Sample records for adhesion-dependent cell edge

  1. Intercellular Adhesion-Dependent Cell Survival and ROCK-Regulated Actomyosin-Driven Forces Mediate Self-Formation of a Retinal Organoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lowe


    Full Text Available In this study we dissected retinal organoid morphogenesis in human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived cultures and established a convenient method for isolating large quantities of retinal organoids for modeling human retinal development and disease. Epithelialized cysts were generated via floating culture of clumps of Matrigel/hESCs. Upon spontaneous attachment and spreading of the cysts, patterned retinal monolayers with tight junctions formed. Dispase-mediated detachment of the monolayers and subsequent floating culture led to self-formation of retinal organoids comprising patterned neuroretina, ciliary margin, and retinal pigment epithelium. Intercellular adhesion-dependent cell survival and ROCK-regulated actomyosin-driven forces are required for the self-organization. Our data supports a hypothesis that newly specified neuroretina progenitors form characteristic structures in equilibrium through minimization of cell surface tension. In long-term culture, the retinal organoids autonomously generated stratified retinal tissues, including photoreceptors with ultrastructure of outer segments. Our system requires minimal manual manipulation, has been validated in two lines of human pluripotent stem cells, and provides insight into optic cup invagination in vivo.

  2. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.


    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  3. Cell-Edge Multi-User Relaying with Overhearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Kim, Tae Min; Paulraj, Arogyaswami


    Carefully designed protocols can turn overheard interference into useful side information to allow simultaneous transmission of multiple communication flows and increase the spectral efficiency in interference-limited regime. In this letter, we propose a novel scheme in a typical cell-edge scenario...

  4. Induction of adhesion-dependent signals using low-intensity ultrasound. (United States)

    Roper, James; Harrison, Andrew; Bass, Mark D


    In multicellular organisms, cell behavior is dictated by interactions with the extracellular matrix. Consequences of matrix-engagement range from regulation of cell migration and proliferation, to secretion and even differentiation. The signals underlying each of these complex processes arise from the molecular interactions of extracellular matrix receptors on the surface of the cell. Integrins are the prototypic receptors and provide a mechanical link between extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, as well as initiating some of the adhesion-dependent signaling cascades. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional transmembrane receptors function alongside the integrins to regulate both the integrin itself and signals downstream. The most elegant of these examples is the transmembrane proteoglycan, syndecan-4, which cooperates with α(5)β(1)-integrin during adhesion to fibronectin. In vivo models demonstrate the importance of syndecan-4 signaling, as syndecan-4-knockout mice exhibit healing retardation due to inefficient fibroblast migration. In wild-type animals, migration of fibroblasts toward a wound is triggered by the appearance of fibronectin that leaks from damaged capillaries and is deposited by macrophages in injured tissue. Therefore there is great interest in discovering strategies that enhance fibronectin-dependent signaling and could accelerate repair processes. The integrin-mediated and syndecan-4-mediated components of fibronectin-dependent signaling can be separated by stimulating cells with recombinant fibronectin fragments. Although integrin engagement is essential for cell adhesion, certain fibronectin-dependent signals are regulated by syndecan-4. Syndecan-4 activates the Rac1 protrusive signal, causes integrin redistribution, triggers recruitment of cytoskeletal molecules, such as vinculin, to focal adhesions, and thereby induces directional migration. We have looked for alternative strategies for activating such signals

  5. Edge coating apparatus with movable roller applicator for solar cell substrates (United States)

    Pavani, Luca; Abas, Emmanuel


    A non-contact edge coating apparatus includes an applicator for applying a coating material on an edge of a solar cell substrate and a control system configured to drive the applicator. The control system may drive the applicator along an axis to maintain a distance with an edge of the substrate as the substrate is rotated to have the edge coated with a coating material. The applicator may include a recessed portion into which the edge of the substrate is received for edge coating. For example, the applicator may be a roller with a groove. Coating material may be introduced into the groove for application onto the edge of the substrate. A variety of coating materials may be employed with the apparatus including hot melt ink and UV curable plating resist.

  6. Computing local edge probability in natural scenes from a population of oriented simple cells. (United States)

    Ramachandra, Chaithanya A; Mel, Bartlett W


    A key computation in visual cortex is the extraction of object contours, where the first stage of processing is commonly attributed to V1 simple cells. The standard model of a simple cell-an oriented linear filter followed by a divisive normalization-fits a wide variety of physiological data, but is a poor performing local edge detector when applied to natural images. The brain's ability to finely discriminate edges from nonedges therefore likely depends on information encoded by local simple cell populations. To gain insight into the corresponding decoding problem, we used Bayes's rule to calculate edge probability at a given location/orientation in an image based on a surrounding filter population. Beginning with a set of ∼ 100 filters, we culled out a subset that were maximally informative about edges, and minimally correlated to allow factorization of the joint on- and off-edge likelihood functions. Key features of our approach include a new, efficient method for ground-truth edge labeling, an emphasis on achieving filter independence, including a focus on filters in the region orthogonal rather than tangential to an edge, and the use of a customized parametric model to represent the individual filter likelihood functions. The resulting population-based edge detector has zero parameters, calculates edge probability based on a sum of surrounding filter influences, is much more sharply tuned than the underlying linear filters, and effectively captures fine-scale edge structure in natural scenes. Our findings predict nonmonotonic interactions between cells in visual cortex, wherein a cell may for certain stimuli excite and for other stimuli inhibit the same neighboring cell, depending on the two cells' relative offsets in position and orientation, and their relative activation levels.

  7. Cell edges accumulate gamma tubulin complex components and nucleate microtubules following cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Ambrose

    Full Text Available Microtubules emanate from distinct organizing centers in fungal and animal cells. In plant cells, by contrast, microtubules initiate from dispersed sites in the cell cortex, where they then self-organize into parallel arrays. Previous ultrastructural evidence suggested that cell edges participate in microtubule nucleation but so far there has been no direct evidence for this. Here we use live imaging to show that components of the gamma tubulin nucleation complex (GCP2 and GCP3 localize at distinct sites along the outer periclinal edge of newly formed crosswalls, and that microtubules grow predominantly away from these edges. These data confirm a role for cell edges in microtubule nucleation, and suggest that an asymmetric distribution of microtubule nucleation factors contributes to cortical microtubule organization in plants, in a manner more similar to other kingdoms than previously thought.

  8. Rapid and dynamic arginylation of the leading edge β-actin is required for cell migration. (United States)

    Pavlyk, Iuliia; Leu, Nicolae A; Vedula, Pavan; Kurosaka, Satoshi; Kashina, Anna


    β-actin plays key roles in cell migration. Our previous work demonstrated that β-actin in migratory non-muscle cells is N-terminally arginylated and that this arginylation is required for normal lamellipodia extension. Here, we examined the function of β-actin arginylation in cell migration. We found that arginylated β-actin is concentrated at the leading edge of lamellipodia and that this enrichment is abolished after serum starvation as well as in contact-inhibited cells in confluent cultures, suggesting that arginylated β-actin at the cell leading edge is coupled to active migration. Arginylated actin levels exhibit dynamic changes in response to cell stimuli, lowered after serum starvation and dramatically elevating within minutes after cell stimulation by readdition of serum or lysophosphatidic acid. These dynamic changes require active translation and are not seen in confluent contact-inhibited cell cultures. Microinjection of arginylated actin antibodies into cells severely and specifically inhibits their migration rates. Together, these data strongly suggest that arginylation of β-actin is a tightly regulated dynamic process that occurs at the leading edge of locomoting cells in response to stimuli and is integral to the signaling network that regulates cell migration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. How to Train a Cell?Cutting-Edge Molecular Tools


    Czapi?ski, Jakub; Kie?bus, Micha?; Ka?afut, Joanna; Kos, Micha?; Stepulak, Andrzej; Rivero-M?ller, Adolfo


    In biological systems, the formation of molecular complexes is the currency for all cellular processes. Traditionally, functional experimentation was targeted to single molecular players in order to understand its effects in a cell or animal phenotype. In the last few years, we have been experiencing rapid progress in the development of ground-breaking molecular biology tools that affect the metabolic, structural, morphological, and (epi)genetic instructions of cells by chemical, optical (opt...

  10. Cutting Edge: Piezo1 Mechanosensors Optimize Human T Cell Activation. (United States)

    Liu, Chinky Shiu Chen; Raychaudhuri, Deblina; Paul, Barnali; Chakrabarty, Yogaditya; Ghosh, Amrit Raj; Rahaman, Oindrila; Talukdar, Arindam; Ganguly, Dipyaman


    TCRs recognize peptides on MHC molecules and induce downstream signaling, leading to activation and clonal expansion. In addition to the strength of the interaction of TCRs with peptides on MHC molecules, mechanical forces contribute to optimal T cell activation, as reflected by the superior efficiency of immobilized TCR-cross-linking Abs compared with soluble Abs in TCR triggering, although a dedicated mechanotransduction module is not identified. We found that the professional mechanosensor protein Piezo1 is critically involved in human T cell activation. Although a deficiency in Piezo1 attenuates downstream events on ex vivo TCR triggering, a Piezo1 agonist can obviate the need to immobilize TCR-cross-linking Abs. Piezo1-driven Ca 2+ influx, leading to calpain activation and organization of cortical actin scaffold, links this mechanosensor to optimal TCR signaling. Thus, we discovered a hitherto unknown regulatory mechanism for human T cell activation and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the involvement of Piezo1 mechanosensors in immune regulation. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Membrane tension controls adhesion positioning at the leading edge of cells (United States)

    Pontes, Bruno; Gole, Laurent; Kosmalska, Anita Joanna; Tam, Zhi Yang; Luo, Weiwei; Kan, Sophie; Viasnoff, Virgile; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa


    Cell migration is dependent on adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton remodeling at the leading edge. These events may be physically constrained by the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the mechanical signal produced by an increase in plasma membrane tension triggers the positioning of new rows of adhesions at the leading edge. During protrusion, as membrane tension increases, velocity slows, and the lamellipodium buckles upward in a myosin II–independent manner. The buckling occurs between the front of the lamellipodium, where nascent adhesions are positioned in rows, and the base of the lamellipodium, where a vinculin-dependent clutch couples actin to previously positioned adhesions. As membrane tension decreases, protrusion resumes and buckling disappears, until the next cycle. We propose that the mechanical signal of membrane tension exerts upstream control in mechanotransduction by periodically compressing and relaxing the lamellipodium, leading to the positioning of adhesions at the leading edge of cells. PMID:28687667

  12. Edge seal for a porous gas distribution plate of a fuel cell (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Singh, Rajindar


    In an improved seal for a gas distribution plate of a fuel cell, a groove is provided extending along an edge of the plate. A member of resinous material is arranged within the groove and a paste comprising an immobilized acid is arranged surrounding the member and substantially filling the groove. The seal, which is impervious to the gas being distributed, is resistant to deterioration by the electrolyte of the cell.

  13. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan


    This paper presents a tractable mathematical framework to analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an operator initiated deployment of the small-cells (e.g., femtocells) where the small-cell base stations are deliberately positioned around the edge of the macrocell. The considered deployment facilitates the cell-edge mobile users in terms of their coverage, spectral, and energy efficiency and is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) configuration. The reduction in energy consumption is achieved by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency and exact expressions for the energy efficiency of the mobile users in the considered COE configuration over generalized-K fading channels. Besides the COE configuration, the derived bounds are also shown to be useful in evaluating the performance of random small-cell deployments, e.g., uniformly distributed small-cells. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the improvements in spectral and energy efficiency of the COE configuration with respect to macro-only networks and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cdc42-dependent leading edge coordination is essential for interstitial dendritic cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammermann, Tim; Renkawitz, Jorg; Wu, Xunwei


    proteolysis. Instead, the protrusive flow of the actin cytoskeleton directly drives a basal mode of locomotion that is occasionally supported by actomyosin contractions at the trailing edge to propel the cell's rigid nucleus. We here delete the small GTPase Cdc42 in DCs and find that actin flow and actomyosin......Mature dendritic cells (DCs) moving from the skin to the lymph node are a prototypic example of rapidly migrating amoeboid leukocytes. Interstitial DC migration is directionally guided by chemokines, but independent of specific adhesive interactions with the tissue as well as pericellular...... contraction are still initiated in response to chemotactic cues. Accordingly, the cells are able to polarize and form protrusions. However, in the absence of Cdc42 the protrusions are temporally and spatially dysregulated which leads to impaired leading edge coordination. While this defect still allows...

  15. Iron speciation in human cancer cells by K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polgari, Zs. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary); Meirer, F. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Sasamori, S.; Ingerle, D. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, G. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Streli, C. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Rickers, K. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Reti, A.; Budai, B. [Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Szoboszlai, N. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, G., E-mail: [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary)


    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis in combination with synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) acquisition was used to determine the oxidation state of Fe in human cancer cells and simultaneously their elemental composition by applying a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of pipetting the cell suspension onto the quartz reflectors. XANES spectra of several inorganic and organic iron compounds were recorded and compared to that of different cell lines. The XANES spectra of cells, independently from the phase of cell growth and cell type were very similar to that of ferritin, the main Fe store within the cell. The spectra obtained after CoCl{sub 2} or NiCl{sub 2} treatment, which could mimic a hypoxic state of cells, did not differ noticeably from that of the ferritin standard. After 5-fluorouracil administration, which could also induce an oxidative-stress in cells, the absorption edge position was shifted toward higher energies representing a higher oxidation state of Fe. Intense treatment with antimycin A, which inhibits electron transfer in the respiratory chain, resulted in minor changes in the spectrum, resembling rather the N-donor Fe-{alpha},{alpha}'-dipyridyl complex at the oxidation energy of Fe(III), than ferritin. The incorporation of Co and Ni in the cells was followed by SR-TXRF measurements.

  16. Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium

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    Yun Wang


    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effectiveness and practicality the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium.METHODS: Of the 53 recurrent pterygium patients(57 eyes, after all pathological tissues were removed, underwent the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea which were locked above conjunctival transplantation of the operated eye.RESULTS: Postopretive follow-up was 1-12 months for all 57 eyes, of which 3 eyes(5%relapsed. The corneoscleral autolysis was occurred in one eye and surgery treatment was conducted. Corneal wounds were healing and transplantations survived well for the remaining 53 patients without obvious surgical marks. Cure rate was 93%.CONCLUSION: Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium can meet the aesthetic requirements of the some patients, with the advantages of obtaining material easily, faster wound healing, lower postoperative recurrence rate, meeting the aesthetic needs of some patients and improving postoperative results. Thus, it is an ideal surgery and is worthy of applying on primary hospital.

  17. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Ian, E-mail: [Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gestmann, Ingo, E-mail: [FEI Europe B.V., Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 Eindhoven (Netherlands); Wright, Andrew C., E-mail: [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Glyndwr University, Plas Coch, Mold Rd, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom)


    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (> 0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells. Highlights: • Highly oriented muscle precursor cells grown on edges of carbon nanotube pads • Mechanical treatment of nanotube pads highly deleterious to cell growth on edges • Larger areas created from wipe-transfer of narrow strips of nanotubes onto elastomer supports • Very high resolution SEM reveals clues to aligned cell growth.

  18. α-Crystallin localizes to the leading edges of migrating lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Vasantha Rao, P.


    α-crystallin (αA and αB) is a major lens protein, which belongs to the small heat-shock family of proteins and binds to various cytoskeletal proteins including actin, vimentin and desmin. In this study, we investigated the cellular localization of αA and αB-crystallins in migrating epithelial cells isolated from porcine lens. Immunofluorescence localization and confocal imaging of αB-crystallin in confluent and in migrating subconfluent cell cultures revealed a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution. While αB-crystallin localization was predominantly cytoplasmic in confluent cultures, it was strongly localized to the leading edges of cell membrane or the lamellipodia in migrating cells. In accordance with this pattern, we found abundant levels of αB-crystallin in membrane fractions compared to cytosolic and nuclear fractions in migrating lens epithelial cells. αA-crystallin, which has 60% sequence identity to αB-crystallin, also exhibited a distribution profile localizing to the leading edge of the cell membrane in migrating lens epithelial cells. Localization of αB-crystallin to the lamellipodia appears to be dependent on phosphorylation of residue serine-59. An inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase (SB202190), but not the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059, was found to diminish localization of αB-crystallin to the lamellipodia, and this effect was found to be associated with reduced levels of Serine-59 phosphorylated αB-crystallin in SB202190-treated migrating lens epithelial cells. αB-crystallin localization to the lamellipodia was also altered by the treatment with RGD (Arg-Ala-Asp) peptide, dominant negative N17 Rac1 GTPase, cytochalasin D and Src kinase inhibitor (PP2), but not by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 or the myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Additionally, in migrating lens epithelial cells, αB-crystallin exhibited a clear co-localization with the actin meshwork, β-catenin, WAVE-1, a promoter of actin nucleation, Abi-2, a component of WAVE

  19. Comparison of edge detection techniques for M7 subtype Leukemic cell in terms of noise filters and threshold value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Afifah Salmi


    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the study and identifying various threshold values for two commonly used edge detection techniques, which are Sobel and Canny Edge detection. The idea is to determine which values are apt in giving accurate results in identifying a particular leukemic cell. In addition, evaluating suitability of edge detectors are also essential as feature extraction of the cell depends greatly on image segmentation (edge detection. Firstly, an image of M7 subtype of Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML is chosen due to its diagnosing which were found lacking. Next, for an enhancement in image quality, noise filters are applied. Hence, by comparing images with no filter, median and average filter, useful information can be acquired. Each threshold value is fixed with value 0, 0.25 and 0.5. From the investigation found, without any filter, Canny with a threshold value of 0.5 yields the best result.

  20. α-Actinin links extracellular matrix rigidity-sensing contractile units with periodic cell-edge retractions (United States)

    Meacci, Giovanni; Wolfenson, Haguy; Liu, Shuaimin; Stachowiak, Matthew R.; Iskratsch, Thomas; Mathur, Anurag; Ghassemi, Saba; Gauthier, Nils; Tabdanov, Erdem; Lohner, James; Gondarenko, Alexander; Chander, Ashok C.; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; O’Shaughnessy, Ben; Hone, James; Sheetz, Michael P.


    During spreading and migration, the leading edges of cells undergo periodic protrusion–retraction cycles. The functional purpose of these cycles is unclear. Here, using submicrometer polydimethylsiloxane pillars as substrates for cell spreading, we show that periodic edge retractions coincide with peak forces produced by local contractile units (CUs) that assemble and disassemble along the cell edge to test matrix rigidity. We find that, whereas actin rearward flow produces a relatively constant force inward, the peak of local contractile forces by CUs scales with rigidity. The cytoskeletal protein α-actinin is shared between these two force-producing systems. It initially localizes to the CUs and subsequently moves inward with the actin flow. Knockdown of α-actinin causes aberrant rigidity sensing, loss of CUs, loss of protrusion–retraction cycles, and, surprisingly, enables the cells to proliferate on soft matrices. We present a model based on these results in which local CUs drive rigidity sensing and adhesion formation. PMID:27122603

  1. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.


    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...

