferation and survival. HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex with tumoricidal activity that also triggers tumor cell detachment in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that molecular interactions defining detachment are perturbed in cancer cells. To identify such interactions, cell membrane extracts were used in Far-western blots and HAMLET was shown to bind α-actinins; major F-actin cross-linking proteins and focal adhesion constituents. Synthetic peptide mapping revealed that HAMLET binds to the N-terminal actin-binding domain as well as the integrin-binding domain of α-actinin-4. By co-immunoprecipitation of extracts from HAMLET-treated cancer cells, an interaction with α-actinin-1 and -4 was observed. Inhibition of α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 expression by siRNA transfection increased detachment, while α-actinin-4-GFP over-expression significantly delayed rounding up and detachment of tumor cells in response to HAMLET. In response to HAMLET, adherent tumor cells rounded up and detached, suggesting a loss of the actin cytoskeletal organization. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in β1 integrin staining and a decrease in FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Detachment per se did not increase cell death during the 22 hour experimental period, regardless of α-actinin-4 and α-actinin-1 expression levels but adherent cells with low α-actinin levels showed increased death in response to HAMLET. The results suggest that the interaction between HAMLET and α-actinins promotes tumor cell detachment. As α-actinins also associate with signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, additional α-actinin-dependent mechanisms are discussed.

  4. The Influences of Overlap Length, Bond Line Thickness and Pretreatmant on the Mechanical Properties of Adhesives : Focussing on Bonding Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, J.; Kwakernaak, A.; Poulis, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences of overlap length, bond line thickness and pretreatment on the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds. In order to determine the bond strength, lap shear tests were performed. The researched adhesives are a 2 component epoxy and MS polymer. The smallest overlap

  5. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  6. Predictive modelling of a novel anti-adhesion therapy to combat bacterial colonisation of burn wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Roberts

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the development of new classes of antibiotics slows, bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is becoming an increasing problem. A potential solution is to develop treatment strategies with an alternative mode of action. We consider one such strategy: anti-adhesion therapy. Whereas antibiotics act directly upon bacteria, either killing them or inhibiting their growth, anti-adhesion therapy impedes the binding of bacteria to host cells. This prevents bacteria from deploying their arsenal of virulence mechanisms, while simultaneously rendering them more susceptible to natural and artificial clearance. In this paper, we consider a particular form of anti-adhesion therapy, involving biomimetic multivalent adhesion molecule 7 coupled polystyrene microbeads, which competitively inhibit the binding of bacteria to host cells. We develop a mathematical model, formulated as a system of ordinary differential equations, to describe inhibitor treatment of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection in the rat. Benchmarking our model against in vivo data from an ongoing experimental programme, we use the model to explain bacteria population dynamics and to predict the efficacy of a range of treatment strategies, with the aim of improving treatment outcome. The model consists of two physical compartments: the host cells and the exudate. It is found that, when effective in reducing the bacterial burden, inhibitor treatment operates both by preventing bacteria from binding to the host cells and by reducing the flux of daughter cells from the host cells into the exudate. Our model predicts that inhibitor treatment cannot eliminate the bacterial burden when used in isolation; however, when combined with regular or continuous debridement of the exudate, elimination is theoretically possible. Lastly, we present ways to improve therapeutic efficacy, as predicted by our mathematical model.

  7. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Carolyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary

  8. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  9. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesika, Noshir S; Zeng Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Israelachvili, Jacob; Zhao, Boxin; Tian Yu; Autumn, Kellar

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  10. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R a and R y values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  11. Kindlin-3 Is Essential for the Resting α4β1 Integrin-mediated Firm Cell Adhesion under Shear Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Lin, ChangDong; Yan, ZhanJun; Wang, Shu; Zhang, YouHua; Wang, ShiHui; Wang, JunLei; Liu, Cui; Chen, JianFeng

    2016-05-06

    Integrin-mediated rolling and firm cell adhesion are two critical steps in leukocyte trafficking. Integrin α4β1 mediates a mixture of rolling and firm cell adhesion on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) when in its resting state but only supports firm cell adhesion upon activation. The transition from rolling to firm cell adhesion is controlled by integrin activation. Kindlin-3 has been shown to bind to integrin β tails and trigger integrin activation via inside-out signaling. However, the role of kindlin-3 in regulating resting α4β1-mediated cell adhesion is not well characterized. Herein we demonstrate that kindlin-3 was required for the resting α4β1-mediated firm cell adhesion but not rolling adhesion. Knockdown of kindlin-3 significantly decreased the binding of kindlin-3 to β1 and down-regulated the binding affinity of the resting α4β1 to soluble VCAM-1. Notably, it converted the resting α4β1-mediated firm cell adhesion to rolling adhesion on VCAM-1 substrates, increased cell rolling velocity, and impaired the stability of cell adhesion. By contrast, firm cell adhesion mediated by Mn(2+)-activated α4β1 was barely affected by knockdown of kindlin-3. Structurally, lack of kindlin-3 led to a more bent conformation of the resting α4β1. Thus, kindlin-3 plays an important role in maintaining a proper conformation of the resting α4β1 to mediate both rolling and firm cell adhesion. Defective kindlin-3 binding to the resting α4β1 leads to a transition from firm to rolling cell adhesion on VCAM-1, implying its potential role in regulating the transition between integrin-mediated rolling and firm cell adhesion. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Kindlin-3 Is Essential for the Resting α4β1 Integrin-mediated Firm Cell Adhesion under Shear Flow Conditions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Lin, ChangDong; Yan, ZhanJun; Wang, Shu; Zhang, YouHua; Wang, ShiHui; Wang, JunLei; Liu, Cui; Chen, JianFeng

    2016-01-01

    Integrin-mediated rolling and firm cell adhesion are two critical steps in leukocyte trafficking. Integrin α4β1 mediates a mixture of rolling and firm cell adhesion on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) when in its resting state but only supports firm cell adhesion upon activation. The transition from rolling to firm cell adhesion is controlled by integrin activation. Kindlin-3 has been shown to bind to integrin β tails and trigger integrin activation via inside-out signaling. However, the role of kindlin-3 in regulating resting α4β1-mediated cell adhesion is not well characterized. Herein we demonstrate that kindlin-3 was required for the resting α4β1-mediated firm cell adhesion but not rolling adhesion. Knockdown of kindlin-3 significantly decreased the binding of kindlin-3 to β1 and down-regulated the binding affinity of the resting α4β1 to soluble VCAM-1. Notably, it converted the resting α4β1-mediated firm cell adhesion to rolling adhesion on VCAM-1 substrates, increased cell rolling velocity, and impaired the stability of cell adhesion. By contrast, firm cell adhesion mediated by Mn2+-activated α4β1 was barely affected by knockdown of kindlin-3. Structurally, lack of kindlin-3 led to a more bent conformation of the resting α4β1. Thus, kindlin-3 plays an important role in maintaining a proper conformation of the resting α4β1 to mediate both rolling and firm cell adhesion. Defective kindlin-3 binding to the resting α4β1 leads to a transition from firm to rolling cell adhesion on VCAM-1, implying its potential role in regulating the transition between integrin-mediated rolling and firm cell adhesion. PMID:26994136

  13. Normally Oriented Adhesion versus Friction Forces in Bacterial Adhesion to Polymer-Brush Functionalized Surfaces Under Fluid Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, Jan J. T. M.; Veeregowda, Deepak H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is problematic in many diverse applications. Coatings of hydrophilic polymer chains in a brush configuration reduce bacterial adhesion by orders of magnitude, but not to zero. Here, the mechanism by which polymer-brush functionalized surfaces reduce bacterial adhesion from a

  14. Exposure to Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin affects integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanics in alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angely, Christelle; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Andre Dias, Sofia; Planus, Emmanuelle; Pelle, Gabriel; Louis, Bruno; Filoche, Marcel; Chenal, Alexandre; Ladant, Daniel; Isabey, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin is a major virulent factor of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA toxin is able to invade eukaryotic cells where it produces high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) affecting cellular physiology. Whether CyaA toxin can modulate cell matrix adhesion and mechanics of infected cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we use a recently proposed multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) with an atomic force microscope to assess the early phase of cell adhesion (maximal detachment and local rupture forces) and cell rigidity (Young's modulus) in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) for toxin exposure 95%) at CyaA concentration of 0.5 nM, but a significant effect (≈81%) at 10 nM. MFS performed on A549 for three different concentrations (0.5, 5 and 10 nM) demonstrates that CyaA toxin significantly affects both cell adhesion (detachment forces are decreased) and cell mechanics (Young's modulus is increased). CyaA toxin (at 0.5 nM) assessed at three indentation/retraction speeds (2, 5 and 10 μm/s) significantly affects global detachment forces, local rupture events and Young modulus compared with control conditions, while an enzymatically inactive variant CyaAE5 has no effect. These results reveal the loading rate dependence of the multiple bonds newly formed between the cell and integrin-specific coated probe as well as the individual bond kinetics which are only slightly affected by the patho-physiological dose of CyaA toxin. Finally, theory of multiple bond force rupture enables us to deduce the bond number N which is reduced by a factor of 2 upon CyaA exposure (N ≈ 6 versus N ≈ 12 in control conditions). MFS measurements demonstrate that adhesion and mechanical properties of A549 are deeply affected by exposure to the CyaA toxin but not to an enzymatically inactive variant. This indicates that the alteration of cell mechanics triggered by CyaA is a consequence of the increase in

  15. Systems Biology Reveals Cigarette Smoke-Induced Concentration-Dependent Direct and Indirect Mechanisms That Promote Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Laurent, Alexandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) affects the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, a critical step in atherogenesis. Using an in vitro adhesion assay together with innovative computational systems biology approaches to analyze omics data, our study aimed at investigating CS-induced mechanisms by which monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is promoted. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated for 4 h with (1) conditioned media of human monocytic Mono Mac-6 (MM6) cells preincubated with low or high concentrations of aqueous CS extract (sbPBS) from reference cigarette 3R4F for 2 h (indirect treatment, I), (2) unconditioned media similarly prepared without MM6 cells (direct treatment, D), or (3) freshly generated sbPBS (fresh direct treatment, FD). sbPBS promoted MM6 cells-HCAECs adhesion following I and FD, but not D. In I, the effect was mediated at a low concentration through activation of vascular inflammation processes promoted in HCAECs by a paracrine effect of the soluble mediators secreted by sbPBS-treated MM6 cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a major inducer, was actually shed by unstable CS compound-activated TNFα-converting enzyme. In FD, the effect was triggered at a high concentration that also induced some toxicity. This effect was mediated through an yet unknown mechanism associated with a stress damage response promoted in HCAECs by unstable CS compounds present in freshly generated sbPBS, which had decayed in D unconditioned media. Aqueous CS extract directly and indirectly promotes monocytic cell-endothelial cell adhesion in vitro via distinct concentration-dependent mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Theory and simulations of adhesion receptor dimerization on membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghao; Honig, Barry; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    2013-03-19

    The equilibrium constants of trans and cis dimerization of membrane bound (2D) and freely moving (3D) adhesion receptors are expressed and compared using elementary statistical-thermodynamics. Both processes are mediated by the binding of extracellular subdomains whose range of motion in the 2D environment is reduced upon dimerization, defining a thin reaction shell where dimer formation and dissociation take place. We show that the ratio between the 2D and 3D equilibrium constants can be expressed as a product of individual factors describing, respectively, the spatial ranges of motions of the adhesive domains, and their rotational freedom within the reaction shell. The results predicted by the theory are compared to those obtained from a novel, to our knowledge, dynamical simulations methodology, whereby pairs of receptors perform realistic translational, internal, and rotational motions in 2D and 3D. We use cadherins as our model system. The theory and simulations explain how the strength of cis and trans interactions of adhesive receptors are affected both by their presence in the constrained intermembrane space and by the 2D environment of membrane surfaces. Our work provides fundamental insights as to the mechanism of lateral clustering of adhesion receptors after cell-cell contact and, more generally, to the formation of lateral microclusters of proteins on cell surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dystroglycan versatility in cell adhesion: a tale of multiple motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winder Steve J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dystroglycan is a ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric adhesion receptor. The extracellular α-subunit makes connections with a number of laminin G domain ligands including laminins, agrin and perlecan in the extracellular matrix and the transmembrane β-subunit makes connections to the actin filament network via cytoskeletal linkers including dystrophin, utrophin, ezrin and plectin, depending on context. Originally discovered as part of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex of skeletal muscle, dystroglycan is an important adhesion molecule and signalling scaffold in a multitude of cell types and tissues and is involved in several diseases. Dystroglycan has emerged as a multifunctional adhesion platform with many interacting partners associating with its short unstructured cytoplasmic domain. Two particular hotspots are the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region and at the very carboxy terminus of dystroglycan. Regions which between them have several overlapping functions: in the juxtamembrane region; a nuclear localisation signal, ezrin/radixin/moesin protein, rapsyn and ERK MAP Kinase binding function, and at the C terminus a regulatory tyrosine governing WW, SH2 and SH3 domain interactions. We will discuss the binding partners for these motifs and how their interactions and regulation can modulate the involvement of dystroglycan in a range of different adhesion structures and functions depending on context. Thus dystroglycan presents as a multifunctional scaffold involved in adhesion and adhesion-mediated signalling with its functions under exquisite spatio-temporal regulation.

  18. Physics of adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberich, W W; Cordill, M J

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion physics was relegated to the lowest echelons of academic pursuit until the advent of three seemingly disconnected events. The first, atomic force microscopy (AFM), eventually allowed fine-scale measurement of adhesive point contacts. The second, large-scale computational materials science, now permits both hierarchical studies of a few thousand atoms from first principles or of billions of atoms with less precise interatomic potentials. The third is a microelectronics industry push towards the nanoscale which has provided the driving force for requiring a better understanding of adhesion physics. In the present contribution, an attempt is made at conjoining these separate events into an updating of how theoretical and experimental approaches are providing new understanding of adhesion physics. While all material couples are briefly considered, the emphasis is on metal/semiconductor and metal/ceramic interfaces. Here, adhesion energies typically range from 1 to 100 J m -2 where the larger value is considered a practical work of adhesion. Experimental emphasis is on thin-film de-adhesion for 10 to 1000 nm thick films. For comparison, theoretical approaches from first principles quantum mechanics to embedded atom methods used in multi-scale modelling are utilized

  19. Antioxidant mechanism of milk mineral-high-affinity iron binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K; Cornforth, D

    2007-01-01

    Milk mineral (MM), a by-product of whey processing, is an effective antioxidant in meat systems, but the antioxidant mechanism has not been established. MM has been postulated to chelate iron and prevent iron-catalysis of lipid oxidation. The objective of this research was to examine this putative mechanism. MM was compared to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), calcium phosphate monobasic (CPM), and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) to determine iron-binding capacity, sample solubility, and eluate soluble phosphorus after treating samples with a ferrous chloride standard. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was used to localize minerals on iron-treated MM particle surfaces. Histochemical staining for calcium was performed on raw and cooked ground beef samples with added MM. MM bound more iron per gram (P compounds, and was much less soluble (P iron across the MM particle surface, directly demonstrating iron binding to MM particles. Unlike other common chelating agents, such as STPP and citrate, histochemical staining demonstrated that MM remained insoluble in ground beef, even after cooking. The ability of MM to bind iron and remain insoluble may enhance its antioxidant effect by removing iron ions from solution. However, MM particles must be small and well distributed in order to adequately bind iron throughout the food system.

  20. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J.; Bridges, Lance C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 , a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion

  1. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States); Bridges, Lance C., E-mail: bridgesl@ecu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States); East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion.

  2. A mechanical model of biomimetic adhesive pads with tilted and hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schargott, M

    2009-06-01

    A 3D model for hierarchical biomimetic adhesive pads is constructed. It is based on the main principles of the adhesive pads of the Tokay gecko and consists of hierarchical layers of vertical or tilted beams, where each layer is constructed in such a way that no cohesion between adjacent beams can occur. The elastic and adhesive properties are calculated analytically and numerically. For the adhesive contact on stochastically rough surfaces, the maximum adhesion force increases with increasing number of hierarchical layers. Additional calculations show that the adhesion force also depends on the height spectrum of the rough surface.

  3. A mechanical model of biomimetic adhesive pads with tilted and hierarchical structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schargott, M [Institute of Mechanics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strd 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: martin.schargott@tu-berlin.de

    2009-06-01

    A 3D model for hierarchical biomimetic adhesive pads is constructed. It is based on the main principles of the adhesive pads of the Tokay gecko and consists of hierarchical layers of vertical or tilted beams, where each layer is constructed in such a way that no cohesion between adjacent beams can occur. The elastic and adhesive properties are calculated analytically and numerically. For the adhesive contact on stochastically rough surfaces, the maximum adhesion force increases with increasing number of hierarchical layers. Additional calculations show that the adhesion force also depends on the height spectrum of the rough surface.

  4. A mechanical model of biomimetic adhesive pads with tilted and hierarchical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schargott, M

    2009-01-01

    A 3D model for hierarchical biomimetic adhesive pads is constructed. It is based on the main principles of the adhesive pads of the Tokay gecko and consists of hierarchical layers of vertical or tilted beams, where each layer is constructed in such a way that no cohesion between adjacent beams can occur. The elastic and adhesive properties are calculated analytically and numerically. For the adhesive contact on stochastically rough surfaces, the maximum adhesion force increases with increasing number of hierarchical layers. Additional calculations show that the adhesion force also depends on the height spectrum of the rough surface

  5. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesika, Noshir S [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Zeng Hongbo [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Kristiansen, Kai; Israelachvili, Jacob [Chemical Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Zhao, Boxin [Chemical Engineering Department and Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tian Yu [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Autumn, Kellar, E-mail: npesika@tulane.ed [Department of Biology, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR 97219 (United States)

    2009-11-18

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  6. Two Differential Binding Mechanisms of FG-Nucleoporins and Nuclear Transport Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piau Siong Tan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Phenylalanine-glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups are intrinsically disordered proteins, constituting the selective barrier of the nuclear pore complex (NPC. Previous studies showed that nuclear transport receptors (NTRs were found to interact with FG-Nups by forming an “archetypal-fuzzy” complex through the rapid formation and breakage of interactions with many individual FG motifs. Here, we use single-molecule studies combined with atomistic simulations to show that, in sharp contrast, FG-Nup214 undergoes a coupled reconfiguration-binding mechanism when interacting with the export receptor CRM1. Association and dissociation rate constants are more than an order of magnitude lower than in the archetypal-fuzzy complex between FG-Nup153 and NTRs. Unexpectedly, this behavior appears not to be encoded selectively into CRM1 but rather into the FG-Nup214 sequence. The same distinct binding mechanisms are unperturbed in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine-modified FG-Nups. Our results have implications for differential roles of distinctly spatially distributed FG-Nup⋅NTR interactions in the cell. : Archetypal-fuzzy complexes found in most FG-Nucleoporin⋅nuclear transport receptor complexes allow fast yet specific nuclear transport. Tan et al. show that FG-Nup214, located at the periphery of the nuclear pore complex, binds to CRM1⋅RanGTP via a coupled reconfiguration-binding mechanism, which can enable different functionalities e.g., cargo release. Keywords: intrinsically disordered protein, glycosylation, FG-Nup, nuclear transport receptors, binding mechanism, single-molecule FRET, molecular dynamics simulations

  7. Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in ex vivo perfused placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Mathiesen, Line; Heno, Kristine K

    2016-01-01

    placental tissue. RESULTS: The ex vivo placental perfusion model was modified to study adhesion of infected erythrocytes binding to CSA, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or a transgenic parasite where P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 expression had been shut down. Infected erythrocytes......, such as binding to immunoglobulins. Furthermore, other parasite antigens have been associated with placental malaria. These findings have important implications for placental malaria vaccine design. The objective of this study was to adapt and describe a biologically relevant model of parasite adhesion in intact...... expressing VAR2CSA accumulated in perfused placental tissue whereas the EPCR binding and the transgenic parasite did not. Soluble CSA and antibodies specific against VAR2CSA inhibited binding of infected erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: The ex vivo model provides a novel way of studying receptor-ligand interactions...

  8. Mechanical Mounting and Adhesive Junction for Large Quartz Optics Operatng at Cryogenic Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, M.; Mosciarello, P.

    2012-07-01

    Gaia is a global space astrometry mission, with the goal to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy. Gaia contains two optical telescopes: in front of their Focal Plane Assembly -FPA- two narrow quartz prisms are mounted for spectrophotometer science: the Blue and Red Photometer Prisms -BPP and RPP-. They are framed in a SiC structure by means of brackets and adhesive junctions between metal parts and quartz optical elements. SELEX GALILEO developed this project as subcontractor of Astrium France. The assembly has to withstand thermoelastic loads due to CTE mismatch at an operative temperature of 120 K. The mechanical mountings design to reduce the stresses due to thermal loads on the adhesive joint is described and the results of the bonding qualification process as well as the flight hardware bonding results are reported.

  9. The binding mechanism of a peptidic cyclic serine protease inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Longguang; Svane, Anna Sigrid P.; Sørensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteases are classical objects for studies of catalytic and inhibitory mechanisms as well as interesting as therapeutic targets. Since small-molecule serine protease inhibitors generally suffer from specificity problems, peptidic inhibitors, isolated from phage-displayed peptide libraries......, have attracted considerable attention. Here, we have investigated the mechanism of binding of peptidic inhibitors to serine protease targets. Our model is upain-1 (CSWRGLENHRMC), a disulfide-bond-constrained competitive inhibitor of human urokinase-type plasminogen activator with a noncanonical...... inhibitory mechanism and an unusually high specificity. Using a number of modified variants of upain-1, we characterised the upain-1-urokinase-type plasminogen activator complex using X-ray crystal structure analysis, determined a model of the peptide in solution by NMR spectroscopy, and analysed binding...

  10. The molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed serum proteins to endothelial cells adhesion and growth on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dayun; Lü, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2013-07-01

    To explore molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth on biomaterials, this study examined endothelial cell adhesion, morphology and viability on bare and titanium nitride (TiN) coated nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys and chitosan film firstly, and then identified the type and amount of serum proteins adsorbed on the three surfaces by proteomic technology. Subsequently, the mediation role of the identified proteins to cell adhesion and growth was investigated with bioinformatics analyses, and further confirmed by a series of cellular and molecular biological experiments. Results showed that the type and amount of adsorbed serum proteins associated with cell adhesion and growth was obviously higher on the alloys than on the chitosan film, and these proteins mediated endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the alloys via four ways. First, proteins such as adiponectin in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface receptors to generate signal transduction, which activated cell surface integrins through increasing intracellular calcium level. Another way, thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer promoted TGF-β signaling pathway activation and enhanced integrins expression. The third, RGD sequence containing proteins such as fibronectin 1, vitronectin and thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with activated integrins to activate focal adhesion pathway, increased focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton organization and mediated cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, the activated focal adhesion pathway promoted the expression of cell growth related genes and resulted in cell proliferation. The fourth route, coagulation factor II (F2) and fibronectin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface F2 receptor and integrin, activated regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway and regulated actin cytoskeleton organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby (Texas-MED)

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  12. Surface displaced alfa-enolase of Lactobacillus plantarum is a fibronectin binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are one of the most important health promoting groups of the human intestinal microbiota. Their protective role within the gut consists in out competing invading pathogens for ecological niches and metabolic substrates. Among the features necessary to provide health benefits, commensal microorganisms must have the ability to adhere to human intestinal cells and consequently to colonize the gut. Studies on mechanisms mediating adhesion of lactobacilli to human intestinal cells showed that factors involved in the interaction vary mostly among different species and strains, mainly regarding interaction between bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix or mucus proteins. We have investigated the adhesive properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, a member of the human microbiota of healthy individuals. Results We show the identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum LM3 cell surface protein (48 kDa, which specifically binds to human fibronectin (Fn, an extracellular matrix protein. By means of mass spectrometric analysis this protein was identified as the product of the L. plantarum enoA1 gene, coding the EnoA1 alfa-enolase. Surface localization of EnoA1 was proved by immune electron microscopy. In the mutant strain LM3-CC1, carrying the enoA1 null mutation, the 48 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable neither by anti-enolase Western blot nor by Fn-overlay immunoblotting assay. Moreover, by an adhesion assay we show that LM3-CC1 cells bind to fibronectin-coated surfaces less efficiently than wild type cells, thus demonstrating the significance of the surface displaced EnoA1 protein for the L. plantarum LM3 adhesion to fibronectin. Conclusion Adhesion to host tissues represents a crucial early step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensal bacteria. We demonstrated the involvement of the L. plantarum Eno A1 alfa-enolase in Fn-binding, by studying

  13. Impact of sub-inhibitory antibiotics on fibronectin-mediated host cell adhesion and invasion by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasigade Jean

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a well-armed pathogen prevalent in severe infections such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Fibronectin-binding proteins A and B, encoded by fnbA/B, are major pathogenesis determinants in these infections through their involvement in S. aureus adhesion to and invasion of host cells. Sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs of antibiotics, frequently occurring in vivo because of impaired drug diffusion at the infection site, can alter S. aureus phenotype. We therefore investigated their impact on S. aureus fibronectin-mediated adhesiveness and invasiveness. Methods After in vitro challenge of S. aureus 8325-4 and clinical isolates with sub-MICs of major anti-staphylococcal agents, we explored fnbA/B transcription levels, bacterial adhesiveness to immobilised human fibronectin and human osteoblasts in culture, and bacterial invasion of human osteoblasts. Results Oxacillin, moxifloxacin and linezolid led to the development of a hyper-adhesive phenotype in the fibronectin adhesion assay that was consistent with an increase in fnbA/B transcription. Conversely, rifampin treatment decreased fibronectin binding in all strains tested without affecting fnbA/B transcription. Gentamicin and vancomycin had no impact on fibronectin binding or fnbA/B transcription levels. Only oxacillin-treated S. aureus displayed a significantly increased adhesion to cultured osteoblasts, but its invasiveness did not differ from that of untreated controls. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that several antibiotics at sub-MICs modulate fibronectin binding in S. aureus in a drug-specific fashion. However, hyper- and hypo- adhesive phenotypes observed in controlled in vitro conditions were not fully confirmed in whole cell infection assays. The relevance of adhesion modulation during in vivo infections is thus still uncertain and requires further investigations.

  14. Regulated binding of PTP1B-like phosphatase to N-cadherin: control of cadherin-mediated adhesion by dephosphorylation of beta-catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Cadherins are a family of cell-cell adhesion molecules which play a central role in controlling morphogenetic movements during development. Cadherin function is regulated by its association with the actin containing cytoskeleton, an association mediated by a complex of cytoplasmic proteins, the catenins: alpha, beta, and gamma. Phosphorylated tyrosine residues on beta-catenin are correlated with loss of cadherin function. Consistent with this, we find that only nontyrosine phosphorylated beta-catenin is associated with N-cadherin in E10 chick retina tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate that a PTP1B-like tyrosine phosphatase associates with N-cadherin and may function as a regulatory switch controlling cadherin function by dephosphorylating beta-catenin, thereby maintaining cells in an adhesion-competent state. The PTP1B-like phosphatase is itself tyrosine phosphorylated. Moreover, both direct binding experiments performed with phosphorylated and dephosphorylated molecules, and treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors indicate that the interaction of the PTP1B-like phosphatase with N-cadherin depends on its tyrosine phosphorylation. Concomitant with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced loss of the PTP1B-like phosphatase from its association with N-cadherin, phosphorylated tyrosine residues are retained on beta-catenin, the association of N- cadherin with the actin containing cytoskeleton is lost and N-cadherin- mediated cell adhesion is prevented. Tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors also result in the accumulation of phosphorylated tyrosine residues on beta-catenin, loss of the association of N-cadherin with the actin- containing cytoskeleton, and prevent N-cadherin mediated adhesion, presumably by directly blocking the function of the PTP1B-like phosphatase. We previously showed that the binding of two ligands to the cell surface N-acetylgalactosaminylphosphotransferase (GalNAcPTase), the monoclonal antibody 1B11 and a proteoglycan with a 250-kD core protein

  15. Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Sitti, Metin; Liang, Yiching A; Peattie, Anne M; Hansen, Wendy R; Sponberg, Simon; Kenny, Thomas W; Fearing, Ronald; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Full, Robert J

    2002-09-17

    Geckos have evolved one of the most versatile and effective adhesives known. The mechanism of dry adhesion in the millions of setae on the toes of geckos has been the focus of scientific study for over a century. We provide the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and reject the use of mechanisms relying on high surface polarity, including capillary adhesion. The toes of live Tokay geckos were highly hydrophobic, and adhered equally well to strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic, polarizable surfaces. Adhesion of a single isolated gecko seta was equally effective on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of a microelectro-mechanical systems force sensor. A van der Waals mechanism implies that the remarkable adhesive properties of gecko setae are merely a result of the size and shape of the tips, and are not strongly affected by surface chemistry. Theory predicts greater adhesive forces simply from subdividing setae to increase surface density, and suggests a possible design principle underlying the repeated, convergent evolution of dry adhesive microstructures in gecko, anoles, skinks, and insects. Estimates using a standard adhesion model and our measured forces come remarkably close to predicting the tip size of Tokay gecko seta. We verified the dependence on size and not surface type by using physical models of setal tips nanofabricated from two different materials. Both artificial setal tips stuck as predicted and provide a path to manufacturing the first dry, adhesive microstructures.