  2. Edge restenosis: impact of low dose irradiation on cell proliferation and ICAM-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannekum Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low dose irradiation (LDI of uninjured segments is the consequence of the suggestion of many authors to extend the irradiation area in vascular brachytherapy to minimize the edge effect. Atherosclerosis is a general disease and the uninjured segment close to the intervention area is often atherosclerotic as well, consisting of neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC and quiescent monocytes (MC. The current study imitates this complex situation in vitro and investigates the effect of LDI on proliferation of SMC and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in MC. Methods Plaque tissue from advanced primary stenosing lesions of human coronary arteries (9 patients, age: 61 ± 7 years was extracted by local or extensive thrombendarterectomy. SMC were isolated and identified by positive reaction with smooth muscle α-actin. MC were isolated from buffy coat leukocytes using the MACS cell isolation kit. For identification of MC flow-cytometry analysis of FITC-conjugated CD68 and CD14 (FACScan was applied. SMC and MC were irradiated using megavoltage photon irradiation (CLINAC2300 C/D, VARIAN, USA of 6 mV at a focus-surface distance of 100 cm and a dose rate of 6 Gy min-1 with single doses of 1 Gy, 4 Gy, and 10 Gy. The effect on proliferation of SMC was analysed at day 10, 15, and 20. Secondly, total RNA of MC was isolated 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h after irradiation and 5 μg of RNA was used in standard Northern blot analysis with ICAM-1 cDNA-probes. Results Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were detected after irradiation of SMC with a dose of 1 Gy. At day 10 and 15 a significant antiproliferative effect was found; at day 20 after irradiation cell proliferation was significantly stimulated. Irradiation with 4 Gy and 10 Gy caused dose dependent inhibitory effects at day 10, 15, and 20. Expression of ICAM-1 in human MC was neihter inhibited nor stimulated by LDI. Conclusion Thus, the stimulatory effect of LDI on SMC

  3. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua


    In this contribution, two-way cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying technique is integrated into spectrumsharing wireless systems to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs). In order to share the available spectrum resources originally dedicated to primary users (PUs), the transmit power of a SU is optimized with respect to the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers. By analyzing outage probability and achievable data rate at the base station and at a cell-edge SU, our results reveal that the uplink performance is dominated by the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers, while the downlink always behaves like conventional one-way AF relaying and its performance is dominated by the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate (United States)

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.


    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  5. ADAMTS9-Regulated Pericellular Matrix Dynamics Governs Focal Adhesion-Dependent Smooth Muscle Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Mead


    Full Text Available Summary: Focal adhesions anchor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM and direct assembly of a pre-stressed actin cytoskeleton. They act as a cellular sensor and regulator, linking ECM to the nucleus. Here, we identify proteolytic turnover of the anti-adhesive proteoglycan versican as a requirement for maintenance of smooth muscle cell (SMC focal adhesions. Using conditional deletion in mice, we show that ADAMTS9, a secreted metalloprotease, is required for myometrial activation during late gestation and for parturition. Through knockdown of ADAMTS9 in uterine SMC, and manipulation of pericellular versican via knockdown or proteolysis, we demonstrate that regulated pericellular matrix dynamics is essential for focal adhesion maintenance. By influencing focal adhesion formation, pericellular versican acts upstream of cytoskeletal assembly and SMC differentiation. Thus, pericellular versican proteolysis by ADAMTS9 balances pro- and anti-adhesive forces to maintain an SMC phenotype, providing a concrete example of the dynamic reciprocity of cells and their ECM. : Mead et al. identify a proteolytic mechanism that actively maintains a pericellular microenvironment conducive to uterine smooth muscle activation prior to parturition. They show that pericellular matrix proteolysis by the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is crucial for maintenance of focal adhesions in uterine smooth muscle cells, and its absence impairs parturition. Keywords: metalloprotease, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, proteoglycan, myometrium, parturition, uterus, focal adhesion, proteolysis, interference reflection microscopy

  6. ImaEdge - a platform for quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical proteins during cell polarization. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lim, Yen Wei; Zhao, Peng; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Motegi, Fumio


    Cell polarity involves the compartmentalization of the cell cortex. The establishment of cortical compartments arises from the spatial bias in the activity and concentration of cortical proteins. The mechanistic dissection of cell polarity requires the accurate detection of dynamic changes in cortical proteins, but the fluctuations of cell shape and the inhomogeneous distributions of cortical proteins greatly complicate the quantitative extraction of their global and local changes during cell polarization. To address these problems, we introduce an open-source software package, ImaEdge, which automates the segmentation of the cortex from time-lapse movies, and enables quantitative extraction of cortical protein intensities. We demonstrate that ImaEdge enables efficient and rigorous analysis of the dynamic evolution of cortical PAR proteins during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. It is also capable of accurate tracking of varying levels of transgene expression and discontinuous signals of the actomyosin cytoskeleton during multiple rounds of cell division. ImaEdge provides a unique resource for quantitative studies of cortical polarization, with the potential for application to many types of polarized cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Fabrication of gas impervious edge seal for a bipolar gas distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Werth, John


    A bipolar gas reactant distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell is disclosed, the assembly having a solid edge seal to prevent leakage of gaseous reactants wherein a pair of porous plates are provided with peripheral slits generally parallel to, and spaced apart from two edges of the plate, the slit being filled with a solid, fusible, gas impervious edge sealing compound. The plates are assembled with opposite faces adjacent one another with a layer of a fusible sealant material therebetween the slits in the individual plates being approximately perpendicular to one another. The plates are bonded to each other by the simultaneous application of heat and pressure to cause a redistribution of the sealant into the pores of the adjacent plate surfaces and to cause the edge sealing compound to flow and impregnate the region of the plates adjacent the slits and comingle with the sealant layer material to form a continuous layer of sealant along the edges of the assembled plates.

  8. Improved CORF model of simple cell combined with non-classical receptive field and its application on edge detection (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chai, Guobei; Liu, Wei; Bao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Xiaoning; Ming, Delie


    Simple cells in primary visual cortex are believed to extract local edge information from a visual scene. In this paper, inspired by different receptive field properties and visual information flow paths of neurons, an improved Combination of Receptive Fields (CORF) model combined with non-classical receptive fields was proposed to simulate the responses of simple cell's receptive fields. Compared to the classical model, the proposed model is able to better imitate simple cell's physiologic structure with consideration of facilitation and suppression of non-classical receptive fields. And on this base, an edge detection algorithm as an application of the improved CORF model was proposed. Experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed algorithm to noise and background interference.

  9. The neuronal protein Kidins220 localizes in a raft compartment at the leading edge of motile immature dendritic cells. (United States)

    Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Iglesias, Teresa; Sánchez-Sánchez, Noelia; de la Rosa, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Ruiloba, Lucía; Cabrera-Poch, Noemi; Torres, Ana; Longo, Isabel; García-Bordas, Julio; Longo, Natividad; Tejedor, Alberto; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis


    Kidins220, a protein predominantly expressed in neural tissues, is the first physiological substrate for protein kinase D (PKD). We show that Kidins220 is expressed in monocyte-derived and in peripheral blood immature dendritic cells (im DC). Immature DC (im DC) migrate onto extracellular matrices changing cyclically from a highly polarized morphology (monopolar (MP) stage) to a morphologically symmetrical shape (bipolar (BP) stage). Kidins220 was localized on membrane protrusions at the leading edge or on both poles in MP and BP cells, respectively. CD43, CD44, ICAM-3 and DC-SIGN, and signaling molecules PKD, Arp2/3 were found at the leading edge in MP or on both edges in BP cells, showing an intriguing parallelism between morphology and localization of molecular components on the poles of the motile DC. F-actin co-localized and it was necessary for Kidins220 localization on the membrane in MP and BP cells. Kidins220 was also found in a raft compartment. Disruption of rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin induced rounding of the cells, inhibition of motility and lost of Kidins220 polarization. Our results describe for the first time the molecular components of the poles of motile im DC and indicate that a novel neuronal protein may be an important component among these molecules.

  10. Model for adhesion clutch explains biphasic relationship between actin flow and traction at the cell leading edge (United States)

    Craig, Erin M.; Stricker, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Mogilner, Alex


    Cell motility relies on the continuous reorganization of a dynamic actin-myosin-adhesion network at the leading edge of the cell, in order to generate protrusion at the leading edge and traction between the cell and its external environment. We analyze experimentally measured spatial distributions of actin flow, traction force, myosin density, and adhesion density in control and pharmacologically perturbed epithelial cells in order to develop a mechanical model of the actin-adhesion-myosin self-organization at the leading edge. A model in which the F-actin network is treated as a viscous gel, and adhesion clutch engagement is strengthened by myosin but weakened by actin flow, can explain the measured molecular distributions and correctly predict the spatial distributions of the actin flow and traction stress. We test the model by comparing its predictions with measurements of the actin flow and traction stress in cells with fast and slow actin polymerization rates. The model predicts how the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary depends on the actin viscosity and adhesion strength. The model further predicts that the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary is not very sensitive to the level of myosin contraction.

  11. Enhanced Quality of Service of Cell-Edge User by Extending Modified Largest Weighted Delay First Algorithm in LTE Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibur Rashid Chayon


    Full Text Available Long Term Evolution (LTE is the prominent technology in Fourth Generation (4G communication standards, which provides higher throughput and better Quality of Service (QoS to all users. However, users in the cell-edge area are receiving comparatively low QoS due to the distance from eNodeB (eNB and bad channel conditions. The Conventional Modified Largest Weighted Delay First (MLWDF algorithm is unable to resolve this issue, as it does not consider the location of the user. This paper proposes an extended MLWDF (EMLWDF downlink scheduling algorithm to provide better services to the cell-edge user as well as to the cell-center user. The proposed algorithm divides the eNB cell area into inner and outer regions. It includes the distance of the user from attached eNB, received Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR and error probability into the original algorithm. The simulated results are compared with other well-known algorithms and the comparison shows that the proposed algorithm enhances overall 56.23% of cell-edge user throughput and significantly improves the average user throughput, fairness index, and spectral efficiency.

  12. Necl-5/PVR enhances PDGF-induced attraction of growing microtubules to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells. (United States)

    Minami, Akihiro; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Waseda, Masazumi; Kajita, Mihoko; Miyata, Muneaki; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi


    Microtubules (MTs) search for and grow toward the leading edge of moving cells, followed by their stabilization at a specific structure at the rear site of the leading edge. This dynamic re-orientation of MTs is critical to directional cell movement. We previously showed that Necl-5/poliovirus receptor (PVR) interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and integrin α(v) β(3) at the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells, resulting in an enhancement of their directional movement. We studied here the role of Necl-5 in the PDGF-induced attraction of growing MTs to the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells. Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced growth of MTs and attracted them near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells in an integrin α(v) β(3) -dependent manner. Furthermore, Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced attraction of the plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), including EB1, CLIP170, an intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein, and p150(Glued) , a subunit of dynactin, near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge. Thus, Necl-5 plays a role in the attraction of growing MTs to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving cells. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cutting edge: Dab2 is a FOXP3 target gene required for regulatory T cell function. (United States)

    Jain, Nitya; Nguyen, Hai; Friedline, Randall H; Malhotra, Nidhi; Brehm, Michael; Koyanagi, Madoka; Bix, Mark; Cooper, Jonathan A; Chambers, Cynthia A; Kang, Joonsoo


    FOXP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are vital for maintaining peripheral T cell tolerance and homeostasis. The mechanisms by which FOXP3 target genes orchestrate context-dependent Treg cell function are largely unknown. In this study we show that in mouse peripheral lymphocytes the Drosophila Disabled-2 (Dab2) homolog, a gene that is involved in enhancing TGFbeta responses, is exclusively expressed in FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Dab2 is a direct target of FOXP3, and regulatory T cells lacking DAB2 are functionally impaired in vitro and in vivo. However, not all aspects of Treg cell function are perturbed, and DAB2 appears to be dispensable for Treg cell function in maintaining naive T cell homeostasis.

  14. Cutting edge: CD95 maintains effector T cell homeostasis in chronic immune activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, Ramon; Baars, Paul A.; Jak, Margot; Tesselaar, Kiki; van der Valk, Martin; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; van Lier, René A. W.


    The elimination of activated T cells is important to maintain homeostasis and avoid immunopathology. CD95 (Fas/APO-1) has been identified as a death mediator for activated T cells in vitro but the function of CD95 in death of mature T cells in vivo is still controversial. Here we show that

  15. How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells


    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy


    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemic...

  16. Cutting edge: identification of novel T cell epitopes in Lol p5a by computational prediction. (United States)

    de Lalla, C; Sturniolo, T; Abbruzzese, L; Hammer, J; Sidoli, A; Sinigaglia, F; Panina-Bordignon, P


    Although atopic allergy affects Lol p5a allergen from rye grass. In vitro binding studies confirmed the promiscuous binding characteristics of these peptides. Moreover, most of the predicted ligands were novel T cell epitopes that were able to stimulate T cells from atopic patients. We generated a panel of Lol p5a-specific T cell clones, the majority of which recognized the peptides in a cross-reactive fashion. The computational prediction of DR ligands might thus allow the design of T cell epitopes with potential useful application in novel immunotherapy strategies.

  17. Cutting Edge: BAFF Promotes Autoantibody Production via TACI-Dependent Activation of Transitional B Cells. (United States)

    Jacobs, Holly M; Thouvenel, Christopher D; Leach, Sarah; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Metzler, Genita; Scharping, Nicole E; Kolhatkar, Nikita S; Rawlings, David J; Jackson, Shaun W


    Mice overexpressing B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) develop systemic autoimmunity characterized by class-switched anti-nuclear Abs. Transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) signals are critical for BAFF-mediated autoimmunity, but the B cell developmental subsets undergoing TACI-dependent activation in settings of excess BAFF remain unclear. We report that, although surface TACI expression is usually limited to mature B cells, excess BAFF promotes the expansion of TACI-expressing transitional B cells. TACI(+) transitional cells from BAFF-transgenic mice are characterized by an activated, cycling phenotype, and the TACI(+) cell subset is specifically enriched for autoreactivity, expresses activation-induced cytidine deaminase and T-bet, and exhibits evidence of somatic hypermutation. Consistent with a potential contribution to BAFF-mediated humoral autoimmunity, TACI(+) transitional B cells from BAFF-transgenic mice spontaneously produce class-switched autoantibodies ex vivo. These combined findings highlight a novel mechanism through which BAFF promotes humoral autoimmunity via direct, TACI-dependent activation of transitional B cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Band Edge Positions and Their Impact on the Simulated Device Performance of ZnSnN2-Based Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, Elisabetta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fioretti, Angela [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Teeter, Glenn R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melamed, Celeste [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pan, Jie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Toberer, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zakutayev, Andriy A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    ZnSnN2 (ZTN) has been proposed as a new earth abundant absorber material for PV applications. While carrier concentration has been reduced to values suitable for device implementation, other properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity and work function are not known. Here, we experimentally determine the value of ionization potential (5.6 eV), electron affinity (4.1 eV) and work function (4.4 eV) for ZTN thin film samples with Zn cation composition Zn/(Zn+Sn) = 0.56 and carrier concentration n = 2x10^19 cm^-3. Using both experimental and theoretical results, we build a model to simulate the device performance of a ZTN/Mg:CuCrO2 solar cell, showing a potential efficiency of 23% in the limit of no defects present. We also investigate the role of band tails and recombination centers on the cell performance. In particular device simulations show that band tails are highly detrimental to the cell efficiency, and recombination centers are a major limitation if present in concentration comparable to the net carrier density. The effect of the position of the band edges of the p-type junction partner was assessed too. Through this study, we determine the major bottlenecks for the development of ZTN-based solar cell and identify avenues to mitigate them.

  19. How Shigella Utilizes Ca(2+) Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells. (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy


    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca(2+) responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca(2+) increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca(2+) responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.

  20. How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy


    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection. PMID:26904514

  1. How Shigella utilizes Ca2+ jagged edge signals during invasion of epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette eBonnet


    Full Text Available Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS. Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells towards a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.

  2. Cutting Edge: Divergent Requirement of T-Box Transcription Factors in Effector and Memory NK Cells. (United States)

    Madera, Sharline; Geary, Clair D; Lau, Colleen M; Pikovskaya, Olga; Reiner, Steven L; Sun, Joseph C


    The T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) instruct discrete stages in NK cell development. However, their role in the immune response of mature NK cells against pathogens remains unexplored. We used an inducible deletion system to elucidate the cell-intrinsic role of T-bet and Eomes in mature NK cells during the course of mouse CMV infection. We show both T-bet and Eomes to be necessary for the expansion of virus-specific NK cells, with T-bet upregulation induced by IL-12 signaling and STAT4 binding to a conserved enhancer region upstream of the Tbx21 loci. Interestingly, our data suggest maintenance of virus-specific memory NK cell numbers and phenotype was dependent on T-bet, but not Eomes. These findings uncover a nonredundant and stage-specific influence of T-box transcription factors in the antiviral NK cell response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... is a collection of material from the case study of an ongoing PhD study titled: LIVING EDGE - The Architectural and Urban Prospect of Domestic Borders. The paper includes a description of the problem analysis, research question, method, discussion and conclusion.......“What is an edge? We can think about an edge as having been of two sorts. In one, it is a border. In the other, it is a boundary. A border is a zone of interaction where things meet and intersect. A boundary is a place where something ends” Architects and planners normally approach domestic borders...

  4. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...... the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours...... of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...

  5. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...... the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours...

  6. Cutting edge: Bcl6-interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function. (United States)

    Yang, Jessica A; Tubo, Noah J; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Jenkins, Marc K


    CD4(+) germinal center (GC)-T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the Bcl6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHC class II-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh cell differentiation and humoral immunity. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Edge usage, motifs, and regulatory logic for cell cycling genetic networks (United States)

    Zagorski, M.; Krzywicki, A.; Martin, O. C.


    The cell cycle is a tightly controlled process, yet it shows marked differences across species. Which of its structural features follow solely from the ability to control gene expression? We tackle this question in silico by examining the ensemble of all regulatory networks which satisfy the constraint of producing a given sequence of gene expressions. We focus on three cell cycle profiles coming from baker's yeast, fission yeast, and mammals. First, we show that the networks in each of the ensembles use just a few interactions that are repeatedly reused as building blocks. Second, we find an enrichment in network motifs that is similar in the two yeast cell cycle systems investigated. These motifs do not have autonomous functions, yet they reveal a regulatory logic for cell cycling based on a feed-forward cascade of activating interactions.

  8. Dendritic cells: a double-edged sword in immune responses during Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gil-Jaramillo


    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the most important member of the antigen presenting cells (APC group due to their ability to recognize antigen at the infection site and their high specialized antigen internalization capacity. These cells have central role in connecting the innate and adaptive immune responses against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. These first line defense cells modulate host immune response depending on type, maturation level, cytokine milieu and DC receptor involved in the interactions with T. cruzi, influencing the development of the disease clinic forms. Here, we present a review of DCs–T. cruzi interactions both in human and murine models, pointing out the parasite ability to manipulate DCs activity for the purpose of evading innate immune response and assuring its own survival and persistence.

  9. Cutting Edge: BAFF Overexpression Reduces Atherosclerosis via TACI-Dependent B Cell Activation. (United States)

    Jackson, Shaun W; Scharping, Nicole E; Jacobs, Holly M; Wang, Shari; Chait, Alan; Rawlings, David J


    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus exhibit accelerated atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. The impact of B cells in atherosclerosis is controversial, with both protective and pathogenic roles described. For example, natural IgM binding conserved oxidized lipid epitopes protect against atherosclerosis, whereas anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) IgG likely promotes disease. Because BAFF promotes B cell class-switch recombination and humoral autoimmunity, we hypothesized that excess BAFF would accelerate atherosclerosis. In contrast, BAFF overexpression markedly reduced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. BAFF-mediated atheroprotection required B cells and was associated with increased protective anti-oxLDL IgM. Surprisingly, high-titer anti-oxLDL IgM production and reduced atherosclerosis was dependent on the BAFF family receptor transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. In summary, we identified a novel role for B cell-specific, BAFF-dependent transmembrane activator and CAML interactor signals in atherosclerosis pathogenesis, of particular relevance to the use of BAFF-targeted therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Stefanie M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: Iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  11. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.


    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  12. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions (United States)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.


    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  13. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    “What is an edge? We can think about an edge as having been of two sorts. In one, it is a border. In the other, it is a boundary. A border is a zone of interaction where things meet and intersect. A boundary is a place where something ends” Architects and planners normally approach domestic borders...... of the involved actors at the border. By doing so, the study underlines a forgotten, yet important, role of this edge zone – being a zone of commonality between the house and city, between indoors and outdoors, between the man at home and the man at the street. The city of Copenhagen promotes porous borders...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...