  16. Mouse podoplanin supports adhesion and aggregation of platelets under arterial shear: A novel mechanism of haemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Stephanie E; Pollitt, Alice Y; Hughes, Craig E; Di, Ying; Mckinnon, Tom; O'callaghan, Chris A; Watson, Steve P

    2017-11-01

    The podoplanin-CLEC-2 axis is critical in mice for prevention of hemorrhage in the cerebral vasculature during mid-gestation. This raises the question as to how platelets are captured by podoplanin on neuroepithelial cells in a high shear environment. In this study, we demonstrate that mouse platelets form stable aggregates on mouse podoplanin at arterial shear through a CLEC-2 and Src kinase-dependent pathway. Adhesion and aggregation are also dependent on the platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptors, integrin αIIbβ3 and GPIb, and the feedback agonists ADP and thromboxane A 2 (TxA 2 ). CLEC-2 does not bind to von Willebrand factor (VWF) suggesting that the interaction with podoplanin is sufficient to both tether and activate platelets. Consistent with this, the surface plasmon resonance measurements reveal that mouse CLEC-2 binds to mouse podoplanin with nanomolar affinity. The present findings demonstrate a novel pathway of hemostasis in which podoplanin supports platelet capture and activation at arteriolar rates of shear.

  17. Distinct roles of beta1 metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS), and ligand-associated metal-binding site (LIMBS) cation-binding sites in ligand recognition by integrin alpha2beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J; Mould, A Paul

    2008-11-21

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as alpha2beta1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the alpha subunit I domain. However, activation of the alphaI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the beta subunit known as the I-like or betaI domain. The top face of the betaI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS), and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal-binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the alphaI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to alpha2beta1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating monoclonal antibody TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between alphaI and betaI, whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of betaI. An activating mutation in the alpha2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn(2+) stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca(2+)-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg(2+) for the MIDAS.

  18. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, X F [Department of Prosthodontics, The Stomatological Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yoshida, K [Division of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Gu, N, E-mail: mengsoar@nju.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R{sub a} and R{sub y} values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane

  19. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives.

  20. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lebesgue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc versus the non-adhesive part (the stem, and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue. This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article “Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach” (Lebesgue et al., 2016 [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold, likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives.

  1. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Cambridge University, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Best, Robert B., E-mail: robertbe@helix.nih.gov [Department of Chemistry, Cambridge University, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD.

  2. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Michael; Best, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD

  3. Optical adhesive property study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  4. Proteoglycans, ion channels and cell-matrix adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsou, Ioli; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.; Couchman, John R.

    2017-01-01

    , maintenance, repair and disease.The cytoplasmic domains of syndecans, while having no intrinsic kinase activity, can nevertheless signal through binding proteins.All syndecans appear to be connected to the actin cytoskeleton and can therefore contribute to cell adhesion, notably to the ECM and migration.......Recent data now suggest that syndecans can regulate stretchactivated ion channels.The structure and function of the syndecans and the ion channels are reviewed here, along with an analysis of ion channel functions in cell-matrix adhesion.This area sheds new light on the syndecans, not least since evidence...

  5. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K. (Michigan); (NIH); (Michigan-Med)

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  6. Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teif, Vladimir B; Rippe, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding are well established as a method to describe complex ligand binding equilibria measured in vitro with purified DNA and protein components. Recently, a new field of applications has opened up for this approach since it has become possible to experimentally quantify genome-wide protein occupancies in relation to the DNA sequence. In particular, the organization of the eukaryotic genome by histone proteins into a nucleoprotein complex termed chromatin has been recognized as a key parameter that controls the access of transcription factors to the DNA sequence. New approaches have to be developed to derive statistical-mechanical lattice descriptions of chromatin-associated protein-DNA interactions. Here, we present the theoretical framework for lattice models of histone-DNA interactions in chromatin and investigate the (competitive) DNA binding of other chromosomal proteins and transcription factors. The results have a number of applications for quantitative models for the regulation of gene expression.

  7. Advances in biomaterials for preventing tissue adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Ruoyu; das Neves, José; Tang, Jincheng; Xiao, Junyuan; Ni, Qing; Liu, Xinnong; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Dechun; Cui, Wenguo; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-09-10

    Adhesion is one of the most common postsurgical complications, occurring simultaneously as the damaged tissue heals. Accompanied by symptoms such as inflammation, pain and even dyskinesia in particular circumstances, tissue adhesion has substantially compromised the quality of life of patients. Instead of passive treatment, which involves high cost and prolonged hospital stay, active intervention to prevent the adhesion from happening has been accepted as the optimized strategy against this complication. Herein, this paper will cover not only the mechanism of adhesion forming, but also the biomaterials and medicines used in its prevention. Apart from acting as a direct barrier, biomaterials also show promising anti-adhesive bioactivity though their intrinsic physical and chemical are still not completely unveiled. Considering the diversity of human tissue organization, it is imperative that various biomaterials in combination with specific medicine could be tuned to fit the microenvironment of targeted tissues. With the illustration of different adhesion mechanism and solutions, we hope this review can become a beacon and further inspires the development of anti-adhesion biomedicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min.

  9. The Adhesion of Lactobacillus salivarius REN to a Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Requires S-layer Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Jiang, Lun; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Liang; Hao, Yanling; Guo, Huiyuan; Sang, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-03-10

    Lactobacillus salivarius REN, a novel probiotic isolated from Chinese centenarians, can adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and subsequently colonize the host. We show here that the surface-layer protein choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of L. salivarius REN was involved in adherence to the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. Adhesion of a cbpA deletion mutant was significantly reduced compared with that of wild-type, suggesting that CbpA acts as an adhesin that mediates the interaction between the bacterium and its host. To identify the molecular mechanism of adhesion, we determined the crystal structure of a truncated form of CbpA that is likely involved in binding to its cell-surface receptor. The crystal structure identified CbpA as a peptidase of the M23 family whose members harbor a zinc-dependent catalytic site. Therefore, we propose that CbpA acts as a multifunctional surface protein that cleaves the host extracellular matrix and participates in adherence. Moreover, we identified enolase as the CbpA receptor on the surface of HT-29 cells. The present study reveals a new class of surface-layer proteins as well as the molecular mechanism that may contribute to the ability of L. salivarius REN to colonize the human gut.

  10. Measurement of cell adhesion force by vertical forcible detachment using an arrowhead nanoneedle and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seunghwan; Hashizume, Yui; Mishima, Mari; Kawamura, Ryuzo; Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed a method to measure cell adhesion force by detaching cell using an arrowhead nanoneedle and AFM. • A nanofilm consisting of fibronectin and gelatin was formed on cell surface to reinforce the cell cortex. • By the nanofilm lamination, detachment efficiencies of strongly adherent cell lines were improved markedly. - Abstract: The properties of substrates and extracellular matrices (ECM) are important factors governing the functions and fates of mammalian adherent cells. For example, substrate stiffness often affects cell differentiation. At focal adhesions, clustered–integrin bindings link cells mechanically to the ECM. In order to quantitate the affinity between cell and substrate, the cell adhesion force must be measured for single cells. In this study, forcible detachment of a single cell in the vertical direction using AFM was carried out, allowing breakage of the integrin–substrate bindings. An AFM tip was fabricated into an arrowhead shape to detach the cell from the substrate. Peak force observed in the recorded force curve during probe retraction was defined as the adhesion force, and was analyzed for various types of cells. Some of the cell types adhered so strongly that they could not be picked up because of plasma membrane breakage by the arrowhead probe. To address this problem, a technique to reinforce the cellular membrane with layer-by-layer nanofilms composed of fibronectin and gelatin helped to improve insertion efficiency and to prevent cell membrane rupture during the detachment process, allowing successful detachment of the cells. This method for detaching cells, involving cellular membrane reinforcement, may be beneficial for evaluating true cell adhesion forces in various cell types

  11. Tannic acid and chromic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells: a preliminary study of possible binding sites and reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A F; Reed, M I

    1990-07-01

    The binding mechanisms and binding sites involved in the tannic acid and chromic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells were investigated using the binding of IgA paraprotein to red cells as model systems. Inhibition studies of these model systems using amino acid homopolymers and compounds (common as red cell membrane constituents) suggest that the mechanisms involved are similar to those proposed for the conversion of hide or skin collagen to leather, as in commercial tanning. These studies also suggest that tannic acid-induced binding of IgA paraprotein to red cells involves the amino acid residues of L-arginine, L-lysine, L-histidine, and L-proline analogous to tanning with phenolic plant extracts. The amino acid residues of L-aspartate, L-glutamate and L-asparagine are involved in a similar manner in chronic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells.

  12. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion : A quantitative proteomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939780; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Santos, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Marine bioadhesives have unmatched performances in wet environments, being an inspiration for biomedical applications. In sea urchins specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, mediate reversible adhesion, being composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions, and a motile stem. After

  13. Extracellular Membrane-proximal Domain of HAb18G/CD147 Binds to Metal Ion-dependent Adhesion Site (MIDAS) Motif of Integrin β1 to Modulate Malignant Properties of Hepatoma Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wu, Jiao; Song, Fei; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that HAb18G/CD147 interacts with the integrin variants α3β1 and α6β1. However, the mechanism of the interaction remains largely unknown. In this study, mammalian protein-protein interaction trap (MAPPIT), a mammalian two-hybrid method, was used to study the CD147-integrin β1 subunit interaction. CD147 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells was interfered with by small hairpin RNA. Nude mouse xenograft model and metastatic model of HCC were used to detect the role of CD147 in carcinogenesis and metastasis. We found that the extracellular membrane-proximal domain of HAb18G/CD147 (I-type domain) binds at the metal ion-dependent adhesion site in the βA domain of the integrin β1 subunit, and Asp179 in the I-type domain of HAb18G/CD147 plays an important role in the interaction. The levels of the proteins that act downstream of integrin, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phospho-FAK, were decreased, and the cytoskeletal structures of HCC cells were rearranged bearing the HAb18G/CD147 deletion. Simultaneously, the migration and invasion capacities, secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, colony formation rate in vitro, and tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo were decreased. These results indicate that the interaction of HAb18G/CD147 extracellular I-type domain with the integrin β1 metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif activates the downstream FAK signaling pathway, subsequently enhancing the malignant properties of HCC cells. PMID:22130661

  14. Repeated origin and loss of adhesive toepads in geckos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gamble

    Full Text Available Geckos are well known for their extraordinary clinging abilities and many species easily scale vertical or even inverted surfaces. This ability is enabled by a complex digital adhesive mechanism (adhesive toepads that employs van der Waals based adhesion, augmented by frictional forces. Numerous morphological traits and behaviors have evolved to facilitate deployment of the adhesive mechanism, maximize adhesive force and enable release from the substrate. The complex digital morphologies that result allow geckos to interact with their environment in a novel fashion quite differently from most other lizards. Details of toepad morphology suggest multiple gains and losses of the adhesive mechanism, but lack of a comprehensive phylogeny has hindered efforts to determine how frequently adhesive toepads have been gained and lost. Here we present a multigene phylogeny of geckos, including 107 of 118 recognized genera, and determine that adhesive toepads have been gained and lost multiple times, and remarkably, with approximately equal frequency. The most likely hypothesis suggests that adhesive toepads evolved 11 times and were lost nine times. The overall external morphology of the toepad is strikingly similar in many lineages in which it is independently derived, but lineage-specific differences are evident, particularly regarding internal anatomy, with unique morphological patterns defining each independent derivation.

  15. Repeated origin and loss of adhesive toepads in geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony; Greenbaum, Eli; Jackman, Todd R; Russell, Anthony P; Bauer, Aaron M

    2012-01-01

    Geckos are well known for their extraordinary clinging abilities and many species easily scale vertical or even inverted surfaces. This ability is enabled by a complex digital adhesive mechanism (adhesive toepads) that employs van der Waals based adhesion, augmented by frictional forces. Numerous morphological traits and behaviors have evolved to facilitate deployment of the adhesive mechanism, maximize adhesive force and enable release from the substrate. The complex digital morphologies that result allow geckos to interact with their environment in a novel fashion quite differently from most other lizards. Details of toepad morphology suggest multiple gains and losses of the adhesive mechanism, but lack of a comprehensive phylogeny has hindered efforts to determine how frequently adhesive toepads have been gained and lost. Here we present a multigene phylogeny of geckos, including 107 of 118 recognized genera, and determine that adhesive toepads have been gained and lost multiple times, and remarkably, with approximately equal frequency. The most likely hypothesis suggests that adhesive toepads evolved 11 times and were lost nine times. The overall external morphology of the toepad is strikingly similar in many lineages in which it is independently derived, but lineage-specific differences are evident, particularly regarding internal anatomy, with unique morphological patterns defining each independent derivation.

  16. Poly(AAc-co-MBA) hydrogel films: adhesive and mechanical properties in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Boxin

    2013-01-10

    Poly(acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) hydrogel films were synthesized by copolymerizing acrylic acid (AAc) with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linker via photo polymerization in the spacing confined between two glass plates. NMR spectroscopy was utilized to determine the cross-linking density. We found that the cross-linking density determined by NMR is higher than that expected from the feed concentrations of cross-linkers, suggesting that MBA is more reactive than AAc and the heterogeneous nature of the cross-linking. In addition to the swelling tests, indentation tests were performed on the hydrogel films under water to investigate effects of the cross-linking density on the adhesion and mechanical properties of the hydrogel films in terms of adhesive pull-off force and Hertz-type elastic modulus. As the cross-linker concentration increased, the effective elastic modulus of the hydrogel films increased dramatically at low cross-linking densities and reached a high steady-state value at higher cross-linking densities. The pull-off force decreased with increasing cross-linker concentration and reached a lower force plateau at high cross-linking densities. An optimal "trade-off" cross-linking density was determined to be 0.02 mol fraction of MBA in the hydrogel, where balanced elastic modulus and adhesive pull-off force can be obtained.

  17. Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae

    OpenAIRE

    Autumn, Kellar; Sitti, Metin; Liang, Yiching A.; Peattie, Anne M.; Hansen, Wendy R.; Sponberg, Simon; Kenny, Thomas W.; Fearing, Ronald; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Full, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Geckos have evolved one of the most versatile and effective adhesives known. The mechanism of dry adhesion in the millions of setae on the toes of geckos has been the focus of scientific study for over a century. We provide the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and reject the use of mechanisms relying on high surface polarity, including capillary adhesion. The toes of live Tokay geckos were highly hydrophobic, and adhered equally well ...

  18. Inhibition of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli adhesion by multivalent galabiose derivatives studied by a live-bacteria application of surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Annika; Loimaranta, Vuokko; Joosten, John A F; Khan, A Salam; Hacker, Jörg; Pieters, Roland J; Finne, Jukka

    2007-09-01

    Uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli adheres to host cells by specific adhesins recognizing galabiose (Galalpha1-4Gal)-containing structures on cell surfaces. In search of agents inhibiting this first step of infection, the inhibition potency of a set of synthetic mono- and multivalent galabiose compounds was evaluated. In order to mimic the flow conditions of natural infections, a live-bacteria application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was established. For the measurement of the binding of E. coli to a surface containing galabiose, live bacteria were injected over the flow cell, and the inhibition of adhesion caused by the galabiose inhibitors was recorded. Quantitative binding data were recorded in real-time for each inhibitor. The results were compared with those of conventional static haemagglutination and ELISA-based cell adhesion assays. Compared with the Gram-positive Streptococcus suis bacteria, which also bind to galabiose and whose binding inhibition is strongly dependent on the multivalency of the inhibitor, E. coli inhibition was only moderately affected by the valency. However, a novel octavalent compound was found to be the most effective inhibitor of E. coli PapG(J96) adhesion, with an IC50 value of 2 microM. Measurement of bacterial adhesion by SPR is an efficient way to characterize the adhesion of whole bacterial cells and allows the characterization of the inhibitory potency of adhesion inhibitors under dynamic flow conditions. Under these conditions, multivalency increases the anti-adhesion potency of galabiose-based inhibitors of P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion and provides a promising approach for the design of high-affinity anti-adhesion agents.

  19. A triad of lys12, lys41, arg78 spatial domain, a novel identified heparin binding site on tat protein, facilitates tat-driven cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ai

    Full Text Available Tat protein, released by HIV-infected cells, has a battery of important biological effects leading to distinct AIDS-associated pathologies. Cell surface heparan sulfate protoglycans (HSPGs have been accepted as endogenous Tat receptors, and the Tat basic domain has been identified as the heparin binding site. However, findings that deletion or substitution of the basic domain inhibits but does not completely eliminate Tat-heparin interactions suggest that the basic domain is not the sole Tat heparin binding site. In the current study, an approach integrating computational modeling, mutagenesis, biophysical and cell-based assays was used to elucidate a novel, high affinity heparin-binding site: a Lys12, Lys41, Arg78 (KKR spatial domain. This domain was also found to facilitate Tat-driven β1 integrin activation, producing subsequent SLK cell adhesion in an HSPG-dependent manner, but was not involved in Tat internalization. The identification of this new heparin binding site may foster further insight into the nature of Tat-heparin interactions and subsequent biological functions, facilitating the rational design of new therapeutics against Tat-mediated pathological events.

  20. Analysis of electric moments of RNA-binding proteins: implications for mechanism and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Akinori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-RNA interactions play important role in many biological processes such as gene regulation, replication, protein synthesis and virus assembly. Although many structures of various types of protein-RNA complexes have been determined, the mechanism of protein-RNA recognition remains elusive. We have earlier shown that the simplest electrostatic properties viz. charge, dipole and quadrupole moments, calculated from backbone atomic coordinates of proteins are biased relative to other proteins, and these quantities can be used to identify DNA-binding proteins. Closely related, RNA-binding proteins are investigated in this study. In particular, discrimination between various types of RNA-binding proteins, evolutionary conservation of these bulk electrostatic features and effect of conformational changes by complex formation are investigated. Basic binding mechanism of a putative RNA-binding protein (HI1333 from Haemophilus influenza is suggested as a potential application of this study. Results We found that similar to DNA-binding proteins (DBPs, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs also show significantly higher values of electric moments. However, higher moments in RBPs are found to strongly depend on their functional class: proteins binding to ribosomal RNA (rRNA constitute the only class with all three of the properties (charge, dipole and quadrupole moments being higher than control proteins. Neural networks were trained using leave-one-out cross-validation to predict RBPs from control data as well as pair-wise classification capacity between proteins binding to various RNA types. RBPs and control proteins reached up to 78% accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve. Proteins binding to rRNA are found to be best distinguished (AUC = 79%. Changes in dipole and quadrupole moments between unbound and bound structures were small and these properties are found to be robust under complex formation. Conclusions Bulk electric

  1. Physically based principles of cell adhesion mechanosensitivity in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoux, Benoit; Nicolas, Alice

    2012-01-01

    The minimal structural unit that defines living organisms is a single cell. By proliferating and mechanically interacting with each other, cells can build complex organization such as tissues that ultimately organize into even more complex multicellular living organisms, such as mammals, composed of billions of single cells interacting with each other. As opposed to passive materials, living cells actively respond to the mechanical perturbations occurring in their environment. Tissue cell adhesion to its surrounding extracellular matrix or to neighbors is an example of a biological process that adapts to physical cues. The adhesion of tissue cells to their surrounding medium induces the generation of intracellular contraction forces whose amplitude adapts to the mechanical properties of the environment. In turn, solicitation of adhering cells with physical forces, such as blood flow shearing the layer of endothelial cells in the lumen of arteries, reinforces cell adhesion and impacts cell contractility. In biological terms, the sensing of physical signals is transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses such as cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Regarding the biological and developmental consequences of cell adaptation to mechanical perturbations, understanding mechanotransduction in tissue cell adhesion appears as an important step in numerous fields of biology, such as cancer, regenerative medicine or tissue bioengineering for instance. Physicists were first tempted to view cell adhesion as the wetting transition of a soft bag having a complex, adhesive interaction with the surface. But surprising responses of tissue cell adhesion to mechanical cues challenged this view. This, however, did not exclude that cell adhesion could be understood in physical terms. It meant that new models and descriptions had to be created specifically for these biological issues, and could not straightforwardly be adapted from dead matter

  2. Thermomechanical Mechanisms of Reducing Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N; Dotan, A; Dodiuk, H; Kenig, S

    2016-09-20

    Superhydrophobic (SH) coatings have been shown to reduce freezing and ice nucleation rates, by means of low surface energy chemistry tailored with nano/micro roughness. Durability enhancement of SH surfaces is a crucial issue. Consequently, the present research on reducing ice adhesion is based on radiation-induced radical reaction for covalently bonding SiO2 nanoparticles to polymer coatings to obtain durable roughness. Results indicated that the proposed approach resulted in SH surfaces having high contact angles (>155°) and low sliding angles (reduction of shear adhesion to a variety of SH treated substrates having low thermal expansion coefficient (copper and aluminum) and high thermal expansion coefficient (polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)). It was concluded that the thermal mismatch between the adhering ice and the various substrates and its resultant interfacial thermal stresses affect the adhesion strength of the ice to the respective substrate.

  3. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Elliot W.; Eason, Eric V.; Christensen, David L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for syn...

  4. Glycocalyx Degradation Induces a Proinflammatory Phenotype and Increased Leukocyte Adhesion in Cultured Endothelial Cells under Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K McDonald

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours. We found that with the enzymatic degradation of the glycocalyx, endothelial cells developed a proinflammatory phenotype when exposed to uniform steady shear stress leading to an increase in leukocyte adhesion. Our results show an up-regulation of ICAM-1 with degradation compared to non-degraded controls (3-fold increase, p<0.05 and we attribute this effect to a de-regulation in NF-κB activity in response to flow. These results suggest that the glycocalyx is not solely a physical barrier to adhesion but rather plays an important role in governing the phenotype of endothelial cells, a key determinant in leukocyte adhesion. We provide evidence for how the destabilization of this structure may be an early and defining feature in the initiation of atherosclerosis.

  5. Reversible low adhesive to high adhesive superhydrophobicity transition on ZnO nanoparticle surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Yang, Yaoxia; Zha, Fei; Yan, Long; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with water contact angle of 162° and sliding angle of 2° were fabricated successfully by spraying hydrophobic ZnO nanoparticle suspensions without limitations the shape and size of substrates. The as-prepared superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces are low adhesive and a water droplet easily rolls off with the surface slightly tilted. However, after being irradiated by UV light through a photomask, it becomes highly adhesive, on which a water droplet is firmly pinned without any movement. Further annealing the irradiated film, water droplets can roll off the surface again. Reversible transition between the low adhesive rolling state and high adhesive pinning state can be realized simply by UV illumination and heat treatment alternately. At the same time, the maximum adhesive force between the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces and the water droplet changes from extreme low (∼5.1 μN) to very high (∼136.1 μN). When irradiated without a photomask, the surface became hydrophilic. Additionally, a water droplet can be transfered from the low adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces to the hydrophilic ZnO surfaces using the high adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces as a mechanical hand.

  6. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms...

  7. Effect of nordihydroguaiaretic acid cross-linking on fibrillar collagen: in vitro evaluation of fibroblast adhesion strength and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Y. Rioja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixation is required to reinforce reconstituted collagen for orthopedic bioprostheses such as tendon or ligament replacements. Previous studies have demonstrated that collagen fibers cross-linked by the biocompatible dicatechol nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA have mechanical strength comparable to native tendons. This work focuses on investigating fibroblast behavior on fibrillar and NDGA cross-linked type I collagen to determine if NDGA modulates cell adhesion, morphology, and migration. A spinning disk device that applies a range of hydrodynamic forces under uniform chemical conditions was employed to sensitively quantify cell adhesion strength, and a radial barrier removal assay was used to measure cell migration on films suitable for these quantitative in vitro assays. The compaction of collagen films, mediated by the drying and cross-linking fabrication process, suggests a less open organization compared to native fibrillar collagen that likely allowed the collagen to form more inter-chain bonds and chemical links with NDGA polymers. Fibroblasts strongly adhered to and migrated on native and NDGA cross-linked fibrillar collagen; however, NDGA modestly reduced cell spreading, adhesion strength and migration rate. Thus, it is hypothesized that NDGA cross-linking masked some adhesion receptor binding sites either physically, chemically, or both, thereby modulating adhesion and migration. This alteration in the cell-material interface is considered a minimal trade-off for the superior mechanical and compatibility properties of NDGA cross-linked collagen compared to other fixation approaches.

  8. Bacterial adhesion to conventional hydrogel and new silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjikian, Laurent; Casoli-Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Malet, Florence; Janin-Manificat, Hélène; Freney, Jean; Burillon, Carole; Colin, Joseph; Steghens, Jean-Paul

    2008-02-01

    As bacterial adhesion to contact lenses may contribute to the pathogenesis of keratitis, the aim of our study was to investigate in vitro adhesion of clinically relevant bacteria to conventional hydrogel (standard HEMA) and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses using a bioluminescent ATP assay. Four types of unworn contact lenses (Etafilcon A, Galyfilcon A, Balafilcon A, Lotrafilcon B) were incubated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (two different strains) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lenses were placed with the posterior surface facing up and were incubated in the bacterial suspension for 4 hours at 37 degrees C. Bacterial binding was then measured and studied by bioluminescent ATP assay. Six replicate experiments were performed for each lens and strain. Adhesion of all species of bacteria to standard HEMA contact lenses (Etafilcon A) was found to be significantly lower than that of three types of silicone-hydrogel contact lenses, whereas Lotrafilcon B material showed the highest level of bacterial binding. Differences between species in the overall level of adhesion to the different types of contact lenses were observed. Adhesion of P. aeruginosa was typically at least 20 times greater than that observed with both S. epidermidis strains. Conventional hydrogel contact lenses exhibit significantly lower bacterial adhesion in vitro than silicone-hydrogel ones. This could be due to the greater hydrophobicity but also to the higher oxygen transmissibility of silicone-hydrogel lenses.

  9. Rheology and adhesion of poly(acrylic acid)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels as biocompatible adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Muxian; Li, Li; Sun, Yimin; Xu, Jun; Guo, Xuhong; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2014-02-18

    Biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) consisting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and nanosized clay (Laponite) were successfully synthesized by in situ free-radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solutions of Laponite. The obtained NC gels were uniform and transparent. Their viscosity, storage modulus G', and loss modulus G″ increased significantly upon increasing the content of Laponite and the dose of AA, while exhibiting a maximum with increasing the neutralization degree of AA. They showed tunable adhesion by changing the dose of Laponite and monomer as well as the neutralization degree of AA, as determined by 180° peel strength measurement. The maximal adhesion was shown when reaching a balance between cohesion and fluidity. A homemade Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) instrument was employed to study the surface adhesion behavior of the NC gels. The combination of peel strength, rheology, and JKR measurements offers the opportunity of insight into the mechanism of adhesion of hydrogels. The NC gels with tunable adhesion should be ideal candidates for dental adhesive, wound dressing, and tissue engineering.

  10. Cellular function and adhesion mechanisms of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroustalli, Anthoula A; Kourkouli, Souzana N; Deligianni, Despina D

    2013-12-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered to be excellent reinforcements for biorelated applications, but, before being incorporated into biomedical devices, their biocompatibility need to be investigated thoroughly. We investigated the ability of films of pristine MWCNTs to influence human mesenchymal stem cells' proliferation, morphology, and differentiation into osteoblasts. Moreover, the selective integrin subunit expression and the adhesion mechanism to the substrate were evaluated on the basis of adherent cell number and adhesion strength, following the treatment of cells with blocking antibodies to a series of integrin subunits. Results indicated that MWCNTs accelerated cell differentiation to a higher extent than tissue culture plastic, even in the absence of additional biochemical inducing agents. The pre-treatment with anti-integrin antibodies decreased number of adherent cells and adhesion strength at 4-60%, depending on integrin subunit. These findings suggest that pristine MWCNTs represent a suitable reinforcement for bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  11. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Verde, D M; Calado, T C; Ocampo, J S; Silva-Monteiro, E; Savino, W

    1999-05-01

    Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble beta-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  12. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling of photoelectron spectra: the carbon 1s core-electron binding energies of ethanol-water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, T; Niskanen, J; Jänkälä, K; Vahtras, O; Rinkevicius, Z; Ågren, H

    2014-11-20

    Using ethanol-water solutions as illustration, we demonstrate the capability of the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) paradigm to simulate core photoelectron spectroscopy: the binding energies and the chemical shifts. An integrated approach with QM/MM binding energy calculations coupled to preceding molecular dynamics sampling is adopted to generate binding energies averaged over the solute-solvent configurations available at a particular temperature and pressure and thus allowing for a statistical assessment with confidence levels for the final binding energies. The results are analyzed in terms of the contributions in the molecular mechanics model-electrostatic, polarization, and van der Waals-with atom or bond granulation of the corresponding MM charge and polarizability force-fields. The role of extramolecular charge transfer screening of the core-hole and explicit hydrogen bonding is studied by extending the QM core to cover the first solvation shell. The results are compared to those obtained from pure electrostatic and polarizable continuum models. Particularly, the dependence of the carbon 1s binding energies with respect to the ethanol concentration is studied. Our results indicate that QM/MM can be used as an all-encompassing model to study photoelectron binding energies and chemical shifts in solvent environments.

  13. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  14. Adhesion of some probiotic and dairy Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomola, E M; Salminen, S J

    1998-05-05

    The adhesion of 12 different Lactobacillus strains was studied using Caco-2 cell line as an in vitro model for intestinal epithelium. Some of the strains tested have been used as probiotics, and most of them are used in the dairy and food industry. Human and bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 cell cultures was quantitated using radiolabelled bacteria. The adherence of bacteria was also observed microscopically after Gram staining. Viability of bacteria prior to adhesion was verified using flow cytometry. Among the tested strains, L. casei (Fyos) was the most adhesive strain and L. casei var. rhamnosus (Lactophilus) was the least adhesive strain, approximately 14 and 3% of the added bacteria adhered to Caco-2 cell cultures, respectively. The corresponding values for positive and negative control E. coli strains were 14 and 4%, respectively. The Lactobacillus strains tested could not be divided into distinctly adhesive or non-adhesive strains, since there was a continuation of adhesion rates. The four most adhesive strains were L. casei (Fyos), L. acidophilus 1 (LC1), L. rhamnosus LC-705 and Lactobacillus GG (ATCC 53103). No significant differences in the percentage adhesion were observed between these strains. Adhesion of all the strains was dependent on the number of bacteria used, since an approximately constant number of Caco-2 cells was used, indicating that the Caco-2 cell binding sites were not saturated. Viability of bacteria was high since approximately 90% of the bacteria were viable with the exception of L. acidophilus 1 which was 74% viable. Microscopic evaluations agreed with the radiolabelled binding as evidenced by observing more bacteria in Gram-stained preparations of good adhering strains compared to poorly adhering strains.

  15. Tuneable adhesion through novel binder technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.E.L.; Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Ingenhut, B.; Timmer, K.; Rentrop, C.H.A.; Bots, T.L.; Oosterhuis, G.; Fischer, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    A reversible crosslinking mechanism enabling bonding and debonding of adhesives and coatings based on Diels-Alder chemistry is described. The Diels-Alder compounds form a covalently crosslinked network at low temperatures that break at elevated temperatures. As a result, the adhesive exhibits good

  16. Functional Elements on SIRPα IgV domain Mediate Cell Surface Binding to CD47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J.; Zen, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Summary SIRPα and SIRPβ1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPα with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPβ1 shares highly homologous extracellular IgV structure with SIRPα, it does not bind to CD47. In this study, we defined key amino acid residues exclusively expressing in the IgV domain of SIRPα, but not SIRPβ1, which determine the extracellular binding interaction of SIRPα to CD47. These key residues include Gln67, a small hydrophobic amino acid (Ala or Val) at the 57th position and Met102. We found that Gln67 and Ala/Val57 are critical. Mutation of either of these residues abates SIRPα directly binding to CD47. Functional cell adhesion and leukocyte transmigration assays further demonstrated central roles of Gln67 and Ala/Val57 in SIRPα extracellular binding mediated cell interactions and cell migration. Another SIRPα-specific residue, Met102, appears to assist SIRPα IgV binding through Gln67 and Ala/Val57. An essential role of these amino acids in SIRPα binding to CD47 was further confirmed by introducing these residues into the SIRPβ1 IgV domain, which dramatically converts SIRPβ1 into a CD47-binding molecule. Our results thus revealed the molecular basis by which SIRPα selectively binds to CD47 and shed new light into the structural mechanisms of SIRP isoform mediated distinctive extracellular interactions and cellular responses. PMID:17070842

  17. Functional elements on SIRPalpha IgV domain mediate cell surface binding to CD47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J; Yang, Yang; Zen, Ke

    2007-01-19

    SIRPalpha and SIRPbeta1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPalpha with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPbeta1 shares highly homologous extracellular IgV structure with SIRPalpha, it does not bind to CD47. Here, we defined key amino acid residues exclusively expressing in the IgV domain of SIRPalpha, but not SIRPbeta1, which determine the extracellular binding interaction of SIRPalpha to CD47. These key residues include Gln67, a small hydrophobic amino acid (Ala or Val) at the 57th position and Met102. We found that Gln67 and Ala/Val57 are critical. Mutation of either of these residues abates SIRPalpha directly binding to CD47. Functional cell adhesion and leukocyte transmigration assays further demonstrated central roles of Gln67 and Ala/Val57 in SIRPalpha extracellular binding mediated cell interactions and cell migration. Another SIRPalpha-specific residue, Met102, appears to assist SIRPalpha IgV binding through Gln67 and Ala/Val57. An essential role of these amino acid residues in SIRPalpha binding to CD47 was further confirmed by introducing these residues into the SIRPbeta1 IgV domain, which dramatically converts SIRPbeta1 into a CD47-binding molecule. Our results thus revealed the molecular basis by which SIRPalpha binds to CD47 and shed new light into the structural mechanisms of SIRP isoform mediated distinctive extracellular interactions and cellular responses.

  18. Mechanical and microbiological properties and drug release modeling of an etch-and-rinse adhesive containing copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Malaquias, P; Matos, T P; Szesz, A; Souza, S; Bermudez, J; Reis, A; Loguercio, A D; Farago, P V

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of addition of copper nanoparticles (CN) at different concentrations into a two-step etch-and-rinse (2-ER) adhesive on antimicrobial activity (AMA), copper release (CR), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), degree of conversion (DC), water sorption (WS), solubility (SO), as well as the immediate (IM) and 1-year resin-dentin bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL). Seven adhesives were formulated according to the addition of CN (0, 0.0075, 0.015, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5 and 1wt%) in adhesive. The AMA was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans using agar diffusion assay. For CR, WS and SO, specimens were constructed and tested for 28 days. For UTS, specimens were tested after 24h and 28 days. For DC, specimens were constructed and tested after 24h by FTIR. After enamel removal, the ER was applied to dentin. After composite resin build-ups, specimens were sectioned to obtain resin-dentin sticks. For μTBS and NL, specimens were tested after 24h and 1-year periods. All data were submitted to statistical analysis (α=0.05). The addition of CN provided AMA to the adhesives at all concentrations. Higher CR was observed in adhesives with higher concentration of CN. UTS, DC, WS and SO were not influenced. For μTBS an increase was observed in 0.1 and 0.5% copper group. For NL, a significant decrease was observed in all groups in comparison with control group. After 1-year, no significant reductions of μTBS and no significant increases of NL were observed for copper containing adhesives compared to the control group. The addition of CN in concentrations up to 1wt% in the 2-ER adhesive may be an alternative to provide AMA and preserve the bonding to dentin, without reducing adhesives' mechanical properties evaluated. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Huiwen [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Wang, Lei [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A., E-mail: velazque@ualberta.ca [Chemistry Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis and Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 (Canada); Wu, Shiyong, E-mail: wus1@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (∼ 56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ► NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ► NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ► NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of β1 integrin.

  20. Influence of nanoporous structure on mechanical strength of aluminium and aluminium alloy adhesive structural joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, C; Dispenza, C; Sunseri, C

    2006-01-01

    The influence of surface treatments on the mechanical strength of adhesive joints was investigated. The attention was focused on AA2024 alloy because it is extensively used in both the automotive and aerospace industries. Adhesive joints fabricated with pure aluminium were also investigated in order to evidence possible differences in the surface features after identical treatments. Before joining with a commercial epoxy adhesive, metal substrates were subjected to different kinds of treatment and the surfaces were characterized by SEM analysis. The formation of a microporous surface in the AA2024 alloy, upon etching and anodizing, is discussed on the basis of the role of the intermetallic particles and their electrochemical behaviour with respect to the aluminium matrix. Moreover, nanostructured porous oxide layers on both type of substrate were also formed, as a consequence of the anodizing process. Differences in their morphologies were revealed as a function of both the applied voltage and the presence of alloying elements. On this basis, an explanation of the different values of fracture energy measured by means of T-peel tests carried out on the corresponding joints was attempted

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with β-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis

  2. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  3. Advances in modeling and design of adhesively bonded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S

    2013-01-01

    The book comprehensively charts a way for industry to employ adhesively bonded joints to make systems more efficient and cost-effective Adhesively bonded systems have found applications in a wide spectrum of industries (e.g., aerospace, electronics, construction, ship building, biomedical, etc.) for a variety of purposes. Emerging adhesive materials with improved mechanical properties have allowed adhesion strength approaching that of the bonded materials themselves. Due to advances in adhesive materials and the many potential merits that adhesive bonding offers, adhesive bonding has replac

  4. Functionalization of CoCr surfaces with cell adhesive peptides to promote HUVECs adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel, E-mail: maria.isabel.castellanos@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in Nanoengineering (CRNE), UPC, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mas-Moruno, Carlos, E-mail: carles.mas.moruno@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in Nanoengineering (CRNE), UPC, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Anna, E-mail: agraugar@gmail.com [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in Nanoengineering (CRNE), UPC, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Serra-Picamal, Xavier, E-mail: xserrapicamal@gmail.com [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona and CIBER-BBN, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Trepat, Xavier, E-mail: xtrepat@ub.edu [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona and CIBER-BBN, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Albericio, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.albericio@irbbarcelona.org [Department of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, CIBER-BBN, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Joner, Michael, E-mail: michaeljoner@me.com [Department of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum München, 80636 Munich (Germany); CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • We immobilized peptides on CoCr alloy through physisorption and covalent bonding. • Surface activation is an essential step prior to silanization to enhance peptide attachment. • Biofunctionalized surface characteristics were discussed. • RGDS, YIGSR and combination peptides display an improved HUVECs adhesion and proliferation. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification with peptides that have specific cell-binding moieties is a promising approach to improve endothelialization of metal-based stents. In this study, we functionalized CoCr surfaces with RGDS, REDV, YIGSR peptides and their combinations to promote endothelial cells (ECs) adhesion and proliferation. An extensive characterization of the functionalized surfaces was performed by XPS analysis, surface charge and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), which demonstrated the successful immobilization of the peptides to the surface. Cell studies demonstrated that the covalent functionalization of CoCr surfaces with an equimolar combination of RGDS and YIGSR represents the most powerful strategy to enhance the early stages of ECs adhesion and proliferation, indicating a positive synergistic effect between the two peptide motifs. Although these peptide sequences slightly increased smooth muscle cells (SMCs) adhesion, these values were ten times lower than those observed for ECs. The combination of RGDS with the REDV sequence did not show synergistic effects in promoting the adhesion or proliferation of ECs. The strategy presented in this study holds great potential to overcome clinical limitations of current metal stents by enhancing their capacity to support surface endothelialization.

  5. Matrine inhibits the adhesion and migration of BCG823 gastric cancer cells by affecting the structure and function of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-wei; Su, Ke; Shi, Wen-tao; Wang, Ying; Hu, Peng-chao; Wang, Yang; Wei, Lei; Xiang, Jin; Yang, Fang

    2013-08-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) expression is upregulated in human cancers and correlates with more invasive advanced tumor stages. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which matrine, an alkaloid derived from Sophora species plants, acted on the VASP protein in human gastric cancer cells in vitro. VASP was expressed and purified. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the binding of matrine to VASP. CD spectroscopy was used to examine the changes in the VASP protein secondary structure. Human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC823 was tested. Scratch wound and cell adhesion assays were used to detect the cell migration and adhesion, respectively. Real-time PCR and Western blotting assays were used to measure mRNA and protein expression of VASP. In the fluorescence assay, the dissociation constant for binding of matrine to VASP protein was 0.86 mmol/L, thus the direct binding between the two molecules was weak. However, matrine (50 μg/mL) caused obvious change in the secondary structure of VASP protein shown in CD spectrum. Treatments of BGC823 cells with matrine (50 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the cell migration and adhesion. The alkaloid changed the subcellular distribution of VASP and formation of actin stress fibers in BGC823 cells. The alkaloid caused small but statistically significant decreases in VASP protein expression and phosphorylation, but had no significant effect on VASP mRNA expression. Matrine modulates the structure, subcellular distribution, expression and phosphorylation of VASP in human gastric cancer cells, thus inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion and migration.

  6. The Effect of Thermal Fluctuation on the Receptor-Mediated Adhesion of a Cell Membrane to an Elastic Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Marzban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanics of the bilayer membrane play an important role in many biological and bioengineering problems such as cell–substrate and cell–nanomaterial interactions. In this work, we study the effect of thermal fluctuation and the substrate elasticity on the cell membrane–substrate adhesion. We model the adhesion of a fluctuating membrane on an elastic substrate as a two-step reaction comprised of the out-of-plane membrane fluctuation and the receptor–ligand binding. The equilibrium closed bond ratio as a function of substrate rigidity was computed by developing a coupled Fourier space Brownian dynamics and Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that there exists a crossover value of the substrate rigidity at which the closed bond ratio is maximal.

  7. Changes in materials properties explain the effects of humidity on gecko adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, Jonathan B; Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2010-11-01

    Geckos owe their remarkable stickiness to millions of dry setae on their toes, and the mechanism of adhesion in gecko setae has been the topic of scientific scrutiny for over two centuries. Previously, we demonstrated that van der Waals forces are sufficient for strong adhesion and friction in gecko setae, and that water-based capillary adhesion is not required. However, recent studies demonstrated that adhesion increases with relative humidity (RH) and proposed that surface hydration and capillary water bridge formation is important or even necessary. In this study, we confirmed a significant effect of RH on gecko adhesion, but rejected the capillary adhesion hypothesis. While contact forces of isolated tokay gecko setal arrays increased with humidity, the increase was similar on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, inconsistent with a capillary mechanism. Contact forces increased with RH even at high shear rates, where capillary bridge formation is too slow to affect adhesion. How then can a humidity-related increase in adhesion and friction be explained? The effect of RH on the mechanical properties of setal β-keratin has escaped consideration until now. We discovered that an increase in RH softens setae and increases viscoelastic damping, which increases adhesion. Changes in setal materials properties, not capillary forces, fully explain humidity-enhanced adhesion, and van der Waals forces remain the only empirically supported mechanism of adhesion in geckos.

  8. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-06

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of novel siloxane-methacrylate monomers used as dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xueping; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize two new siloxane-methacrylate (SM) monomers for application in dentin adhesives and to investigate the influence of different functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers on the adhesive photopolymerization, water sorption, and mechanical properties. Two siloxane-methacrylate monomers (SM1 and SM2) with four and eight methacrylate groups were synthesized. Dentin adhesives containing BisGMA, HEMA and the siloxane-methacrylate monomers were photo-polymerized. The experimental adhesives were compared with the control adhesive (HEMA/BisGMA, 45/55, w/w) and characterized with regard to degree of conversion (DC), water miscibility of the liquid resin, water sorption and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The experimental adhesives exhibited improved water miscibility as compared to the control. When cured in the presence of 12 wt% water to simulate the wet environment of the mouth, the SM-containing adhesives showed DC comparable to the control. The experimental adhesives showed higher rubbery modulus than the control under dry conditions. Under wet conditions, the mechanical properties of the formulations containing SM monomer with increased functionality were comparable with the control, even with more water sorption. The concentration and functionality of the newly synthesized siloxane-methacrylate monomers affected the water miscibility, water sorption and mechanical properties of the adhesives. The experimental adhesives show improved water compatibility compared with the control. The mechanical properties were enhanced with an increase of the functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers. The results provide critical structure/property relationships and important information for future development of durable, versatile siloxane-containing dentin adhesives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through homophilic trans-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Francis X; Martin, Ryan A; Springer, Evan M; Leffler, Maxwell S; Woelmer, Bryce R; Recker, Isaac J; Leaman, Douglas W

    2017-07-11

    The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments. We report that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion to myoblasts and myotubes through homophilic trans-interactions. Such adhesive interactions enhanced levels of active Rac in adherent and fusing myoblasts, as well as triggered lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts through the signaling function of the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. Rac inhibition negated ICAM-1 mediated lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts. The fusogenic property of ICAM-1-ICAM-1 interactions was restricted to myogenic cells, as forced expression of ICAM-1 by fibroblasts did not augment their fusion to ICAM-1+ myoblasts/myotubes. We conclude that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through its ability to self-associate and initiate Rac-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  11. Influence of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A.; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Almoammar, Salem; Durgesh, Bangalore H.; Kheraif, Abdulaziz A. Al; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires Methods. Three different coated (Epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium) and one uncoated Ni-Ti archwires were evaluated in the present study. Surface roughness (Ra) was assessed using a non-contact surface profilometer. The mechanical properties (nano-hardness and elastic modulus) were measured using a nanoindenter. Bacterial adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS) and streptococcus sobrinus (SS) in an in-vitro set up. The data obtained were analyzed using analyses of variance, Tukey’s post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Result. The highest Ra values (1.29 ± 0.49) were obtained for epoxy coated wires and lowest Ra values (0.29 ± 0.16) were obtained for the uncoated wires. No significant differences in the Ra values were observed between the rhodium coated and uncoated archwires (P > 0.05). The highest nano-hardness (3.72 ± 0.24) and elastic modulus values (61.15 ± 2.59) were obtained for uncoated archwires and the lowest nano-hardness (0.18 ± 0.10) and elastic modulus values (4.84 ± 0.65) were observed for epoxy coated archwires. No significant differences in nano-hardness and elastic modulus values were observed between the coated archwires (P > 0.05). The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (MS) to the wires was significantly greater than that of streptococcus sobrinus (SS). The epoxy coated wires demonstrated an increased adhesion of MS and SS and the uncoated wires demonstrated decreased biofilm adhesion. The Spearman correlation test showed that MS and SS adhesion was positively correlated with the surface roughness of the wires. Conclusion. The different surface coatings significantly influence the roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion parameters of the archwires. The

  12. Different mechanisms are involved in the antibody mediated inhibition of ligand binding to the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E

    1999-01-01

    Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance or interfer......Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance......) can be employed as a highly useful tool to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of specific antagonist antibodies. Two inhibitory antibodies against uPAR, mAb R3 and mAb R5, were shown to exhibit competitive and non-competitive inhibition, respectively, of ligand binding to the receptor. The former...

  13. Mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and prognostic significance of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hairu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM is implicated in the prognosis of multiple cancers with low level expression associated with metastasis and early death in breast cancer. Despite this significance, mechanisms that regulate ALCAM gene expression and ALCAM's role in adhesion of pre-metastatic circulating tumor cells have not been defined. We studied ALCAM expression in 20 tumor cell lines by real-time PCR, western blot and immunochemistry. Epigenetic alterations of the ALCAM promoter were assessed using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. ALCAM's role in adhesion of tumor cells to the vascular wall was studied in isolated perfused lungs. Results A common site for transcription initiation of the ALCAM gene was identified and the ALCAM promoter sequenced. The promoter contains multiple cis-active elements including a functional p65 NF-κB motif, and it harbors an extensive array of CpG residues highly methylated exclusively in ALCAM-negative tumor cells. These CpG residues were modestly demethylated after 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Restoration of high-level ALCAM expression using an ALCAM cDNA increased clustering of MDA-MB-435 tumor cells perfused through the pulmonary vasculature of ventilated rat lungs. Anti-ALCAM antibodies reduced the number of intravascular tumor cell clusters. Conclusion Our data suggests that loss of ALCAM expression, due in part to DNA methylation of extensive segments of the promoter, significantly impairs the ability of circulating tumor cells to adhere to each other, and may therefore promote metastasis. These findings offer insight into the mechanisms for down-regulation of ALCAM gene expression in tumor cells, and for the positive prognostic value of high-level ALCAM in breast cancer.

  14. Amperometric Adhesion Signals of Liposomes, Cells and Droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Ivošević DeNardis, N.; Žutić, V.; Svetličić, V.; Frkanec, R.

    2009-01-01

    Individual soft microparticles (liposomes, living cells and organic droplets) in aqueous media are characterized by their adhesion signals using amperometry at the dropping mercury electrode. We confirmed that the general mechanism established for adhesion of hydrocarbon droplets and cells is valid as well for liposome adhesion within a wide range of surface charge densities. Incidents and shape of adhesion signals in liposome suspensions reflect liposome polydispersity, surface charge den...

  15. Improving adhesion of seasonings to crackers with hydrocolloid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Matthew E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2013-11-01

    Food powders were applied on crackers that had been coated using water, oil, emulsion, sucrose, or hydrocolloid solutions. The hydrocolloids that were used include gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan, methylcellulose, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, gum arabic, guar gum, modified starch, and maltodextrin. Solutions of similar hydrophobicity to the powder gave the greatest adhesion. NaCl, barbecue (BBQ), ranch, and sour cream & onion (SC&O) seasoning showed greatest adhesion with water, cheese powder with an emulsion of 12.5% to 25% oil, and cocoa powder with oil. For NaCl, BBQ, ranch, and SC&O seasoning, hydrocolloids improved the adhesion over using water alone, with gellan gum providing the greatest adhesion. Hydrocolloid structural differences, including the presence or absence of branching, substitution of sugar units, and molecular weight affect water binding and thickening of the hydrocolloid spray that seemed to be significant factors affecting adhesion of powders to the target surface. For cheese powder, hydrocolloids were capable of replacing the oil within an emulsion while improving or maintaining the same level of adhesion, with gum arabic providing the greatest adhesion. For cocoa powder, hydrocolloid solutions were ineffective adhesives due to differences in hydrophilicity that result in insolubility. The effect of hydrocolloid concentration on adhesion was dependent both on the hydrocolloid type and the concentration that is sprayable, with 0.5% being the optimum concentration for most gums. Adhesion using sucrose solutions was determined by particle size and relative hydrophobicity. Increasing sucrose concentration decreased adhesion of smaller particles, but increased adhesion of larger particles. Adhesion of NaCl significantly increased with decreasing NaCl size using oil, water, and sucrose solutions. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Amino acid sequences mediating vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 binding to integrin alpha 4: homologous DSP sequence found for JC polyoma VP1 coat protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Andrew Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4 to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3. For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  17. Block Copolymer Adhesion Measured by Contact Mechanics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafi, A.; Bates, S.; Tirrell, M.; Pocius, A. V.

    1997-03-01

    Adhesion measurements for a series of polyolefin diblocks and triblocks are presented. These materials have poly(ethylene-propylene) or poly(ethyl-ethylene) rubbery block, and semicrystalline polyethylene block as physical crosslinker. The experiments consist of compression and decompression profiles of contact area between the samples as a function of normal load, analyzed by the JKR Theory. The samples are prepared either by formation of caps from the bulk material in melting and subsequent cooling, and/or coating them in thin films on surface modified elastic foundations of polydimethylsiloxane caps. The latter minimizes the viscoelastic losses which are dominant in the bulk of material. The effect of molecular architecture and microstructure on adhesion energy and dynamics of separation, obtained from decompression experiments, is discussed in view of their influence on molecular arrangements at the contacting surfaces.

  18. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Becker, Sarah F; Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

    2016-07-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile population of cells that is responsible for forming the face and jaw in all vertebrates and perturbing their migration can lead to craniofacial birth defects. Cell motility requires a dynamic modification of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In the CNC, cleavage of the cell adhesion molecule cadherin-11 by ADAM13 is essential for cell migration. This cleavage generates a shed extracellular fragment of cadherin-11 (EC1-3) that possesses pro-migratory activity via an unknown mechanism. Cadherin-11 plays an important role in modulating contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in the CNC to regulate directional cell migration. Here, we show that while the integral cadherin-11 requires the homophilic binding site to promote CNC migration in vivo, the EC1-3 fragment does not. In addition, we show that increased ADAM13 activity or expression of the EC1-3 fragment increases CNC invasiveness in vitro and blocks the repulsive CIL response in colliding cells. This activity requires the presence of an intact homophilic binding site on the EC1-3 suggesting that the cleavage fragment may function as a competitive inhibitor of cadherin-11 adhesion in CIL but not to promote cell migration in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Diatom Attachment at Aquatic Interfaces: Molecular Interactions, Mechanisms, and Physiology of Adhesion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gretz, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... those more hydrophobic and that bacterial 'preconditioning' has variable effects on adhesion; (3) developed methodology for mass culture of fouling diatoms and isolation of adhesive components; (4...

  20. Self-recognition of high-mannose type glycans mediating adhesion of embryonal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Utkina, Natalia; Sadilek, Martin; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kato, Koichi; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2013-07-01

    High-mannose type N-linked glycan with 6 mannosyl residues, termed "M6Gn2", displayed clear binding to the same M6Gn2, conjugated with ceramide mimetic (cer-m) and incorporated in liposome, or coated on polystyrene plates. However, the conjugate of M6Gn2-cer-m did not interact with complex-type N-linked glycan with various structures having multiple GlcNAc termini, conjugated with cer-m. The following observations indicate that hamster embryonic fibroblast NIL-2 K cells display homotypic autoadhesion, mediated through the self-recognition capability of high-mannose type glycans expressed on these cells: (i) NIL-2 K cells display clear binding to lectins capable of binding to high-mannose type glycans (e.g., ConA), but not to other lectins capable of binding to other carbohydrates (e.g. GS-II). (ii) NIL-2 K cells adhere strongly to plates coated with M6Gn2-cer-m, but not to plates coated with complex-type N-linked glycans having multiple GlcNAc termini, conjugated with cer-m; (iii) degree of NIL-2 K cell adhesion to plates coated with M6Gn2-cer-m showed a clear dose-dependence on the amount of M6Gn2-cer-m; and (iv) the degree of NIL-2 K adhesion to plates coated with M6Gn2-cer-m was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by α1,4-L-mannonolactone, the specific inhibitor in high-mannose type glycans addition. These data indicate that adhesion of NIL-2 K is mediated by self-aggregation of high mannose type glycan. Further studies are to be addressed on auto-adhesion of other types of cells based on self interaction of high mannose type glycans.

  1. Bonding and fusion of meniscus fibrocartilage using a novel chondroitin sulfate bone marrow tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Jacob A; Strehin, Iossif A; Allen, Brian W; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2013-08-01

    The weak intrinsic meniscus healing response and technical challenges associated with meniscus repair contribute to a high rate of repair failures and meniscectomies. Given this limited healing response, the development of biologically active adjuncts to meniscal repair may hold the key to improving meniscal repair success rates. This study demonstrates the development of a bone marrow (BM) adhesive that binds, stabilizes, and stimulates fusion at the interface of meniscus tissues. Hydrogels containing several chondroitin sulfate (CS) adhesive levels (30, 50, and 70 mg/mL) and BM levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) were formed to investigate the effects of these components on hydrogel mechanics, bovine meniscal fibrochondrocyte viability, proliferation, matrix production, and migration ability in vitro. The BM content positively and significantly affected fibrochondrocyte viability, proliferation, and migration, while the CS content positively and significantly affected adhesive strength (ranged from 60±17 kPa to 335±88 kPa) and matrix production. Selected material formulations were translated to a subcutaneous model of meniscal fusion using adhered bovine meniscus explants implanted in athymic rats and evaluated over a 3-month time course. Fusion of adhered meniscus occurred in only the material containing the highest BM content. The technology can serve to mechanically stabilize the tissue repair interface and stimulate tissue regeneration across the injury site.

  2. Isolation of αL I domain mutants mediating firm cell adhesion using a novel flow-based sorting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Lauren R; Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Robbins, Gregory P; Dang, Nicholas N; Hammer, Daniel A; Boder, Eric T

    2013-08-01

    The inserted (I) domain of αLβ2 integrin (LFA-1) contains the entire binding site of the molecule. It mediates both rolling and firm adhesion of leukocytes at sites of inflammation depending on the activation state of the integrin. The affinity change of the entire integrin can be mimicked by the I domain alone through mutations that affect the conformation of the molecule. High-affinity mutants of the I domain have been discovered previously using both rational design and directed evolution. We have found that binding affinity fails to dictate the behavior of I domain adhesion under shear flow. In order to better understand I domain adhesion, we have developed a novel panning method to separate yeast expressing a library of I domain variants on the surface by adhesion under flow. Using conditions analogous to those experienced by cells interacting with the post-capillary vascular endothelium, we have identified mutations supporting firm adhesion that are not found using typical directed evolution techniques that select for tight binding to soluble ligands. Mutants isolated using this method do not cluster with those found by sorting with soluble ligand. Furthermore, these mutants mediate shear-driven cell rolling dynamics decorrelated from binding affinity, as previously observed for I domains bearing engineered disulfide bridges to stabilize activated conformational states. Characterization of these mutants supports a greater understanding of the structure-function relationship of the αL I domain, and of the relationship between applied force and bioadhesion in a broader context.

  3. Combined effects of PEG hydrogel elasticity and cell-adhesive coating on fibroblast adhesion and persistent migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlis, Dimitris; Spatz, Joachim P

    2014-01-13

    The development and use of synthetic, cross-linked, macromolecular substrates with tunable elasticity has been instrumental in revealing the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to their mechanical microenvironment. We here describe a hydrogel based on radical-free, cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) to study the effects of both substrate elasticity and type of adhesive coating on fibroblast adhesion and migration. Hydrogel elasticity was controlled through the structure and concentration of branched precursors, which efficiently react via Michael-type addition to produce the polymer network. We found that cell spreading and focal adhesion characteristics are dependent on elasticity for all types of coatings (RGD peptide, fibronectin, vitronectin), albeit with significant differences in magnitude. Importantly, fibroblasts migrated slower but more persistently on stiffer hydrogels, with the effects being more pronounced on fibronectin-coated substrates. Therefore, our results validate the hydrogels presented in this study as suitable for future mechanosensing studies and indicate that cell adhesion, polarity, and associated migration persistence are tuned by substrate elasticity and biochemical properties.