  14. Edge Detection, (United States)


    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  15. Real-time and quantitative fluorescent live-cell imaging with quadruplex-specific red-edge probe (G4-REP). (United States)

    Yang, Sunny Y; Amor, Souheila; Laguerre, Aurélien; Wong, Judy M Y; Monchaud, David


    The development of quadruplex-directed molecular diagnostic and therapy rely on mechanistic insights gained at both cellular and tissue levels by fluorescence imaging. This technique is based on fluorescent reporters that label cellular DNA and RNA quadruplexes to spatiotemporally address their complex cell biology. The photophysical characteristics of quadruplex probes usually dictate the modality of cell imaging by governing the selection of the light source (lamp, LED, laser), the optical light filters and the detection modality. Here, we report the characterizations of prototype from a new generation of quadruplex dye termed G4-REP (for quadruplex-specific red-edge probe) that provides fluorescence responses regardless of the excitation wavelength and modality (owing to the versatility gained through the red-edge effect), thus allowing for diverse applications and most imaging facilities. This is demonstrated by cell images (and associated quantifications) collected through confocal and multiphoton microscopy as well as through real-time live-cell imaging system over extended period, monitoring both non-cancerous and cancerous human cell lines. Our results promote a new way of designing versatile, efficient and convenient quadruplex-reporting dyes for tracking these higher-order nucleic acid structures in living human cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemoattractant-controlled accumulation of coronin at the leading edge of Dictyostelium cells monitored using a green fluorescent protein-coronin fusion protein. (United States)

    Gerisch, G; Albrecht, R; Heizer, C; Hodgkinson, S; Maniak, M


    The highly motile cells of Dictyostelium discoideum rapidly remodel their actin filament system when they change their direction of locomotion either spontaneously or in response to chemoattractant. Coronin is a cytoplasmic actin-associated protein that accumulates at the coritcal sites of moving cells and contributes to the dynamics of the actin system. It is a member of the WD-repeat family of proteins and is known to interact with actin-myosin complexes. In coronin null mutants, cell locomotion is slowed down and cytokinesis is impaired. We have visualized the redistribution of coronin by fluorescence imaging of motile cells that have been transfected with an expression plasmid containing the coding sequence of coronin fused to the sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This coronin-GFP fusion protein (GFP). This coronin-GFP fusion protein transiently accumulates in the front regions of growth-phase cells, reflecting the changing positions of leading edges and the competition between them. During the aggregation stage, local accumulation of coronin-GFP is biased by chemotactic orientation of the cells in gradients of cAMP. The impairment of cell motility in coronin null mutants shows that coronin has an important function at the front region of the cells. The mutant cells are distinguished by the formation of extended particle-free zones at their front regions, from where pseudopods often break out as blebs. Cytochalasin A reduces the size of these zones, indicating that actin filaments prevent entry of the particles. These data demonstrate that coronin is reversibly recruited from the cytoplasm and is incorporated into the actin network of a nascent leading edge, where it participates in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Monitoring the dynamics of protein assembly using GFP fusion proteins and fluorescence microscopy promises to be a generally applicable method for studying the dynamics of cytoskeletal proteins in moving and dividing cells.

  17. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones. (United States)

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L


    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  18. Interaction of vanadium and sulfate in blood cells from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes: Observations using x-ray absorption edge structure and EPR spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, P.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Carlson, R.M.K.


    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (S-K XAS) and EPR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the inorganic solution chemistry of vanadium, sulfate, and methanesulfonate, with application to blood cells from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes. Three independent whole blood cell preparations (S85, S86, W87) collected over a period of 18 months were examined. Average blood cell vanadium concentrations were determined to be 0.099, 0.079, and 0.062 M, respectively. All three collections gave sulfur XAS spectra consistent with significant intracellular concentrations of low-valent sulfur, an alkanesulfonic acid, and sulfate. In model studies, the line width of the sulfate K-edge XAS spectrum was found to titrate with both pH and [V(III)]. Application of this finding to A. ceratodes blood cell sulfur XAS spectra provided evidence for direct interactions between endogenous dissolved sulfate and V(III) in two of the three collections. All three collections yielded sulfate XAS edge spectra consistent with low pH. Curve-fitting analysis of the S-K edge XAS spectra for the three whole blood cell collections yielded the ratios of intracellular sulfate:alkane sulfonate:low-valent sulfur to be as follows: S85, 1.0:0.9:0.36;S86, 1.0;0.5;1.5;W87,1.0;0.44:0.24. Comparisons with models indicated that the low-valent blood cell sulfur included various disulfide-like compounds unlike cystine. This all implies a surprisingly rich and variable sulfur biochemistry in these marine organisms. EPR spectroscopy of whole blood cells from one animal from the W87 collection revealed an endogenous VO{sup 2+}-sulfate interaction. Thus both V(III) and VO{sup 2+} can sense an intracellular pool of sulfate, implying the biological colocation of these two metal ions. The variations in blood chemistry observed over time as described herein caution against definitive application of single point experiments.

  19. Defining chemical species in complex environments using K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy: vanadium in intact blood cells and Henze solution from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes. (United States)

    Frank, P; Hodgson, K O


    A K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) fitting approach has been developed to speciate elements of interest in complex materials and used here to model the storage of biological vanadium within whole blood cells from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes. The response of the K-edge XAS of solution-phase V(III) to increasing c(sulfate) at constant pH 1.8 produced specific and systematic effects in the preedge transition at 5468.8 eV (preedge transitions: 1s-->4A2 at 5464.9 +/- 0.1 eV, 1s-->4T2 at 5466.9 +/- 0.1 eV, and 1s-->4T1 at 5468.8 +/- 0.1 eV for 11 different V(III)/sulfate solutions). In contrast, variations in acidity (as pH) at constant c(sulfate) systematically modified the V(III) preedge XAS at 5466.9 eV. The energy position of the K-edge absorption maximum also serially shifted -0.32 eV/pH unit, from 5483.7 eV (pH 3.0) to 5484.7 eV (pH 0.3). Fits to the V-K XAS of two samples of A. ceratodes whole blood cells representing dozens of animals implied storage of V(III) ions in four predominant solution regimes: approximately 10% high sulfate/pH 0 acid; approximately 40% high sulfate/pH 1.8 acid; approximately 40% moderate sulfate/pH 1.8 acid; approximately 10% moderate sulfate/pH 3 acid. For lysed blood cells, the best fit represented 63% of the V(III) in a pH 1.6 sulfate-free environment and a further 16% in acidic sulfate solution. Nearly 18% of lysed cells vanadium(III) appeared in a tris(catecholate)-like environment. A detailed speciation of biological vanadium complex ions was calculated from these fits by application of the known equilibrium constants governing V(III) and sulfate in acidic aqueous solution. The utility of blood cell V(III) to ascidians is discussed. Fits to K-edge XAS spectra using the XAS spectra of appropriate models are suggested to be generally applicable to elucidating the state of metal ions in a wide variety of complex environments.

  20. Nitrogen and Fluorine Codoped, Colloidal TiO2Nanoparticle: Tunable Doping, Large Red-Shifted Band Edge, Visible Light Induced Photocatalysis, and Cell Death. (United States)

    Biswas, Aritra; Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R


    Visible light photocatalysis by TiO 2 requires efficient doping of other elements with red-shifted band edge to the visible region. However, preparation of such TiO 2 with tunable doping is challenging. Here we report a method of making nitrogen (N) and fluorine (F) codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle with tunable doping between 1 and 7 at. %. The preparation of N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle involves reaction of colloidal TiO 2 nanorods with an ammonium fluoride-urea mixture at 300 °C, and the extent of N/F doping is tuned by varying the amount of ammonium fluoride-urea and the reaction time. Resultant colloidal N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles show doping dependent shifting of the band edge from the UV to near-IR region, visible light induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and visible light photodegradation of bisphenol A. A colloidal form of doped TiO 2 nanoparticle offers labeling of cells, visible light induced ROS generation inside a cell, and successive cell death. This work shows the potential advantage of anisotropic nanoparticle precursor for tunable doping and colloidal form of N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle as a visible light photocatalyst.

  1. Large reservoir of sulfate and sulfonate resides within plasma cells from Ascidia ceratodes, revealed by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, P.; Hedman, B.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Tyson, T.A.; Roe, A.L.; Hodgson, K.O.


    The study of sulfur within the plasma cells of Ascidia ceratodes has been extended with x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. An intense absorption feature at 2482.4 eV and a second feature at 2473.7 eV indicate a large endogenous sulfate concentration, as well as smaller though significant amounts of thiol or thioether sulfur, respectively. A strong shoulder was observed at 2481.7 eV on the low-energy side of the sulfate absorption edge, deriving from a novel type of sulfur having a slightly lower oxidation state than sulfate sulfur. The line width of the primary transition on the sulfur edge of a vanadium(III) sulfate solution was found to be broadened relative to that of sodium sulfate, possibly deriving from the formation of the VSO/sub 4//sup +/ complex ion. Similar broadening appears to characterize the oxidized sulfur types in vanadocytes. A very good linear correlation between oxidation state and peak position (in electronvolts) was found for a series of related sulfur compounds. This correlation was used to determine a 5+ oxidation state for the additional sulfur type at 2481.7 eV. Construction of a cellular sulfur minus vanadium(III) sulfate difference spectrum, along with comparison with spectra of known compounds, identified the novel sulfur(V) as an aliphatic sulfonic acid analogous to cysteic acid. The overall sulfonic acid concentration is comparable to that of sulfate in plasma cells and appears to be unprecedented in marine organisms.

  2. WE-EF-BRA-08: Cell Survival in Modulated Radiation Fields and Altered DNA-Repair at Field Edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, S; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Eismann, S [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, DE (Germany)


    Purpose: Tissue damage prognoses in radiotherapy are based on clonogenic assays that provide dose dependent cell survival rates. However, recent work has shown that apart from dose, systemic reactions and cell-cell communication crucially influence the radiation response. These effects are probably a key in understanding treatment approaches such as microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). In this study we tried to quantify the effects on a cellular level in spatially modulated radiation fields. Methods: Pancreas carcinoma cells were cultured, plated and irradiated by spatially modulated radiation fields with an X-ray tube and at a synchrotron. During and after treatment cells were able to communicate via the intercellular medium. Afterwards we stained for DNA and DNA damage and imaged with a fluorescence microscope. Results: Intriguingly we found that DNA damage does not strictly increase with dose. Two cell entities appear that have either a high or a low amount of DNA lesions, indicating that DNA damage is also a cell stress reaction. Close to radiation boundaries damage-levels became alike; they were higher than expected at low and lower than expected at high doses. Neighbouring cells reacted similarly. 6 hours after exposure around 40% of the cells resembled in their reactions neighbouring cells more than randomly chosen cells that received the same dose. We also observed that close to radiation boundaries the radiation induced cell-cycle arrest disappeared and the size of DNA repair-centres increased. Conclusion: Cell communication plays an important role in the radiation response of tissues and may be both, protective and destructive. These effects may not only have the potential to affect conventional radiotherapy but may also be exploited to spare organs at risk by intelligently designing irradiation geometries. To that end intensive work is required to shed light on the still obscure processes in cell-signalling and radiation biology.

  3. Regulatory role of NKG2D+ NK cells in intestinal lamina propria by secreting double-edged Th1 cytokines in ulcerative colitis. (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Peng, Pai-Lan; Lin, Xue; Chang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Nie, Jia-Yan; Dong, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin


    The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.

  4. Cutting edge: Rapid recovery of NKT cells upon institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, Hans J. J.; van Vonderen, Marit G. A.; Molling, Johan W.; Bontkes, Hetty J.; Reijm, Martine; Reiss, Peter; van Agtmael, Michiel A.; Danner, Sven A.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; von Blomberg, B. Mary E.; Scheper, Rik J.


    CD1d-restricted NKT cells play important regulatory roles in various immune responses and are rapidly and selectively depleted upon infection with HIV-1. The cause of this selective depletion is incompletely understood, although it is in part due to the high susceptibility of CD4+ NKT cells to

  5. Cutting Edge: 2B4-Mediated Coinhibition of CD4+ T Cells Underlies Mortality in Experimental Sepsis. (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wen; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Burd, Eileen M; Terhorst, Cox; Martin, Greg S; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L


    Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States, but the mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced immune dysregulation remain poorly understood. 2B4 (CD244, SLAM4) is a cosignaling molecule expressed predominantly on NK cells and memory CD8 + T cells that has been shown to regulate T cell function in models of viral infection and autoimmunity. In this article, we show that 2B4 signaling mediates sepsis lymphocyte dysfunction and mortality. 2B4 expression is increased on CD4 + T cells in septic animals and human patients at early time points. Importantly, genetic loss or pharmacologic inhibition of 2B4 significantly increased survival in a murine cecal ligation and puncture model. Further, CD4-specific conditional knockouts showed that 2B4 functions on CD4 + T cell populations in a cell-intrinsic manner and modulates adaptive and innate immune responses during sepsis. Our results illuminate a novel role for 2B4 coinhibitory signaling on CD4 + T cells in mediating immune dysregulation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Cutting Edge: B Cell-Intrinsic T-bet Expression Is Required To Control Chronic Viral Infection. (United States)

    Barnett, Burton E; Staupe, Ryan P; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Palko, Olesya; Tomov, Vesselin T; Mahan, Alison E; Gunn, Bronwyn; Chen, Diana; Paley, Michael A; Alter, Galit; Reiner, Steven L; Lauer, Georg M; Teijaro, John R; Wherry, E John


    The role of Ab and B cells in preventing infection is established. In contrast, the role of B cell responses in containing chronic infections remains poorly understood. IgG2a (IgG1 in humans) can prevent acute infections, and T-bet promotes IgG2a isotype switching. However, whether IgG2a and B cell-expressed T-bet influence the host-pathogen balance during persisting infections is unclear. We demonstrate that B cell-specific loss of T-bet prevents control of persisting viral infection. T-bet in B cells controlled IgG2a production, as well as mucosal localization, proliferation, glycosylation, and a broad transcriptional program. T-bet controlled a broad antiviral program in addition to IgG2a because T-bet in B cells was important, even in the presence of virus-specific IgG2a. Our data support a model in which T-bet is a universal controller of antiviral immunity across multiple immune lineages. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons


    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger


    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  8. Cutting edge: CD43 functions as a T cell counterreceptor for the macrophage adhesion receptor sialoadhesin (Siglec-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, T. K.; Nath, D.; Ziltener, H. J.; Vestweber, D.; Fukuda, M.; van Die, I.; Crocker, P. R.


    Sialoadhesin (Siglec-1) is a macrophage-restricted sialic acid-binding receptor that mediates interactions with hemopoietic cells, including lymphocytes. In this study, we identify sialoadhesin counterreceptors on T lymphocytes. Several major glycoproteins (85, 130, 240 kDa) were precipitated by

  9. Cutting edge: persistently open chromatin at effector gene loci in resting memory CD8+ T cells independent of transcriptional status. (United States)

    Zediak, Valerie P; Johnnidis, Jonathan B; Wherry, E John; Berger, Shelley L


    Memory CD8(+) T cells are characterized by more rapid and robust effector function upon infection compared with naive T cells, but factors governing effector gene responsiveness are incompletely understood. We sought to understand transcriptional control of the effector genes IFN-γ (Ifng), granzyme B (Gzmb), and perforin 1 (Prf1) in murine memory CD8(+) T cells by characterizing their transcriptional profiles and chromatin states during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Each effector gene has a distinct transcriptional profile in resting memory cells and following restimulation. Primary infection leads to reduced nucleosomal density near the transcription start sites and reduced H3K27 methylation throughout the Ifng and Gzmb loci, and these chromatin changes persist in the memory phase. Despite similarities in chromatin at the memory stage, PolII recruitment and continuous transcription occur at the Ifng locus but not the Gzmb locus. We propose that these chromatin changes poise effector genes for rapid upregulation, but are insufficient for PolII recruitment and transcription.

  10. Edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets as durable metal-free catalysts for iodine reduction reaction in dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Hong Mo; Choi, Ji Il; Jung, Sun-Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Choi, In Taek; Kang, Sung Ho; Kim, Han Seul; Noh, Min Jong; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Baek, Jong-Beom


    Metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are sufficiently active in Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes but are not satisfactory in the most commonly used iodide/triiodide (I(-)/I3 (-)) electrolytes. Thus, developing active and stable metal-free electrocatalysts in both electrolytes is one of the most important issues in DSSC research. We report the synthesis of edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets (SeGnPs) prepared by a simple mechanochemical reaction between graphite and selenium (Se) powders, and their application to the counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs in both I(-)/I3 (-) and Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes. The edge-selective doping and the preservation of the pristine graphene basal plane in the SeGnPs were confirmed by various analytical techniques, including atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Tested as the DSSC CE in both Co(bpy)3 (2+/3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and I(-)/I3 (-) electrolytes, the SeGnP-CEs exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic performance with ultimately high stability. The SeGnP-CE-based DSSCs displayed a higher photovoltaic performance than did the Pt-CE-based DSSCs in both SM315 sensitizer with Co(bpy)3 (2+/3+) and N719 sensitizer with I(-)/I3 (-) electrolytes. Furthermore, the I3 (-) reduction mechanism, which has not been fully understood in carbon-based CE materials to date, was clarified by an electrochemical kinetics study combined with density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function calculations.

  11. Cutting edge: the Foxp3 target miR-155 contributes to the development of regulatory T cells. (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Susan; Garden, Oliver A; Scudamore, Cheryl; Turner, Martin; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Vigorito, Elena


    Foxp3 is a transcription factor that is essential for the normal development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In the absence of microRNAs (miRNAs), Foxp3(+) Tregs develop but fail to maintain immune homeostasis, leading to a scurfy-like disease. Global analysis of the network of genes regulated by Foxp3 has identified the miRNA miR-155, which is highly expressed in Tregs, as a direct target of Foxp3. In this study we report that miR-155-deficient mice have reduced numbers of Tregs, both in the thymus and periphery, due to impaired development. However, we found no evidence for defective suppressor activity of miR-155-deficient Tregs, either in vitro or in vivo. Our results indicate that miR-155 contributes to Treg development, but that additional miRNAs control Treg function.

  12. An edge pedestal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacev, W.M.


    A new model for calculation of the gradient scale lengths in the edge pedestal region and of the edge transport barrier width in H-mode tokamak plasmas will be described. Model problem calculations which demonstrate the promise of this model for predicting experimental pedestal properties will be discussed. The density and Prague gradient scale lengths (L) in the edge are calculated from the particle and ion and electron energy radial transport equations, making use of (presumed) known particle and energy fluxes flowing across the edge transport barrier from the core into the SOL and of edge transport coefficients. The average values of the particle and heat fluxes in the edge transport barrier are calculated in terms of the fluxes crossing into the SOL and the atomic physics reaction rates (ionisation, charge-exchange, elastic scattering, impurity radiation) in the edge by integrating the respective transport equations from the pedestal to the separatrix. An important implication of this model is that the pedestal gradient scale lengths depend not just on local pedestal platers properties but also on particle and energy fluxes from the core plasma and on recycling neutral fluxes that penetrate into the plasma edge, both of which in turn depend on the pedestal properties. The MHD edge pressure gradient constraint α≤ α C is used to determine the pressure width of the edge transport barrier, Δ TB = Δ TB (α c ). Three different models for the MHD edge pressure gradient constraint have been investigated: (1) nominal ideal ballooning mode theory, (2) ballooning mode theory taking into account the edge geometry and shear to access He second stability region; and pedestal β-limit theory when the ballooning modes are stabilised by diamagnetic effects. A series of calculations have been made for a DIII-D model problem. The calculated gradient scale lengths and edge transport barrier widths are of the magnitude of values observed experimentally, and certain trends

  13. Zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge reconstruction with Stone-Wales defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Gonçalves, P. A. D; Rodrigues, N. F. G.


    the edge; at the Dirac points one of these lengths diverges, whereas the other remains finite, of the order of the lattice parameter. We trace this curious effect to the doubling of the unit cell along the edge, brought about by the edge reconstruction. In the presence of a magnetic field, the zero......-energy Landau level is no longer degenerate with edge states as in the case of the pristine zigzag ribbon....