  4. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Verde D.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble ß-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  5. Urokinase links plasminogen activation and cell adhesion by cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Valentina; Sarra Ferraris, Gian Maria; Madsen, Jeppe B; Lupia, Michela; Andreasen, Peter A; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-07-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system including urokinase (uPA), its inhibitor (PAI-1) and its cell surface receptor (uPAR) have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes related to tissue homoeostasis. Firstly, the binding of uPA to uPAR favours extracellular proteolysis by enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation. Secondly, it promotes cell adhesion and signalling through binding of the provisional matrix protein vitronectin. We now report that uPA and plasmin induces a potent negative feedback on cell adhesion through specific cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin. Cleavage of vitronectin by uPA displays a remarkable receptor dependence and requires concomitant binding of both uPA and vitronectin to uPAR Moreover, we show that PAI-1 counteracts the negative feedback and behaves as a proteolysis-triggered stabilizer of uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin. These findings identify a novel and highly specific function for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of cell adhesion to vitronectin. The cleavage of vitronectin by uPA and plasmin results in the release of N-terminal vitronectin fragments that can be detected in vivo, underscoring the potential physiological relevance of the process. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Targeting Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Transcription for Treatment of Inflammatory Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam M. Ashander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting the endothelial adhesion molecules that control leukocyte trafficking into a tissue has been explored as a biological therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, these molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, and inhibiting the physiological level of an adhesion molecule might promote infection or malignancy. We explored the concept of targeting endothelial adhesion molecule transcription during inflammation in a human system. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 mediates leukocyte migration across the retinal endothelium in noninfectious posterior uveitis. We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1, in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and identified putative binding sites for NF-κB1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. We targeted induced NF-κB1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (siRNA. Knockdown of NF-κB1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF-α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Consistently, NF-κB1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF-α but did not impact baseline binding. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that induced transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules might be targeted therapeutically for inflammatory disease in humans.

  7. Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) promotes cell proliferation, adhesion and drug resistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yuchan [Department of Pathogen, Medical College, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); Zhu, Xinghua; Yin, Haibing [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); He, Yunhua [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); Li, Chunsun; Liu, Yushan; Lu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Yali; Shen, Rong [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Xu, Xiaohong, E-mail: xuxiaohongnantong@126.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); He, Song, E-mail: hesongnt@126.com [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-15

    YB-1 is a multifunctional protein, which has been shown to correlate with resistance to treatment of various tumor types. This study investigated the expression and biologic function of YB-1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression statuses of YB-1 and pYB-1{sup S102} were reversely correlated with the clinical outcomes of DLBCL patients. In addition, we found that YB-1 could promote the proliferation of DLBCL cells by accelerating the G1/S transition. Ectopic expression of YB-1 could markedly increase the expression of cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Furthermore, we found that adhesion of DLBCL cells to fibronectin (FN) could increase YB-1 phosphorylation at Ser102 and pYB-1{sup S102} nuclear translocation. In addition, overexpression of YB-1 could increase the adhesion of DLBCL cells to FN. Intriguingly, we found that YB-1 overexpression could confer drug resistance through cell-adhesion dependent and independent mechanisms in DLBCL. Silencing of YB-1 could sensitize DLBCL cells to mitoxantrone and overcome cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) phenotype in an AKT-dependent manner. - Highlights: • The expression statuses of YB-1 and pYB-1{sup S102} are reversely correlated with outcomes of DLBCL patients. • YB-1 promotes cell proliferation by accelerating G1/S transition in DLBCL. • YB-1 confers drug resistance to mitoxantrone in DLBCL.

  8. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED VISCOELASTIC ADHESIVE AREAS UNDER COMBINING LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Murat Enginsoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mechanical behaviors of adhesive tape VHB 4950 elastomeric material, which is an element of acrylic polymer group and which is in viscoelastic behavior, under different pre-stress conditions and complex forces of different geometric parameters created by combining loadings have been experimentally and numerically investigated. In experimental studies, loading-unloading cyclic tests, one of the different standardized tests for the mechanical characterization of viscoelastic material, have been applied which give the most suitable convergent optimization parameters for the finite element model. Different material models were also investigated by using the data obtained from loading-unloading test results in all numerical models. According to the experimental results, the most suitable material parameters were determined with the Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework Model (PRF for 4 Yeoh Networks with Bergstrom-Boyce Flow model created in the Mcalibration software for finite element analysis. Subsequently, using these material parameters, finite element analysis was performed as three dimension non-linear viscoelastic with a commercial finite element software Abaqus. The finite element analysis results showed good correlation to the Force (N-Displacement (mm experimental data for maximum load-carrying capacity of structural specimens.

  9. Binding mechanism and dynamic conformational change of C subunit of PKA with different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Chu, Xiakun; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-19

    The catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) exhibits three major conformational states (open, intermediate, and closed) during the biocatalysis process. Both ATP and substrate/inhibitor can effectively induce the conformational changes of PKAc from open to closed states. Aiming to explore the mechanism of this allosteric regulation, we developed a coarse-grained model and analyzed the dynamics of conformational changes of PKAc during binding by performing molecular dynamics simulations for apo PKAc, binary PKAc (PKAc with ATP, PKAc with PKI), and ternary PKAc (PKAc with ATP and PKI). Our results suggest a mixed binding mechanism of induced fit and conformational selection, with the induced fit dominant. The ligands can drive the movements of Gly-rich loop as well as some regions distal to the active site in PKAc and stabilize them at complex state. In addition, there are two parallel pathways (pathway with PKAc-ATP as an intermediate and pathway PKAc-PKI as an intermediate) during the transition from open to closed states. By molecular dynamics simulations and rate constant analyses, we find that the pathway through PKAc-ATP intermediate is the main binding route from open to closed state because of the fact that the bound PKI will hamper ATP from successful binding and significantly increase the barrier for the second binding subprocess. These findings will provide fundamental insights of the mechanisms of PKAc conformational change upon binding.

  10. Prostaglandins in Cancer Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Menter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins exert a profound influence over the adhesive, migratory, and invasive behavior of cells during the development and progression of cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1 are upregulated in inflammation and cancer. This results in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, which binds to and activates G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E1-4 receptors (EP1-4. Selectively targeting the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1-4 axis of the prostaglandin pathway can reduce the adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Once stimulated by prostaglandins, cadherin adhesive connections between epithelial or endothelial cells are lost. This enables cells to invade through the underlying basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM. Interactions with the ECM are mediated by cell surface integrins by “outside-in signaling” through Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK and/or “inside-out signaling” through talins and kindlins. Combining the use of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1-4 axis-targeted molecules with those targeting cell surface adhesion receptors or their downstream signaling molecules may enhance cancer therapy.

  11. Single-cell force spectroscopy of pili-mediated adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullan, Ruby May A.; Beaussart, Audrey; Tripathi, Prachi; Derclaye, Sylvie; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Li, James K.; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-12-01

    Although bacterial pili are known to mediate cell adhesion to a variety of substrates, the molecular interactions behind this process are poorly understood. We report the direct measurement of the forces guiding pili-mediated adhesion, focusing on the medically important probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Using non-invasive single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), we quantify the adhesion forces between individual bacteria and biotic (mucin, intestinal cells) or abiotic (hydrophobic monolayers) surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces, bacterial pili strengthen adhesion through remarkable nanospring properties, which - presumably - enable the bacteria to resist high shear forces under physiological conditions. On mucin, nanosprings are more frequent and adhesion forces larger, reflecting the influence of specific pili-mucin bonds. Interestingly, these mechanical responses are no longer observed on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Rather, force curves exhibit constant force plateaus with extended ruptures reflecting the extraction of membrane nanotethers. These single-cell analyses provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms by which piliated bacteria colonize surfaces (nanosprings, nanotethers), and offer exciting avenues in nanomedicine for understanding and controlling the adhesion of microbial cells (probiotics, pathogens).

  12. Structural and mutational analyses of the receptor binding domain of botulinum D/C mosaic neurotoxin: Insight into the ganglioside binding mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuemket, Nipawan [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshikazu [Creative Research Institution ' Sousei,' Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takao [Department of Microbiology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192 (Japan); Nakamura, Keiji; Kozaki, Shunji [Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka 598-8531 (Japan); Yao, Min [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao, E-mail: tanaka@castor.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We determined the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of BoNT in complex with 3'-sialyllactose. {yields} An electron density derived from the 3'-sialyllactose was confirmed at the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. {yields} Alanine site-directed mutagenesis showed that GBS and GBL are important for ganglioside binding. {yields} A cell binding mechanism, which involves cooperative contribution of two sites, was proposed. -- Abstract: Clostridium botulinum type D strain OFD05, which produces the D/C mosaic neurotoxin, was isolated from cattle killed by the recent botulism outbreak in Japan. The D/C mosaic neurotoxin is the most toxic of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) characterized to date. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of BoNT from strain OFD05 in complex with 3'-sialyllactose at a resolution of 3.0 A. In the structure, an electron density derived from the 3'-sialyllactose was confirmed at the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. Alanine site-directed mutagenesis showed the significant contribution of the residues surrounding the cleft to ganglioside recognition. In addition, a loop adjoining the cleft also plays an important role in ganglioside recognition. In contrast, little effect was observed when the residues located around the surface previously identified as the protein receptor binding site in other BoNTs were substituted. The results of cell binding analysis of the mutants were significantly correlated with the ganglioside binding properties. Based on these observations, a cell binding mechanism of BoNT from strain OFD05 is proposed, which involves cooperative contribution of two ganglioside binding sites.

  13. Ionizing radiation method for forming acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives and coated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowbenko, R.; Christenson, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive adhesive having improved adhesive properties are formed by subjecting a mixture comprising a monomer selected from the group consisting of alkyl acrylates, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, alkoxyalkyl acrylates, cyanoalkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, hydroxyalkyl methacrylates, alkoxyalkyl methacrylates, cyanoalkyl methacrylates, N-alkoxymethylacrylamides, and N-alkoxymethylmethacrylamides, and a homopolymer or copolymer selected from the group consisting of polymers of alkyl acrylates, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, alkoxyalkyl acrylates, cyanoalkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, hydroxyalkyl methacrylates, alkoxyalkyl methacrylates, cyanoalkyl methacrylates, acrylamide, methacrylamide, N-(substituted alkyl) acrylamides, N-(substituted alkyl) methacrylamides, alkyl acrylamides, alkyl methacrylamides, and N-alkoxymethylacrylamides and N-alkoxymethylmethacrylamides to ionizing irradiation. The adhesive material finds utility as binding resins in laminates, coatings on substrates, and as film adhesives. (U.S.)

  14. Adhesive Joints in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn

    to be determined in several different ways. The accuracy of different ways of measuring residual stresses in the adhesive was tested by applying five different methods on a single sandwich test specimen (laminate/adhesive/laminate) that was instrumented with strain gauges and fiber Bragg gratings. Quasi...... of the project is to develop new- and to improve the existing design rules for adhesive joints in wind turbine blades. The first scientific studies of adhesive joints were based on stress analysis, which requires that the bond-line is free of defects, but this is rarely the case for a wind turbine blade. Instead...... curing and test temperatures) on the formation of transverse cracks in the adhesive were tested experimentally. It was assumed that the transverse cracks evolved due to a combination of mechanical- and residual stresses in the adhesive. A new approach was developed that allows the residual stress...

  15. Laminin-dependent and laminin-independent adhesion of human melanoma cells to sulfatides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, D D; Wewer, U M; Liotta, L A

    1988-01-01

    Sulfatides (galactosylceramide-I3-sulfate) but not neutral glycolipids or gangliosides adsorbed on plastic promote adhesion of the human melanoma cell line G361. Direct adhesion of G361 cells requires densities of sulfatide greater than 1 pmol/mm2. In the presence of laminin, however, specific...... adhesion of G361 cells to sulfatide or seminolipid (galactosylalkylacyl-glycerol-I3-sulfate) but not to other lipids is strongly stimulated and requires only 25 fmol/mm2 of adsorbed lipid. The effects of laminin and sulfatide on adhesion are synergistic, suggesting that laminin is mediating adhesion...... by cross-linking receptors on the melanoma cell surface to sulfatide adsorbed on the plastic. Although thrombospondin binds to sulfatides and G361 cells, it does not enhance, but rather inhibits direct and laminin-dependent G361 cell adhesion to sulfatide. In contrast, C32 melanoma cells also adhere...

  16. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-02-10

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity.

  17. Elastic coupling of nascent apCAM adhesions to flowing actin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejean, Cecile O; Schaefer, Andrew W; Buck, Kenneth B; Kress, Holger; Shundrovsky, Alla; Merrill, Jason W; Dufresne, Eric R; Forscher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions are multi-molecular complexes that transmit forces generated by a cell's acto-myosin networks to external substrates. While the physical properties of some of the individual components of adhesions have been carefully characterized, the mechanics of the coupling between the cytoskeleton and the adhesion site as a whole are just beginning to be revealed. We characterized the mechanics of nascent adhesions mediated by the immunoglobulin-family cell adhesion molecule apCAM, which is known to interact with actin filaments. Using simultaneous visualization of actin flow and quantification of forces transmitted to apCAM-coated beads restrained with an optical trap, we found that adhesions are dynamic structures capable of transmitting a wide range of forces. For forces in the picoNewton scale, the nascent adhesions' mechanical properties are dominated by an elastic structure which can be reversibly deformed by up to 1 µm. Large reversible deformations rule out an interface between substrate and cytoskeleton that is dominated by a number of stiff molecular springs in parallel, and favor a compliant cross-linked network. Such a compliant structure may increase the lifetime of a nascent adhesion, facilitating signaling and reinforcement.

  18. Elastic coupling of nascent apCAM adhesions to flowing actin networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile O Mejean

    Full Text Available Adhesions are multi-molecular complexes that transmit forces generated by a cell's acto-myosin networks to external substrates. While the physical properties of some of the individual components of adhesions have been carefully characterized, the mechanics of the coupling between the cytoskeleton and the adhesion site as a whole are just beginning to be revealed. We characterized the mechanics of nascent adhesions mediated by the immunoglobulin-family cell adhesion molecule apCAM, which is known to interact with actin filaments. Using simultaneous visualization of actin flow and quantification of forces transmitted to apCAM-coated beads restrained with an optical trap, we found that adhesions are dynamic structures capable of transmitting a wide range of forces. For forces in the picoNewton scale, the nascent adhesions' mechanical properties are dominated by an elastic structure which can be reversibly deformed by up to 1 µm. Large reversible deformations rule out an interface between substrate and cytoskeleton that is dominated by a number of stiff molecular springs in parallel, and favor a compliant cross-linked network. Such a compliant structure may increase the lifetime of a nascent adhesion, facilitating signaling and reinforcement.

  19. The Influence of Biochemical Modification on the Properties of Adhesive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of biochemical modification of epoxy adhesive compounds on the mechanical properties of a cured adhesive exposed to various climatic factors. The epoxy adhesive was modified by lyophilized fungal metabolites and prepared by three methods. Additionally, the adhesive compound specimens were seasoned for two months at a temperature of 50 °C and 50% humidity in a climate test chamber, Espec SH 661. The tensile strength tests of the adhesive compounds were performed using a Zwick/Roell Z150 testing machine in compliance with the DIN EN ISO 527-1 standard. The examination of the adhesive specimens was performed using two microscopes: a LEO 912AB transmission electron microscope equipped with Quantax 200 for EDS X-ray spectroscopy and a Zeiss 510 META confocal microscope coupled to an AxioVert 200M. The experiments involved the use of a CT Skyscan 1172 tomograph. The results revealed that some mechanical properties of the modified adhesives were significantly affected by both the method of preparation of the adhesive compound and the content of the modifying agent. In addition, it was found that seasoning of the modified adhesives does not lead to a decrease in some of their mechanical properties.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-01-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, Christian, E-mail: clin180@ec.auckland.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Proft, Thomas [School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Baker, Edward N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  2. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  3. Structural and quantum mechanical computations to elucidate the altered binding mechanism of metal and drug with pyrazinamidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Nouman; Iftikhar, Saima; Amir, Anam; Hussain, Waqar

    2018-03-01

    Pyrazinamide is known to be the most effective treatment against tuberculosis disease and is known to have bacteriostatic action. By targeting the bacterial spores, this drug reduces the chances for the progression of the infection in organisms. In recent years, increased instances of the drug resistance of bacterial strains are reported. Pyrazinamidase, activator for pyrazinamide, leads to resistance against the drug due to mutagenicity across the world. The present study aimed at the quantum mechanistic analysis of mutations in pyrazinamidase to gain insights into the mechanism of this enzyme. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to analyse the effect of mutations at the metal coordination site using ORCA software program. Moreover, conformational changes in PZase binding cavity has also been analysed due to mutations of binding pocket residues using CASTp server. In order to elucidate the behaviour of the mutant pyrazinamidase, docking of PZA in the binding pocket of PZase was performed using AutoDock Vina. Analysis of results revealed that iron showed weak binding with the metal coordination site of the mutant proteins due to alteration in electron transfer mechanism. The binding cavity of the mutant PZase has undergone major conformational changes as the volume of pocket increased due to bulky R-chains of mutated amino acids. These conformational changes lead to weak binding of the drug at binding cavity of PZase and reduce the drug activation mechanism leading to increased drug resistance in the bacterial strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. From the Cover: Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Sitti, Metin; Liang, Yiching A.; Peattie, Anne M.; Hansen, Wendy R.; Sponberg, Simon; Kenny, Thomas W.; Fearing, Ronald; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Full, Robert J.

    2002-09-01

    Geckos have evolved one of the most versatile and effective adhesives known. The mechanism of dry adhesion in the millions of setae on the toes of geckos has been the focus of scientific study for over a century. We provide the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and reject the use of mechanisms relying on high surface polarity, including capillary adhesion. The toes of live Tokay geckos were highly hydrophobic, and adhered equally well to strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic, polarizable surfaces. Adhesion of a single isolated gecko seta was equally effective on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of a microelectro-mechanical systems force sensor. A van der Waals mechanism implies that the remarkable adhesive properties of gecko setae are merely a result of the size and shape of the tips, and are not strongly affected by surface chemistry. Theory predicts greater adhesive forces simply from subdividing setae to increase surface density, and suggests a possible design principle underlying the repeated, convergent evolution of dry adhesive microstructures in gecko, anoles, skinks, and insects. Estimates using a standard adhesion model and our measured forces come remarkably close to predicting the tip size of Tokay gecko seta. We verified the dependence on size and not surface type by using physical models of setal tips nanofabricated from two different materials. Both artificial setal tips stuck as predicted and provide a path to manufacturing the first dry, adhesive microstructures.

  5. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. Methods ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3?M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with di...

  6. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  7. ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins: Towards a Computational View of Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jielou

    2004-03-01

    Many large machine proteins can generate mechanical force and undergo large-scale conformational changes (LSCC) to perform varying biological tasks in living cells by utilizing ATP. Important examples include ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. They are membrane proteins that couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to the translocation of substrates across membranes [1]. To interpret how the mechanical force generated by ATP binding and hydrolysis is propagated, a coarse-grained ATP-dependent harmonic network model (HNM) [2,3] is applied to the ABC protein, BtuCD. This protein machine transports vitamin B12 across membranes. The analysis shows that subunits of the protein move against each other in a concerted manner. The lowest-frequency modes of the BtuCD protein are found to link the functionally critical domains, and are suggested to be responsible for large-scale ATP-coupled conformational changes. [1] K. P. Locher, A. T. Lee and D. C. Rees. Science 296, 1091-1098 (2002). [2] Atilgan, A. R., S. R. Durell, R. L. Jernigan, M. C. Demirel, O. Keskin, and I. Bahar. Biophys. J. 80, 505-515(2002); M. M Tirion, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1905-1908 (1996). [3] J. -L. Liao and D. N. Beratan, 2003, to be published.

  8. Flotillins Regulate Focal Adhesions by Interacting with α-Actinin and by Influencing the Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Banning

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell–matrix adhesion and cell migration are physiologically important processes that also play a major role in cancer spreading. In cultured cells, matrix adhesion depends on integrin-containing contacts such as focal adhesions. Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are frequently overexpressed in cancers and are associated with poor survival. Our previous studies have revealed a role for flotillin-2 in cell–matrix adhesion and in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We here show that flotillins are important for cell migration in a wound healing assay and influence the morphology and dynamics of focal adhesions. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar is enhanced by flotillins. In the absence of flotillins, especially flotillin-2, phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and extracellularly regulated kinase is diminished. Flotillins interact with α-actinin, a major regulator of focal adhesion dynamics. These findings are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of how flotillin overexpression in cancers may affect cell migration and, especially, enhance metastasis formation.

  9. Cell-substrate interaction with cell-membrane-stress dependent adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Yang, B

    2012-01-10

    Cell-substrate interaction is examined in a two-dimensional mechanics model. The cell and substrate are treated as a shell and an elastic solid, respectively. Their interaction through adhesion is treated using nonlinear springs. Compared to previous cell mechanics models, the present model introduces a cohesive force law that is dependent not only on cell-substrate distance but also on internal cell-membrane stress. It is postulated that a living cell would establish focal adhesion sites with density dependent on the cell-membrane stress. The formulated mechanics problem is numerically solved using coupled finite elements and boundary elements for the cell and the substrate, respectively. The nodes in the adhesion zone from either side are linked by the cohesive springs. The specific cases of a cell adhering to a homogeneous substrate and a heterogeneous bimaterial substrate are examined. The analyses show that the substrate stiffness affects the adhesion behavior significantly and regulates the direction of cell adhesion, in good agreement with the experimental results in the literature. By introducing a reactive parameter (i.e., cell-membrane stress) linking biological responses of a living cell to a mechanical environment, the present model offers a unified mechanistic vehicle for characterization and prediction of living cell responses to various kinds of mechanical stimuli including local extracellular matrix and neighboring cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The electron beam cure of epoxy paste adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.D.; Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently developed epoxy paste adhesives were electron beam cured and experimentally explored to determine their suitability for use in an aerospace-quality aircraft component. There were two major goals for this program. The first was to determine whether the electron beam-curable past adhesives were capable of meeting the requirements of the US Air Force T-38 supersonic jet trainer composite windshield frame. The T-38 windshield frame's arch is currently manufactured by bonding thin stainless steel plies using an aerospace-grade thermally-cured epoxy film adhesive. The second goal was to develop the lowest cost hand layup and debulk process that could be used to produce laminated steel plies with acceptable properties. The laminate properties examined to determine adhesive suitability include laminate mechanical and physical properties at room, adhesive tack, out-time capability, and the debulk requirements needed to achieve these properties. Eighteen past adhesives and four scrim cloths were experimentally examined using this criteria. One paste adhesive was found to have suitable characteristics in each of these categories and was later chosen for the manufacture of the T-38 windshield frame. This experimental study shows that by using low-cost debulk and layup processes, the electron beam-cured past adhesive mechanical and physical properties meet the specifications of the T-38 composite windshield frame

  11. Switchable adhesion by chemical functionality and topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, M.M.G.; Synytska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in adhesion technology over the last few decades has led to widespread replacement of mechanical fasteners with adhesive bonds. Despite the advances, it remains challenging to produce materials that are sticky on demand. In this feature article we highlight recent efforts to develop

  12. Influence of substrate modulus on gecko adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klittich, Mena R.; Wilson, Michael C.; Bernard, Craig; Rodrigo, Rochelle M.; Keith, Austin J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system’s performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces. Here, we investigate for the first time the influence of macroscale and nanoscale substrate modulus on whole animal adhesion on two different substrates (cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane) in air and find that across 5 orders of magnitude in macroscale modulus, there is no change in adhesion. On the nanoscale, however, gecko adhesion is shown to depend on substrate modulus. This suggests that low surface-layer modulus may inhibit the gecko adhesion system, independent of other influencing factors such as macroscale composite modulus and surface energy. Understanding the limits of gecko adhesion is vital for clarifying adhesive mechanisms and in the design of synthetic adhesives for soft substrates (including for biomedical applications and wearable electronics).

  13. Adhesion of Escherichia coli under flow conditions reveals potential novel effects of FimH mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, T.; Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Wieser, E.

    2017-01-01

    H mutations on bacterial adhesion using a novel adhesion assay, which models the physiological flow conditions bacteria are exposed to. We introduced 12 different point mutations in the mannose binding pocket of FimH in an E. coli strain expressing type 1 fimbriae only (MSC95-FimH). We compared the bacterial...... adhesion of each mutant across several commonly used adhesion assays, including agglutination of yeast, adhesion to mono- and tri-mannosylated substrates, and static adhesion to bladder epithelial and endothelial cells. We performed a comparison of these assays to a novel method that we developed to study...... mutations abrogated adhesion. We demonstrated that FimH residues E50 and T53 are crucial for adhesion under flow conditions. The coating of endothelial cells on biochips and modelling of physiological flow conditions enabled us to identify FimH residues crucial for adhesion. These results provide novel...

  14. Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruth, J.P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, L.; Rombouts, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides an overview of the different binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), thus improving the understanding of these processes. Design/methodology/approach – A classification of SLS/SLM processes was developed, based on the

  15. The Effect of Face and Adhesive Types on Mechanical Properties of Sandwich Panels Made from Honeycomb Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are new kind of layered composites that usually are composed of three layers and their core layer's thickness is higher and the outer layers are determinative in determination of the products strength and stiffness. The core layer is commonly made of honeycomb paper, corrugated paper and polyurethane etc. In this study, effects of face and adhesive types on mechanical properties of sandwich panels made from honeycomb paper were investigated. The variables included three types; beech face, poplar face and hardboard (S2S face, veneer less and adhesive type (two types; epoxy and PVA. Out of experimental panels specimens were cut and tested according to DIN E 326-1 standard. Mechanical properties of panels, included modulus of elasticity as well as modulus of rupture at the edge and surface (based on DIN EN 310 standard and Impact Bending Strength (IBS of the panels (based on ASTM D 3499 standard were measured. The gathered data were analyzed as completely randomized factorial design. Highest mechanical properties were reported for panels glued with epoxy resin and containing fiberboard at the middle. According to results, optimum condition of producing sandwich panels was observed in uses of epoxy resin and fiberboard S2S face, veneer less at the middle.

  16. The macrophage CD163 surface glycoprotein is an erythroblast adhesion receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabriek, Babs O; Polfliet, Machteld M J; Vloet, Rianka P M

    2007-01-01

    Erythropoiesis occurs in erythroblastic islands, where developing erythroblasts closely interact with macrophages. The adhesion molecules that govern macrophage-erythroblast contact have only been partially defined. Our previous work has implicated the rat ED2 antigen, which is highly expressed...... on the surface of macrophages in erythroblastic islands, in erythroblast binding. In particular, the monoclonal antibody ED2 was found to inhibit erythroblast binding to bone marrow macrophages. Here, we identify the ED2 antigen as the rat CD163 surface glycoprotein, a member of the group B scavenger receptor...... that it enhanced erythroid proliferation and/or survival, but did not affect differentiation. These findings identify CD163 on macrophages as an adhesion receptor for erythroblasts in erythroblastic islands, and suggest a regulatory role for CD163 during erythropoiesis....

  17. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  18. PECAM-1 polymorphism affects monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Reyna S; Kirton, Christopher M; Oostingh, Gertie J; Schön, Michael P; Clark, Michael R; Bradley, J Andrew; Taylor, Craig J

    2008-02-15

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) plays an important role in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transmigration. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PECAM-1 encoding amino acid substitutions at positions 98 leucine/valine (L/V), 536 serine/asparagine (S/N), and 643 arginine/glycine (R/G) occur in strong genetic linkage resulting in two common haplotypes (LSR and VNG). These PECAM-1 polymorphisms are associated with graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and with cardiovascular disease, but whether they influence PECAM-1 function is unknown. We examined the effect of homozygous and heterozygous expression of the PECAM-1 LSR and VNG genotypes on the adhesive interactions of peripheral blood monocytes and activated endothelial cell monolayers under shear stress in a flow-based cell adhesion assay. There was no difference in monocyte adhesion between the two homozygous genotypes of PECAM-1 but when monocytes expressed both alleles in heterozygous form, firm adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells was markedly increased. PECAM-1 polymorphism expressed in homozygous or heterozygous form by endothelial cells did not influence monocyte adhesion. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that PECAM-1 genotype can alter the level of monocyte binding to endothelial cells and a demonstration that heterozygous expression of a polymorphic protein may lead to altered function.

  19. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  20. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Satoh, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. MapA-binding receptor-like molecules were detected in Caco-2 cell lysates by 2D-PAGE. Two proteins, annexin A13 (ANXA13) and paralemmin (PALM), were identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The results of a pull-down assay showed that MapA bound directly to ANXA13 and PALM. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed that MapA binding to ANXA13 and PALM was colocalized on the Caco-2 cell membrane. To evaluate whether ANXA13 and PALM are important for MapA adhesion, ANXA13 and PALM knockdown cell lines were established. The adhesion of MapA to the abovementioned cell lines was reduced compared with that to wild-type Caco-2 cells. These knockdown experiments established the importance of these receptor-like molecules in MapA adhesion.

  1. Biomechanics of P-selectin PSGL-1 bonds: Shear threshold and integrin-independent cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhihua; Goldsmith, Harry L.; MacIntosh, Fiona A.; Shankaran, Harish; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-leukocyte adhesion may contribute to thrombosis and inflammation. We examined the heterotypic interaction between unactivated neutrophils and either thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) stimulated platelets or P-selectin bearing beads (Ps-beads) in suspension. Cone-plate viscometers were used to apply controlled shear rates from 14-3000/s. Platelet-neutrophil and bead-neutrophil adhesion analysis was performed using both flow cytometry and high-speed videomicroscopy. We observed that while blocking antibodies against either P-selectin or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) alone inhibited platelet-neutrophil adhesion by ~60% at 140/s, these reagents completely blocked adhesion at 3000/s. Anti-Mac-1 alone did not alter platelet-neutrophil adhesion rates at any shear rate, though in synergy with selectin antagonists it abrogated cell binding. Unstimulated neutrophils avidly bound Ps-beads and activated platelets in an integrin-independent manner, suggesting that purely selectin-dependent cell adhesion is possible. In support of this, antagonists against P-selectin or PSGL-1 dissociated previously formed platelet-neutrophil and Ps-bead neutrophil aggregates under shear in a variety of experimental systems, including in assays performed with whole blood. In studies where medium viscosity and shear rate were varied, a subtle shear threshold for P-selectin PSGL-1 binding was also noted at shear rates<100/s and at force loading rates of ~300pN/sec. Results are discussed in light of biophysical computations that characterize the collision between unequal size particles in linear shear flow. Overall, our studies reveal an integrin-independent regime for cell adhesion that may be physiologically relevant.

  2. DNA Damage: Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Study on the Oxygen Binding and Substrate Hydroxylation Step in AlkB Repair Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, Matthew G; Latifi, Reza; Gonzalez-Ovalle, Luis E; Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P

    2014-01-01

    AlkB repair enzymes are important nonheme iron enzymes that catalyse the demethylation of alkylated DNA bases in humans, which is a vital reaction in the body that heals externally damaged DNA bases. Its mechanism is currently controversial and in order to resolve the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study was performed on the demethylation of the N1-methyladenine fragment by AlkB repair enzymes. Firstly, the initial modelling identified the oxygen binding site of the enzyme. Secondly, the oxygen activation mechanism was investigated and a novel pathway was found, whereby the catalytically active iron(IV)–oxo intermediate in the catalytic cycle undergoes an initial isomerisation assisted by an Arg residue in the substrate binding pocket, which then brings the oxo group in close contact with the methyl group of the alkylated DNA base. This enables a subsequent rate-determining hydrogen-atom abstraction on competitive σ-and π-pathways on a quintet spin-state surface. These findings give evidence of different locations of the oxygen and substrate binding channels in the enzyme and the origin of the separation of the oxygen-bound intermediates in the catalytic cycle from substrate. Our studies are compared with small model complexes and the effect of protein and environment on the kinetics and mechanism is explained. PMID:24339041

  3. State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-08-17

    Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape.

  4. Sarcospan integration into laminin-binding adhesion complexes that ameliorate muscular dystrophy requires utrophin and α7 integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jamie L.; Oh, Jennifer; Chou, Eric; Lee, Joy A.; Holmberg, Johan; Burkin, Dean J.; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in loss of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex, a laminin receptor that connects the myofiber to its surrounding extracellular matrix. Utrophin, a dystrophin ortholog that is normally localized to the neuromuscular junction, is naturally upregulated in DMD muscle, which partially compensates for the loss of dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin causes broad sarcolemma localization of utrophin, restoration of laminin binding and amelioration of disease in the mdx mouse model of DMD. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of sarcospan, a dystrophin- and utrophin-binding protein, ameliorates mdx muscular dystrophy. Sarcospan boosts levels of utrophin to therapeutic levels at the sarcolemma, where attachment to laminin is restored. However, understanding the compensatory mechanism is complicated by concomitant upregulation of α7β1 integrin, which also binds laminin. Similar to the effects of utrophin, transgenic overexpression of α7 integrin prevents DMD disease in mice and is accompanied by increased abundance of utrophin around the extra-synaptic sarcolemma. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying sarcospan ‘rescue’ of muscular dystrophy, we created double-knockout mice to test the contributions of utrophin or α7 integrin. We show that sarcospan-mediated amelioration of muscular dystrophy in DMD mice is dependent on the presence of both utrophin and α7β1 integrin, even when they are individually expressed at therapeutic levels. Furthermore, we found that association of sarcospan into laminin-binding complexes is dependent on utrophin and α7β1 integrin. PMID:25504048

  5. Mechanical Performance of Polyurethane and Epoxy Adhesives in Connections with Glued-in Rods at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Verdet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glued-in rods have successfully been used for connections or reinforcement of timber structures due to their high strength and stiffness. However, their performance is potentially sensitive to temperature. This paper deals with an experimental investigation of the connections and adhesives in elevated temperatures. First, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA tests were performed to characterize an epoxy (EPX and a polyurethane (PUR adhesive. The evolution of the stiffness and the glass transition temperature, Tg, were measured in the range of 30 °C to 120 °C. Then, a total of 66 specimens with glued-in rods and the same adhesives were tested under a static tensile load at 20 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C. In both types of tests, the EPX outperformed PUR due to its higher stiffness at temperatures of up to 40 °C; however, it showed a more rapid degradation of the stiffness and strength than the PUR at higher temperatures. No direct correlation was established between the Tg and the performance of the connections. The test results suggest that timber structures with glued-in rods may be vulnerable in service at temperatures above 40 °C.

  6. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  7. The extent of adhesion induction through electrocoagulation and suturing in an experimental rat study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwiener, Christian W; Kraemer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Markus; Brochhausen, Christoph; Isaacson, Keith B; Rajab, Taufiek K

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the effect of three types of peritoneal trauma occurring during surgery (high-frequency bipolar current, suturing, and mechanical damage) on postoperative adhesion formation in a rodent animal model. Randomized, controlled experimental trial in an in vitro animal model. Laboratory facilities of a university department of obstetrics and gynecology. Thirty-five female Wistar rats. Bilateral experimental lesions were created on the abdominal wall in every animal. The effect of minimal electrocoagulation was examined by creating lesions (n = 14) through sweeps of a bipolar forceps with a duration of 1 second and standardized pressure. For extensive electrocoagulation standardized lesions (n = 14) were created using sweeps of a duration of 3 seconds and three times more pressure. For mechanical trauma, standardized lesions (n = 14) were created by denuding the peritoneum mechanically. To study the additive effect of suturing, experimental lesions were created by suturing plus minimal electrocoagulation (n = 14) or mechanical denuding (n = 14). Adhesion incidence, quantity, and quality of the resulting adhesions were scored 14 days postoperatively. Adhesions were studied histopathologically. Mechanical denuding of the peritoneum did not result in adhesion formation. After minimal electrocoagulation, mean adhesion quantity of the traumatized area averaged 0%. This contrasted with extensive electrocoagulation, where there was 50% adhesion. Additional suturing increased mean adhesion quantity to 73% and 64% for superficial electrocoagulation and mechanical denuding, respectively. We conclude that superficial trauma limited mostly to the parietal peritoneum may be a negligible factor in adhesion formation in this model. This appears to be irrespective of the mode of trauma. However, additional trauma to the underlying tissues, either by deeper electrocoagulation or suturing, leads to significantly increased adhesion formation. These data also show that there

  8. Contribution of Auger electron spectroscopy to study of mechanism of adhesive wear of valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrkovsky, E.; Koutnik, M.; Potmesilova, A.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly characterized are hypotheses describing the process of intensive adhesive wear (jamming) of materials on functional friction surfaces of valves. Two types of alloys were studied, 1Cr18Ni8Mo5Mn5Si5Nb and NiCrSiB. Auger electron spectroscopy was used in the study of the chemical composition of surface layers. The following conclusions can be made from the results of the adhesive wear measurement and the Auger spectroscopy measurement: There are oxide layers on the surfaces of the specimens which, however, can only to a certain extent affect the process of adhesive wear. Adhesive wear resistance tests using low hardness specimens show that in spite of the existence of oxide layers, friction pairs showing low surface hardness also feature low adhesive wear resistance. Following heat treatment, the surface oxide layers have practically the same chemical composition as the specimens without heat treatment. However, there adhesive wear resistance is significantly higher. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 7 refs

  9. Laminin isoforms differentially regulate adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and ERK activation of β1 integrin-null cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Yu, Hao; Genersch, Elke; Sanzen, Noriko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Faessler, Reinhard; Campbell, Kevin P.; Talts, Jan F.; Ekblom, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The presence of many laminin receptors of the β1 integrin family on most cells makes it difficult to define the biological functions of other major laminin receptors such as integrin α6β4 and dystroglycan. We therefore tested the binding of a β1 integrin-null cell line GD25 to four different laminin variants. The cells were shown to produce dystroglycan, which based on affinity chromatography bound to laminin-1, -2/4, and -10/11, but not to laminin-5. The cells also expressed the integrin α6Aβ4A variant. GD25 β1 integrin-null cells are known to bind poorly to laminin-1, but we demonstrate here that these cells bind avidly to laminin-2/4, -5, and -10/11. The initial binding at 20 min to each of these laminins could be inhibited by an integrin α6 antibody, but not by a dystroglycan antibody. Hence, integrin α6Aβ4A of GD25 cells was identified as a major receptor for initial GD25 cell adhesion to three out of four tested laminin isoforms. Remarkably, cell adhesion to laminin-5 failed to promote cell spreading, proliferation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, whereas all these responses occurred in response to adhesion to laminin-2/4 or -10/11. The data establish GD25 cells as useful tools to define the role integrin α6Aβ4A and suggest that laminin isoforms have distinctly different capacities to promote cell adhesion and signaling via integrin α6Aβ4A

  10. Inhibition of Cellular Adhesion by Immunological Targeting of Osteopontin Neoepitopes Generated through Matrix Metalloproteinase and Thrombin Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürets, Alexander; Le Bras, Marie; Staffler, Günther; Stein, Gesine; Leitner, Lukas; Neuhofer, Angelika; Tardelli, Matteo; Turkof, Edvin; Zeyda, Maximilian; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a secreted protein involved in inflammatory processes and cancer, induces cell adhesion, migration, and activation of inflammatory pathways in various cell types. Cells bind OPN via integrins at a canonical RGD region in the full length form as well as to a contiguous cryptic site that some have shown is unmasked upon thrombin or matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Thus, the adhesive capacity of osteopontin is enhanced by proteolytic cleavage that may occur in inflammatory conditions such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, tumor growth and metastasis. Our aim was to inhibit cellular adhesion to recombinant truncated proteins that correspond to the N-terminal cleavage products of thrombin- or matrix metalloproteinase-cleaved OPN in vitro. We specifically targeted the cryptic integrin binding site with monoclonal antibodies and antisera induced by peptide immunization of mice. HEK 293 cells adhered markedly stronger to truncated OPN proteins than to full length OPN. Without affecting cell binding to the full length form, the raised monoclonal antibodies specifically impeded cellular adhesion to the OPN fragments. Moreover, we show that the peptides used for immunization were able to induce antisera, which impeded adhesion either to all OPN forms, including the full-length form, or selectively to the corresponding truncated recombinant proteins. In conclusion, we developed immunological tools to selectively target functional properties of protease-cleaved OPN forms, which could find applications in treatment and prevention of various inflammatory diseases and cancers.

  11. Gecko-Inspired Electrospun Flexible Fiber Arrays for Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Johnny F.

    The ability of geckos to adhere to vertical solid surfaces comes from their remarkable feet with millions of projections terminating in nanometer spatulae. We present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive dry adhesives. By using electrospun nylon 6 nanofiber arrays, we create gecko-inspired dry adhesives, that are electrically insulating, and that show shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm2 on a glass slide. This measured value is 270% that reported of gecko feet and 97-fold above normal adhesion strength of the same arrays. The data indicate a strong shear binding-on and easy normal lifting-off. This anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to an enhanced shear adhesion strength with decreasing fiber diameter (d) and an optimum performance of nanofiber arrays in the shear direction over a specific range of thicknesses. With use of electrospinning, we report the fabrication of nylon 6 nanofiber arrays that show a friction coefficient (mu) of 11.5. These arrays possess significant shear adhesion strength and low normal adhesion strength. Increasing the applied normal load considerably enhances the shear adhesion strength and mu, irrespective of d and fiber arrays thickness (T). Fiber bending stiffness and fiber surface roughness are considerably decreased with diminishing d while fiber packing density is noticeably increased. These enhancements are proposed to considerably upsurge the shear adhesion strength between nanofiber arrays and a glass slide. The latter upsurge is mainly attributed to a sizeable proliferation in van der Waals (vdW) forces. These nanofiber arrays can be alternatively bound-on and lifted-off over a glass slide with a trivial decrease in the initial mu and adhesion strength. By using selective coating technique, we have also created hierarchical structures having closely packed nanofibers with d of 50 nm. We determine the effects of applied normal load, fiber surface roughness, loading angle, d, T, and repeated

  12. Octasaccharide is the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of cyclophilin B to heparin and cell surface heparan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Denys, Agnès; Carpentier, Mathieu; Pakula, Rachel; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2004-09-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a heparin-binding protein first identified as a receptor for cyclosporin A. In previous studies, we reported that CyPB triggers chemotaxis and integrin-mediated adhesion of T-lymphocytes by way of interaction with two types of binding sites. The first site corresponds to a signalling receptor; the second site has been identified as heparan sulphate (HS) and appears crucial to induce cell adhesion. Characterization of the HS-binding unit is critical to understand the requirement of HS in pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. By using a strategy based on gel mobility shift assays with fluorophore-labelled oligosaccharides, we demonstrated that the minimal heparin unit required for efficient binding of CyPB is an octasaccharide. The mutants CyPB(KKK-) [where KKK- refers to the substitutions K3A(Lys3-->Ala)/K4A/K5A] and CyPB(DeltaYFD) (where Tyr14-Phe-Asp16 has been deleted) failed to interact with octasaccharides, confirming that the Y14FD16 and K3KK5 clusters are required for CyPB binding. Molecular modelling revealed that both clusters are spatially arranged so that they may act synergistically to form a binding site for the octasaccharide. We then demonstrated that heparin-derived octasaccharides and higher degree of polymerization oligosaccharides inhibited the interaction between CyPB and fluorophore-labelled HS chains purified from T-lymphocytes, and strongly reduced the HS-dependent pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. However, oligosaccharides or heparin were unable to restore adhesion of heparinase-treated T-lymphocytes, indicating that HS has to be present on the cell membrane to support the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the octasaccharide is likely to be the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of CyPB to cell surface HS and consequent HS-dependent cell responses.

  13. Intracellular targeting of annexin A2 inhibits tumor cell adhesion, migration, and in vivo grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Dobroff, Andrey S; Tarleton, Christy A; Ozbun, Michelle A; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Gelovani, Juri G; Marchiò, Serena; Sidman, Richard L; Hajjar, Katherine A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2017-06-26

    Cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an active role in coordinating the adhesion and migration machinery in cancer progression. To identify functional protein networks and potential inhibitors, we screened an internalizing phage (iPhage) display library in tumor cells, and selected LGRFYAASG as a cytosol-targeting peptide. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry, intracellular annexin A2 was identified as the corresponding binding protein. Consistently, annexin A2 and a cell-internalizing, penetratin-fused version of the selected peptide (LGRFYAASG-pen) co-localized and specifically accumulated in the cytoplasm at the cell edges and cell-cell contacts. Functionally, tumor cells incubated with LGRFYAASG-pen showed disruption of filamentous actin, focal adhesions and caveolae-mediated membrane trafficking, resulting in impaired cell adhesion and migration in vitro. These effects were paralleled by a decrease in the phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and protein kinase B (Akt). Likewise, tumor cells pretreated with LGRFYAASG-pen exhibited an impaired capacity to colonize the lungs in vivo in several mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate an unrecognized functional link between intracellular annexin A2 and tumor cell adhesion, migration and in vivo grafting. Moreover, this work uncovers a new peptide motif that binds to and inhibits intracellular annexin A2 as a candidate therapeutic lead for potential translation into clinical applications.

  14. Analysis of a vinculin homolog in a sponge (phylum Porifera) reveals that vertebrate-like cell adhesions emerged early in animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Phillip W; Pokutta, Sabine; Mitchell, Jennyfer M; Chodaparambil, Jayanth V; Clarke, D Nathaniel; Nelson, William; Weis, William I; Nichols, Scott A

    2018-06-07

    The evolution of cell adhesion mechanisms in animals facilitated the assembly of organized multicellular tissues. Studies in traditional animal models have revealed two predominant adhesion structures, the adherens junction (AJ) and focal adhesions (FAs), which are involved in the attachment of neighboring cells to each other and to the secreted extracellular matrix (ECM), respectively. The AJ (containing cadherins and catenins) and FAs (comprising integrins, talin, and paxillin) differ in protein composition, but both junctions contain the actin-binding protein vinculin. The near ubiquity of these structures in animals suggests that AJ and FAs evolved early, possibly coincident with multicellularity. However, a challenge to this perspective is that previous studies of sponges-a divergent animal lineage-indicate that their tissues are organized primarily by an alternative, sponge-specific cell adhesion mechanism called "aggregation factor." In this study, we examined the structure, biochemical properties, and tissue localization of a vinculin ortholog in the sponge Oscarella pearsei ( Op ). Our results indicate that Op vinculin localizes to both cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts and has biochemical and structural properties similar to those of vertebrate vinculin. We propose that Op vinculin played a role in cell adhesion and tissue organization in the last common ancestor of sponges and other animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that sponge tissues are indeed organized like epithelia in other animals and support the notion that AJ- and FA-like structures extend to the earliest periods of animal evolution. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Staying sticky: contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengüç, Yigit; Röhrig, Michael; Abusomwan, Uyiosa; Hölscher, Hendrik; Sitti, Metin

    2014-05-06

    The exceptionally adhesive foot of the gecko remains clean in dirty environments by shedding contaminants with each step. Synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives have achieved similar attachment strengths to the gecko on smooth surfaces, but the process of contact self-cleaning has yet to be effectively demonstrated. Here, we present the first gecko-inspired adhesive that has matched both the attachment strength and the contact self-cleaning performance of the gecko's foot on a smooth surface. Contact self-cleaning experiments were performed with three different sizes of mushroom-shaped elastomer microfibres and five different sizes of spherical silica contaminants. Using a load-drag-unload dry contact cleaning process similar to the loads acting on the gecko foot during locomotion, our fully contaminated synthetic gecko adhesives could recover lost adhesion at a rate comparable to that of the gecko. We observed that the relative size of contaminants to the characteristic size of the microfibres in the synthetic adhesive strongly determined how and to what degree the adhesive recovered from contamination. Our approximate model and experimental results show that the dominant mechanism of contact self-cleaning is particle rolling during the drag process. Embedding of particles between adjacent fibres was observed for particles with diameter smaller than the fibre tips, and further studied as a temporary cleaning mechanism. By incorporating contact self-cleaning capabilities, real-world applications of synthetic gecko adhesives, such as reusable tapes, clothing closures and medical adhesives, would become feasible.

  16. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  17. Mechanisms of zinc binding to the solute-binding protein AztC and transfer from the metallochaperone AztD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Durga P; Avalos, Dante; Fullam, Stephanie; Roychowdhury, Hridindu; Yukl, Erik T

    2017-10-20

    Bacteria can acquire the essential metal zinc from extremely zinc-limited environments by using ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters are critical virulence factors, relying on specific and high-affinity binding of zinc by a periplasmic solute-binding protein (SBP). As such, the mechanisms of zinc binding and release among bacterial SBPs are of considerable interest as antibacterial drug targets. Zinc SBPs are characterized by a flexible loop near the high-affinity zinc-binding site. The function of this structure is not always clear, and its flexibility has thus far prevented structural characterization by X-ray crystallography. Here, we present intact structures for the zinc-specific SBP AztC from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans in the zinc-bound and apo-states. A comparison of these structures revealed that zinc loss prompts significant structural rearrangements, mediated by the formation of a sodium-binding site in the apo-structure. We further show that the AztC flexible loop has no impact on zinc-binding affinity, stoichiometry, or protein structure, yet is essential for zinc transfer from the metallochaperone AztD. We also found that 3 His residues in the loop appear to temporarily coordinate zinc and then convey it to the high-affinity binding site. Thus, mutation of any of these residues to Ala abrogated zinc transfer from AztD. Our structural and mechanistic findings conclusively identify a role for the AztC flexible loop in zinc acquisition from the metallochaperone AztD, yielding critical insights into metal binding by AztC from both solution and AztD. These proteins are highly conserved in human pathogens, making this work potentially useful for the development of novel antibiotics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Adhesion of silver/polypyrrole nanocomposite coating to a fluoropolymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, Barbara; Kawakita, Jin, E-mail: KAWAKITA.Jin@nims.go.jp; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Interfacial structure between Ag/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite and PTFE was revealed. • PPy enters into PTFE substrate as a dispersion with up to 12 nm size Ag nanoparticles. • The nanocomposite is absorbed by PTFE substrate up to 1–2 μm deep. • Ag/PPy interlocks mechanically with PTFE causing strong adhesion. - Abstract: This paper describes the adhesive interface between a conducting polymer/metal composite and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate. Strong adhesion was observed from using a Ag/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) composite on a fluoropolymer substrate, which in most cases has a very low adhesion to different materials. To clarify the adhesion mechanism between the Ag/PPy composite and the PTFE substrate, the interfacial structure was studied by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show that Ag/PPy composite is absorbed inside the nano-sized pores of PTFE and the composite mechanically interlocks after solidifying, which causes the nanocomposite to stick strongly to the substrate. The use of Ag/PPy coating could be a novel technique for developing electrodes, antennae or other high performance applications as this metal/conductive polymer composite has excellent adhesion properties on various plastics.

  19. Adhesion of silver/polypyrrole nanocomposite coating to a fluoropolymer substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, Barbara; Kawakita, Jin; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interfacial structure between Ag/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite and PTFE was revealed. • PPy enters into PTFE substrate as a dispersion with up to 12 nm size Ag nanoparticles. • The nanocomposite is absorbed by PTFE substrate up to 1–2 μm deep. • Ag/PPy interlocks mechanically with PTFE causing strong adhesion. - Abstract: This paper describes the adhesive interface between a conducting polymer/metal composite and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate. Strong adhesion was observed from using a Ag/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) composite on a fluoropolymer substrate, which in most cases has a very low adhesion to different materials. To clarify the adhesion mechanism between the Ag/PPy composite and the PTFE substrate, the interfacial structure was studied by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show that Ag/PPy composite is absorbed inside the nano-sized pores of PTFE and the composite mechanically interlocks after solidifying, which causes the nanocomposite to stick strongly to the substrate. The use of Ag/PPy coating could be a novel technique for developing electrodes, antennae or other high performance applications as this metal/conductive polymer composite has excellent adhesion properties on various plastics.

  20. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin or polymeric form (F-actin. Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1-actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1-actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin.

  1. Plasma treatment of polymers for improved adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelber, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of plasma treatments of polymer sufaces for improved adhesion are reviewed: noble and reactive has treatment of fluoropolymers; noble and reactive treatment of polyolefins, and plasma-induced amination of polymer fibers. The plasma induced surface chemical and morphological changer are discussed, as are the mechanisms of adhersion to polymeric adhesives, particularly epoxy. Noble has plasma eching of fluoropolymers produces a partially defluorinated, textured surface. The mechanical interlocking of this textured surface is the primary cause of improved adhsion to epoxy. Reactive has plasma also induce defluorination, but oxygen containing gases cause continual ablation of the fluoropolymer surface. Noble and reactive gas (except for hydrogen) etching of polyolefins results in surface oxidation and imrprove adhesion via hydrogen bonding of these exygen containing groups across the interface. The introduction of amine groups to a polymer surface by ammonia or amine plasma treatment generally results in improved adhesion to epoxy. However, amine-epoxy ring interactions can be severely effected by steric factors due to chemical group surrounding the amine

  2. Targeted Gene Deletion Demonstrates that Cell Adhesion MoleculeICAM-4 is Critical for Erythroblastic Island Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gloria; Lo, Annie; Short, Sarah A.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Spring, Frances; Parsons, Stephen F.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-02-15

    Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), animmunoglobulin superfamily member, participates in island formation. Earlier, we identified alpha V integrins as ICAM-4 counter receptors. Since macrophages express alpha V, ICAM-4 potentially mediates island attachments. To test this, we generated ICAM-4 knockout mice and developed quantitative, live cell techniques for harvesting intact islands and for reforming islands in vitro. We observed a 47 percent decrease in islands reconstituted from ICAM-4 null marrow compared to wild type. We also found a striking decrease in islands formed in vivo in knockout mice. Further, peptides that block ICAM-4 alpha V adhesion produced a 53-57 percent decrease in reconstituted islands, strongly suggesting that ICAM-4 binding to macrophage alpha V functions in island integrity. Importantly, we documented that alpha V integrin is expressed in macrophages isolated from erythro blastic islands. Collectively, these data provide convincing evidence that ICAM-4 is critical in erythroblastic island formation via ICAM-4/alpha V adhesion and also demonstrate that the novel experimental strategies we developed will be valuable in exploring molecular mechanisms of erythroblastic island formation and their functional role in regulating erythropoiesis.

  3. PKN1 Directs Polarized RAB21 Vesicle Trafficking via RPH3A and Is Important for Neutrophil Adhesion and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polarized vesicle transport plays an important role in cell polarization, but the mechanisms underlying this process and its role in innate immune responses are not well understood. Here, we describe a phosphorylation-regulated polarization mechanism that is important for neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells during inflammatory responses. We show that the protein kinase PKN1 phosphorylates RPH3A, which enhances binding of RPH3A to guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound RAB21. These interactions are important for polarized localization of RAB21 and RPH3A in neutrophils, which leads to PIP5K1C90 polarization. Consistent with the roles of PIP5K1C90 polarization, the lack of PKN1 or RPH3A impairs neutrophil integrin activation, adhesion to endothelial cells, and infiltration in inflammatory models. Furthermore, myeloid-specific loss of PKN1 decreases tissue injury in a renal ischemia-reperfusion model. Thus, this study characterizes a mechanism for protein polarization in neutrophils and identifies a potential protein kinase target for therapeutic intervention in reperfusion-related tissue injury.

  4. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions.

  5. The SALM/Lrfn family of leucine-rich repeat-containing cell adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jungyong; Mah, Won; Kim, Eunjoon

    2011-07-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules play important roles in various stages of neuronal development, including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. The SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family of adhesion molecules, also known as Lrfn, belongs to the superfamily of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules. Proteins of the SALM family, which includes five known members (SALMs 1-5), have been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and branching, and synapse formation and maturation. Despite sharing a similar domain structure, individual SALM family proteins appear to have distinct functions. SALMs 1-3 contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, which interacts with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein, whereas SALM4 and SALM5 lack PDZ binding. SALM1 directly interacts with NMDA receptors but not with AMPA receptors, whereas SALM2 associates with both NMDA and AMPA receptors. SALMs 1-3 form homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other in a cis manner, whereas SALM4 and SALM5 do not, but instead participate in homophilic, trans-cellular adhesion. SALM3 and SALM5, but not other SALMs, possess synaptogenic activity, inducing presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. All SALMs promote neurite outgrowth, while SALM4 uniquely increases the number of primary processes extending from the cell body. In addition to these functional diversities, the fifth member of the SALM family, SALM5/Lrfn5, has recently been implicated in severe progressive autism and familial schizophrenia, pointing to the clinical importance of SALMs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laminin-binding integrins and their tetraspanin partners as potential antimetastatic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors, integrins α3β1, α6β1, α6β4 and α7β1 make up a laminin-binding subfamily. The literature is divided on the role of these laminin-binding integrins in metastasis, with different studies indicating either pro- or antimetastatic functions. The opposing roles of the laminin-binding integrins in different settings might derive in part from their unusually robust associations with tetraspanin proteins. Tetraspanins organise integrins into multiprotein complexes within discrete plasma membrane domains termed tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). TEM association is crucial to the strikingly rapid cell migration mediated by some of the laminin-binding integrins. However, emerging data suggest that laminin-binding integrins also promote the stability of E-cadherin-based cell–cell junctions, and that tetraspanins are essential for this function as well. Thus, TEM association endows the laminin-binding integrins with both pro-invasive functions (rapid migration) and anti-invasive functions (stable cell junctions), and the composition of TEMs in different cell types might help determine the balance between these opposing activities. Unravelling the tetraspanin control mechanisms that regulate laminin-binding integrins will help to define the settings where inhibiting the function of these integrins would be helpful rather than harmful, and may create opportunities to modulate integrin activity in more sophisticated ways than simple functional blockade. PMID:20078909

  7. Adhesion kinetics of human primary monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages: Dynamic cell adhesion measurements with a label-free optical biosensor and their comparison with end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Szabó, Bálint; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages (MFs) are closely related immune cells that differ in their main functions. These specific functions are, to a considerable degree, determined by the differences in the adhesion behavior of the cells. To study the inherently and essentially dynamic aspects of the adhesion of monocytes, DCs, and MFs, dynamic cell adhesion assays were performed with a high-throughput label-free optical biosensor [Epic BenchTop (BT)] on surfaces coated with either fibrinogen (Fgn) or the biomimetic copolymer PLL-g-PEG-RGD. Cell adhesion profiles typically reached their maximum at ∼60 min after cell seeding, which was followed by a monotonic signal decrease, indicating gradually weakening cell adhesion. According to the biosensor response, cell types could be ordered by increasing adherence as monocytes, MFs, and DCs. Notably, all three cell types induced a larger biosensor signal on Fgn than on PLL-g-PEG-RGD. To interpret this result, the molecular layers were characterized by further exploiting the potentials of the biosensor: by measuring the adsorption signal induced during the surface coating procedure, the authors could estimate the surface density of adsorbed molecules and, thus, the number of binding sites potentially presented for the adhesion receptors. Surfaces coated with PLL-g-PEG-RGD presented less RGD sites, but was less efficient in promoting cell spreading than those coated with Fgn; hence, other binding sites in Fgn played a more decisive role in determining cell adherence. To support the cell adhesion data obtained with the biosensor, cell adherence on Fgn-coated surfaces 30-60 min after cell seeding was measured with three complementary techniques, i.e., with (1) a fluorescence-based classical adherence assay, (2) a shear flow chamber applying hydrodynamic shear stress to wash cells away, and (3) an automated micropipette using vacuum-generated fluid flow to lift cells up. These techniques confirmed the results

  8. Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Directly Phosphorylate Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a Resistance Mechanism to FAK-Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Timothy A; Lenzo, Felicia L; Figel, Sheila A; Grapes, Abigail T; Cance, William G

    2016-12-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major drug target in cancer and current inhibitors targeted to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain have entered clinical trials. However, preliminary results have shown limited single-agent efficacy in patients. Despite these unfavorable data, the molecular mechanisms that drive intrinsic and acquired resistance to FAK-kinase inhibitors are largely unknown. We have demonstrated that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can directly bypass FAK-kinase inhibition in cancer cells through phosphorylation of FAK's critical tyrosine 397 (Y397). We also showed that HER2 forms a direct protein-protein interaction with the FAK-FERM-F1 lobe, promoting direct phosphorylation of Y397. In addition, FAK-kinase inhibition induced two forms of compensatory RTK reprogramming: (i) the rapid phosphorylation and activation of RTK signaling pathways in RTK High cells and (ii) the long-term acquisition of RTKs novel to the parental cell line in RTK Low cells. Finally, HER2 +: cancer cells displayed resistance to FAK-kinase inhibition in 3D growth assays using a HER2 isogenic system and HER2 + cancer cell lines. Our data indicate a novel drug resistance mechanism to FAK-kinase inhibitors whereby HER2 and other RTKs can rescue and maintain FAK activation (pY397) even in the presence of FAK-kinase inhibition. These data may have important ramifications for existing clinical trials of FAK inhibitors and suggest that individual tumor stratification by RTK expression would be important to predict patient response to FAK-kinase inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3028-39. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Interstitial cell migration: integrin-dependent and alternative adhesion mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion and migration are integrated cell functions that build, maintain and remodel the multicellular organism. In migrating cells, integrins are the main transmembrane receptors that provide dynamic interactions between extracellular ligands and actin cytoskeleton and signalling machineries. In

  10. Particle Board and Oriented Strand Board Prepared with Nanocellulose-Reinforced Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Veigel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesives on the basis of urea-formaldehyde (UF and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF are extensively used in the production of wood-based panels. In the present study, the attempt was made to improve the mechanical board properties by reinforcing these adhesives with cellulose nanofibers (CNFs. The latter were produced from dissolving grade beech pulp by a mechanical homogenization process. Adhesive mixtures with a CNF content of 0, 1, and 3 wt% based on solid resin were prepared by mixing an aqueous CNF suspension with UF and MUF adhesives. Laboratory-scale particle boards and oriented strand boards (OSBs were produced, and the mechanical and fracture mechanical properties were investigated. Particle boards prepared with UF containing 1 wt% CNF showed a reduced thickness swelling and better internal bond and bending strength than boards produced with pure UF. The reinforcing effect of CNF was even more obvious for OSB where a significant improvement of strength properties of 16% was found. For both, particle board and OSB, mode I fracture energy and fracture toughness were the parameters with the greatest improvement indicating that the adhesive bonds were markedly toughened by the CNF addition.