  14. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.


    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  15. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph


    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  16. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris


    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  17. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  18. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac


    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  19. The Edge supersonic transport (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian


    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  20. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.


    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  1. High Speed Edge Detection (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)


    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  2. Swords with Blunt Edges (United States)

    Popham, W. James


    Many U.S. educators now wonder whether they're teachers or targets. This mentality stems from the specter of their school being sanctioned for failing the state accountability tests mandated under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to this author, most of those tests are like blunt-edged swords: They function badly in two directions. While…

  3. Edge effects in magnetoplasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; Kraeft, W.D.; Schlanges, M.


    Edge effects in magnetized charged-particle systems are discussed with the help of a multiple-reflection expansion for the Green function. The profiles of the density and the electric current are determined both for the non-degenerate and the highly degenerate case. The asymptotic form of the

  4. The Inner Urban Edge (United States)

    Ferebee, Ann; Carpenter, Edward K.


    In this article, renewal of the inner urban edge is discussed. Norfolk (Virginia) is attempting to blur the difference between old and new neighbor hoods through zoning and architectural controls. Cincinnati (Ohio) is developing an environmentally sound hillside design. Reading (Pennsylvania) is utilizing old railyards for greenbelts of hiking and…

  5. Graphene edges; localized edge state and electron wave interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoki Toshiaki


    Full Text Available The electronic structure of massless Dirac fermion in the graphene hexagonal bipartite is seriously modified by the presence of edges depending on the edge chirality. In the zigzag edge, strongly spin polarized nonbonding edge state is created as a consequence of broken symmetry of pseudo-spin. In the scattering at armchair edges, the K-K’ intervalley transition gives rise to electron wave interference. The presence of edge state in zigzag edges is observed in ultra-high vacuum STM/STS observations. The electron wave interference phenomenon in the armchair edge is observed in the Raman G-band and the honeycomb superlattice pattern with its fine structure in STM images.

  6. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi


    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  7. Determining the Conduction Band-Edge Potential of Solar-Cell-Relevant Nb2O5Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition. (United States)

    Hoffeditz, William L; Pellin, Michael J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T


    Often key to boosting photovoltages in photoelectrochemical and related solar-energy-conversion devices is the preferential slowing of rates of charge recombination-especially recombination at semiconductor/solution, semiconductor/polymer, or semiconductor/perovskite interfaces. In devices featuring TiO 2 as the semiconducting component, a common approach to slowing recombination is to install an ultrathin metal oxide barrier layer or trap-passivating layer atop the semiconductor, with the needed layer often being formed via atomic layer deposition (ALD). A particularly promising barrier layer material is Nb 2 O 5 . Its conduction-band-edge potential E CB is low enough that charge injection from an adsorbed molecular, polymeric, or solid-state light absorber and into the semiconductor can still occur, but high enough that charge recombination is inhibited. While a few measurements of E CB have been reported for conventionally synthesized, bulk Nb 2 O 5 , none have been described for ALD-fabricated versions. Here, we specifically determine the conduction-band-edge energy of ALD-fabricated Nb 2 O 5 relative to that of TiO 2 . We find that, while the value for ALD-Nb 2 O 5 is indeed higher than that for TiO 2 , the difference is less than anticipated based on measurements of conventionally synthesized Nb 2 O 5 and is dependent on the thermal history of the material. The implications of the findings for optimization of competing interfacial rate processes, and therefore photovoltages, are briefly discussed.

  8. On Detecting Edges. (United States)


    size / uo;1 ) 9 2.5, it has subpixel posi- tion localization (b , < 1/3) and an angular localization better ".- than 10; further, it is designed to be...detection is robust with respect to noise; for (step-size / o.,, ) 2 2.5, it has subpixel posi- tion localization (u, oi. < 1/3) and an angular localization...34"..".- . ’ Page 48 On Detecting Edges *.% intensities photoelectronic noise may dominate thermal noise, rendering our noise-model invalid. Under such

  9. Cutting edge: Leptin-induced RORγt expression in CD4+ T cells promotes Th17 responses in systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Yu, Yiyun; Liu, Yaoyang; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zou, Hejian; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio


    Th17 CD4(+) cells promote inflammation and autoimmunity. In this study, we report that Th17 cell frequency is reduced in ob/ob mice (that are genetically deficient in the adipokine leptin) and that the administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored Th17 cell numbers to values comparable to those found in wild-type animals. Leptin promoted Th17 responses in normal human CD4(+) T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing RORγt transcription. Leptin also increased Th17 responses in (NZB × NZW)F1 lupus-prone mice, whereas its neutralization in those autoimmune-prone mice inhibited Th17 responses. Because Th17 cells play an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation and autoimmunity, these findings envision the possibility to modulate abnormal Th17 responses via leptin manipulation, and they reiterate the link between metabolism/nutrition and susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  10. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  11. Edge-on! (United States)


    Peering at Uranus's Rings as they Swing Edge-on to Earth for the First Time Since their Discovery in 1977 As Uranus coasts through a brief window of time when its rings are edge-on to Earth - a view of the planet we get only once every 42 years - astronomers peering at the rings with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other space or ground-based telescopes are getting an unprecedented view of the fine dust in the system, free from the glare of the bright rocky rings. They may even find a new moon or two. ESO PR Photo 37/07 ESO PR Photo 37/07 The Uranus System "ESO's VLT took data at the precise moment when the rings were edge-on to Earth," said Imke de Pater, of University of California, Berkeley who coordinated the worldwide campaign. She worked with two team members observing in Chile: Daphne Stam of the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands and Markus Hartung of ESO. The observations were done with NACO, one of the adaptive optics instruments installed at the VLT. With adaptive optics, it is possible to obtain images almost free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. It is as if the 8.2-m telescope were observing from space. Observations were also done with the Keck telescope in Hawaii, the Hubble Space Telescope, and at the Palomar Observatory. "Using different telescopes around the world allows us to observe as much of the changes during the ring-plane crossing as possible: when Uranus sets as seen from the VLT, it can still be observed by the Keck," emphasised Stam. Uranus orbits the Sun in 84 years. Twice during a Uranian year, the rings appear edge-on to Earth for a brief period. The rings were discovered in 1977, so this is the first time for a Uranus ring-crossing to be observed from Earth. The advantage of observations at a ring-plane crossing is that it becomes possible to look at the rings from the shadowed or dark side. From that vantage point, the normally bright outer rings grow fainter because their centimetre- to metre-sized rocks obscure

  12. Performance characterization of edge detectors (United States)

    Ramesh, Visvanathan; Haralick, Robert M.


    Edge detection is the most fundamental step in vision algorithms. A number of edge detectors have been discussed in the computer vision literature. Examples of classic edge detectors include the Marr-Hildreth edge operator, facet edge operator, and the Canny edge operator. Edge detection using morphological techniques are attractive because they can be efficiently implemented in near real time machine vision systems that have special hardware support. However, little performance characterization of edge detectors has been done. In general, performance characterization of edge detectors has been done mainly by plotting empirical curves of performance. Quantitative performance evaluation of edge detectors was first performed by Abdou and Pratt. It is the goal of this paper to perform a theoretical comparison of gradient based edge detectors and morphological edge detectors. By assuming that an ideal edge is corrupted with additive noise we derive theoretical expressions for the probability of misdetection (the probability of labeling of a true edge pixel as a nonedge pixel in the output). Further, we derive theoretical expressions for the probability of false alarm (the probability of labeling of a nonedge pixel as an output edge pixel) by assuming that the input to the operator is a region of flat graytone intensity corrupted with additive Gaussian noise of zero mean and variance (sigma) 2. Even though the blurring step in the morphological operator introduces correlation in the additive noise, we make an approximation that the output samples after blurring are i.i.d. Gaussian random variables with zero mean and variance (sigma) 2/M where M is the window size of the blurring kernel. The false alarm probabilities obtained by using this approximation can be shown to be upperbounds of the false alarm probabilities computed without the approximation. The theory indicates that the blur- min operator is clearly superior when a 3 X 3 window size is used. Since we only have

  13. Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C


    -nm layer of transparent conducting indium–tin oxide (ITO). The ITO layer was first patterned by screen printing an etch resist followed by etching. The second layer was applied by either knife-over-edge (KOE) coating or slot-die coating a solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-nps) followed...... by curing. The second layer comprised a mixture of the thermocleavable poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene) (P3MHOCT) and ZnO-nps and was applied by a modified slot-die coating procedure, enabling slow coating speeds with low viscosity and low surface tension ink solutions. The third layer...... was patterned into stripes and juxtaposed with the ITO layer. The fourth layer comprised screen-printed or slot-die-coated PEDOT:PSS and the fifth and the final layer comprised a screen-printed or slot-die-coated silver electrode. The final module dimensions were 28 cm×32 cm and presented four individual solar...

  14. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.


    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  15. Apoptosis-induced ectodomain shedding of hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase IX from tumor cells: a double-edged response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidlickova, Ivana; Dequiedt, Franck; Jelenska, Lenka; Sedlakova, Olga; Pastorek, Michal; Stuchlik, Stanislav; Pastorek, Jaromir; Zatovicova, Miriam; Pastorekova, Silvia


    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a tumor-associated, highly active, transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoform regulated by hypoxia and implicated in pH control and adhesion-migration-invasion. CA IX ectodomain (ECD) is shed from the tumor cell surface to serum/plasma of patients, where it can signify cancer prognosis. We previously showed that the CA IX ECD release is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17. Here we investigated the CA IX ECD shedding in tumor cells undergoing apoptosis in response to cytotoxic drugs, including cycloheximide and doxorubicin. Presence of cell surface CA IX was correlated to the extent of apoptosis by flow cytometry in cell lines with natural or ectopic CA IX expression. CA IX ECD level was assessed by ELISA using CA IX-specific monoclonal antibodies. Effect of recombinant CA IX ECD on the activation of molecular pathways was evaluated using the cell-based dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found a significantly lower occurrence of apoptosis in the CA IX-positive cell subpopulation than in the CA IX-negative one. We also demonstrated that the cell-surface CA IX level dropped during the death progress due to an increased ECD shedding, which required a functional ADAM17. Inhibitors of metalloproteinases reduced CA IX ECD shedding, but not apoptosis. The CA IX ECD release induced by cytotoxic drugs was connected to elevated expression of CA IX in the surviving fraction of cells. Moreover, an externally added recombinant CA IX ECD activated a pathway driven by the Nanog transcription factor implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness. These findings imply that the increased level of the circulating CA IX ECD might be useful as an indicator of an effective antitumor chemotherapy. Conversely, elevated CA IX ECD might generate unwanted effects through autocrine/paracrine signaling potentially contributing to resistance and tumor progression

  16. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai


    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  17. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL; Jia, Xiaoting [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Dresselhaus, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)


    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  18. Edge diagnostics for tandem mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.


    The edge plasma in a tandem mirror machine shields the plasma core from cold neutral gas and impurities. A variety of diagnostics are used to measure the fueling, shielding, and confinement of the edge plasma in both the end plug and central cell regions. Fast ion gauges and residual gas analyzers measure the gas pressure and composition outside of the plasma. An array of Langmuir probes is used to measure the electron density and temperature. Extreme ultraviolet (euv) and visible spectroscopy are used to measure both the impurity and deuterium densities and to estimate the shielding factor for the core plasma. The linear geometry of a tandem mirror also allows direct measurements of the edge plasma by sampling the ions and electrons lost but the ends of the machine. Representative data obtained by these diagnostics during operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) and Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiments are presented. Diagnostics that are currently being developed to diagnose the edge plasma are also discussed

  19. The reduced folate carrier (RFC) is cytotoxic to cells under conditions of severe folate deprivation. RFC as a double edged sword in folate homeostasis. (United States)

    Ifergan, Ilan; Jansen, Gerrit; Assaraf, Yehuda G


    The reduced folate carrier (RFC), a bidirectional anion transporter, is the major uptake route of reduced folates essential for a spectrum of biochemical reactions and thus cellular proliferation. However, here we show that ectopic overexpression of the RFC, but not of folate receptor alpha, a high affinity unidirectional folate uptake route serving here as a negative control, resulted in an approximately 15-fold decline in cellular viability in medium lacking folates but not in folate-containing medium. Moreover to explore possible mechanisms of adaptation to folate deficiency in various cell lines that express the endogenous RFC, we first determined the gene expression status of the following genes: (a) RFC, (b) ATP-driven folate exporters (i.e. MRP1, MRP5, and breast cancer resistance protein), and (c) folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase and gamma-glutamate hydrolase (GGH), enzymes catalyzing folate polyglutamylation and hydrolysis, respectively. Upon 3-7 days of folate deprivation, semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed a specific approximately 2.5-fold decrease in RFC mRNA levels in both breast cancer and T-cell leukemia cell lines that was accompanied by a consistent fall in methotrexate influx, serving here as an RFC transport activity assay. Likewise a 2.4-fold decrease in GGH mRNA levels and approximately 19% decreased GGH activity was documented for folate-deprived breast cancer cells. These results along with those of a novel mathematical biomodeling devised here suggest that upon severe short term (i.e. up to 7 days) folate deprivation RFC transport activity becomes detrimental as RFC, but not ATP-driven folate exporters, efficiently extrudes folate monoglutamates out of cells. Hence down-regulation of RFC and GGH may serve as a novel adaptive response to severe folate deficiency.

  20. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyungmi [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Jin, E-mail: [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)


    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.

  1. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories (United States)

    Song, Kyungmi; Lee, Kyung-Jin


    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.

  2. Effect of heat treatment on the activity and stability of PtCo/C catalyst and application of in-situ X-ray absorption near edge structure for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (United States)

    Lin, Rui; Zhao, Tiantian; Shang, Mingfeng; Wang, Jianqiang; Tang, Wenchao; Guterman, Vladimir E.; Ma, Jianxin


    For the purpose of reducing the cost and improving the performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), some low-Pt or non-Pt catalysts have been studied in recent years. PtCo/C electrocatalysts are synthesized by a two-step reduction approach followed by the heat treatment. PtCo metal particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of XC-72 carbon support, with a uniform particle size distribution. The PtCo/C catalyst after 400 °C heat treatment has the best electrochemical performance among the as-prepared catalysts, even superior to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. In the durability test, PtCo/C-400 also shows excellent stability with only 6.9% decline of electrochemical surface area (ECSA) after 1000 cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles. In-situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) technique is conducted to explore the nanostructure change of Pt during the PEMFC operation. For PtCo/C catalyst, with the fuel cell operation potential decreasing from open circuit voltage (OCV) to 0.3 V, the Pt L3 white line intensity decreases continuously, indicating the decline of Pt 5d-vacancy due to the adsorption of oxygenated species.

  3. Predictive intelligence to the edge: impact on edge analytics


    Harth, Natascha; Anagnostopoulos, Christos; Pezaros, Dimitrios


    We rest on the edge computing paradigm where pushing processing and inference to the edge of the Internet of Things (IoT) allows the complexity of predictive analytics to be distributed into smaller pieces physically located at the source of the contextual information. This enables a huge amount of rich contextual data to be processed in real time that would be prohibitively complex and costly to deliver on a traditional centralized Cloud. We propose a lightweight, distributed, predictive int...

  4. The edge of space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.


    What happened at the beginning of the expansion of the universe. Did space time have an edge at the Big Bang. The answer is that, if the boundary conditions of the universe are that it has no boundary, time ceases to be well-defined in the very early universe as the direction ''north'' ceases to be well defined at the North Pole of the Earth. The quantity that we measure as time has a beginning but that does not mean spacetime has an edge, just as the surface of the Earth does not have an edge at the North Pole. 8 figs

  5. Edges, curvature, and primal sketches. (United States)

    Watt, Roger


    Marr described two versions of the primal sketch: the basic image-processing level in human vision. In line with his broader view of how one should construct explanatory theories in vision, he provided some details of the computational theory for this stage, the algorithms used, and how they might be implemented in neural systems. In this paper I consider how Marr ideas have continued over the past 30 years. In this regard, I pay particular attention to three stages: locating edges; describing edge curvature; linking local edge segments into elongated contours.

  6. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts (United States)

    Luan, Jing


    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  7. Fast tracking using edge histograms (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw


    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  8. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge: A Gem from Sommerfeld's Work in Classical Physics. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 389-400 ...

  9. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States); Drozdov, Vladimir V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  10. Extruded edge members for honeycombs (United States)

    Haskell, D. R.


    Edge members in bonded honeycomb panel structures are conventionally made by machining channels in aluminum bars. Open ends are stuffed with honeycomb core, using intumescent adhesive. Less expensive technique eliminates need for stuffing. Extended edges are more reliable, lighter, and easier to install. New manufacturing method may prove useful in fabricating structures such as air-frames, recreational-vehicle frame members, and the like in which weight savings is primary goal.

  11. Edge of polar cap patches (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.


    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  12. Domination Edge Lift Critical Trees | Desormeaux | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stract. Let uxv be an induced path with center x in a graph G. The edge lifting of uv off x is defined as the action of removing edges ux and vx from the edge set of G, while adding the edge uv to the edge set of G. We study trees for which every possible edge lift changes the domination number. We show that there are no ...

  13. Arsenate reduction and methylation in the cells of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1 investigated with X-ray absorption near edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.M., E-mail: [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Zeng, X.B., E-mail: [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Li, L.F.; Duan, R.; Bai, L.Y. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Li, A.G.; Wang, J.; Jiang, S. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fungal strains are capable of As(V) reduction and methylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As(V) reduction might be more easily processed than the methylation in fungal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As sequestration and speciation transformation might be the detoxification processes. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was introduced to directly analysis chemical species of arsenic (As) in the cells of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1 capable of As accumulation and volatilisation. After exposure to As(V) of 500 mg L{sup -1} for 15 days, a total of 60.5% and 65.3% of the accumulated As in the cells of T. asperellum SM-12F1 and P. janthinellum SM-12F4, respectively, was As(III), followed by 31.3% and 32.4% DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), 8.3% and 2.3% MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), respectively. However, for F. oxysporum CZ-8F1, 54.5% of the accumulated As was As(III), followed by 37.8% MMA and 7.7% As(V). The reduction and methylation of As(V) formed As(III), MMA, and DMA as the primacy products, and the reduction of As(V) might be more easily processed than the methylation. These results will help to understanding the mechanisms of As detoxification and its future application in bioremediation.

  14. Improved performance of dye sensitized solar cells using Cu-doped TiO2 as photoanode materials: Band edge movement study by spectroelectrochemistry (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu


    Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  15. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin


    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  16. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner


    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  17. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, Arnold H. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rafiq, Tariq [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    A major goal of our participation in the Edge Physics Simulation project has been to contribute to the understanding of the self-organization of tokamak turbulence fluctuations resulting in the formation of a staircase structure in the ion temperature. A second important goal is to demonstrate how small scale turbulence in plasmas self-organizes with dynamically driven quasi-stationary flow shear. These goals have been accomplished through the analyses of the statistical properties of XGC1 flux driven Gyrokinetic electrostatic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence simulation data in which neutrals are included. The ITG turbulence data, and in particular fluctuation data, were obtained from a massively parallel flux-driven gyrokinetic full-f particle-in-cell simulation of a DIII-D like equilibrium. Below some the findings are summarized. It was observed that the emergence of staircase structure is related to the variations in the normalized temperature gradient length (R/LT) and the poloidal flow shear. Average turbulence intensity is found to be large in the vicinity of minima in R/LTi, where ITG growth is expected to be lower. The distributions of the occurrences of potential fluctuation are found to be Gaussian away from the staircase-step locations, but they are found to be non-Gaussian in the vicinity of staircase-step locations. The results of analytically derived expressions for the distribution of the occurrences of turbulence intensity and intensity flux were compared with the corresponding quantities computed using XGC1 simulation data and good agreement is found. The derived expressions predicts inward and outward propagation of turbulence intensity flux in an intermittent fashion. The outward propagation of turbulence intensity flux occurs at staircase-step locations and is related to the change in poloidal flow velocity shear and to the change in the ion temperature gradient. The standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis for turbulence quantities

  18. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.


    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  19. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    integral is a complex number which is a function of the lower limit. We have named it ... (b) Straight edge diffraction according to Young: In this figure, the plane wave from the source simply continues with ... discontinuity in the amplitude at the shadow, which exactly compensates for the discontinuity in the plane wavefront ...

  20. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges: The case of {-/}/{-/U/} semantic (?) contrast in Shona. K. G. Mkangwanwi. Abstract. (ZAMBEZIA: Journal of Humanities of the Univ of Zimbabwe, 2000 27(1): 47-54). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. On the Edge of Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line


    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Malian migrants and migration brokers in Mali, Algeria, Morocco, and France, this article investigates life in exile on the edge of Europe. Zooming in on the experiences of interlocutors in Morocco and Algeria, the article will explore the experiential...

  2. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  3. Edge imaging in intense beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal


    Full Text Available The appearance of rings of charge observed near the edge of beams from high-perveance guns is described with a simple ray tracing technique inspired by the particle-core model. We illustrate the technique, which has no analog in light optics, with examples from experiments employing solenoid focusing of an electron beam. The rings of charge result from the combined effects of external focusing and space-charge forces acting on paraxial fringe particles with relatively large initial transverse velocities. The model is independent of the physical mechanisms responsible for the fringe particles. Furthermore, the focal length for edge imaging in a uniform focusing channel is derived using a linearized trajectory equation for the motion of fringe particles. Counterintuitively, the focal length decreases as the beam current increases.

  4. Nonreference Medical Image Edge Map Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Panetta


    Full Text Available Edge detection is a key step in medical image processing. It is widely used to extract features, perform segmentation, and further assist in diagnosis. A poor quality edge map can result in false alarms and misses in cancer detection algorithms. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable edge measure to assist in selecting the optimal edge map. Existing reference based edge measures require a ground truth edge map to evaluate the similarity between the generated edge map and the ground truth. However, the ground truth images are not available for medical images. Therefore, a nonreference edge measure is ideal for medical image processing applications. In this paper, a nonreference reconstruction based edge map evaluation (NREM is proposed. The theoretical basis is that a good edge map keeps the structure and details of the original image thus would yield a good reconstructed image. The NREM is based on comparing the similarity between the reconstructed image with the original image using this concept. The edge measure is used for selecting the optimal edge detection algorithm and optimal parameters for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the quantitative evaluations given by the edge measure have good correlations with human visual analysis.

  5. Galaxies on the Blue Edge


    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.


    We have successfully constructed a catalog of HI-rich galaxies selected from the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) based solely on optical criteria. We identify HI-rich candidates by selecting the bluest galaxies at a given apparent magnitude, those galaxies on the "blue edge" of POSS I color-magnitude parameter space. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish detected over 50% of the observed candidates. The detecte...

  6. Edge effects and delamination failures (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.


    The fundamental relationship between the morphology of a composite laminate and the resulting free edge effects is explored and related to delamination failures. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates are discussed in detail. It is shown that the local mismatch in elastic properties of adjacent layers and the global stacking sequence of a laminate both have a significant influence on the interlaminar stresses and delamination failures.

  7. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    have to integrate exp(ikx) × exp(ik(y − y′)2/2x) with respect to y′, from zero to infinity. It is natural to change variables using u2 ... sudden changeover from a continuous line to a dashed line on the circular arc. It might appear difficult to reconcile ... using integration by parts, it precisely gave rise to the. Young edge wave!

  8. Cutting Edge: Increased Autoimmunity Risk in Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1b Is Associated with a Reduced Engagement of Glycolysis in T Cells and an Impaired Regulatory T Cell Function. (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Carbone, Fortunata; Minopoli, Giorgia; La Rocca, Claudia; Perna, Francesco; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo; Matarese, Giuseppe


    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b) is an autosomal-recessive disease caused by mutation of glucose-6-phosphate transporter and characterized by altered glycogen/glucose homeostasis. A higher frequency of autoimmune diseases has been observed in GSD-1b patients, but the molecular determinants leading to this phenomenon remain unknown. To address this question, we investigated the effect of glucose-6-phosphate transporter mutation on immune cell homeostasis and CD4 + T cell functions. In GSD-1b subjects, we found lymphopenia and a reduced capacity of T cells to engage glycolysis upon TCR stimulation. These phenomena associated with reduced expression of the FOXP3 transcription factor, lower suppressive function in peripheral CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells, and an impaired capacity of CD4 + CD25 - conventional T cells to induce expression of FOXP3 after suboptimal TCR stimulation. These data unveil the metabolic determinant leading to an increased autoimmunity risk in GSD-1b patients. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Flap--edge flowfield measurements (United States)

    Pye, John D.; Cantwell, Brian J.


    Recent studies of airframe noise suggest that the wing and flap trailing--edges as well as the flap side--edge are areas of significant noise generation. To identify the fluid dynamic processes associated with these noise sources, we are examining the flow--field around a NACA 63--215 Mod B main element airfoil configured with a half--span Fowler flap. The tests are performed in a low--speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of ~ 6.0×10^5. A hot wire traverse system is used to map the mean velocities and turbulence intensities in the near wake region of the flow. Measurements of the pressure fluctuations along the flap side--edge and in the cove of the airfoil configuration are made with pressure transducers mounted inside the airfoil. The experimental data are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation of a slightly higher Reynolds number flow ( ~ 1.5×10^6) around a geometrically similar airfoil configuration.

  10. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU


    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  11. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth


    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  12. Edge-based perceptual image coding. (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Wu, Xiaolin; Shi, Guangming; Wang, Xiaotian


    We develop a novel psychovisually motivated edge-based low-bit-rate image codec. It offers a compact description of scale-invariant second-order statistics of natural images, the preservation of which is crucial to the perceptual quality of coded images. Although being edge based, the codec does not explicitly code the edge geometry. To save bits on edge descriptions, a background layer of the image is first coded and transmitted, from which the decoder estimates the trajectories of significant edges. The edge regions are then refined by a residual coding technique based on edge dilation and sequential scanning in the edge direction. Experimental results show that the new image coding technique outperforms the existing ones in both objective and perceptual quality, particularly at low bit rates.

  13. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  14. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) Search Widget (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  15. Organizing on the Edge: Appreciation and Critique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, W. R


    .... Hayes, "Power to the Edge: Command, Control in the Information Age" (2003). The author places the "edge" perspective in the broader context of organizational studies, noting both its strengths and limitations...

  16. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector for polar...

  17. Edge and coupled core-edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.


    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal ExB drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB, the model predicts transitions to supersonic SOL flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of ExB flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  18. Edge and coupled core/edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.


    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal E x B drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB , the model predicts transitions to supersonic flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of E x B flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  19. Naegleria fowleri: contact-dependent secretion of electrondense granules (EDG). (United States)

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Villatoro, Lizbeth Salazar; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo


    The free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is pathogenic to humans but also to other mammalians. These amoebae may invade the nasal mucosa and migrate into the brain causing cerebral hemorrhagic necrosis, a rapidly fatal infection. Knowledge of the cytolytic mechanism involved in the destruction of brain tissues by Naegleria trophozoites is limited. In other amoebic species, such as Entamoeba histolytica, we have previously reported the possible lytic role of small cytoplasmic components endowed with proteolytic activities, known as electrondense granules (EDG). Using transmission electron microscopy we now report that EDG, seldom found in long term cultured N. fowleri, are present in abundance in trophozoites recovered from experimental mice brain lesions. Numerous EDG were also observed in amoebae incubated with collagen substrates or cultured epithelial cells. SDS-PAGE assays of concentrated supernatants of these trophozoites, containing EDG, revealed proteolytic activities. These results suggest that EDG may have a clear role in the cytopathic mechanisms of this pathogenic amoeba. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistive fluid turbulence and tokamak edge plasma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Diamond, P.H.; Ritz, C.P.


    Electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence has been linked to particle and heat transport in tokamaks. Here we report on several related theoretical and experimental investigations of edge plasma dynamics. The theory of thermally-driven convective cell edge turbulence has been developed to treat the coupling of the radiative-condensation instability to the resistivity-gradient expansion free energy. This model of edge turbulence has led to theoretical understanding of several anomalies in electrostatic edge turbulence found from experiment: that fluctuation levels and transport coefficients are larger than naively expected, that potential fluctuations are significantly larger than the density. Impurity gas-puffing experiments on the TEXT tokamak have been performed to test this theory, and have indicated favorable results. Resistive fluid turbulence models have also been explored and applied in the hope of understanding the extensive edge magnetic fluctuation studies. We discuss models of electromagnetic microtearing turbulence, resistive-pressure-gradient-driven turbulence, and ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. In particular we study the role of resistive fluid turbulence with separatrix effects in the L /yield/ H mode transition. 36 refs., 2 figs

  1. K-edge densitometer (KED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.


    In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.

  2. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  3. At the edge of intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver


    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with four...... types of voiceless fricatives: /f/, /s/, /ʃ/ and /x/. They were elicited with scripted dialogues in the contexts of terminal falling statement and high rising question intonations. Acoustic analyses show that fricatives concluding the high rising question intonations had higher mean centres of gravity...

  4. Quantum Manifestations of Graphene Edge Stress and Edge Instability: A First-Principles Study


    Huang, Bing; Liu, Miao; Su, Ninghai; Wu, Jian; Duan, Wenhui; Gu, Bing-lin; Liu, Feng


    We have performed first-principles calculations of graphene edge stresses, which display two interesting quantum manifestations absent from the classical interpretation: the armchair edge stress oscillates with a nanoribbon width, and the zigzag edge stress is noticeably reduced by spin polarization. Such quantum stress effects in turn manifest in mechanical edge twisting and warping instability, showing features not captured by empirical potentials or continuum theory. Edge adsorption of H a...

  5. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite. (United States)

    Zougrou, I M; Katsikini, M; Brzhezinskaya, M; Pinakidou, F; Papadopoulou, L; Tsoukala, E; Paloura, E C


    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  6. Characterizing Polar Mesospheric Summer Echo Edge Effect Formation (United States)

    Yee, J.; Bahcivan, H.


    Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSEs) form in the summer mesopause region, between altitudes of 80 and 90 km. This phenomenon occurs in this region because of the extremely cold temperatures that allow for ice particles to develop, sediment, and grow to sizes as large as ~20 nm. Because these ice particles are immersed in the plasma of the D-region, electrons can attach to the ice surfaces and charge them. There are two trains of thought when it comes to the backscatter seen in sounding rocket and radar measurements of PMSEs. The first assumes that the structure of the PMSEs is driven by turbulent velocity fields and that radar detections are due to turbulent scattering. The second theory on the scatter from PMSE structures is that the echoes result from multiple sharp small-scale ledges that produce an edge scatter. In decomposing sounding rocket data, results have indicated that both scattering mechanisms play a role in PMSE backscatter. However, whereas the turbulent scatter theory is well developed, the physics behind the sharp-edge phenomena in the edge scattering theory has not been explained to date. We investigate the formation of the sharp edges in electron density detected by sounding rockets and in backscattered power detected by ground-based radars during PMSE regions by exploring the initial process by which PMSEs form using a one dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation, adapted from the Plasma Theory and Simulation Group at UC Berkley, starts with the ice particles immersed in a warm electron-ion plasma and allows for the charging process of the ice particles. Starting with an initial Gaussian distribution of ice particles, we show that as the ice particles charge, they increase in mass more quickly (i.e. accumulate more electrons and ions) at the edges of the PMSE structure. This increased mass decreases the diffusion rates of the edges and 'freezes' the edges of the PMSE. This result demonstrates that the reason for the

  7. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  8. Ethical decisions at the edge. (United States)

    Gillett, Grant


    Medicine grows incrementally in its ability to treat patients and at the growing edge it poses problems about the appropriateness of treatments that are different from those where good practice conforms to widely agreed standards. The growth of access to medical knowledge and the diversity of contemporary theoretical and clinical medicine have spawned deep divisions in the profession and divergent opinions about what constitutes reasonable care. That hallmark of acceptable practice is also under pressures from the threat of litigation, a highly commercialised contemporary medical environment, patient demands based on medical journalism and the internet and the exponential growth of bio-medical technology. Patient empowerment can result in complaints arising in new and complex areas and expert opinion can often differ markedly depending on where on the medical spectrum the experts are aligned. This column lays out some broad-brush principles to assess the adequacy of medical advice in such a climate.

  9. Characterization of edge plasma fluctuations in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.


    Nonlinear dynamical characterizations of the edge plasma fluctuations measured by both H α -light diagnostic and Langmuir probes in ASDEX are presented. The edge plasma fluctuations are stochastic rather than chaotic, they have a higher-dimensional structure in phase space. In time, the edge turbulence is found to have memory properties, the time required to lose the memory is different in the different cases. (orig.)

  10. Edge effect on weevils and spiders


    R. Horváth; T. Magura; G. Péter; B. Tóthmérész


    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  11. Edge Segment-Based Automatic Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksam Chae


    Full Text Available This paper presents a moving-object segmentation algorithm using edge information as segment. The proposed method is developed to address challenges due to variations in ambient lighting and background contents. We investigated the suitability of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the traditional-intensity-based as well as edge-pixel-based detection methods. In our method, edges are extracted from video frames and are represented as segments using an efficiently designed edge class. This representation helps to obtain the geometric information of edge in the case of edge matching and moving-object segmentation; and facilitates incorporating knowledge into edge segment during background modeling and motion tracking. An efficient approach for background initialization and robust method of edge matching is presented, to effectively reduce the risk of false alarm due to illumination change and camera motion while maintaining the high sensitivity to the presence of moving object. Detected moving edges are utilized along with watershed algorithm for extracting video object plane (VOP with more accurate boundary. Experiment results with real image sequence reflect that the proposed method is suitable for automated video surveillance applications in various monitoring systems.

  12. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden


    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  13. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon


    categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...... is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset. Our...

  14. Topological edge states of distorted photonic Kagome lattices (United States)

    Ni, Xiang; Alu, Andrea; Khanikaev, Alexander B.


    We demonstrate that the distorted Kagome lattice formed by two-dimensional(2d) array of dielectric rods embedded in air exhibits a new class of topological states characterized by a topological invariant number in Pauli vector space. The Kagome lattice can be considered as a 2d analogue of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, which displays a phase transition by detuning the relative amplitudes of the inter-cell and intra-cell hopping terms. The phase transition is accompanied by the opening of a complete band gap in the Brillouin zone, which may host topological edge states on either the truncated end of the lattice or at the domain walls between topological nontrivial and trivial domains. To further reveal the connection between the bulk invariance and edge states, polarizations of shrunken and expanded effects are calculated. Our first-principles simulations based on finite element method (FEM) are used to design the lattice and confirm the analytic prediction.

  15. Edge passivation induced single-edge ferromagnetism of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Ben; Hu, Jingguo, E-mail:; Pan, Jing, E-mail:


    We performed density functional theory study on electronic structure, magnetic properties and stability of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (ZMoS{sub 2}NRs) with and without oxygen (O) passivation. The bare ZMoS{sub 2}NRs are magnetic metal with ferromagnetic edge states, edge passivation decreases their magnetism because of the decrease of edge unsaturated electrons. Obviously, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs greatly depend on edge states. When both edges are passivated by O atoms, ZMoS{sub 2}NRs are nonmagnetic metals. When either edge is passivated by O atoms, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetism and magnetism concentrates on the non-passivated edge. Edge passivation can not only tune the magnetism of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs, but also enhance their stability by eliminating dangling bonds. These interesting findings on ZMoS{sub 2}NRs may open the possibility of their application in nanodevices and spintronics. - Highlights: • Edge passivation for tuning magnetism of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (ZMoS{sub 2}NRs) is proposed. • Edge passivation can tune ZMoS{sub 2}NRs from nonmagnetic metal to ferromagnetic metal. • When either edge is passivated, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetic states. • These findings may inspire great interest in the community of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs and motivate numerous experimental researches.

  16. The reconstructed edges of the hexagonal BN (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Gao, Junfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Ding, Feng


    As an important two-dimensional material which shows exceptional mechanical and chemical stability, superior electronic properties, along with broad applications, the hexagonal-BN (h-BN) has drawn great attention recently. Here we report a systematic study on the structural stability, electronic and magnetic properties of various h-BN edges, including both bare and hydrogen-terminated ones. It is found that along the armchair (AC) direction, the pristine edge is the most stable one because of the formation of a triple B\\z.tbd N bond, while, along the zigzag (ZZ) directions, the reconstructed ones, ZZB + N and ZZN57 are more stable. The pristine edges are more stable in bare BN in most cases if saturated with hydrogen. By applying the theory of Wulff construction, we predicted that an unpassivated BN domain prefers the hexagonal shape enclosed with bare AC edges i.e., AC-Ns, AC, AC-Bs if the feedstock varies from N-rich to B-rich. However, the evolution from ZZN edged triangular domain, to hexagonal domain enclosed with AC edges, and ZZB edged triangle may occur if the edges are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Further calculation shows that these edges present rich type-dependent properties and thus are important for various applications. This theoretical study showed that controlling the morphologies of BN domains and BN edges is crucial for various applications.As an important two-dimensional material which shows exceptional mechanical and chemical stability, superior electronic properties, along with broad applications, the hexagonal-BN (h-BN) has drawn great attention recently. Here we report a systematic study on the structural stability, electronic and magnetic properties of various h-BN edges, including both bare and hydrogen-terminated ones. It is found that along the armchair (AC) direction, the pristine edge is the most stable one because of the formation of a triple B\\z.tbd N bond, while, along the zigzag (ZZ) directions, the reconstructed ones, ZZB + N

  17. Saturn's Rings Edge-on (United States)


    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  18. CMS kinematic edge from sbottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peisi; Wagner, Carlos E. M.


    We present two scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) that can lead to an explanation of the excess in the invariant mass distribution of two opposite charged, same flavor leptons, and the corresponding edge at an energy of about 78 GeV, recently reported by the CMS Collaboration. In both scenarios, sbottoms are pair produced, and decay to neutralinos and a b-jet. The heavier neutralinos further decay to a pair of leptons and the lightest neutralino through on-shell sleptons or off-shell neutral gauge bosons. These scenarios are consistent with the current limits on the sbottoms, neutralinos, and sleptons. Assuming that the lightest neutralino is stable we discuss the predicted relic density as well as the implications for darkmatter direct detection. We show that consistency between the predicted and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment may be obtained in both scenarios. Finally, we define the signatures of these models that may be tested at the 13 TeV run of the LHC

  19. Product of normal edge transitive Cayley graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Assari


    Full Text Available For two normal edge transitive Cayley graphs on two groups H and K whichhave no common direct factor and gcd(|H|/|H'|, |Z(K| = 1 = gcd(|K=K′|,|Z(H|,we consider four standard product of them and proved that only tensor product ofthem can be normal edge transitive.