  11. F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion mediated by the major fimbrial subunit FaeG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengpeng; Song, Yujie; Zou, Yajie; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    The FaeG subunit is the major constituent of F4(+) fimbriae, associated with glycoprotein and/or glycolipid receptor recognition and majorly contributes to the pathogen attachment to the host cells. To investigate the key factor involved in the fimbrial binding of F4(+) Escherichia coli, both the recombinant E. coli SE5000 strains carrying the fae operon gene clusters that express the different types of fimbriae in vitro, named as rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad, respectively, corresponding to the fimbrial types F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, and the three isogenic in-frame faeG gene deletion mutants were constructed. The adhesion assays and adhesion inhibition assays showed that ΔfaeG mutants had a significant reduction in the binding to porcine brush border as well as the intestinal epithelial cell lines, while the complemented strain ΔfaeG/pfaeG restored the adhesion function. The recombinant bacterial strains rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad have the same binding property as wild-type F4(+) E. coli strains do and improvement in terms of binding to porcine brush border and the intestinal epithelial cells, and the adherence was blocked by the monoclonal antibody anti-F4 fimbriae. These data demonstrate that the fimbrial binding of F4(+) E. coli is directly mediated by the major FaeG subunit. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginés, Silvia; Mariño, Marta; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Morimoto, Chikao; Callebaut, Christian; Hovanessian, Ara; Casadó, Vicent; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    The extra-enzymic function of cell-surface adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme mainly localized in the cytosol but also found on the cell surface of monocytes, B cells and T cells, has lately been the subject of numerous studies. Cell-surface ADA is able to transduce co-stimulatory signals in T cells via its interaction with CD26, an integral membrane protein that acts as ADA-binding protein. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ADA-CD26 interaction plays a role in the adhesion of lymphocyte cells to human epithelial cells. To meet this aim, different lymphocyte cell lines (Jurkat and CEM T) expressing endogenous, or overexpressing human, CD26 protein were tested in adhesion assays to monolayers of colon adenocarcinoma human epithelial cells, Caco-2, which express high levels of cell-surface ADA. Interestingly, the adhesion of Jurkat and CEM T cells to a monolayer of Caco-2 cells was greatly dependent on CD26. An increase by 50% in the cell-to-cell adhesion was found in cells containing higher levels of CD26. Incubation with an anti-CD26 antibody raised against the ADA-binding site or with exogenous ADA resulted in a significant reduction (50-70%) of T-cell adhesion to monolayers of epithelial cells. The role of ADA-CD26 interaction in the lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion appears to be mediated by CD26 molecules that are not interacting with endogenous ADA (ADA-free CD26), since SKW6.4 (B cells) that express more cell-surface ADA showed lower adhesion than T cells. Adhesion stimulated by CD26 and ADA is mediated by T cell lymphocyte function-associated antigen. A role for ADA-CD26 interaction in cell-to-cell adhesion was confirmed further in integrin activation assays. FACS analysis revealed a higher expression of activated integrins on T cell lines in the presence of increasing amounts of exogenous ADA. Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. PMID

  13. Involvement of Sib Proteins in the Regulation of Cellular Adhesion in Dictyostelium discoideum▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillon, Sophie; Froquet, Romain; Cosson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms ensuring cellular adhesion have been studied in detail in Dictyostelium amoebae, but little is known about the regulation of cellular adhesion in these cells. Here, we show that cellular adhesion is regulated in Dictyostelium, notably by the concentration of a cellular secreted factor accumulating in the medium. This constitutes a quorum-sensing mechanism allowing coordinated regulation of cellular adhesion in a Dictyostelium population. In order to understand the mechani...

  14. Adhesiveness of cold rolled steels for car body parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiner Marques Marra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesiveness of uncoated and zinc-electrogalvanized steel sheets used in the automotive industry. Three types of adhesives, one acrylic and two epoxy resins, were employed to join low carbon cold rolled steels, one uncoated and another electrogalvanized, both previously degreased or chemically pickled. Mechanical strength of the joints was evaluated by the T-peel and tensile strength tests. Steel grade, surface condition and heating below the cure temperatures did not influence the joints' mechanical strength. However, their shear strength decreased drastically as the test temperature increased. The exposure of the joints to an atmosphere with 90% relative humidity at 40 °C caused reduction of their shear strength. Epoxy adhesives showed higher mechanical strength, but exhibited higher degradation by humidity.

  15. How wood adhesives work and where are the areas for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    Invoking normal adhesion theory, bonding of wood would seem to be easy in that the surface has plenty of roughness for mechanical interlocking with high enough surface energy, there is an abundance of hydroxyl groups on the wood for hydrogen bonding to the adhesives, and the aqueous solvent in the adhesive can readily soak into the wood. In fact most adhesives will...

  16. Comparative investigation of the adhesion of Ce conversion layers and silane layers to a AA 2024-T3 substrate through mechanical and electrochemical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Morales Palomino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerium conversion layers and silane films are among the potential substitutes for the carcinogenic chromate conversion layers used to protect high-strength Al alloys. In the present work the adhesion of a cerium conversion layer and of a silane film to an aluminium alloy (AA 2024-T3 substrate was investigated using mechanical and electrochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM- X ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to characterize the layers prior and after the mechanical test consisting of ultrasonic rinse in deionized water during 30 minutes. Mechanically tested and untested layers were also submitted to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and anodic polarization measurements in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The results of the characterization tests have pointed to a stronger adhesion of the Ce layer to the substrate in comparison with the silane film, which was confirmed by the electrochemical tests. The adhesion between the silane film and the Ce conversion layer was also tested, to evaluate the possibility of using the system as a protective bi-layer in accordance with the new trends being developed to substitute chromate conversion layers.

  17. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  18. Adhesion of silver/polypyrrole nanocomposite coating to a fluoropolymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Barbara; Kawakita, Jin; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the adhesive interface between a conducting polymer/metal composite and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate. Strong adhesion was observed from using a Ag/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) composite on a fluoropolymer substrate, which in most cases has a very low adhesion to different materials. To clarify the adhesion mechanism between the Ag/PPy composite and the PTFE substrate, the interfacial structure was studied by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show that Ag/PPy composite is absorbed inside the nano-sized pores of PTFE and the composite mechanically interlocks after solidifying, which causes the nanocomposite to stick strongly to the substrate. The use of Ag/PPy coating could be a novel technique for developing electrodes, antennae or other high performance applications as this metal/conductive polymer composite has excellent adhesion properties on various plastics.

  19. Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, Előd; Szabó, András

    2013-01-01

    We report spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell–cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns. (paper)

  20. Contribution of the LIM domain and nebulin-repeats to the interaction of Lasp-2 with actin filaments and focal adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Lasp-2 binds to actin filaments and concentrates in the actin bundles of filopodia and lamellipodia in neural cells and focal adhesions in fibroblastic cells. Lasp-2 has three structural regions: a LIM domain, a nebulin-repeat region, and an SH3 domain; however, the region(s responsible for its interactions with actin filaments and focal adhesions are still unclear. In this study, we revealed that the N-terminal fragment from the LIM domain to the first nebulin-repeat module (LIM-n1 retained actin-binding activity and showed a similar subcellular localization to full-length lasp-2 in neural cells. The LIM domain fragment did not interact with actin filaments or localize to actin filament bundles. In contrast, LIM-n1 showed a clear subcellular localization to filopodial actin bundles. Although truncation of the LIM domain caused the loss of F-actin binding activity and the accumulation of filopodial actin bundles, these truncated fragments localized to focal adhesions. These results suggest that lasp-2 interactions with actin filaments are mediated through the cooperation of the LIM domain and the first nebulin-repeat module in vitro and in vivo. Actin filament binding activity may be a major contributor to the subcellular localization of lasp-2 to filopodia but is not crucial for lasp-2 recruitment to focal adhesions.

  1. Cell adhesion and spreading at a charged interface: Insight into the mechanism using surface techniques and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Ružić, Ivica; Pletikapić, Galja

    2015-01-01

    intermolecular interactions and reorganization of molecules in the film. Our findings offer an insight into the mechanism of algal cell adhesion and spreading at charged interfaces, relevant for electroporation based studies

  2. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  3. Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashirgade, Akshay

    Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is crucial in governing the overall performance of tires. The rubber-brass interfacial adhesion is influenced by the chemical composition and thickness of the interfacial layer. It has been shown that the interfacial layer consists mainly of sulfides and oxides of copper and zinc. This thesis discusses the effect of changes in the chemical composition and the structure of the interfacial layers due to addition of adhesion promoter resins. Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) experiments were run on sulfidized polished brass coupons previously bonded to six experimental rubber compounds. It was confirmed that heat and humidity conditions lead to physical and chemical changes of the rubber-steel tire cord interfacial layer, closely related to the degree of rubber-brass adhesion. Morphological transformation of the interfacial layer led to loss of adhesion after aging. The adhesion promoter resins inhibit unfavorable morphological changes in the interfacial layer thus stabilizing it during aging and prolonging failure. Tire cord adhesion tests illustrated that the one-component resins improved adhesion after aging using a rubber compound with lower cobalt loading. Based on the acquired diffraction profiles, these resins were also found to impede crystallization of the sulfide layer after aging leading to improved adhesion. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles, SEM micrographs and AFM images strongly corroborated the findings from GIXRD. FTIR was utilized in a novel way to understand the degradation mechanism due to aging. A model for rubber and interfacial layer degradation is proposed to illustrate the effect of aging and the one-component resins. This interfacial analysis adds valuable new information to our understanding of the complex nature of the rubber-brass bonding

  4. Mechanical properties and modeling of drug release from chlorhexidine-containing etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawczuk, Rodrigo; Reis, Alessandra; Malaquias, Pamela; Pereira, Fabiane; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Meier, Marcia Margarete; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) addition in different concentrations into simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), water sorption (WS), solubility (SO) and the rate of CHX release over time. We added CHX diacetate to Ambar [AM] (FGM) and XP Bond [XP] (Dentsply) in concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%. For UTS (n=10 for each group), adhesive specimens were constructed in an hourglass shape metallic matrix with cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm(2). Half of specimens were tested after 24 h and the other half after 28 days of water storage in tension of 0.5 mm/min. For WS and SO (n=10 for each group), adhesive discs (5.8 mm×1.0 mm) were prepared into a mold. After desiccation, we weighed and stored the cured adhesive specimens in distilled water for evaluation of the WS, SO and the cumulative release of CHX over a 28-day period. For CHX release (n=10 for each group), spectrophotometric measurements of storage solution were performed to examine the release kinetics of CHX. We subjected data from each test to ANOVA and Tukey' test (α=0.05). XP Bond adhesive showed significantly more WS and SO and lower UTS than Ambar. In general, the addition of CHX did not alter WS, SO and UTS of the adhesives. XP showed a higher CHX release than AM (p<0.05) in all concentrations and the final amount of CHX release was directly proportional to the initial CHX concentration added to the adhesives. After 28 days of water storage, approximately 20% of CHX was released from XP and 8.0-12.0% from AM. Addition of CHX to commercial adhesive is a feasible method to provide a controlled release of CHX over time without jeopardizing WS, SO and UTS of the adhesives. Manufacturers should consider adding CHX to commercial adhesives to provide a controlled release of CHX over time. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented

  6. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Gary F., E-mail: clarkgf@health.missouri.edu

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented.

  7. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang (Cornell); (UMM-MED); (Colorado)

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  8. A coupled channel study on a binding mechanism of positronic alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kino, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the binding mechanism of weakly bound states of positronic alkali atoms, we calculate the energies and wavefunctions using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) where a positronium (Ps)-alkali ion channel and a positron-alkali atom channel are explicitly introduced. The energies of the bound states are updated using a model potential that reproduces well the observed energy levels of alkali atoms. The binding mechanism of the positronic alkali atom is analyzed by the wavefunctions obtained. The structure of the positronic alkali atom has been regarded as a Ps cluster orbiting the alkali ion, which is described by the Ps-alkali ion channel. We point out that the fraction having the positron-alkali atom configuration is small but plays an indispensable role for the weakly bound system

  9. Members of a novel protein family containing microneme adhesive repeat domains act as sialic acid-binding lectins during host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nikolas; Santos, Joana M; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S; Leon, Ester; Saouros, Savvas; Kiso, Makoto; Blackman, Michael J; Matthews, Stephen; Feizi, Ten; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-15

    Numerous intracellular pathogens exploit cell surface glycoconjugates for host cell recognition and entry. Unlike bacteria and viruses, Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa actively invade host cells, and this process critically depends on adhesins (microneme proteins) released onto the parasite surface from intracellular organelles called micronemes (MIC). The microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain of T. gondii MIC1 (TgMIC1) recognizes sialic acid (Sia), a key determinant on the host cell surface for invasion by this pathogen. By complementation and invasion assays, we demonstrate that TgMIC1 is one important player in Sia-dependent invasion and that another novel Sia-binding lectin, designated TgMIC13, is also involved. Using BLAST searches, we identify a family of MAR-containing proteins in enteroparasitic coccidians, a subclass of apicomplexans, including T. gondii, suggesting that all these parasites exploit sialylated glycoconjugates on host cells as determinants for enteric invasion. Furthermore, this protein family might provide a basis for the broad host cell range observed for coccidians that form tissue cysts during chronic infection. Carbohydrate microarray analyses, corroborated by structural considerations, show that TgMIC13, TgMIC1, and its homologue Neospora caninum MIC1 (NcMIC1) share a preference for alpha2-3- over alpha2-6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences. However, the three lectins also display differences in binding preferences. Intense binding of TgMIC13 to alpha2-9-linked disialyl sequence reported on embryonal cells and relatively strong binding to 4-O-acetylated-Sia found on gut epithelium and binding of NcMIC1 to 6'sulfo-sialyl Lewis(x) might have implications for tissue tropism.

  10. Substrate adhesion regulates sealing zone architecture and dynamics in cultured osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Anderegg

    Full Text Available The bone-degrading activity of osteoclasts depends on the formation of a cytoskeletal-adhesive super-structure known as the sealing zone (SZ. The SZ is a dynamic structure, consisting of a condensed array of podosomes, the elementary adhesion-mediating structures of osteoclasts, interconnected by F-actin filaments. The molecular composition and structure of the SZ were extensively investigated, yet despite its major importance for bone formation and remodelling, the mechanisms underlying its assembly and dynamics are still poorly understood. Here we determine the relations between matrix adhesiveness and the formation, stability and expansion of the SZ. By growing differentiated osteoclasts on micro-patterned glass substrates, where adhesive areas are separated by non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG barriers, we show that SZ growth and fusion strictly depend on the continuity of substrate adhesiveness, at the micrometer scale. We present a possible model for the role of mechanical forces in SZ formation and reorganization, inspired by the current data.

  11. Adhesive-Bonded Tab Attaches Thermocouples to Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical strength of titanium-alloy structures that support thermocouples is preserved by first spotwelding thermocouples to titanium tabs and then attaching tabs to titanium with a thermosetting adhesive. In contrast to spot welding, a technique previously used for thermocouples, fatigue strength of the titanium is unaffected by adhesive bonding. Technique is also gentler than soldering or attaching thermocouples with a tap screw.

  12. Osteopontin adsorption to Gram-positive cells reduces adhesion forces and attachment to surfaces under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M F; Zeng, G; Neu, T R

    2017-01-01

    caries or medical device-related infections. It further investigated if OPN's effect on adhesion is caused by blocking the accessibility of glycoconjugates on bacterial surfaces. Bacterial adhesion was determined in a shear-controlled flow cell system in the presence of different concentrations of OPN......The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental......, and interaction forces of single bacteria were quantified using single-cell force spectroscopy before and after OPN exposure. Moreover, the study investigated OPN's effect on the accessibility of cell surface glycoconjugates through fluorescence lectin-binding analysis. OPN strongly affected bacterial adhesion...

  13. Focal adhesion interactions with topographical structures: a novel method for immuno-SEM labelling of focal adhesions in S-phase cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M J P; Richards, R G; Wilkinson, C D W; Dalby, M J

    2008-07-01

    Current understanding of the mechanisms involved in osseointegration following implantation of a biomaterial has led to adhesion quantification being implemented as an assay of cytocompatibility. Such measurement can be hindered by intra-sample variation owing to morphological changes associated with the cell cycle. Here we report on a new scanning electron microscopical method for the simultaneous immunogold labelling of cellular focal adhesions and S-phase nuclei identified by BrdU incorporation. Prior to labelling, cellular membranes are removed by tritonization and antigens of non-interest blocked by serum incubation. Adhesion plaque-associated vinculin and S-phase nuclei were both separately labelled with a 1.4 nm gold colloid and visualized by subsequent colloid enhancement via silver deposition. This study is specifically concerned with the effects microgroove topographies have on adhesion formation in S-phase osteoblasts. By combining backscattered electron (BSE) imaging with secondary electron (SE) imaging it was possible to visualize S-phase nuclei and the immunogold-labelled adhesion sites in one energy 'plane' and the underlying nanotopography in another. Osteoblast adhesion to these nanotopographies was ascertained by quantification of adhesion complex formation.

  14. The Drosophila cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian regulates Lissencephaly-1 localisation in circulating immunosurveillance cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Michael J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi lays its eggs in Drosophila larvae phagocytic cells called plasmatocytes and specialized cells known as lamellocytes encapsulate the egg. This requires these circulating immunosurveillance cells (haemocytes to change from a non-adhesive to an adhesive state enabling them to bind to the invader. Interestingly, attachment of leukocytes, platelets, and insect haemocytes requires the same adhesion complexes as epithelial and neuronal cells. Results Here evidence is presented showing that the Drosophila L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian (Nrg is required for haemocytes to encapsulate L. boulardi wasp eggs. The amino acid sequence FIGQY containing a conserved phosphorylated tyrosine is found in the intracellular domain of all L1-type cell adhesion molecules. This conserved tyrosine is phosphorylated at the cell periphery of plasmatocytes and lamellocytes prior to parasitisation, but dephosphorylated after immune activation. Intriguingly, another pool of Nrg located near the nucleus of plasmatocytes remains phosphorylated after parasitisation. In mammalian neuronal cells phosphorylated neurofascin, another L1-type cell adhesion molecule interacts with a nucleokinesis complex containing the microtubule binding protein lissencephaly-1 (Lis1 1. Interestingly in plasmatocytes from Nrg mutants the nucleokinesis regulating protein Lissencephaly-1 (Lis1 fails to localise properly around the nucleus and is instead found diffuse throughout the cytoplasm and at unidentified perinuclear structures. After attaching to the wasp egg control plasmatocytes extend filopodia laterally from their cell periphery; as well as extending lateral filopodia plasmatocytes from Nrg mutants also extend many filopodia from their apical surface. Conclusion The Drosophila cellular adhesion molecule Neuroglian is expressed in haemocytes and its activity is required for the encapsulation of L. boularli eggs. At

  15. Underwater adhesion: The barnacle way

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    . Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adhesion, that is bioadhesive bond formation and curing, is essential to develop a more rational approach in designing fouling- release coatings. Silicone biofouling release coatings have been shown...

  16. Parasites causing cerebral falciparum malaria bind multiple endothelial receptors and express EPCR and ICAM-1-binding PfEMP1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Moussiliou, Azizath; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates the binding and accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IE) to blood vessels and tissues. Specific interactions have been described between PfEMP1 and human endothelial proteins CD36, intercellular adhesion molecule-1...

  17. Hydroxyapatite induces spontaneous polymerization of model self-etch dental adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ningjing; Bai, Xinyan; Xu, Changqi; Liu, Yi; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to report for the first time the spontaneous polymerization phenomenon of self-etch dental adhesives induced by hydroxylapatite (HAp). Model self-etch adhesives were prepared by using a monomer mixture of bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The initiator system consisted of camphorquinone (CQ, 0.022 mmol/g) and ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (4E, 0.022-0.088 mmol/g). HAp (2-8 wt.%) was added to the neat model adhesive. In a dark environment, the polymerization was monitored in-situ using ATR/FT-IR, and the mechanical properties of the polymerized adhesives were evaluated using nanoindentation technique. Results indicated that spontaneous polymerization was not observed in the absence of HAp. However, as different amounts of HAp were incorporated into the adhesives, spontaneous polymerization was induced. Higher HAp content led to higher degree of conversion (DC), higher rate of polymerization (RP) and shorter induction period (IP). In addition, higher 4E content also elevated DC and RP and reduced IP of the adhesives. Nanoindentation result suggested that the Young's modulus of the polymerized adhesives showed similar dependence on HAp and 4E contents. In summary, interaction with HAp could induce spontaneous polymerization of the model self-etch adhesives. This result provides important information for understanding the initiation mechanism of the self-etch adhesives, and may be of clinical significance to strengthen the adhesive/dentin interface based on the finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the Particle Geometry and Adhesive Mass Percentage on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particleboard made from Peanut Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyi Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peanut hull residues were considered for the manufacturing of particleboards. Various concentrations of two types of adhesive—polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI and urea-formaldehyde (UF—were separately combined with four types of peanut hull particles (fine, mixed, coarse particles, and peanut hull powder to manufacture particleboards with a certain target density. The confidence level of the effect of the selected production parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the panels was evaluated. The results showed that increasing the adhesive mass percentage significantly improved the dimensional stability of the boards. A better mechanical performance was achieved for the MDI-bonded boards compared with the UF-bonded boards. Superior bonding between the MDI adhesive and the peanut hulls with different particle geometries was also observed; the peanut hull powder and coarse particles were unsuitable for the manufacturing of panels, due to the risk of an internal blowout. The water resistance of the panels was poor, whereas the mechanical strength of the peanut hull particleboard met the class M-1 requirement of the ANSI A208.1 (2009 standard for wood particleboard.

  19. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  20. Shear Adhesion of Tapered Nanopillar Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Younghyun; Minsky, Helen K; Jiang, Yijie; Yin, Kaiyang; Turner, Kevin T; Yang, Shu

    2018-04-04

    Tapered nanopillars with various cross sections, including cone-shaped, stepwise, and pencil-like structures (300 nm in diameter at the base of the pillars and 1.1 μm in height), are prepared from epoxy resin templated by nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The effect of pillar geometry on the shear adhesion behavior of these nanopillar arrays is investigated via sliding experiments in a nanoindentation system. In a previous study of arrays with the same geometry, it was shown that cone-shaped nanopillars exhibit the highest adhesion under normal loading while stepwise and pencil-like nanopillars exhibit lower normal adhesion strength due to significant deformation of the pillars that occurs with increasing indentation depth. Contrary to the previous studies, here, we show that pencil-like nanopillars exhibit the highest shear adhesion strength at all indentation depths among three types of nanopillar arrays and that the shear adhesion increases with greater indentation depth due to the higher bending stiffness and closer packing of the pencil-like nanopillar array. Finite element simulations are used to elucidate the deformation of the pillars during the sliding experiments and agree with the nanoindentation-based sliding measurements. The experiments and finite element simulations together demonstrate that the shape of the nanopillars plays a key role in shear adhesion and that the mechanism is quite different from that of adhesion under normal loading.

  1. A generalized allosteric mechanism for cis-regulated cyclic nucleotide binding domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr P Kornev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP regulate multiple intracellular processes and are thus of a great general interest for molecular and structural biologists. To study the allosteric mechanism of different cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB domains, we compared cAMP-bound and cAMP-free structures (PKA, Epac, and two ionic channels using a new bioinformatics method: local spatial pattern alignment. Our analysis highlights four major conserved structural motifs: 1 the phosphate binding cassette (PBC, which binds the cAMP ribose-phosphate, 2 the "hinge," a flexible helix, which contacts the PBC, 3 the beta(2,3 loop, which provides precise positioning of an invariant arginine from the PBC, and 4 a conserved structural element consisting of an N-terminal helix, an eight residue loop and the A-helix (N3A-motif. The PBC and the hinge were included in the previously reported allosteric model, whereas the definition of the beta(2,3 loop and the N3A-motif as conserved elements is novel. The N3A-motif is found in all cis-regulated CNB domains, and we present a model for an allosteric mechanism in these domains. Catabolite gene activator protein (CAP represents a trans-regulated CNB domain family: it does not contain the N3A-motif, and its long range allosteric interactions are substantially different from the cis-regulated CNB domains.

  2. Advanced gecko-foot-mimetic dry adhesives based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2013-01-21

    Geckos can run freely on vertical walls and even ceilings. Recent studies have discovered that gecko's extraordinary climbing ability comes from a remarkable design of nature with nanoscale beta-keratin elastic hairs on their feet and toes, which collectively generate sufficiently strong van der Waals force to hold the animal onto an opposing surface while at the same time disengaging at will. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays, resembling gecko's adhesive foot hairs with additional superior mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, have been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for advanced fibrillar dry adhesives. The VA-CNT arrays with tailor-made hierarchical structures can be patterned and/or transferred onto various flexible substrates, including responsive polymers. This, together with recent advances in nanofabrication techniques, could offer 'smart' dry adhesives for various potential applications, even where traditional adhesives cannot be used. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing the material properties and adhesion performances is critical to the design and fabrication of gecko inspired CNT dry adhesives of practical significance. In this feature article, we present an overview of recent progress in both fundamental and applied frontiers for the development of CNT-based adhesives by summarizing important studies in this exciting field, including our own work.

  3. Advanced gecko-foot-mimetic dry adhesives based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2012-12-01

    Geckos can run freely on vertical walls and even ceilings. Recent studies have discovered that gecko's extraordinary climbing ability comes from a remarkable design of nature with nanoscale beta-keratin elastic hairs on their feet and toes, which collectively generate sufficiently strong van der Waals force to hold the animal onto an opposing surface while at the same time disengaging at will. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays, resembling gecko's adhesive foot hairs with additional superior mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, have been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for advanced fibrillar dry adhesives. The VA-CNT arrays with tailor-made hierarchical structures can be patterned and/or transferred onto various flexible substrates, including responsive polymers. This, together with recent advances in nanofabrication techniques, could offer `smart' dry adhesives for various potential applications, even where traditional adhesives cannot be used. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing the material properties and adhesion performances is critical to the design and fabrication of gecko inspired CNT dry adhesives of practical significance. In this feature article, we present an overview of recent progress in both fundamental and applied frontiers for the development of CNT-based adhesives by summarizing important studies in this exciting field, including our own work.