  20. An investigation of the flap edge flowfield (United States)

    Pye, John David

    To identify and understand the fluid dynamic processes associated with flow in the region of a flap side edge, a NACA 63-215 Mod B main element with a half-span Fowler flap was tested in the JIAA Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Stanford University. Measurements were made using a variety of techniques to capture the effects of the flap edge vortex. Pressure sensitive paint was applied to the upper surface of both the flap and main element, as well as to the flap side edge. Fast response pressure transducers were mounted interior to the model to measure surface pressure fluctuations on the flap side edge. Single component hotwire data was taken in the near wake region of the flap edge. In addition to the data experimentally obtained, a computational data set of a geometrically similar model at a flight Reynolds number was used for comparison. The data indicates the presence of a dual vortex structure along the flap side edge. This structure is seen to grow, merge, and ultimately become a single symmetric vortex as it progresses downstream. Surface pressure fluctuations on the side edge scale as three power laws with free stream velocity as different flow regions are encountered. By varying the model rigging, indications of a confined source region for the pressure fluctuations were observed. A spatial survey of the correlation between flap side edge surface pressure fluctuations and the near-wake fluctuating velocity field shows increased correlation coefficients for the region surrounding the vortex core.

  1. Leading edge gypsy moth population dynamics (United States)

    M. R. Carter; F. W. Ravlin; M. L. McManus


    Leading edge gypsy moth populations have been the focus of several intervention programs (MDIPM, AIPM). Knowledge of gypsy moth population dynamics in leading edge area is crucial for effective management. Populations in these areas tend to reach outbreak levels (noticeable defoliation) within three to four years after egg masses are first detected. Pheromone traps...

  2. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.


    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  3. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)


    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  4. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Corrigan, G.


    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  5. Edge effects in Bilayer Graphene Nanoribbons (United States)

    Lima, Matheus P.; Fazzio, Adalberto; da Silva, Antonio J. R.


    We investigate the geometrical and electronic structure of zigzag bilayer graphene nanoribbons (B-ZGNR), with widths that range from w=0.6 to w=4.5 nm. The layers are in the Bernal stacking, which means that there are two types of C atoms, those that are positioned above the center of the hexagons of the other layer, defining a B-sublattice, and those right on top of the C atoms of the other layer, forming an A-sublattice. When we cut the layer along the zigzag edge, there are two possible alignments, α, where the outermost edge atoms belong to the A- sublattice, and β, where the outermost edge atoms belong to the B-sublattice. Thus, only the inter-layer edge interaction differs. We found that the α alignment is energetically favorable, with an inter-layer edges attraction, whereas for the β there is an inter-layer edges repulsion. These edge-related forces cause a deviation from the exact Bernal stacking, resulting in a non-monotonic behavior of the energy gap with the width w for the α B-ZGNR, with a maximum value at w 3.5nm. This is a consequence of the competition between bulk and strongly attractive edge interactions. All results were obtained using density functional theory calculations with the inclusion of parametrized van der Waals interactions.

  6. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  7. Living on the edge: roads and edge effects on small mammal populations. (United States)

    Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Cuarón, Alfredo D; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Valenzuela-Galván, David; Andresen, Ellen


    1. Roads may affect wildlife populations through habitat loss and disturbances, as they create an abrupt linear edge, increasing the proportion of edge exposed to a different habitat. Three types of edge effects have been recognized: abiotic, direct biotic, and indirect biotic. 2. We explored the direct biotic edge effects of 3- to 4-m wide roads, and also a previously unrecognized type of edge effect: social. We live-trapped two threatened endemic rodents from Cozumel Island (Oryzomys couesi cozumelae and Reithrodontomys spectabilis) in 16 plots delimited by roads on two sides, to compare edge effects between two adjacent edges (corners), single-edge and interior forest, on life history and social variables. 3. No significant edge effects were observed on the life-history variables, with the exception of differences in body condition between males and females of O. c. cozumelae near edges. Both species showed significant and contrasting effects on their social variables. 4. O. c. cozumelae was distributed according to its age and sex: the proportion of adults and males was higher in interior than near edges, while juveniles and females were more abundant near edges. More nonreproductive females were present in corners than in single-edge and interior, while the opposite distribution was observed for nonreproductive males. 5. The distribution of R. spectabilis was related to its age and reproductive condition, but not to its sex. The proportion of adults was significantly higher in corners, while juveniles were only caught in single-edge and interior quadrants. The proportion of reproductive individuals was higher in edge than interior quadrants, while reproductive females were only present in edge quadrants. 6. We found significant differences between the quadrants with the greatest edge exposure in comparison with other quadrants. The social edge effects we identified complement the typology of edge effects recognized in ecological literature. Our study provides

  8. Edge effects on water droplet condensation. (United States)

    Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; Mongruel, Anne; Royon, Laurent; Beysens, Daniel


    In this study we investigate the effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate. Edges, corners, and cooled and noncooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicularly to the substrate, droplets near discontinuities can get more vapor (outer edges, corners), resulting in faster growth or less vapor (inner edges), giving lower growth. When the cooling heat flux limits growth instead of mass diffusion (substrate with low thermal conductivity, strong heat exchange with air), edge effects can be canceled. In certain cases, growth enhancement can reach nearly 500% on edges or corners.

  9. Magnetism of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhili, E-mail:, E-mail:; Li, Chong; Yu, Weiyang; Chang, Dahu; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu, E-mail:, E-mail: [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)


    We have investigated, by means of ab initio calculations, the electronic and magnetic structures of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) with various widths. The stable magnetic state was found in pristine ZPNRs by allowing the systems to be spin-polarized. The ground state of pristine ZPNRs prefers ferromagnetic order in the same edge but antiferromagnetic order between two opposite edges. The magnetism arises from the dangling bond states as well as edge localized π-orbital states. The presence of a dangling bond is crucial to the formation of the magnetism of ZPNRs. The hydrogenated ZPNRs get nonmagnetic semiconductors with a direct band gap. While, the O-saturated ZPNRs show magnetic ground states due to the weak P-O bond in the ribbon plane between the p{sub z}-orbitals of the edge O and P atoms.

  10. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.


    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  11. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)


    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  12. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  13. Effects of edge reconstruction on the common groups terminated zigzag phosphorene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Guo, Sumei; Zhang, Chunxiao; He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin


    Edge configuration plays an important role in the electronic properties of nano-structures. In this work, we perform first-principles calculations to study the effects of the cooperation between neighbor groups on the edge configuration and the electronic properties of zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) terminated by common groups H, F, O, S and OH. We find that the cooperation has little effect on the H(F)-terminated ZPNRs, but gives rise to an edge reconstruction for the O(S)-terminated ZPNRs. The edge reconstruction derives from the repulsion between neighbor O atoms and the distortion of the P skeleton induced by the p state coupling among the edge, second edge and third edge P atoms. In comparison to the H-terminated ZPNRs, O-terminated ZPNRs are also a semiconductor and enlarge the band gap, but bring about an extra transport channel for the charge transport at the edge and decreases the effective mass of the electron and hole. OH-terminated ZPNRs also undergo a doubling of the unit cell (UC) along the periodic direction because of the different directions of the neighbor O–H bonds. In comparison with the H-terminated ZPNRs, OH-terminated ZPNRs show a similar band gap and electronic effective mass, but increase the effective mass of the hole. (paper)

  14. Edge- and Node-Disjoint Paths in P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Dinneen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we continue our development of algorithms used for topological network discovery. We present native P system versions of two fundamental problems in graph theory: finding the maximum number of edge- and node-disjoint paths between a source node and target node. We start from the standard depth-first-search maximum flow algorithms, but our approach is totally distributed, when initially no structural information is available and each P system cell has to even learn its immediate neighbors. For the node-disjoint version, our P system rules are designed to enforce node weight capacities (of one, in addition to edge capacities (of one, which are not readily available in the standard network flow algorithms.

  15. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge (United States)

    Johari, H.


    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  16. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael


    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gunen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method has been presented for the extraction of edge information by using Differential Search Optimization Algorithm. The proposed method is based on using a new heuristic image thresholding method for edge detection. The success of the proposed method has been examined on fusion of two remote sensed images. The applicability of the proposed method on edge detection and image fusion problems have been analysed in detail and the empirical results exposed that the proposed method is useful for solving the mentioned problems.

  18. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten


    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...

  19. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman


    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  20. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei


    on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended......We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...

  1. Edge states in a honeycomb lattice: effects of anisotropic hopping and mixed edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, Hari P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Alexander V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinistsyn, N A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Zi - Xiang [ZHEJIANG UNIV; Yang, Kun [NHMFL/FSU


    We study the edge states in graphene in the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the lattice. Most of the work done so far discusses the edge states in either zigzag or armchair edge graphene considering an isotropic electron hopping. In practice, graphene can have a mixture of armchair and zigzag edges and the electron hopping can be anisotropic, which is the subject of this article. We predict that the mixed edges smear the enhanced local density of states (LDOS) at E=0 of the zigzag edge and, on the other hand, the anisotropic hopping gives rise to the enhanced LDOS at E=0 in the armchair edge. The behavior of the LDOS can be studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments. We suggest that care must be taken while interpreting the STM data, because the clear distinction between the zigzag edge (enhanced LDOS at E=0) and armchair edge (suppressed LDOS at E=0) can be lost if the hopping is not isotropic and if the edges are mixed.

  2. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham


    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  3. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)


    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  4. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.


    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  5. Thermal stability of the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.


    The general linear, fluid, thermal instability theory for the plasma edge has been extended. An analysis of a two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma edge has identified the importance of many previously unappreciated phenomena associated with parallel and gyroviscous forces in the presence of large radial gradients, with large radial or parallel flows, with the temperature dependence of transport coefficients, and with the coupling of temperature, flow and density perturbations. The radiative condensation effect is generalized to include a further destabilizing condensation effect associated with radial heat conduction. Representative plasma edge neutral and impurity densities are found to be capable of driving thermal instabilities in the edge transport barrier and radiative mantle, respectively. (author)

  6. Edge and core dynamics in harness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.


    Resistive kink oscillations in tokamak plasmas are usually treated as core localized events, yet there there are several mechanisms by which they may interact with the edge dynamics. This suggests that we may regulate edge oscillatory behaviour, or ELMs, by harnessing the natural or contrived sawtooth period and amplitude. In this work I investigate core-edge oscillatory entrainment through direct propagation of heat pulses, inductive coupling, and global higher order resonance effects. In the core of auxiliary heated tokamak plasmas the ineluctable rhythm of slow buildup and rapid conversion of potential energy governs electron and heat radial transport. The growth phase of the sawtooth is accompanied by significant reconnection, then during the collapse the temperature and density in the core fall dramatically. There is evidence from experiments in reversed field pinch devices that ensuing energy fluxes can affect flow shear and confinement at the edge. The basis for this study is the dynamical (BDS) model for edge plasma behavior that was derived from electrostatic resistive MHD equations. The BDS model reflects the major qualitative features of edge dynamics that have been observed, such as L-H transitions and associated ELMs, hysteresis, and spontaneous reversal of poloidal shear flow. Under poorly dissipative conditions the transient behavior of the model can exhibit period-doubling, blue-sky, homoclinic, and other exotic bifurcations. Thus we might ask questions such as: Is it possible to mode-lock the edge dynamics to the core sawteeth? Can we induce, or prevent, a change in direction of shear flow? What about MHD effects? Is core-edge communication one way or is there some feedback? In the simplest prototype for coupled core-edge dynamics I model the sawtooth crash as a periodic power input to the edge potential energy reservoir. This is effected by coupling the BDS model to the dynamical system u = u(1 - u 2 - x 2 ) - ω s x, x = x(1-u 2 -x 2 ) + ω s u

  7. Biologic meshes and synthetic meshes in cancer patients: a double-edged sword: differences in production of IL-6 and IL-12 caused by acellular dermal matrices in human immune cells. (United States)

    Karsten, Maria Margarete; Enders, Sabine; Knabl, Julia; Kirn, Verena; Düwell, Peter; Rack, Brigitte; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Mayr, Doris; Dian, Darius


    In 2005, Breuing et al. first described the use of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast cancer patients. ADMs are assumed to be safe to use in an oncologic setting, but data from controlled studies are still needed. Here, we investigate the effects of ADMs on the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12, key regulators of immune suppression and activation. Strattice (ST), CollaMend (CM), and Biodesign (BD) biologic meshes and TiLoop, a synthetic mesh (TL), were used in this study. We isolated myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs), untouched plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), naïve B cells, and CD8+ T cells and co-cultured these cells with either the biologic meshes or TL. As positive controls, we used CpG ODN 2216 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cytokine concentrations of IL-12p70 and IL-6 were determined after 7 days using sandwich ELISA sets. There were highly significant differences between the ADMs and TL in terms of their ability to stimulate immunologic responses. IL-6 expression was significantly increased in B cells (p = 0.0006131) and T cells (p = 0.00418) when comparing TL and ADMs. We also identified significant differences in IL-12 production by B cells (p = 0.0166) and T cells (p = 0.003636) when comparing TL and ADMs. Despite the assumed lack of an immunological response to ADMs, in our experimental study, human immune cells reacted with significantly different cytokine profiles. These findings may have implications for the potential activation or suppression of effector cells in cancer patients and could explain some of the post clinical post surgical signs of ADMS like skin rush and seroma.

  8. Edge direction and the structure of networks


    Foster, Jacob G.; Foster, David V.; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya


    Directed networks are ubiquitous and are necessary to represent complex systems with asymmetric interactions---from food webs to the World Wide Web. Despite the importance of edge direction for detecting local and community structure, it has been disregarded in studying a basic type of global diversity in networks: the tendency of nodes with similar numbers of edges to connect. This tendency, called assortativity, affects crucial structural and dynamic properties of real-world networks, such ...

  9. Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading Edge Protuberances (United States)


    APPLICATIONS OF HYDROFOILS WITH LEADING EDGE PROTUBERANCES Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract...To) 03/30/2012 Final Technical Report 01-08-2008 to 31-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The leading edge modified hydrofoils

  10. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.


    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  11. Edge Equilibrium Code (EEC) For Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xujling


    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids

  12. Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.


    The PISCES plasma surface interaction facility at UCLA generates plasmas with characteristics similar to those found in the edge plasmas of tokamaks. Steady state magnetized plasmas produced by this device are used to study plasma-wall interaction phenomena which are relevant to tokamak devices. We report here progress on some detailed investigations of the presheath region that extends from a wall surface into these /open quotes/simulated tokamak/close quotes/ edge plasma discharges along magnetic field lines

  13. A numerical study of tokamak edge turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shuanghui; Huang Lin; Qiu Xiaoming


    The tokamak edge turbulence which contains resistivity and impurity gradients and impurity radiation driven sources is studied numerically. The effect of ohmic dissipation on the evolution and saturation of this turbulence is investigated. The ohmic effect drops the saturation levels of fluctuations efficiently in high density tokamaks (such as Alcator), indicating that the ohmic effect plays an important role in the evolution of tokamak edge turbulence in high density devices

  14. Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse. (United States)

    Wang, Ninghai; Calpe, Silvia; Westcott, Jill; Castro, Wilson; Ma, Chunyan; Engel, Pablo; Schatzle, John D; Terhorst, Cox


    EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.

  15. What's happening at the edge of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.


    Handling the power deposition at the walls of a plasma fusion device and controlling the particle fueling of the plasma originated the interest in the edge of the plasma by magnetic fusion scientists. Recently this interest has intensified because of clear evidence that the quality of the central plasma confinement depends in unexpected ways on details of how the edge plasma is managed. Significant efforts are being pursued to understand and exploit the improved plasma confinement observed in the 'H-mode' obtained with divertors and in the 'super-shots' obtained with low neutral particle flux from the edge of TFTR limiter plasmas. The controls, that determine whether or not these well-confined plasmas are obtained, are applied in the edge plasma where a wealth of atomic and molecular processes occur. A qualitative overview of current research related to plasma edge and desirable features is presented to guide thoughts about atomic processes to be included in modeling and interpreting the plasma edge of tokamaks. (orig.)

  16. Edge effect correction using ion beam figuring. (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Furen; Zhou, Lin


    The edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, as it can greatly reduce the key performance of the optical system. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has the advantage of no edge effect, so we can use it to remove high points on the edge and improve surface accuracy. The edge local correction method (ELCM) of IBF processes only the surface edge zone, and is very different from the current full caliber figuring method (FCFM). Therefore, it is necessary to study the ELCM of IBF. In this paper, the key factors of ELCM are analyzed, such as dwell time algorithm, edge data extension methods, and the outward dimension of the starting figuring point. At the same time, the distinctions between ELCM and FCFM are compared. Finally, a 142 mm diameter fused silica mirror is fabricated to verify the validity of the theoretical of ELCM. The experimental results indicate that the figuring precision and efficiency can be obviously improved by ELCM.

  17. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff


    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  18. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range-edge populations. (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J


    Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range-edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range-edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populations may be essential to species' persistence during periods of rapid climate change. We use relatively simple conceptual models to highlight the importance of locally adapted range-edge populations (leading and trailing edges) for determining the ability of species to persist under future climates. Using trees as an example, we show how locally adapted populations at species' range edges may expand under future climate change and become more common relative to range-core populations. We also highlight how large-scale habitat destruction occurring in some geographic areas where many species range edge converge, such as biome boundaries and ecotones (e.g., the arc of deforestation along the rainforest-cerrado ecotone in the southern Amazonia), can have major implications for global biodiversity. As climate changes, range-edge populations will play key roles in helping species to maintain or expand their geographic distributions. The loss of these locally adapted range-edge populations through anthropogenic disturbance is therefore hypothesized to reduce the ability of species to persist in the face of rapid future climate change.

  19. Living on the Edge: Parasite Prevalence Changes Dramatically across a Range Edge in an Invasive Gecko. (United States)

    Coates, Andrew; Barnett, Louise K; Hoskin, Conrad; Phillips, Ben L


    Species interactions can determine range limits, and parasitism is the most intimate of such interactions. Intriguingly, the very conditions on range edges likely change host-parasite dynamics in nontrivial ways. Range edges are often associated with clines in host density and with environmental transitions, both of which may affect parasite transmission. On advancing range edges, founder events and fitness/dispersal costs of parasitism may also cause parasites to be lost on range edges. Here we examine the prevalence of three species of parasite across the range edge of an invasive gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, in northeastern Australia. The gecko's range edge spans the urban-woodland interface at the edge of urban areas. Across this edge, gecko abundance shows a steep decline, being lower in the woodland. Two parasite species (a mite and a pentastome) are coevolved with H. frenatus, and these species become less prevalent as the geckos become less abundant. A third species of parasite (another pentastome) is native to Australia and has no coevolutionary history with H. frenatus. This species became more prevalent as the geckos become less abundant. These dramatic shifts in parasitism (occurring over 3.5 km) confirm that host-parasite dynamics can vary substantially across the range edge of this gecko host.

  20. Film edge nonlocal spin valves. (United States)

    McCallum, Andrew T; Johnson, Mark


    Spintronics is a new paradigm for integrated digital electronics. Recently established as a niche for nonvolatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM), it offers new functionality while demonstrating low-power and high-speed performance. However, to reach high density spintronic technology must make a transition to the nanometer scale. Prototype devices are presently made using a planar geometry and have an area determined by the lithographic feature size, currently about 100 nm. Here we present a new nonplanar geometry in which one lateral dimension is given by a film thickness, on the order of 10 nm. With this new approach, cell sizes can shrink by an order of magnitude. The geometry is demonstrated with a nonlocal spin valve, where we study devices with an injector/detector separation much less than the spin diffusion length.

  1. Edge localized modes control by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, E.


    The present work is dedicated to one of the most promising methods of control of the ELMs (Edge Localized Modes), based on a system of coils producing Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs). Our main objectives are, on the one hand, to improve the physical understanding of the mechanisms at play, and on the other hand to propose a concrete design of ELMs control coils for ITER. In order to calculate and analyze the magnetic perturbations produced by a given set of coils, we have developed the ERGOS code. The first ERGOS calculation was for the DIII-D ELMs control coils, the I-coils. It showed that they produce magnetic islands chains which overlap at the edge of the plasma, resulting in the ergodization of the magnetic field. We have then used ERGOS for the modelling of the experiments on ELMs control using the error field correction coils at JET and MAST. In the case of JET, we have shown the existence of a correlation between the mitigation of the ELMs and the ergodization of the magnetic field at the edge, in agreement with the DIII-D result. In order to design the ELMs control coils for ITER we have used ERGOS intensively, taking the case of the DIII-D I-coils as a reference. Three candidate designs came out, which we presented at the ITER Design Review, in 2007. Recently, the ITER management decided to provide a budget for building ELMs control coils, the design of which remains to be chosen between two of the three options that we proposed. Finally, in order to understand better the non-linear magnetohydrodynamics phenomena taking place in ELMs control by RMPs, we performed numerical simulations, in particular with the JOREK code for a DIII-D case. The simulations reveal the existence of convection cells induced at the edge by the magnetic perturbations, and the possible screening of the RMPs in presence of rotation

  2. Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts. (United States)

    Seo, Suyoung


    This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.

  3. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

  4. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.


    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  5. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations. (United States)

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier


    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  6. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin


    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  7. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry (United States)

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.


    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  8. Free edge effects in laminated composites (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.


    The fundamental mechanics of free-edge effects in laminated fiber-reinforced composites is examined, reviewing the results of recent experimental and analytical investigations. The derivation of the governing equations for the basic problem is outlined, including the equilibrium and mismatch conditions and the elasticity formulation, and experimental data on axial displacement and shear strain in angle-ply laminates are summarized. Numerical predictions of free-edge deformation and interlaminar and through-thickness stress distributions are presented for cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates, and the mechanisms of edge damage and failure in angle-ply laminates are briefly characterized. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  9. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.


    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  10. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang


    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  11. Edge Detection in Landing Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Partha; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael; Srinivasan, Mandyam


    Background While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. Methodology/Principal Findings Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans) clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. Conclusions We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind. PMID:19809500

  12. Edge detection in landing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhagavatula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

  13. Photoelectric interaction around the K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, V.R.K.; Rao, K.S.; Parthasaradhi, K.; Rao, J.R.; Lakshminarayana, V.


    Total photon cross sections are determined around the K edges of four elements Cu, Sn, Pb and U using a Ge(Li) detector, argon and krypton proportional counters on a 'good geometry' set-up. The total photoelectric cross sections are extracted by subtracting the small scattering contribution from the total photon cross sections. Total-to-K-shell photoelectric cross section ratios (K-jump ratios) are evaluated by extrapolating the total photon cross section data to the K edge. An analysis of the data is presented. (author)

  14. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei


    Full Text Available The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  15. Multi-scale Regions from Edge Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


    In this article we introduce a novel method for detecting multi-scale salient regions around edges using a graph based image compression algorithm. Images are recursively decomposed into triangles arranged into a binary tree using linear interpolation. The entropy of any local region of the image...... to estimate regions. Salient regions are thus formed as stable regions around edges. Tree hierarchy is then used to generate multi-scale regions. We evaluate our detector by performing image retrieval tests on our building database which shows that combined with Spin Images (Lazebnik et al., 2003...

  16. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE


    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R.; Buncic, P.; Carminati, F.; Cerello, P.; Saiz, P.


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  17. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)


    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  18. The edge engineering of topological Bi(111) bilayer


    Li, Xiao; Liu, Hai-Wen; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Fa; Feng, Ji


    A topological insulator is a novel quantum state, characterized by symmetry-protected non-trivial edge/surface states. Our first-principle simulations show the significant effects of the chemical decoration on edge states of topological Bi(111) bilayer nanoribbon, which remove the trivial edge state and recover the Dirac linear dispersion of topological edge state. By comparing the edge states with and without chemical decoration, the Bi(111) bilayer nanoribbon offers a simple system for asse...

  19. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, Ricardo; Levinton, Fred M.


    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  20. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges. (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony


    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  1. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge. (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish


    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  2. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE


    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  3. Edge analytics in the internet of things


    Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Simoens, Pieter; Xiao, Yu; Pillai, Padmanabhan; Chen, Zhuo; Ha, Kiryong; Hu, Wenlu; Amos, Brandon


    High-data-rate sensors are becoming ubiquitous in the Internet of Things. GigaSight is an Internet-scale repository of crowd-sourced video content that enforces privacy preferences and access controls. The architecture is a federated system of VM-based cloudlets that perform video analytics at the edge of the Internet.

  4. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)


    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  5. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpies, S D; Light, R A; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Clark, M; Somekh, M G


    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device

  6. Anomalous transport in the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.


    The tokamak edge has been studied with arrays of Langmuir and magnetic probes on the DITE and COMPASS-C devices. Measurements of plasma parameters such as density, temperature and radial magnetic field were taken in order to elucidate the character, effect on transport and origin of edge fluctuations. The tokamak edge is a strongly-turbulent environment, with large electrostatic fluctuation levels and broad spectra. The observations, including direct correlation measurements, are consistent with a picture in which the observed magnetic field fluctuations are driven by the perturbations in electrostatic parameters. The propagation characteristics of the turbulence, investigated using digital spectral techniques, appear to be dominated by the variation of the radial electric field, both in limiter and divertor plasmas. A shear layer is formed, associated in each case with the last closed flux surface. In the shear layer, the electrostatic wavenumber spectra are significantly broader. The predictions of a drift wave model (DDGDT) and of a family of models evolving from the rippling mode (RGDT group), are compared with experimental results. RGDT, augmented by impurity radiation effects, is shown to be the most reasonable candidate to explain the nature of the edge turbulence, only failing in its estimate of the wavenumber range. (Author)

  7. Study Abroad: A Competitive Edge for Women? (United States)

    Opper, Susan


    Studies effects of study abroad among 172 female and 217 male graduates in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany between 1980 and 1984. Finds study abroad expedites obtaining job interviews but was of little advantage in securing employment for either sex. Finds degree credential provides a competitive edge. (NL)

  8. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  9. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges. (United States)


    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  10. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; van Breugel, PB; Moors, EJ; Nieveen, JP


    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W m(-2), or 16% of the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less

  11. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.; Breugel, van P.B.; Moors, E.J.; Nieveen, J.P.


    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W mm2, or 16 f the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less than


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented a modified edge fed Sierpinski carpet microstrip patch antenna for antenna miniaturization. The proposed design was etched as Sierpinski carpet to lower the antenna resonant frequency, which is used to reduce the conventional patch antenna size. After the Sierpinski carpet second iteration, the ...

  13. Reading Edge. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    "Reading Edge" is a middle school literacy program that emphasizes cooperative learning, goal setting, feedback, classroom management techniques, and the use of metacognitive strategy, whereby students assess their own skills and learn to apply new ones. The program is a component of the "Success for All"[superscript 2]…

  14. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob


    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest...

  15. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh


    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Conical shell edge disturbance : An engineer's derivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwendraad, J.; Hoefakker, JH


    Because a rigorous bending theory for thin shells of revolution is complicated, attempts have been made for reliable approximations of the edge disturbance problem under axisymmetric loading. A well-known one was published by Geckeler [1, 2], who obtained his approximation by mathematical

  17. Universality in edge-source diffusion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik


    We show that in edge-source diffusion dynamics the integrated concentration N(t) has a universal dependence with a characteristic time scale tau=(A/P)(2)pi/(4D), where D is the diffusion constant while A and P are the cross-sectional area and perimeter of the domain, respectively. For the short...

  18. The visibility of IQHE at sharp edges: experimental proposals based on interactions and edge electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkarslan, U; Oylumluoglu, G; Grayson, M; Siddiki, A


    The influence of the incompressible strips on the integer quantized Hall effect (IQHE) is investigated, considering a cleaved-edge overgrown (CEO) sample as an experimentally realizable sharp edge system. We propose a set of experiments to clarify the distinction between the large-sample limit when bulk disorder defines the IQHE plateau width and the small-sample limit smaller than the disorder correlation length, when self-consistent edge electrostatics define the IQHE plateau width. The large-sample or bulk quantized Hall (QH) regime is described by the usual localization picture, whereas the small-sample or edge regime is discussed within the compressible/incompressible strips picture, known as the screening theory of QH edges. Utilizing the unusually sharp edge profiles of the CEO samples, a Hall bar design is proposed to manipulate the edge potential profile from smooth to extremely sharp. By making use of a side-gate perpendicular to the two-dimensional electron system, it is shown that the plateau widths can be changed or even eliminated altogether. Hence, the visibility of IQHE is strongly influenced when adjusting the edge potential profile and/or changing the dc current direction under high currents in the nonlinear transport regime. As a second investigation, we consider two different types of ohmic contacts, namely highly transmitting (ideal) and highly reflecting (non-ideal) contacts. We show that if the injection contacts are non-ideal, but still ohmic, it is possible to measure directly the non-quantized transport taking place at the bulk of the CEO samples. The results of the experiments we propose will clarify the influence of the edge potential profile and the quality of the contacts, under QH conditions. (paper)

  19. Unconventional quantized edge transport in the presence of inter-edge coupling in intercalated graphene


    Li, Yuanchang


    It is generally believed that the inter-edge coupling destroys the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect along with the gap opening at the Dirac points. Using first-principles calculations, we find that the quantized edge transport persists in the presence of inter-edge coupling in Ta intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001), being a QSH insulator with the non-trivial gap of 81 meV. In this case, the band is characterized by two perfect Dirac cones with different Fermi velocities, yet only one m...

  20. The Role of T Helper (TH17 Cells as a Double-Edged Sword in the Interplay of Infection and Autoimmunity with a Focus on Xenobiotic-Induced Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Y. A. Hemdan


    Full Text Available Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer, especially when accompanied by inflammation-triggered persistent sensitization. This perception is learned from experimental models of infection and epidemiologic studies and clearly underscores the interplay of exposure to such immunomodulatory elements with pre- or postexposure infectious events. Further, the TH17 cell subset, known to be associated with a growing list of autoimmune manifestations, may be the “superstar” at the interface of xenobiotic exposure and autoimmunity. In this review, the most recently established links to this nomination are short-listed to create a framework to better understand new insights into TH17’s contributions to autoimmunity.

  1. Edge-effect interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes. (United States)

    Porensky, Lauren M; Young, Truman P


    Ecological edges are increasingly recognized as drivers of landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. In fragmented and patchy landscapes (e.g., a fragmented forest or a savanna with scattered termite mounds), edges can become so numerous that their effects pervade the entire landscape. Results of recent studies in such landscapes show that edge effects can be altered by the presence or proximity of other nearby edges. We considered the theoretical significance of edge-effect interactions, illustrated various landscape configurations that support them and reviewed existing research on this topic. Results of studies from a variety of locations and ecosystem types show that edge-effect interactions can have significant consequences for ecosystems and conservation, including higher tree mortality rates in tropical rainforest fragments, reduced bird densities in grassland fragments, and bush encroachment and reduced wildlife densities in a tropical savanna. To clarify this underappreciated concept and synthesize existing work, we devised a conceptual framework for edge-effect interactions. We first worked to reduce terminological confusion by clarifying differences among terms such as edge intersection and edge interaction. For cases in which nearby edge effects interact, we proposed three possible forms of interaction: strengthening (presence of a second edge causes stronger edge effects), weakening (presence of a second edge causes weaker edge effects), and emergent (edge effects change completely in the presence of a second edge). By clarifying terms and concepts, this framework enables more precise descriptions of edge-effect interactions and facilitates comparisons of results among disparate study systems and response variables. A better understanding of edge-effect interactions will pave the way for more appropriate modeling, conservation, and management in complex landscapes. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Modified edge-to-edge technique for correction of congenital mitral regurgitation in infants and children. (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Fusheng; Zhu, Mei; Zhang, Wenlong; Fan, Quanxin; Zou, Chengwei; Wang, Anbiao


    Since 2008, 28 patients with congenital mitral regurgitation have undergone mitral valve repair with a modified edge-to-edge technique at our institution. The regurgitant mitral leaflet was sutured with a pledget-reinforced, horizontal mattress suture with No. 4-0 polypropylene on the ventricle side and a pledget-reinforced mattress suture with Gore-Tex sutures (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) and Dacron pledgets (Chest, Shanghai) placed on the anterior and posterior annulus corresponding to the edge-to-edge suturing site. Early results are encouraging, but a longer follow-up is needed. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Balancing the edge effects budget: bay scallop settlement and loss along a seagrass edge. (United States)

    Carroll, John M; Furman, Bradley T; Tettelbach, Stephen T; Peterson, Bradley J


    Edge effects are a dominant subject in landscape ecology literature, yet they are highly variable and poorly understood. Often, the literature suggests simple models for edge effects-positive (enhancement at the edge), negative (enhancement at the interior), or no effect (neutral)--on a variety of metrics, including abundance, diversity, and mortality. In the marine realm, much of this work has focused on fragmented seagrass habitats due to their importance for a variety of commercially important species. In this study, the settlement, recruitment, and survival of bay scallops was investigated across a variety of seagrass patch treatments. By simultaneously collecting settlers (those viable larvae available to settle and metamorphose) and recruits (those settlers that survive some period of time, in this case, 6 weeks) on the same collectors, we were able to demonstrate a "balance" between positive and negative edge effects, resulting in a net neutral effect. Scallop settlement was significantly enhanced along seagrass edges, regardless of patch type while survival was elevated within patch interiors. However, recruitment (the net result of settlement and post-settlement loss) did not vary significantly from edge to center, representing a neutral effect. Further, results suggest that post-settlement loss, most likely due to predation, appears to be the dominant mechanism structuring scallop abundance, not patterns in settlement. These data illustrate the complexity of edge effects, and suggest that the metric used to investigate the effect (be it abundance, survival, or other metrics) can often influence the magnitude and direction of the perceived effect. Traditionally, high predation along a habitat edge would have indicated an "ecological trap" for the species in question; however, this study demonstrates that, at the population level, an ecological trap may not exist.

  4. Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects


    Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.


    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing den...

  5. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath


    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  6. Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Water Splitting over Edge-Modified Phosphorene Nanoribbons. (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Chao; Yang, Jinlong


    Two-dimensional phosphorene with desirable optoelectronic properties (ideal band gap, high carrier mobility, and strong visible light absorption) is a promising metal-free photocatalyst for water splitting. However, the band edge positions of the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band maximum (CBM) of phosphorene are higher than the redox potentials in photocatalytic water splitting reactions. Thus, phosphorene can only be used as the photocathode for hydrogen evolution reaction as a low-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalyst for hydrogen production in solar water splitting cells. Here, we propose a new mechanism to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) by modifying their edges for full reactions in photocatalytic water splitting. By employing first-principles density functional theory calculations, we find that pseudohalogen (CN and OCN) passivated PNRs not only show desired VBM and CBM band edge positions induced by edge electric dipole layer, but also possess intrinsic optoelectronic properties of phosphorene, for both water oxidation and hydrogen reduction in photocatalytic water splitting without using extra energy. Furthermore, our calculations also predict that the maximum energy conversion efficiency of heterojunction solar cells consisting of different edge-modified PNRs can be as high as 20% for photocatalytic water splitting.

  7. Crystallographic study of grain refinement in aluminum alloys using the edge-to-edge matching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P.M.; Easton, M.A.; Taylor, J.A.


    The edge-to-edge matching model for describing the interfacial crystallographic characteristics between two phases that are related by reproducible orientation relationships has been applied to the typical grain refiners in aluminum alloys. Excellent atomic matching between Al 3 Ti nucleating substrates, known to be effective nucleation sites for primary Al, and the Al matrix in both close packed directions and close packed planes containing these directions have been identified. The crystallographic features of the grain refiner and the Al matrix are very consistent with the edge-to-edge matching model. For three other typical grain refiners for Al alloys, TiC (when a = 0.4328 nm), TiB 2 and AlB 2 , the matching only occurs between the close packed directions in both phases and between the second close packed plane of the Al matrix and the second close packed plane of the refiners. According to the model, it is predicted that Al 3 Ti is a more powerful nucleating substrate for Al alloy than TiC, TiB 2 and AlB 2 . This agrees with the previous experimental results. The present work shows that the edge-to-edge matching model has the potential to be a powerful tool in discovering new and more powerful grain refiners for Al alloys

  8. Topological edge states for disordered bosonic systems (United States)

    Peano, Vittorio; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann


    Quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians over a one-particle Hilbert space can be described by a Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian on a particle-hole Hilbert space. In general, the BdG Hamiltonian is not self-adjoint, but only J-self-adjoint on the particle-hole space viewed as a Krein space. Nevertheless, its energy bands can have non-trivial topological invariants like Chern numbers or winding numbers. By a thorough analysis for tight-binding models, it is proved that these invariants lead to bosonic edge modes which are robust to a large class of possibly disordered perturbations. Furthermore, general scenarios are presented for these edge states to be dynamically unstable even though the bulk modes are stable.

  9. GSGG edge cladding development: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumitani, T.; Meissner, H.E.; Toratani, H.


    The objectives of this project have been: (1) Investigate the possibility of chemical etching of GSGG crystal slabs to obtain increased strength. (2) Design and construct a simplified mold assembly for casting cladding glass to the edges of crystal slabs of different dimensions. (3) Conduct casting experiments to evaluate the redesigned mold assembly and to determine stresses as function of thermal expansion coefficient of cladding glass. (4) Clad larger sizes of GGG slabs as they become available. These tasks have been achieved. Chemical etching of GSGG slabs does not appear possible with any other acid than H 3 PO 4 at temperatures above 300 0 C. A mold assembly has been constructed which allowed casting cladding glass around the edges of the largest GGG slabs available (10 x 20 x 160 mm) without causing breakage through the annealing step

  10. On thermal edge effects in composite laminates (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.


    Results are presented for a finite-element investigation of the combined influence of edge effects due to mechanical and thermal mismatch in composite laminates with free edges. Laminates of unidirectional boron/epoxy symmetrically bonded to sheets of aluminum and titanium were studied. It is shown that interlaminar thermal stresses may be more significant than the interlaminar stresses due to loading only. In addition, the stresses due to thermal mismatch may be of the same sign as those due to Poisson's mismatch or they may be of opposite sign depending upon material properties, stacking sequence, and direction of loading. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of thermal stresses in all-composite laminates.