  4. α2-macroglobulin can crosslink multiple Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) molecules and may facilitate adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Liz; Laursen, Erik; Cowan, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    -macroglobulin (α2M), which is both required and sufficient for rosetting mediated by the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06 and some other rosette-mediating PfEMP1 proteins. We map the α2M binding site to the C terminal end of HB3VAR06, and demonstrate that α2M can bind at least four HB3VAR06 proteins, plausibly....... Together, our results are evidence that P. falciparum parasites exploit α2M (and IgM) to expand the repertoire of host receptors available for PfEMP1-mediated IE adhesion, such as the erythrocyte carbohydrate moieties that lead to formation of rosettes. It is likely that this mechanism also affects IE...

  5. Mechanical properties of a waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesive with a percolating poly(acrylic acid)-based diblock copolymer network: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Robert S; Morse, Andrew; Siband, Elodie; Dupin, Damien; Armes, Steven P; Keddie, Joseph L

    2015-06-15

    Copolymerizing an acrylic acid comonomer is often beneficial for the adhesive properties of waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). Here, we demonstrate a new strategy in which poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is distributed as a percolating network within a PSA film formed from a polymer colloid. A diblock copolymer composed of PAA and poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) blocks was synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and adsorbed onto soft acrylic latex particles prior to their film formation. The thin adsorbed shells on the particles create a percolating network that raises the elastic modulus, creep resistance and tensile strength of the final film. When the film formation occurs at pH 10, ionomeric crosslinking occurs, and high tack adhesion is obtained in combination with high creep resistance. The results show that the addition of an amphiphilic PAA-b-PBA diblock copolymer (2.0 wt.%) to a soft latex provides a simple yet effective means of adjusting the mechanical and adhesive properties of the resulting composite film. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects. PMID:24416297

  7. Marginal Micro-leakage of Self-etch and All-in One Adhesives to Primary Teeth, with Mechanical or Chemo-Mechanical Caries Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzari A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Chemo-mechanical caries removal is an effective alternative to the traditional rotary drilling method. One of the factors that can influence micro-leakage is the method of caries removal. Objectives: To compare the micro-leakage of resin composite in primary dentition using self-etch and all-in one adhesives following conventional and chemo-mechanical caries removal. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human primary anterior teeth with class III carious lesions were collected. The selected teeth were divided randomly into two groups each consisting of 30 teeth. In group1 carious lesions were removed using Carisolv multi mix gel. In group 2, caries was removed using round steel burs in a slow–speed hand piece. Then, the specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (A and B of 15 and treated by either Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB or Scotch bond. All prepared cavities were filled with a resin composite (Estellite. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and then thermocycled in 5ºC and 55ºC water with a dwell time of 20 seconds for 1500 cycles. The specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours, removed, washed and sectioned mesiodistally. The sectioned splits were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the micro-leakage scores. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Test in SPSS version 21. Results: There were no significant differences between micro-leakage scores among the four groups (p = 0.127. Score 0 of micro-leakage was detected for 60% of the specimens in group 1-A (Carisolv + CSEB, 73% of the group 2-A (hand piece + CSEB, 80% of the group 1-B (Carisolv + Scotch bond, and 93% of the group 2-B in which caries was removed using hand piece and bonded with Scotch bond . Conclusions: Although caries removal using hand piece bur along with using Scotch bond adhesive performed less micro-leakage, it would seems that the use of Carisolv

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  9. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  10. Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum infections by anti-adhesion-active components of edible seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmaninov Ofra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to animal/human cells for infection establishment involves adhesive proteins, including its galactose- and fucose-binding lectins PA-IL (LecA and PA-IIL (LecB. The lectin binding to the target-cell receptors may be blocked by compatible glycans that compete with those of the receptors, functioning as anti-adhesion glycodecoys. The anti-adhesion treatment is of the utmost importance for abrogating devastating antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa infections in immunodeficient and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. This strategy functions in nature in protecting embryos and neonates. We have shown that PA-IL, PA-IIL, and also CV-IIL (a PA-IIL homolog produced in the related pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum are highly useful for revealing natural glycodecoys that surround embryos in diverse avian eggs and are supplied to neonates in milks and royal jelly. In the present study, these lectins were used as probes to search for seed embryo-protecting glycodecoys. Methods The lectin-blocking glycodecoy activities were shown by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Lectin-binding glycoproteins were detected by Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled lectins. Results The present work reports the finding - by using PA-IL, PA-IIL, and CV-IIL - of rich glycodecoy activities of low ( 10 kDa compounds (including glycoproteins in extracts of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seeds, resembling those of avian egg whites, mammal milks, and royal jelly. Conclusions Edible seed extracts possess lectin-blocking glycodecoys that might protect their embryos from infections and also might be useful for hampering human and animal infections.

  11. The role of copper nanoparticles in an etch-and-rinse adhesive on antimicrobial activity, mechanical properties and the durability of resin-dentine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mario F; Malaquias, Pamela; Hass, Viviane; Matos, Thalita P; Lourenço, Lucas; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Farago, Paulo Vitor

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of addition of copper nanoparticles at different concentrations into an etch-and-rinse adhesive (ER) on antimicrobial activity, Knoop microhardness (KHN), in vitro and in situ degree of conversion (DC), as well as the immediate (IM) and 2-year (2Y) resin-dentine bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL). Seven experimental ER adhesives were formulated according to the amount of copper nanoparticles incorporated into the adhesives (0 [control], 0.0075 to 1wt.%). We tested the antimicrobial activity of adhesives against Streptococcus mutans using agar diffusion assay after IM and 2Y. The Knoop microhardness and in vitro DC were tested after IM and 2Y. The adhesives were applied to flat occlusal dentine surfaces after acid etching. After resin build-ups, specimens were longitudinally sectioned to obtain beam-like resin-dentine specimens (0.8mm 2 ), which were used for evaluation of μTBS and nanoleakage at the IM and 2Y periods. In situ DC was evaluated at the IM period in these beam-like specimens. Data were submitted to appropriate statistical analyses (α=0.05). The addition of copper nanoparticles provided antimicrobial activity to the adhesives only in the IM evaluation and slightly reduced the KHN, the in vitro and in situ DC (copper concentrations of 1wt.%). However, KHN increase for all concentrations after 2Y. After 2Y, no significant reductions of μTBS (0.06 to 1% wt.%) and increases of nanoleakage were observed for copper containing adhesives compared to the control group. Copper nanoparticles addition up to 0.5wt.% may provide antimicrobial properties to ER adhesives and prevent the degradation of the adhesive interface, without reducing the mechanical properties of the formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decipher the mechanisms of protein conformational changes induced by nucleotide binding through free-energy landscape analysis: ATP binding to Hsp70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Nicolaï

    Full Text Available ATP regulates the function of many proteins in the cell by transducing its binding and hydrolysis energies into protein conformational changes by mechanisms which are challenging to identify at the atomic scale. Based on molecular dynamics (MD simulations, a method is proposed to analyze the structural changes induced by ATP binding to a protein by computing the effective free-energy landscape (FEL of a subset of its coordinates along its amino-acid sequence. The method is applied to characterize the mechanism by which the binding of ATP to the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD of Hsp70 propagates a signal to its substrate-binding domain (SBD. Unbiased MD simulations were performed for Hsp70-DnaK chaperone in nucleotide-free, ADP-bound and ATP-bound states. The simulations revealed that the SBD does not interact with the NBD for DnaK in its nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states whereas the docking of the SBD was found in the ATP-bound state. The docked state induced by ATP binding found in MD is an intermediate state between the initial nucleotide-free and final ATP-bound states of Hsp70. The analysis of the FEL projected along the amino-acid sequence permitted to identify a subset of 27 protein internal coordinates corresponding to a network of 91 key residues involved in the conformational change induced by ATP binding. Among the 91 residues, 26 are identified for the first time, whereas the others were shown relevant for the allosteric communication of Hsp70 s in several experiments and bioinformatics analysis. The FEL analysis revealed also the origin of the ATP-induced structural modifications of the SBD recently measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The pathway between the nucleotide-free and the intermediate state of DnaK was extracted by applying principal component analysis to the subset of internal coordinates describing the transition. The methodology proposed is general and could be applied to analyze allosteric communication in

  13. Evidence for a Pneumocystis carinii Flo8-like transcription factor: insights into organism adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottom, Theodore J; Limper, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) adhesion to alveolar epithelial cells is well established and is thought to be a prerequisite for the initiation of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pc binding events occur in part through the major Pc surface glycoprotein Msg, as well as an integrin-like molecule termed PcInt1. Recent data from the Pc sequencing project also demonstrate DNA sequences homologous to other genes important in Candida spp. binding to mammalian host cells, as well as organism binding to polystyrene surfaces and in biofilm formation. One of these genes, flo8, a transcription factor needed for downstream cAMP/PKA-pathway-mediated activation of the major adhesion/flocculin Flo11 in yeast, was cloned from a Pc cDNA library utilizing a partial sequence available in the Pc genome database. A CHEF blot of Pc genomic DNA yielded a single band providing evidence this gene is present in the organism. BLASTP analysis of the predicted protein demonstrated 41 % homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flo8. Northern blotting demonstrated greatest expression at pH 6.0-8.0, pH comparable to reported fungal biofilm milieu. Western blot and immunoprecipitation assays of PcFlo8 protein in isolated cyst and tropic life forms confirmed the presence of the cognate protein in these Pc life forms. Heterologous expression of Pcflo8 cDNA in flo8Δ-deficient yeast strains demonstrated that the Pcflo8 was able to restore yeast binding to polystyrene and invasive growth of yeast flo8Δ cells. Furthermore, Pcflo8 promoted yeast binding to HEK293 human epithelial cells, strengthening its functional classification as a Flo8 transcription factor. Taken together, these data suggest that PcFlo8 is expressed by Pc and may exert activity in organism adhesion and biofilm formation.

  14. Improved metal-adhesive polymers from copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Adrian A; Delaney, Mac; O'Brien, Jeff; Kim, Hyonny; Iovine, Peter M; Díaz Díaz, David; Finn, M G

    2014-08-18

    Electrically conductive adhesive polymers offer many potential advantages relative to Sn-Pb solders, including reduced toxicity, low cost, low processing temperatures, and the ability to make application-specific formulations. Polymers generated from the copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction between multivalent azides and alkynes have previously been identified as strong metal-binding adhesives. Herein we demonstrate that the performance of these materials can be remarkably improved by the incorporation of a flexibility-inducing difunctionalized component and a tertiary amine additive in optimized concentrations. The best formulations were identified by means of rapid adhesion testing of a library of potential candidates by using a custom-built instrument and validated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-standard lap-shear test. Characteristic phase transitions were identified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for adhesives with and without the additives as a function of curing temperature. The incorporation of flexible components was found to more than double the strength of the adhesive. Moreover, the adhesive was made electrically conductive by the inclusion of 20 wt% silver-coated copper flakes and further improved in this regard by the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the formulation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cell surface clustering of Cadherin adhesion complex induced by antibody coated beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cadherin receptors mediate cell-cell adhesion, signal transduction and assembly of cytoskeletons. How a single transmembrane molecule Cadherin can be involved in multiple functions through modulating its binding activities with many membrane adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal components is an unanswered question which can be elucidated by clues from bead experiments. Human lung cells expressing N-Cadherin were examined. After co-incubation with anti-N-Cadherin monoclonal antibody coated beads, cell surface clustering of N-Cadherin was induced. Immunofluorescent detection demonstrated that in addition to Cadherin, β-Catenin, α-Catenin, α-Actinin and Actin fluorescence also aggregated respectively at the membrane site of bead attachment. Myosin heavy chain (MHC), another major component of Actin cytoskeleton, did not aggregate at the membrane site of bead attachment. Adhesion unrelated protein Con A and polylysine conjugated beads did not induce the clustering of adhesion molecules. It is indicated that the Cadherin/Catenins/α-Actinin/Actin complex is formed at Cadherin mediated cell adherens junction; occupancy and cell surface clustering of Cadherin is crucial for the formation of Cadherin adhesion protein complexes.

  16. Controllable load sharing for soft adhesive interfaces on three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sukho; Drotlef, Dirk-Michael; Majidi, Carmel; Sitti, Metin

    2017-05-01

    For adhering to three-dimensional (3D) surfaces or objects, current adhesion systems are limited by a fundamental trade-off between 3D surface conformability and high adhesion strength. This limitation arises from the need for a soft, mechanically compliant interface, which enables conformability to nonflat and irregularly shaped surfaces but significantly reduces the interfacial fracture strength. In this work, we overcome this trade-off with an adhesion-based soft-gripping system that exhibits enhanced fracture strength without sacrificing conformability to nonplanar 3D surfaces. Composed of a gecko-inspired elastomeric microfibrillar adhesive membrane supported by a pressure-controlled deformable gripper body, the proposed soft-gripping system controls the bonding strength by changing its internal pressure and exploiting the mechanics of interfacial equal load sharing. The soft adhesion system can use up to ˜26% of the maximum adhesion of the fibrillar membrane, which is 14× higher than the adhering membrane without load sharing. Our proposed load-sharing method suggests a paradigm for soft adhesion-based gripping and transfer-printing systems that achieves area scaling similar to that of a natural gecko footpad.

  17. Mussel-inspired tough hydrogels with self-repairing and tissue adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Duan, Lijie; Yang, Yongqi; Hu, Wei; Gao, Guanghui

    2018-01-01

    The mussel-inspired polymeric hydrogels have been attractively explored owing to their self-repairing or adhesive property when the catechol groups of dopamine could chelate metal ions. However, it was a challenge for self-repairing hydrogels owning high mechanical properties. Herein, a synergistic strategy was proposed by combining catechol-Fe3+ complexes and hydrophobic association. The resulting hydrogels exhibited seamless self-repairing behavior, tissue adhesion and high mechanical property. Moreover, the pH-dependent stoichiometry of catechol-Fe3+ and temperature-sensitive hydrophobic association endue hydrogels with pH/thermo responsive characteristics. Subsequently, the self-repairing rate and mechanical property of hydrogels were investigated at different pH and temperature. This bio-inspired strategy would build an avenue for designing and constructing a new generation of self-repairing, tissue-adhesive and tough hydrogel.

  18. Mechanical Properties and Adhesion of a Micro Structured Polymer Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunero Cappella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50:50 blend of polystyrene (PS and poly(n-butyl methacrylate (PnBMA has been characterized with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM in Tapping Mode and with force-distance curves. The polymer solution has been spin-coated on a glass slide. PnBMA builds a uniform film on the glass substrate with a thickness of @200 nm. On top of it, the PS builds an approximately 100 nm thick film. The PS-film undergoes dewetting, leading to the formation of holes surrounded by about 2 µm large rims. In those regions of the sample, where the distance between the holes is larger than about 4 µm, light depressions in the PS film can be observed. Topography, dissipated energy, adhesion, stiffness and elastic modulus have been measured on these three regions (PnBMA, PS in the rims and PS in the depressions. The two polymers can be distinguished in all images, since PnBMA has a higher adhesion and a smaller stiffness than PS, and hence a higher dissipated energy. Moreover, the polystyrene in the depressions shows a very high adhesion (approximately as high as PnBMA and its stiffness is intermediate between that of PnBMA and that of PS in the rims. This is attributed to higher mobility of the PS chains in the depressions, which are precursors of new holes.

  19. Raman spectroscopy in investigations of mechanism of binding of human serum albumin to molecular probe fluorescein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, I M; Saletsky, A M

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of molecular probe fluorescein to molecules of human serum albumin was studied by the Raman spectroscopy method. The position of binding Center on human serum albumin molecule for fluorescein is determined. The amino acid residues of albumin molecule, participating in binding of fluorescein at different pH values of solution, are established. The conformation rearrangements of globules of human serum albumin, taking place at binding of fluorescein at different pH values of solution, are registered

  20. Disruption of var2csa gene impairs placental malaria associated adhesion phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Viebig

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy is one of the major causes of malaria related morbidity and mortality in newborn and mothers. The complications of pregnancy-associated malaria result mainly from massive adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA present in the placental intervillous blood spaces. Var2CSA, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family is the predominant parasite ligand mediating CSA binding. However, experimental evidence suggests that other host receptors, such as hyaluronic acid (HA and the neonatal Fc receptor, may also support placental binding. Here we used parasites in which var2csa was genetically disrupted to evaluate the contribution of these receptors to placental sequestration and to identify additional adhesion receptors that may be involved in pregnancy-associated malaria. By comparison to the wild-type parasites, the FCR3delta var2csa mutants could not be selected for HA adhesion, indicating that var2csa is not only essential for IE cytoadhesion to the placental receptor CSA, but also to HA. However, further studies using different pure sources of HA revealed that the previously observed binding results from CSA contamination in the bovine vitreous humor HA preparation. To identify CSA-independent placental interactions, FCR3delta var2csa mutant parasites were selected for adhesion to the human placental trophoblastic BeWo cell line. BeWo selected parasites revealed a multi-phenotypic adhesion population expressing multiple var genes. However, these parasites did not cytoadhere specifically to the syncytiotrophoblast lining of placental cryosections and were not recognized by sera from malaria-exposed women in a parity dependent manner, indicating that the surface molecules present on the surface of the BeWo selected population are not specifically expressed during the course of pregnancy-associated malaria. Taken

  1. Direct covalent coupling of proteins to nanostructured plasma polymers: a route to tunable cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnichuk, Iurii; Choukourov, Andrei; Bilek, Marcela; Weiss, Anthony; Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie; Hanuš, Jan; Kousal, Jaroslav; Shelemin, Artem; Solař, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flat and nanostructured interfaces were overcoated by hydrocarbon plasma polymer. • Linker-free covalent attachment of proteins to resultant surfaces was validated. • Ultra-thin hydrocarbon overcoat (<2 nm) secured prolonged effective binding. • Pre-adsorbed tropoelastin promoted proliferation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. • Nanostructured films were multi-affine and impeded cell adhesion. - Abstract: Flat and nanostructured thin films were fabricated by deposition of ultra-thin (<2 nm) layer of hydrocarbon plasma polymer over polished silicon and over a pattern of 8 nm-thick poly(ethylene) islands on silicon. Linker-free radical-based covalent binding of bovine serum albumin and tropoelastin was confirmed for both types of films. The binding capability of albumin was found to be stable over many days of ambient air storage time. Tropoelastin-mediated flat plasma polymers favored adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Nanostructured plasma polymers were multi-affine and their hierarchical surface represented an additional barrier for cell attachment

  2. Screening of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to bind benzo(a)pyrene and the mechanism of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Zhou, Fang; Qi, Yeqiong; Dziugan, Piotr; Bai, Fengling; Walczak, Piotr; Zhang, Bolin

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the binding ability of Lactobacillus strains to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 15 strains were analysed. L. plantarum CICC 22135 and L. pentosus CICC 23163 exhibited high efficiency in removing BaP from aqueous medium; the binding rates were 66.76% and 64.31%, respectively. This process was affected by temperature, incubation time and pH, and cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. Additionally, both strains, especially strain CICC 23163 showed high specificity in binding BaP. The cell-BaP complexes were stable in aqueous medium. The mechanism of binding was investigated by examining the binding ability of different components of the microorganism cells. The results revealed that peptidoglycans played an important role in binding BaP and its structural integrity was required. Consequently, we proposed that the mechanism of this process was a physisorption and peptidoglycan was the main binding site. These two strains may be used for dietary detoxification in human diet and animal feed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact compliance effects in the frictional response of bioinspired fibrillar adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Marco; Chateauminois, Antoine; Fretigny, Christian; Pugno, Nicola M.; Sitti, Metin

    2013-01-01

    The shear failure and friction mechanisms of bioinspired adhesives consisting of elastomer arrays of microfibres terminated by mushroom-shaped tips are investigated in contact with a rigid lens. In order to reveal the interplay between the vertical and lateral loading directions, experiments are carried out using a custom friction set-up in which normal stiffness can be made either high or low when compared with the stiffness of the contact between the fibrillar adhesive and the lens. Using in situ contact imaging, the shear failure of the adhesive is found to involve two successive mechanisms: (i) cavitation and peeling at the contact interface between the mushroom-shaped fibre tip endings and the lens; and (ii) side re-adhesion of the fibre's stem to the lens. The extent of these mechanisms and their implications regarding static friction forces is found to depend on the crosstalk between the normal and lateral loading directions that can result in contact instabilities associated with fibre buckling. In addition, the effects of the viscoelastic behaviour of the polyurethane material on the rate dependence of the shear response of the adhesive are accounted for. PMID:23554349

  4. Adhesive Stretchable Printed Conductive Thin Film Patterns on PDMS Surface with an Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yi; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a plasma surface modification with printing process was developed to fabricate printed flexible conductor patterns or devices directly on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. An atmospheric plasma treatment was first used to oxidize the PDMS surface and create a hydrophilic silica surface layer, which was confirmed with photoelectron spectra. The plasma operating parameters, such as gas types and plasma powers, were optimized to obtain surface silica layers with the longest lifetime. Conductive paste with epoxy resin was screen-printed on the plasma-treated PDMS surface to fabricate flexible conductive tracks. As a result of the strong binding forces between epoxy resin and the silica surface layer, the printed patterns showed great adhesion on PDMS and were undamaged after several stringent adhesion tests. The printed conductive tracks showed strong mechanical stability and exhibited great electric conductivity under bending, twisting, and stretching conditions. Finally, a printed pressure sensor with good sensitivity and a fast response time was fabricated to demonstrate the capability of this method for the realization of printed electronic devices.

  5. Evaluation of an Experimental Adhesive Resin for Orthodontic Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Pavithra, D.; Hashem, M. I.; Alkhudhairy, F.; Elsharawy, M.; Divakar, D. D.; Vallittu, P. K.; Matinlinna, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an experimental adhesive resin for orthodontic bonding by measuring some the chemical and mechanical properties. The resin demonstrated increased values of nanohardness and elastic modulus, but the differences were not significant compared with those for the Transbond XT adhesives. The experimental adhesive resin could be a feasible choice or a substitute for the traditional bis-GMA-based resins used in bonding orthodontic attachments.

  6. Adhesion of glucosyltransferase phase variants to Streptococcus gordonii bacterium-glucan substrata may involve lipoteichoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, M M; Jones, G W

    1992-10-01

    Growing Streptococcus gordonii Spp+ phase variants, which have normal levels of glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity, use sucrose to promote their accumulation on surfaces by forming a cohesive bacterium-insoluble glucan polymer mass (BPM). Spp- phase variants, which have lower levels of GTF activity, do not form BPMs and do not remain in BPMs formed by Spp+ cells when grown in mixed cultures. To test the hypothesis that segregation of attached Spp+ and unattached Spp- cells was due to differences in adhesiveness, adhesion between washed, [3H]thymidine-labeled cells and preformed BPM substrata was measured. Unexpectedly, the results showed that cells of both phenotypes, as well as GTF-negative cells, attached equally well to preformed BPMs, indicating that attachment to BPMs was independent of cell surface GTF activity. Initial characterization of this binding interaction suggested that a protease-sensitive component on the washed cells may be binding to lipoteichoic acids sequestered in the BPM, since exogenous lipoteichoic acid inhibited adhesion. Surprisingly, the adhesion of both Spp+ and Spp- cells was markedly inhibited in the presence of sucrose, which also released lipoteichoic acid from the BPM. These in vitro findings suggest that, in vivo, sucrose and lipoteichoic acid may modify dental plaque development by enhancing or inhibiting the attachment of additional bacteria.

  7. Isolation and biochemical characterization of underwater adhesives from diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Nicole; Kröger, Nils; Harrington, Matthew J; Brunner, Eike; Paasch, Silvia; Buhmann, Matthias T

    2014-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms are able to colonize surfaces through the secretion of underwater adhesives. Diatoms are unicellular algae that have the capability to colonize any natural and man-made submerged surfaces. There is great technological interest in both mimicking and preventing diatom adhesion, yet the biomolecules responsible have so far remained unidentified. A new method for the isolation of diatom adhesive material is described and its amino acid and carbohydrate composition determined. The adhesive materials from two model diatoms show differences in their amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, but also share characteristic features including a high content of uronic acids, the predominance of hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyproline, an extremely rare amino acid. Proteins containing dihydroxyphenylalanine, which mediate underwater adhesion of mussels, are absent. The data on the composition of diatom adhesives are consistent with an adhesion mechanism based on complex coacervation of polyelectrolyte-like biomolecules.

  8. On the Adhesion performance of a single electrospun fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Avinash; Zhou, Limin; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Yang, Zhifang; Yao, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    The micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures found on the feet of spiders and geckos function as adhesion devices which allow them to adhere to both molecularly smooth and rough surfaces. This adhesion has been argued to arise from intermolecular forces, such as van der Waals (vdW) force, acting at the interface between any two materials in contact. Thus, it is possible to mimic their adhesion using synthetic nanostructured analogs. Herein, we report the first successful pull-off force measurements on a single electrospun fiber and show the potential of using electrospinning to fabricate adhesive analogs. A single fiber is glued to the atomic force microscope cantilever, and its adhesion to a metal substrate is studied by recording the pull-off force/displacement curves. The measured adhesive force of ~18 nN matches closely that of their biological counterparts. Similar to natural structures, the adhesive mechanism of these electrospun structures is controlled by vdW interactions.

  9. Bending energy penalty enhances the adhesive strength of functional amyloid curli to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ao; DeBenedictis, Elizabeth P.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-11-01

    The functional amyloid curli fiber, a major proteinaceous component of biofilm extracellular matrices, plays an important role in biofilm formation and enterobacteriaceae adhesion. Curli nanofibers exhibit exceptional underwater adhesion to various surfaces, have high rigidity and strong tensile mechanical properties, and thus hold great promise in biomaterials. The mechanisms of how curli fibers strongly attach to surfaces and detach under force remain elusive. To investigate curli fiber adhesion to surfaces, we developed a coarse-grained curli fiber model, in which the protein subunit CsgA (curli specific gene A) self-assembles into the fiber. The coarse-grained model yields physiologically relevant and tunable bending rigidity and persistence length. The force-induced desorption of a single curli fiber is examined using coarse-grained modeling and theoretical analysis. We find that the bending energy penalty arising from high persistence length enhances the resistance of the curli fiber against desorption and thus strengthens the adhesion of the curli fiber to surfaces. The CsgA-surface adhesion energy and the curli fiber bending rigidity both play crucial roles in the resistance of curli fiber against desorption from surfaces. To enable the desorption process, the applied peeling force must overcome both the interfacial adhesion energy and the energy barrier for bending the curli fiber at the peeling front. We show that the energy barrier to desorption increases with the interfacial adhesion energy, however, the bending induced failure of a single curli fiber limits the work of adhesion if the proportion of the CsgA-surface adhesion energy to the CsgA-CsgA cohesive energy becomes large. These results illustrate that the optimal adhesion performance of nanofibers is dictated by the interplay between bending, surface energy and cohesive energy. Our model provides timely insight into enterobacteriaceae adhesion mechanisms as well as future designs of engineered

  10. Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Adhesion URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001493.htm Adhesion To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue that form between two ...

  11. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region of the mo......We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  12. Cell Adhesions: Actin-Based Modules that Mediate Cell-Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Cell Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Alexia; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Nelson, W. James; Bianchini, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Cell adhesions link cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to each other, and depend on interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Both cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites contain discrete, yet overlapping functional modules. These modules establish physical association with the actin cytoskeleton, locally modulate actin organization and dynamics, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways. Interplay between these modules generates distinct actin architectures that underlie different stages, types, and functions of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions. Actomyosin contractility is required to generate mature, stable adhesions, as well as sense and translate the mechanical properties of the cellular environment to changes in cell organization and behavior. In this chapter we discuss the organization and function of different adhesion modules and how they interact with the actin cytoskeleton. We highlight the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in adhesions, and how adhesion molecules mediate crosstalk between cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites. PMID:28679638

  13. Cartilage proteoglycans inhibit fibronectin-mediated adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, A. M.; Pearlstein, E.; Weissmann, G.; Hoffstein, S. T.

    1981-09-01

    Normal tissues and organs show, on histological examination, a pattern of cellular and acellular zones that is characteristic and unique for each organ or tissue. This pattern is maintained in health but is sometimes destroyed by disease. For example, in mobile joints, the articular surfaces consist of relatively acellular hyaline cartilage, and the joint space is enclosed by a capsule of loose connective tissue with a lining of fibroblasts and macrophages. In the normal joint these cells are confined to the synovial lining and the articular surface remains acellular. In in vitro culture, macrophages and their precursor monocytes are very adhesive, and fibroblasts can migrate and overgrow surfaces such as collagen or plastic used for tissue culture. The fibroblasts adhere to collagen by means of fibronectin, which they synthesize and secrete1. Because the collagen of cartilage is capable of binding serum fibronectin2 and fibronectin is present in cartilage during its development3, these cells should, in theory, slowly migrate from the synovial lining to the articular surface. It is their absence from the articular cartilage in normal circumstances, and then presence in such pathological states as rheumatoid arthritis, that is striking. We therefore set out to determine whether a component of cartilage could prevent fibroblast adherence in a defined adhesion assay. As normal cartilage is composed of 50% proteoglycans and 50% collagen by dry weight4, we tested the possibility that the proteoglycans in cartilage inhibit fibroblast adhesion to collagen. We present here evidence that fibroblast spreading and adhesion to collagenous substrates is inhibited by cartilage proteoglycans.

  14. Influence of ageing on glass and resin bonding of dental glass-ceramic veneer adhesion to zirconia: A fracture mechanics analysis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Gee, C; Li, K C

    2018-04-26

    Adhesion plays a major role in the bonding of dental materials. In this study the adhesion of two glass-ceramic systems (IPS e.max and VITABLOCS) to a zirconia sintered substrate using a glass (for IPS e.max) and resin (VITABLOCS) before and after exposure to ageing for 14 days in distilled water at 37 °C are compared using two interfacial fracture mechanics tests, the 3 point bend Schwickerath (Kosyfaki and Swain, 2014; Schneider and Swain, 2015) and 4 point bend (Charalambides et al., 1989) approaches. Both tests result in stable crack extension from which the strain energy release rate (G, N/m or J/m 2 ) can be determined. In the case of the 3 PB test the Work of Fracture was also determined. In addition, the Schwickerath test enables determination of the critical stress for the onset of cracking to occur, which forms the basis of the ISO (ISO9693-2:2016) adhesion test for porcelain ceramic adhesion to zirconia. For the aged samples there was a significant reduction in the resin-bonded strengths (Schwickerath) and strain energy release rate (both 3 and 4 PB tests), which was not evident for the glass bonded specimens. Critical examination of the force-displacement curves showed that ageing of the resin resulted in a major change in the form of the curves, which may be interpreted in terms of a reduction in the critical stress to initiate cracking and also in the development of an R-curve. The extent of the reduction in strain energy release rate following ageing was greater for the Schwickerath test than the Charalambides test. The results are discussed in terms of; the basic mechanics of these two tests, the deterioration of the resin bonding following moisture exposure and the different dimensions of the specimens. These in-vitro results raise concerns regarding resin bonding to zirconia. The present study uses a novel approach to investigate the role of ageing or environmental degradation on the adhesive bonding of two dental ceramics to zirconia

  15. Silk Fibroin Aqueous-Based Adhesives Inspired by Mussel Adhesive Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kelly A; Roberts, Dane C; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-11

    Silk fibroin from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori is a naturally occurring biopolymer with charged hydrophilic terminal regions that end-cap a hydrophobic core consisting of repeating sequences of glycine, alanine, and serine residues. Taking inspiration from mussels that produce proteins rich in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to adhere to a variety of organic and inorganic surfaces, the silk fibroin was functionalized with catechol groups. Silk fibroin was selected for its high molecular weight, tunable mechanical and degradation properties, aqueous processability, and wide availability. The synthesis of catechol-functionalized silk fibroin polymers containing varying amounts of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG, 5000 g/mol) side chains was carried out to balance silk hydrophobicity with PEG hydrophilicity. The efficiency of the catechol functionalization reaction did not vary with PEG conjugation over the range studied, although tuning the amount of PEG conjugated was essential for aqueous solubility. Adhesive bonding and cell compatibility of the resulting materials were investigated, where it was found that incorporating as little as 6 wt % PEG prior to catechol functionalization resulted in complete aqueous solubility of the catechol conjugates and increased adhesive strength compared with silk lacking catechol functionalization. Furthermore, PEG-silk fibroin conjugates maintained their ability to form β-sheet secondary structures, which can be exploited to reduce swelling. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) proliferated on the silks, regardless of PEG and catechol conjugation. These materials represent a protein-based approach to catechol-based adhesives, which we envision may find applicability as biodegradable adhesives and sealants.

  16. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  17. Biofilms and mechanics: a review of experimental techniques and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Vernita D; Davis-Fields, Megan; Kovach, Kristin; Rodesney, Christopher A

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are developmentally-dynamic communities of sessile microbes that adhere to each other and, often, to other structures in their environment. The cohesive mechanical forces binding microbes to each other confer mechanical and structural stability on the biofilm and give rise to biofilm viscoelasticity. The adhesive mechanical forces binding microbes to other structures in their environment can promote biofilm initiation and mechanosensing that leads to changes in biological activity. Thus, physical mechanics is intrinsic to characteristics that distinguish biofilms from free-swimming or free-floating microbes in liquid culture. However, very little is known about the specifics of what mechanical traits characterize different types of biofilms at different stages of development. Even less is known about how mechanical inputs impact microbial biology and how microbes can adjust their mechanical coupling to, and interaction with, their environment. These knowledge gaps arise, in part, from the challenges associated with experimental measurements of microbial and biofilm biomechanics. Here, we review extant experimental techniques and their most-salient findings to date. At the end of this review we indicate areas where significant advances in the state-of-the art are heading. (topical review)

  18. Biofilms and mechanics: a review of experimental techniques and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Vernita D.; Davis-Fields, Megan; Kovach, Kristin; Rodesney, Christopher A.

    2017-06-01

    Biofilms are developmentally-dynamic communities of sessile microbes that adhere to each other and, often, to other structures in their environment. The cohesive mechanical forces binding microbes to each other confer mechanical and structural stability on the biofilm and give rise to biofilm viscoelasticity. The adhesive mechanical forces binding microbes to other structures in their environment can promote biofilm initiation and mechanosensing that leads to changes in biological activity. Thus, physical mechanics is intrinsic to characteristics that distinguish biofilms from free-swimming or free-floating microbes in liquid culture. However, very little is known about the specifics of what mechanical traits characterize different types of biofilms at different stages of development. Even less is known about how mechanical inputs impact microbial biology and how microbes can adjust their mechanical coupling to, and interaction with, their environment. These knowledge gaps arise, in part, from the challenges associated with experimental measurements of microbial and biofilm biomechanics. Here, we review extant experimental techniques and their most-salient findings to date. At the end of this review we indicate areas where significant advances in the state-of-the art are heading.

  19. Membrane tension controls adhesion positioning at the leading edge of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Bruno; Monzo, Pascale; Gole, Laurent; Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Kosmalska, Anita Joanna; Tam, Zhi Yang; Luo, Weiwei; Kan, Sophie; Viasnoff, Virgile; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Gauthier, Nils C

    2017-09-04

    Cell migration is dependent on adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton remodeling at the leading edge. These events may be physically constrained by the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the mechanical signal produced by an increase in plasma membrane tension triggers the positioning of new rows of adhesions at the leading edge. During protrusion, as membrane tension increases, velocity slows, and the lamellipodium buckles upward in a myosin II-independent manner. The buckling occurs between the front of the lamellipodium, where nascent adhesions are positioned in rows, and the base of the lamellipodium, where a vinculin-dependent clutch couples actin to previously positioned adhesions. As membrane tension decreases, protrusion resumes and buckling disappears, until the next cycle. We propose that the mechanical signal of membrane tension exerts upstream control in mechanotransduction by periodically compressing and relaxing the lamellipodium, leading to the positioning of adhesions at the leading edge of cells. © 2017 Pontes et al.

  20. The effect of water on the gecko adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alyssa Yeager

    The gecko adhesive system is a dry, reversible adhesive that is virtually surface-insensitive due to the utilization of intermolecular van der Waals forces. Remarkably, although detailed models of the adhesive mechanism exist and hundreds of gecko-inspired synthetics have been fabricated, our ability to fully replicate the system still falls short. One reason for this is our limited understanding of how the system performs in natural environments. To begin to resolve this I focused on one particular environmental parameter, water. Although thin layers of water can disrupt van der Waals forces, I hypothesized that geckos are able to retain or regain adhesive function on wet surfaces. I was motivated to investigate this hypothesis because many species of gecko are native to the tropics, a climate where we expect surface water to be prevalent, thus it is likely geckos have some mechanism to overcome the challenges associated with surface water and wetting. Despite the challenge water should pose to adhesion, I found that when tested on hydrophobic substrates geckos cling equally well in air and water. Conversely, on wet hydrophilic substrates geckos cannot support their body weight. Investigating these results further, I found that the superhydrophobic nature of the adhesive toe pads allows geckos to form an air bubble around their foot, which when pressed into contact with a hydrophobic substrate likely removes water from the adhesive interface. When the toe pads are no longer superhydrophobic however, geckos cannot support their body weight and fall from substrates. In order to regain adhesion geckos only need to take about ten steps on a dry substrate to self-dry their toe pads. Finally, when measuring a dynamic component of adhesion, running, we found that geckos are able to maintain speed on misted hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates, contrary to what we would predict based on static shear adhesion measurements. In conclusion, my research provides a detailed

  1. Impact of x-Linkable Polymer Blends on Phase Morphology and Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Wan, Grace; Keene, Ellen; Harris, Joseph; Zhang, Sipei; Anderson, Stephanie; Li Pi Shan, Colin

    Adhesion to dissimilar substrate is highly important to multiple industrial applications such as automotive adhesives, food packaging, transportation etc. Adhesive design has to include components that are affinity to both substrates, e.g. high surface energy polar and low surface non-polar substrates. Typically, these adhesive components are thermodynamically incompatible with each other, leading to macrophase separation and thus adhesive failure. By using functional adhesive components plus some additives, the adhesive can be in-situ cross-linked to prevent the macrophase separation with controlled phase morphology. Herein, we present the study on a cross-linkable adhesive formulation consisting of acrylic emulsion and polyolefin aqueous dispersion with additives for enhancing cross-linking and controlled phase morphologies. Contact angle measurement and ATR-IR spectroscopy are used to characterize the properties of adhesive surface. DMA is used to study the mechanical property of adhesive before and after cross-linking. The detailed phase morphologies are revealed by AFM, SEM and TEM. The resulting adhesive morphologies are correlated with the adhesive performance to establish structure-property relationship.

  2. Maintenance of the marginal-zone B cell compartment specifically requires the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rebecca; Ahlfors, Helena; Saveliev, Alexander; Galloway, Alison; Hodson, Daniel J; Williams, Robert; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cook, Charlotte N; Cunningham, Adam F; Bell, Sarah E; Turner, Martin

    2017-06-01

    RNA-binding proteins of the ZFP36 family are best known for inhibiting the expression of cytokines through binding to AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region and promoting mRNA decay. Here we identified an indispensable role for ZFP36L1 as the regulator of a post-transcriptional hub that determined the identity of marginal-zone B cells by promoting their proper localization and survival. ZFP36L1 controlled a gene-expression program related to signaling, cell adhesion and locomotion; it achieved this in part by limiting expression of the transcription factors KLF2 and IRF8, which are known to enforce the follicular B cell phenotype. These mechanisms emphasize the importance of integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes by RNA-binding proteins for maintaining cellular identity among closely related cell types.

  3. Mechanics of the Adhesive Properties of Ivy Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    centrifuged at 1000g to remove any remaining debris. Finally, the sample was dialyzed through a 300 kDa Spectra/Por cellulose ester dialysis membrane...macromolecule with multiple physiological functions in the growth of plants, such as signaling, cell wall plasticizer , guiding pollen tube growth, and many...927 KPa (2.5 fold higher than the pure CS) after 3d reaction. Compared to 0.1and 1 Au CSNC, the 0.5 Au CSNC showed a significantly higher adhesion

  4. The effect of the physical properties of the substrate on the kinetics of cell adhesion and crawling studied by an axisymmetric diffusion-energy balance coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi-Dooki, Aref; Shodja, Hossein M; Malekmotiei, Leila

    2015-05-14

    In this paper an analytical approach to study the effect of the substrate physical properties on the kinetics of adhesion and motility behavior of cells is presented. Cell adhesion is mediated by the binding of cell wall receptors and substrate's complementary ligands, and tight adhesion is accomplished by the recruitment of the cell wall binders to the adhesion zone. The binders' movement is modeled as their axisymmetric diffusion in the fluid-like cell membrane. In order to preserve the thermodynamic consistency, the energy balance for the cell-substrate interaction is imposed on the diffusion equation. Solving the axisymmetric diffusion-energy balance coupled equations, it turns out that the physical properties of the substrate (substrate's ligand spacing and stiffness) have considerable effects on the cell adhesion and motility kinetics. For a rigid substrate with uniform distribution of immobile ligands, the maximum ligand spacing which does not interrupt adhesion growth is found to be about 57 nm. It is also found that as a consequence of the reduction in the energy dissipation in the isolated adhesion system, cell adhesion is facilitated by increasing substrate's stiffness. Moreover, the directional movement of cells on a substrate with gradients in mechanical compliance is explored with an extension of the adhesion formulation. It is shown that cells tend to move from soft to stiff regions of the substrate, but their movement is decelerated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. These findings based on the proposed theoretical model are in excellent agreement with the previous experimental observations.

  5. Manual Physical Therapy for Non-Surgical Treatment of Adhesion-Related Small Bowel Obstructions: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhesion formation is a widely acknowledged risk following abdominal or pelvic surgery. Adhesions in the abdomen or pelvis can cause or contribute to partial or total small bowel obstruction (SBO. These adhesions deter or prevent the passage of nutrients through the digestive tract, and may bind the bowel to the peritoneum, or other organs. Small bowel obstructions can quickly become life-threatening, requiring immediate surgery to resect the bowel, or lyse any adhesions the surgeon can safely access. Bowel repair is an invasive surgery, with risks including bowel rupture, infection, and peritonitis. An additional risk includes the formation of new adhesions during the healing process, creating the potential for subsequent adhesiolysis or SBO surgeries. Objective: Report the use of manual soft tissue physical therapy for the reversal of adhesion-related partial SBOs, and create an initial inquiry into the possibility of nonsurgical lysis of adhesions. Case Reports: Two patients presenting with SBO symptoms due to abdominal adhesions secondary to abdominal and pelvic surgery were treated with manual soft tissue physical therapy focused on decreasing adhesions. Conclusions: Successful treatment with resolution of symptom presentation of partial SBO and sustained results were observed in both patients treated.

  6. Cellular adhesion molecules on endothelial cells participate in radiation-mediated inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis; Clark, Elizabeth T.; Kuchibhotla, Jaya; Gewertz, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The acute and subacute clinical manifestations of ionizing radiation mimic the inflammatory response to a number of stimuli. During the early stages of the inflammatory response, endothelial cells rapidly and transiently express a number of glycoproteins such as E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 which influence leucocyte adhesion. We quantified the expression of these cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in irradiated endothelial cells in order to determine whether these glycoproteins participate in radiation-mediated inflammation. Methods: Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and HMEC cells were grown to 90% confluence and irradiated with a GE Maxitron x-ray generator. The cells were incubated with primary IgG1 antibody (mouse anti-human ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin and E-selectin and incubated with FITC-conjugated secondary antibody (goat anti-mouse IgG1). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis was utilized for quantitation of receptor expression of each CAM on irradiated endothelial cells. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays of nuclear protein extracts from irradiated HUVEC cells were performed using the E-selectin NFkB binding sequence (5'AGCTTAGAGGGGATTTCCGAGAGGA-3'). The E-selectin promoter was ligated to the growth hormone reporter. Plasmids pE-sel(-587 +35)GH or pE-sel(-587 +35)GH Δ NFκB (5 μg) was transfected into HMEC or HUVEC cells by use of lipofection. Transfectants were incubated for 16 h after transfection followed by treatment with 10 Gy (1 Gy/min, GE Maxitron) of ionizing radiation, and or with TNF or IL-1. Leukocyte adhesion to irradiated endothelial cells was quantified by HL-60 binding. Results: The log fluorescence of cells incubated with the antibody to E-selectin shifted by 32% at 4 h after irradiation. In comparison, a shift of 35% occurred 20 h after irradiation for cells incubated with the antibody to ICAM. However, there was no significant increase in P-selectin or VCAM

  7. RecO protein initiates DNA recombination and strand annealing through two alternative DNA binding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael; Korolev, Sergey

    2014-10-17

    Recombination mediator proteins (RMPs) are important for genome stability in all organisms. Several RMPs support two alternative reactions: initiation of homologous recombination and DNA annealing. We examined mechanisms of RMPs in both reactions with Mycobacterium smegmatis RecO (MsRecO) and demonstrated that MsRecO interacts with ssDNA by two distinct mechanisms. Zinc stimulates MsRecO binding to ssDNA during annealing, whereas the recombination function is zinc-independent and is regulated by interaction with MsRecR. Thus, different structural motifs or conformations of MsRecO are responsible for interaction with ssDNA during annealing and recombination. Neither annealing nor recombinase loading depends on MsRecO interaction with the conserved C-terminal tail of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding protein (SSB), which is known to bind Escherichia coli RecO. However, similarly to E. coli proteins, MsRecO and MsRecOR do not dismiss SSB from ssDNA, suggesting that RMPs form a complex with SSB-ssDNA even in the absence of binding to the major protein interaction motif. We propose that alternative conformations of such complexes define the mechanism by which RMPs initiate the repair of stalled replication and support two different functions during recombinational repair of DNA breaks. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  9. Multiscale approaches to protein-mediated interactions between membranes—relating microscopic and macroscopic dynamics in radially growing adhesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihr, Timo; Smith, Ana-Suncana; Seifert, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular complexation leading to coupling of two or more cellular membranes is a crucial step in a number of biological functions of the cell. While other mechanisms may also play a role, adhesion always involves the fluctuations of deformable membranes, the diffusion of proteins and the molecular binding and unbinding. Because these stochastic processes couple over a multitude of time and length scales, theoretical modeling of membrane adhesion has been a major challenge. Here we present an effective Monte Carlo scheme within which the effects of the membrane are integrated into local rates for molecular recognition. The latter step in the Monte Carlo approach enables us to simulate the nucleation and growth of adhesion domains within a system of the size of a cell for tens of seconds without loss of accuracy, as shown by comparison to 10 6 times more expensive Langevin simulations. To perform this validation, the Langevin approach was augmented to simulate diffusion of proteins explicitly, together with reaction kinetics and membrane dynamics. We use the Monte Carlo scheme to gain deeper insight to the experimentally observed radial growth of micron sized adhesion domains, and connect the effective rate with which the domain is growing to the underlying microscopic events. We thus demonstrate that our technique yields detailed information about protein transport and complexation in membranes, which is a fundamental step toward understanding even more complex membrane interactions in the cellular context. (paper)

  10. Effect of rate on adhesion and static friction of a film-terminated fibrillar interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpayee, Shilpi; Long, Rong; Shen, Lulin; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2009-03-03

    A film-terminated fibrillar interface has been shown to result in significant enhancement of adhesion and static friction compared to a flat control. This enhancement increases with interfibril spacing. In this, the first of a two-part study, by studying the effect of rate on adhesion and static friction, we show that both adhesion and static friction enhancement are due to a crack-trapping mechanism. For adhesion, as measured by an indentation experiment, an analytical model is used to relate the applied indenter displacement rate and measured forces to contact line velocity and energy release rate, respectively. The two mechanisms for adhesion enhancement--varying rate and crack-trapping--are found to be coupled multiplicatively.

  11. The Influence of Biochemical Modification on the Properties of Adhesive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rudawska; Izabela Haniecka; Magdalena Jaszek; Monika Osińska-Jaroszuk

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of biochemical modification of epoxy adhesive compounds on the mechanical properties of a cured adhesive exposed to various climatic factors. The epoxy adhesive was modified by lyophilized fungal metabolites and prepared by three methods. Additionally, the adhesive compound specimens were seasoned for two months at a temperature of 50 °C and 50% humidity in a climate test chamber, Espec SH 661. The tensile strength tests of the adh...

  12. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) - A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes....... Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has...

  13. Polyurethane structural adhesives applied in automotive composite joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Garcia Quini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years structural adhesives technology has demonstrated great potential for application due to its capacity to transform complex structures into solid unitary and monolithic assemblies using different materials. Thus, seams or joints integrate these structures providing, besides a reduction in weight, a considerable increase in the mechanical resistance and stiffness. The increase in the industrial use of structural adhesives is mainly due to their ability to efficiently bond different materials in an irreversible manner, even replacing systems involving mechanical joints. In the automobile industry structural adhesives have been widely used for the bonding of metal substrates, thermoplastics and composites, frequently employing these in combination, particularly glass fiber and polyester resin composites molded using RTM and SMC processes. However, the use of urethane structural adhesives in applications involving composites and thermoplastics has been the subject of few investigations. In this study the effects of temperature and time on the shear strength of RTM, SMC and ABS joints, applying temperatures of -40, 25, 80, 120 and 177 °C and times of 20 minutes and 500 hours, were determined. The objective was to evaluate the performance under extreme conditions of use in order to assess whether these joints could be used in passenger or off-road vehicles. The results showed that the urethane structural adhesive promoted the efficient bonding of these materials, considering that due to the high adhesive strength the failures occurred in the substrates without adversely affecting the bonded area. For each test condition the joint failure modes were also determined.

  14. Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to biomimetic polymers: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotorbani, Behnaz Banimohamad [Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Effat, E-mail: Alizadehe@tbzmed.ac.ir [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of advanced Medical Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Research Center (UCSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Roya [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of advanced Medical Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Research Center (UCSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barzegar, Abolfazl [Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy due to the self-renewal, multi-potency, ethically approved state and suitability for autologous transplantation. However, key issue for isolation and manipulation of MSCs is adhesion in ex-vivo culture systems. Biomaterials engineered for mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions which support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation represent a main area of research in tissue engineering. Some of them successfully enhanced cells adhesion and proliferation because of their biocompatibility, biomimetic texture, and chemistry. However, it is still in its infancy, therefore intensification and optimization of in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical studies is needed to clarify efficacies as well as applicability of those bioengineered constructs. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms related to the in-vitro adhesion of MSCs, surfaces biochemical, biophysical, and other factors (of cell's natural and artificial micro-environment) which could affect it and a review of previous research attempting for its bio-chemo-optimization. - Highlights: • The main materials utilized for fabrication of biomimetic polymers are presented. • MSCs cell-material adhesion mechanism and involved molecules are reviewed. • Surface modifications of polymers in terms of MSC adhesion improving are discussed.

  15. Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to biomimetic polymers: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotorbani, Behnaz Banimohamad; Alizadeh, Effat; Salehi, Roya; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy due to the self-renewal, multi-potency, ethically approved state and suitability for autologous transplantation. However, key issue for isolation and manipulation of MSCs is adhesion in ex-vivo culture systems. Biomaterials engineered for mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions which support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation represent a main area of research in tissue engineering. Some of them successfully enhanced cells adhesion and proliferation because of their biocompatibility, biomimetic texture, and chemistry. However, it is still in its infancy, therefore intensification and optimization of in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical studies is needed to clarify efficacies as well as applicability of those bioengineered constructs. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms related to the in-vitro adhesion of MSCs, surfaces biochemical, biophysical, and other factors (of cell's natural and artificial micro-environment) which could affect it and a review of previous research attempting for its bio-chemo-optimization. - Highlights: • The main materials utilized for fabrication of biomimetic polymers are presented. • MSCs cell-material adhesion mechanism and involved molecules are reviewed. • Surface modifications of polymers in terms of MSC adhesion improving are discussed.

  16. Glulam Properties of Fast-growing Species Using Mahogany Tannin Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sri Rahayu Diza Lestari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing glued laminated timber (glulam can help overcome the limited availability of large-sized timber, and the use of bio-adhesives may resolve environmental problems associated with synthetic adhesives containing high formaldehyde contents. Tannin adhesive is a bio-adhesive that can be used as alternative glue in the manufacture of glulam. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of glulam made with mahogany (Swietenia sp. tannin adhesive and wood from three fast-growing species, namely pine (Pinus merkusii, jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, and sengon (Falcataria moluccana. Glulam (3 cm × 6 cm × 120 cm in thickness, width, and length, respectively was manufactured with three layers of lamina. The physical and mechanical properties of the glulams were tested based on relevant standards. The results showed that pine glulam fulfilled the standard for the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, while sengon glulam met the standard for shear strength. In the delamination test, sengon glulam was resistant to immersion in cold water and hot water. All glulams had low formaldehyde emission levels and therefore fulfilled the standard requirements. The results showed that the tannin adhesive from mahogany bark was equal in quality to methylene diphenyl di-isocyanate for glulam manufacturing.

  17. Assessing potential peptide targeting ligands by quantification of cellular adhesion of model nanoparticles under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Ellen; Mickler, Frauke Martina; Lächelt, Ulrich; Morys, Stephan; Wagner, Ernst; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2015-09-10

    Sophisticated drug delivery systems are coated with targeting ligands to improve the specific adhesion to surface receptors on diseased cells. In our study, we developed a method with which we assessed the potential of peptide ligands to specifically bind to receptor overexpressing target cells. Therefore, a microfluidic setup was used where the cellular adhesion of nanoparticles with ligand and of control nanoparticles was observed in parallel under the same experimental conditions. The effect of the ligand on cellular binding was quantified by counting the number of adhered nanoparticles with ligand and differently labeled control nanoparticles on single cells after incubation under flow conditions. To provide easy-to-synthesize, stable and reproducible nanoparticles which mimic the surface characteristics of drug delivery systems and meet the requirements for quantitative analysis, latex beads based on amine-modified polystyrene were used as model nanoparticles. Two short peptides were tested to serve as targeting ligand on the beads by increasing the specific binding to HuH7 cells. The c-Met binding peptide cMBP2 was used for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) targeting and the peptide B6 for transferrin receptor (TfR) targeting. The impact of the targeting peptide on binding was investigated by comparing the beads with ligand to different internal control beads: 1) without ligand and tailored surface charge (electrostatic control) and 2) with scrambled peptide and similar surface charge, but a different amino acid sequence (specificity control). Our results demonstrate that the method is very useful to select suitable targeting ligands for specific nanoparticle binding to receptor overexpressing tumor cells. We show that the cMBP2 ligand specifically enhances nanoparticle adhesion to target cells, whereas the B6 peptide mediates binding to tumor cells mainly by nonspecific interactions. All together, we suggest that cMBP2 is a suitable choice for

  18. Mechanical characterization of selected adhesives and bulk materials at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, C.M.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of mechanical tests on selected adhesives and bulk materials. The materials tested are of general interest to designers of magnets for cryogenic service and include several epoxies, a varnish, a B-stage glass cloth, insulation papers, and commercially available fiber-reinforced composites. These tests were performed at room temperature (293 K) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The tests include both simple tension tests and lap shear tests with various adherends. The parameters critical to tensile or bond strength were varied as part of the test program. The procedures used to manufacture and test these specimens and the results of the tests are reported in this paper

  19. Organization of cellular receptors into a nanoscale junction during HIV-1 adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence M Dobrowsky

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with its host cell is the target for new antiretroviral therapies. Viral particles interact with the flexible plasma membrane via viral surface protein gp120 which binds its primary cellular receptor CD4 and subsequently the coreceptor CCR5. However, whether and how these receptors become organized at the adhesive junction between cell and virion are unknown. Here, stochastic modeling predicts that, regarding binding to gp120, cellular receptors CD4 and CCR5 form an organized, ring-like, nanoscale structure beneath the virion, which locally deforms the plasma membrane. This organized adhesive junction between cell and virion, which we name the viral junction, is reminiscent of the well-characterized immunological synapse, albeit at much smaller length scales. The formation of an organized viral junction under multiple physiopathologically relevant conditions may represent a novel intermediate step in productive infection.

  20. Expression of an expansin carbohydrate-binding module affects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expansins are believed to be involved in disrupting the non-covalent adhesion of cellulose to matrix polysaccharides, thereby promoting wall creep. We have targeted a putative potato expansin (EXPA) carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) to the cell walls of tobacco plants. Histological examinations and electron ...

  1. How Robust Is the Mechanism of Folding-Upon-Binding for an Intrinsically Disordered Protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Daniela; Troilo, Francesca; Brunori, Maurizio; Longhi, Sonia; Gianni, Stefano

    2018-04-24

    The mechanism of interaction of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) with its physiological partner is characterized by a disorder-to-order transition in which a recognition and a binding step take place. Even if the mechanism is quite complex, IDPs tend to bind their partner in a cooperative manner such that it is generally possible to detect experimentally only the disordered unbound state and the structured complex. The interaction between the disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (N TAIL ) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein allows us to detect and quantify the two distinct steps of the overall reaction. Here, we analyze the robustness of the folding of N TAIL upon binding to XD by measuring the effect on both the folding and binding steps of N TAIL when the structure of XD is modified. Because it has been shown that wild-type XD is structurally heterogeneous, populating an on-pathway intermediate under native conditions, we investigated the binding to 11 different site-directed variants of N TAIL of one particular variant of XD (I504A XD) that populates only the native state. Data reveal that the recognition and the folding steps are both affected by the structure of XD, indicating a highly malleable pathway. The experimental results are briefly discussed in the light of previous experiments on other IDPs. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  3. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  4. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  5. The galactose-binding lectin isolated from Bauhinia bauhinioides Mart seeds inhibits neutrophil rolling and adhesion via primary cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girão, Deysen Kerlla Fernandes Bezerra; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; de Freitas Pires, Alana; Martins, Timna Varela; Franco, Álvaro Xavier; Morais, Cecília Mendes; Santiago do Nascimento, Kyria; Delatorre, Plinio; da Silva, Helton Colares; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the amino acid sequence and anti-inflammatory effect of Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL) lectin were evaluated. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that BBL possesses 86 amino acid residues. BBL (1 mg/kg) intravenously injected in rats 30 min prior to inflammatory stimuli inhibited the cellular edema induced by carrageenan in only the second phase (21% - 3 h, 19% - 4 h) and did not alter the osmotic edema induced by dextran. BBL also inhibited carrageenan peritoneal neutrophil migration (51%), leukocyte rolling (58%) and adhesion (68%) and the neutrophil migration induced by TNF-α (64%). These effects were reversed by the association of BBL with galactose, demonstrating that the carbohydrate-binding domain is essential for lectin activity. In addition, BBL reduced myeloperoxidase activity (84%) and TNF-α (68%) and IL1-β (47%) levels. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that BBL contains highly homologous isolectins, resulting in a total of 86 amino acid residues