  11. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene. (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J


    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  12. Resource distribution influences positive edge effects in a seagrass fish. (United States)

    Macreadie, Peter I; Hindell, Jeremy S; Keough, Michael J; Jenkins, Gregory P; Connolly, Rod M


    According to conceptual models, the distribution of resources plays a critical role in determining how organisms distribute themselves near habitat edges. These models are frequently used to achieve a mechanistic understanding of edge effects, but because they are based predominantly on correlative studies, there is need for a demonstration of causality, which is best done through experimentation. Using artificial seagrass habitat as an experimental system, we determined a likely mechanism underpinning edge effects in a seagrass fish. To test for edge effects, we measured fish abundance at edges (0-0.5 m) and interiors (0.5-1 m) of two patch configurations: continuous (single, continuous 9-m2 patches) and patchy (four discrete 1-m2 patches within a 9-m2 area). In continuous configurations, pipefish (Stigmatopora argus) were three times more abundant at edges than interiors (positive edge effect), but in patchy configurations there was no difference. The lack of edge effect in patchy configurations might be because patchy seagrass consisted entirely of edge habitat. We then used two approaches to test whether observed edge effects in continuous configurations were caused by increased availability of food at edges. First, we estimated the abundance of the major prey of pipefish, small crustaceans, across continuous seagrass configurations. Crustacean abundances were highest at seagrass edges, where they were 16% greater than in patch interiors. Second, we supplemented interiors of continuous treatment patches with live crustaceans, while control patches were supplemented with seawater. After five hours of supplementation, numbers of pipefish were similar between edges and interiors of treatment patches, while the strong edge effects were maintained in controls. This indicated that fish were moving from patch edges to interiors in response to food supplementation. These approaches strongly suggest that a numerically dominant fish species is more abundant at seagrass

  13. The transition-edge microbolometer (TREMBOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, S.M.; Neikirk, D.P.


    The TREMBOL (transition-edge microbolometer) and the composite TREMBOL are introduced as detectors for FIR imaging arrays. The TREMBOL uses a superconductor's sharp change in resistance at the normal conduction to superconduction transition. The structure of the composite TREMBOL enables heating of the individual detectors in an array up to their transition temperature, and can thus be used in multiplexing, which would be very advantageous for two-dimensional arrays. 23 refs

  14. Edge-on View of Saturn's Rings (United States)


    TOP - This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshot of Saturn with its rings barely visible. Normally, astronomers see Saturn with its rings tilted. Earth was almost in the plane of Saturn's rings, thus the rings appear edge-on.In this view, Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is casting a shadow on Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is a dark brown haze. The other moons appear white because of their bright, icy surfaces. Four moons - from left to right, Mimas, Tethys, Janus, and Enceladus - are clustered around the edge of Saturn's rings on the right. Two other moons appear in front of the ring plane. Prometheus is on the right edge; Pandora, on the left. The rings also are casting a shadow on Saturn because the Sun was above the ring plane.BOTTOM - This photograph shows Saturn with its rings slightly tilted. The moon called Dione, on the lower right, is casting a long, thin shadow across the whole ring system due to the setting Sun on the ring plane. The moon on the upper left of Saturn is Tethys.Astronomers also are studying the unusual appearance of Saturn's rings. The bottom image displays a faint, narrow ring, the F-ring just outside the main ring, which normally is invisible from Earth. Close to the edge of Saturn's disk, the front section of rings seem brighter and more yellow than the back due to the additional lumination by yellowish Saturn.The color images were assembled from separate exposures taken August 6 (top) and November 17 (bottom), 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL

  15. An edge extraction technique for noisy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cios, K.J.; Sarieh, A.


    We present an algorithm for extracting edges from noisy images. Our method uses an unsupervised learning approach for local threshold computation by means of Pearson's method for mixture density identification. We tested the technique by applying it to computer-generated images corrupted with artificial noise and to an actual Thallium-201 heart image and it is shown that the technique has potential use for noisy images

  16. Canny edge-based deformable image registration. (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping


    This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.

  17. Edge direction and the structure of networks. (United States)

    Foster, Jacob G; Foster, David V; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya


    Directed networks are ubiquitous and are necessary to represent complex systems with asymmetric interactions--from food webs to the World Wide Web. Despite the importance of edge direction for detecting local and community structure, it has been disregarded in studying a basic type of global diversity in networks: the tendency of nodes with similar numbers of edges to connect. This tendency, called assortativity, affects crucial structural and dynamic properties of real-world networks, such as error tolerance or epidemic spreading. Here we demonstrate that edge direction has profound effects on assortativity. We define a set of four directed assortativity measures and assign statistical significance by comparison to randomized networks. We apply these measures to three network classes--online/social networks, food webs, and word-adjacency networks. Our measures (i) reveal patterns common to each class, (ii) separate networks that have been previously classified together, and (iii) expose limitations of several existing theoretical models. We reject the standard classification of directed networks as purely assortative or disassortative. Many display a class-specific mixture, likely reflecting functional or historical constraints, contingencies, and forces guiding the system's evolution.

  18. Non-trivial edge physics in a featureless Mott insulator (United States)

    Ware, Brayden; Kimchi, Itamar; Parameswaran, Siddharth; Bauer, Bela


    While the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem forbids the existence of fully symmetric quantum paramagnetic phases on lattices with fractional filling of particles per unit cell, such a phase is in principle allowed with certain fractional numbers of particles per site on non-Bravais lattices, including half-filling on the honeycomb lattice. It has been shown that a non-interacting Hamiltonian of spinless fermions or bosons cannot have such a symmetric insulating ground state, and an explicit construction using interactions is challenging. Recently, Kimchi et al. constructed a wavefunction for bosons at half-filling that does not break any symmetries and is not topologically ordered-and in this sense is a featureless insulator in the bulk. Here, however, we reveal that this wavefunction exhibits non-trivial structure at the edge. We apply recently developed techniques based on a tensor network representation of the wavefunction to demonstrate the presence of a gapless entanglement spectrum and a non-trivial action of combined charge-conservation and spatial symmetries on the edge. We will also discuss the possibility of finding a parent Hamiltonian and analyzing the existence of a symmetry-protected topological phase around this state.

  19. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander


    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  20. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing. (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin


    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  1. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) CS-W Interface (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  2. Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.


    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  3. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects. (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B


    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  4. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  5. Electronic properties of phosphorene and graphene nanoribbons with edge vacancies in magnetic field (United States)

    Smotlacha, J.; Pincak, R.


    The graphene and phosphorene nanostructures have a big potential application in a large area of today's research in physics. However, their methods of synthesis still don't allow the production of perfect materials with an intact molecular structure. In this paper, the occurrence of atomic vacancies was considered in the edge structure of the zigzag phosphorene and graphene nanoribbons. For different concentrations of these edge vacancies, their influence on the metallic properties was investigated. The calculations were performed for different sizes of the unit cell. Furthermore, for a smaller size, the influence of a uniform magnetic field was added.

  6. Edge and line feature extraction based on covariance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    Image segmentation based on contour extraction usually involves three stages of image operations: feature extraction, edge detection and edge linking. This paper is devoted to the first stage: a method to design feature extractors used to detect edges from noisy and/or blurred images.

  7. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging (United States)

    Nandy, Prabal [Albuquerque, NM


    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  8. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, B.


    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four

  9. Atomic scale structures of interfaces between kaolinite edges and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Lu, X.; Wang, R.; Meijer, E.J.; Zhou, H.; He, H.


    This paper reports the atomic scale structures of kaolinite edge surfaces in contact with water. The commonly occurring edge surfaces are investigated (i.e. (0 1 0) and (1 1 0)) by using first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) technique. For (1 1 0)-type edge surface, there are two different

  10. South African Identities on the Edge: Lauren Beukes's Moxyland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We follow the work of various critics and argue that the text presents identity as fractured, riven and characterized by sharp edges. The edges in question refer to the boundaries of personal, corporeal, national and corporate identity. These edges may be considered symptomatic of the individual and social demands placed ...

  11. Roads as edges: Effects on birds in forested landscapes (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; David E. Capen


    Numerous studies have documented that forest edges affect habitat use and reproductive success of forest birds, but few studies have considered edges created by narrow breaks in the forest canopy. We compared predation rates on artificial nests placed within forest habitat along edge transects, 10 m from unpaved roads, and along interior transects, 300 m from forest-...

  12. Education Confronts Changing Demographics. The Challenge to Edge Cities. (United States)

    Tushnet, Naida C.

    This monograph introduces a conference addressing the educational issues of the edge cities of the urban Pacific Southwest. Edge cities on the outside of urban cores (edge cities) are currently facing many of the problems formerly experienced only in urban areas. Of the 30 fastest-growing cities of over 100,000 residents in the country, 19 are…

  13. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect


    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.


    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  14. The effect of defocus on edge contrast sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, NM; Kooijman, AC

    The effect of optical blur (defocus) on edge contrast sensitivity was studied. Edge contrast sensitivity detoriates with fairly small amounts of blur (similar to 0.5 D) and is roughly reduced by half for each dioptre of blur. The effect of blur on edge contrast sensitivity equals the effect of blur

  15. Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. R.; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states...

  16. Vanadium K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals species differences within the same ascidian genera. A comparison of whole blood from Ascidia nigra and Ascidia ceratodes. (United States)

    Frank, P; Hodgson, K O; Kustin, K; Robinson, W E


    Vanadium K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to examine whole blood preparations from the tunicates Ascidia nigra and Ascidia ceratodes. Each XAS spectrum exhibits a rising edge inflection near 5480 eV characteristic of vanadium(III) and an intensity maximum at 5484.0 eV. In A. ceratodes blood cells, intrinsic aquo-VSO4+ complex ion is indicated by an inflection feature at 5476 eV in the first derivative of the vanadium K-edge XAS spectrum, but this feature is notably absent from the first derivative of the vanadium K-edge spectrum of blood cells from A. nigra. A strong pre-edge feature at 5468.6 eV also uniquely distinguishes the vanadium K-edge XAS spectrum of A. nigra blood cells, implying that vanadyl ion represents approximately 25% of the endogenous vanadium. However, the energy position of the rising edge inflection of the vanadium K-edge XAS spectrum of A. nigra (5479.5 eV) is 1 eV lower than that of A. ceratodes (5480.5 eV), the reverse of any expected shift arising from the endogenous vanadyl ion. Thus, in contrast to A. ceratodes, a significant fraction of the blood cell vanadium(III) in A. nigra is apparently in a ligation environment substantially different from that provided by water. These novel species-related differences may have taxonomic significance.

  17. Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A.; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.


    The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)

  18. Edge responses are different in edges under natural versus anthropogenic influence: a meta-analysis using ground beetles. (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L; Tóthmérész, Béla


    Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history. Forest edges maintained by natural processes had significantly higher species richness than their interiors, while edges with continued anthropogenic influence did not. The filter function of edges was also essentially different depending on their history. For forest specialist species, edges maintained by natural processes were penetrable, allowing these species to move right through the edges, while edges still under anthropogenic interventions were impenetrable, preventing the dispersal of forest specialists out of the forest. For species inhabiting the surrounding matrix (open-habitat and generalist species), edges created by forestry activities were penetrable, and such species also invaded the forest interior. However, natural forest edges constituted a barrier and prevented the invasion of matrix species into the forest interior. Preserving and protecting all edges maintained by natural processes, and preventing anthropogenic changes to their structure, composition, and characteristics are key factors to sustain biodiversity in forests. Moreover, the increasing presence of anthropogenic edges in a landscape is to be avoided, as they contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Simultaneously, edges under continued anthropogenic disturbance should be restored by increasing habitat heterogeneity.

  19. Influence of a falling edge on high power microwave pulse combination (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Zhu, Qi; Xiao, Renzhen; Shao, Hao


    This paper presents an explanation of the influence of a microwave falling edge on high-power microwave pulse combination. Through particle-in-cell simulations, we discover that the falling edge is the driving factor that limits the output power of the combined pulses. We demonstrate that the space charge field, which accumulates to become comparable to the E-field at the falling edge of the former pulse, will trap the electrons in the gas layer and decrease its energy to attain a high ionization rate. Hence, avalanche discharge, caused by trapped electrons, makes the plasma density to approach the critical density and cuts off the latter microwave pulse. An X-band combination experiment is conducted with different pulse intervals. This experiment confirms that the high density plasma induced by the falling edge can cut off the latter pulse, and that the time required for plasma recombination in the transmission channel is several microseconds. To ensure a high output power for combined pulses, the latter pulse should be moved ahead of the falling edge of the former one, and consequently, a beat wave with high peak power becomes the output by adding two pulses with normal amplitudes.

  20. Modulation of electronic and magnetic properties in InSe nanoribbons: edge effect (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Ding, Yi-min; Wang, Hui; Cen, Yu-lang; Guo, Wen-hui; Pan, Shu-hang; Zhu, Yao-hui


    Quite recently, the two-dimensional (2D) InSe nanosheet has become a hot material with great promise for advanced functional nano-devices. In this work, for the first time, we perform first-principles calculations on the structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties of 1D InSe nanoribbons with/without hydrogen or halogen saturation. We find that armchair ribbons, with various edges and distortions, are all nonmagnetic semiconductors, with a direct bandgap of 1.3 (1.4) eV for bare (H-saturated) ribbons, and have the same high electron mobility of about 103 cm2V‑1s‑1 as the 2D InSe nanosheet. Zigzag InSe nanoribbons exhibit metallic behavior and diverse intrinsic ferromagnetic properties, with the magnetic moment of 0.5–0.7 μ B per unit cell, especially for their single-edge spin polarization. The edge spin orientation, mainly dominated by the unpaired electrons of the edge atoms, depends sensitively on the edge chirality. Hydrogen or halogen saturation can effectively recover the structural distortion, and modulate the electronic and magnetic properties. The binding energy calculations show that the stability of InSe nanoribbons is analogous to that of graphene and better than in 2D InSe nanosheets. These InSe nanoribbons, with novel electronic and magnetic properties, are thus very promising for use in electronic, spintronic and magnetoresistive nano-devices.

  1. Edge-Dependent Electronic and Magnetic Characteristics of Freestanding β 12-Borophene Nanoribbons (United States)

    Izadi Vishkayi, Sahar; Bagheri Tagani, Meysam


    This work presents an investigation of nanoribbons cut from β 12-borophene sheets by applying the density functional theory. In particular, the electronic and magnetic properties of borophene nanoribbons (BNR) are studied. It is found that all the ribbons considered in this work behave as metals, which is in good agreement with the recent experimental results. β 12-BNR has significant diversity due to the existence of five boron atoms in a unit cell of the sheet. The magnetic properties of the ribbons are strongly dependent on the cutting direction and edge profile. It is interesting that a ribbon with a specific width can behave as a normal or a ferromagnetic metal with magnetization at just one edge or two edges. Spin anisotropy is observed in some ribbons, and the magnetic moment is not found to be the same in both edges in an antiferromagnetic configuration. This effect stems from the edge asymmetry of the ribbons and results in the breaking of spin degeneracy in the band structure. Our findings show that β 12 BNRs are potential candidates for next-generation spintronic devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Photoabsorption spectra of potassium and rubidium near the K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Y.; Berry, H.G.; Cowan, P.L.


    We have used a high-temperature circulating heat-pipe absorption cell together with monochromatized X-ray beams at the X24A and X23A2 beam lines at the NSLS to obtain photoabsorption spectra of potassium and rubidium at their K- and KM-edges. The photon-energy ranges lay near 3600 eV and 15200 eV, respectively. We have also obtained first measurements of the LII and LIII edges in cesium. Although the K-edge photoabsorptions of the rare gases have been studied, there is little previous work on other atomic vapors. Most of the edges and resonance peaks that we observed have now been identified using Dirac Hartree-Fock calculations. As a check, we have compared these results with those obtained previously in closed-shell rare-gas absorption spectra. The absolute energies were obtained through a calibration of the X24A systems using measurements of several metal L-edges in the 3200-5000 eV energy range. We found that the 4p resonance in potassium is significantly enhanced compared with the corresponding situation in argon. Likewise, the 5p resonance in krypton is unresolved from the background ionization cross section, whereas it is well resolved in rubidium. As suggested by Amusia, these enhancements may be due to the enhanced potential seen in the excited state of the alkali systems as a result of the presence of an s-electron which reduces the nuclear shielding

  3. Modulation of electronic and magnetic properties in InSe nanoribbons: edge effect. (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Shi, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Min; Ding, Yi-Min; Wang, Hui; Cen, Yu-Lang; Guo, Wen-Hui; Pan, Shu-Hang; Zhu, Yao-Hui


    Quite recently, the two-dimensional (2D) InSe nanosheet has become a hot material with great promise for advanced functional nano-devices. In this work, for the first time, we perform first-principles calculations on the structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties of 1D InSe nanoribbons with/without hydrogen or halogen saturation. We find that armchair ribbons, with various edges and distortions, are all nonmagnetic semiconductors, with a direct bandgap of 1.3 (1.4) eV for bare (H-saturated) ribbons, and have the same high electron mobility of about 10 3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 as the 2D InSe nanosheet. Zigzag InSe nanoribbons exhibit metallic behavior and diverse intrinsic ferromagnetic properties, with the magnetic moment of 0.5-0.7 μ B per unit cell, especially for their single-edge spin polarization. The edge spin orientation, mainly dominated by the unpaired electrons of the edge atoms, depends sensitively on the edge chirality. Hydrogen or halogen saturation can effectively recover the structural distortion, and modulate the electronic and magnetic properties. The binding energy calculations show that the stability of InSe nanoribbons is analogous to that of graphene and better than in 2D InSe nanosheets. These InSe nanoribbons, with novel electronic and magnetic properties, are thus very promising for use in electronic, spintronic and magnetoresistive nano-devices.

  4. Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. R.; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    for antidots smaller than the magnetic length and demonstrate the presence of magnetic edge states, which are localized states on the periphery of the antidots due to successive reflections on the antidot edge in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that these states are robust against variations...... in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states...

  5. Graph Edge Coloring Vizing's Theorem and Goldberg's Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Stiebitz, Michael; Toft, Bjarne; Favrholdt, Lene M


    Features recent advances and new applications in graph edge coloring Reviewing recent advances in the Edge Coloring Problem, Graph Edge Coloring: Vizing's Theorem and Goldberg's Conjecture provides an overview of the current state of the science, explaining the interconnections among the results obtained from important graph theory studies. The authors introduce many new improved proofs of known results to identify and point to possible solutions for open problems in edge coloring. The book begins with an introduction to graph theory and the concept of edge coloring. Subsequent chapters explor

  6. Three Dimensional Digital Image Processing using Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schmeelk


    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to three dimensional image edge detection and its relationship to partial derivatives, convolutions and wavelets. We are especially addressing the notion of edge detection because it has far reaching applications in all areas of research to include medical research. A patient can be diagnosed as having an aneurysm by studying an angiogram. An angiogram is the visual view of the blood vessels whereby the edges are highlighted through the implementation of edge detectors. This process is completed through convolution, wavelets and matrix techniques. Some illustrations included will be vertical, horizontal, Sobel and wavelet edge detectors.

  7. An image super-resolution method considering edge character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wang Yuan; Yong, Liang; Ming, Zhang Cheng


    Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimation is an important image super-resolution method. However, a clear edge is difficult to maintain. To address this problem, we analyze the causes of poor edge stability. We also present a method for reducing the smoothness of the edge, maintaining the smoothness of the soft regional area, and reducing pseudo noise to improve connected edge retention. The improved method fixes the iteration number and smoothing factor of the MAP estimation by using Gauss-Laplacian image edge extraction. Finally, the validity of this method is verified by its application to feature information recognition in remote sensing images

  8. Two-Dimensional Edge Detection by Guided Mode Resonant Metasurface (United States)

    Saba, Amirhossein; Tavakol, Mohammad Reza; Karimi-Khoozani, Parisa; Khavasi, Amin


    In this letter, a new approach to perform edge detection is presented using an all-dielectric CMOS-compatible metasurface. The design is based on guided-mode resonance which provides a high quality factor resonance to make the edge detection experimentally realizable. The proposed structure that is easy to fabricate, can be exploited for detection of edges in two dimensions due to its symmetry. Also, the trade-off between gain and resolution of edge detection is discussed which can be adjusted by appropriate design parameters. The proposed edge detector has also the potential to be used in ultrafast analog computing and image processing.

  9. Orientations of infinite graphs with prescribed edge-connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We prove a decomposition result for locally finite graphs which can be used to extend results on edge-connectivity from finite to infinite graphs. It implies that every 4k-edge-connected graph G contains an immersion of some finite 2k-edge-connected Eulerian graph containing any prescribed vertex...... set (while planar graphs show that G need not containa subdivision of a simple finite graph of large edge-connectivity). Also, every 8k-edge connected infinite graph has a k-arc-connected orientation, as conjectured in 1989....

  10. Antichiral Edge States in a Modified Haldane Nanoribbon (United States)

    Colomés, E.; Franz, M.


    Topological phases of fermions in two dimensions are often characterized by chiral edge states. By definition, these propagate in opposite directions at the two parallel edges when the sample geometry is that of a rectangular strip. We introduce here a model which exhibits what we call "antichiral" edge modes. These propagate in the same direction at both parallel edges of the strip and are compensated by counterpropagating modes that reside in the bulk. General arguments and numerical simulations show that backscattering is suppressed even when strong disorder is present in the system. We propose a feasible experimental realization of a system showing such antichiral edge modes in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

  11. Viscosity in the edge of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.


    A fluid representation of viscosity has been incorporated into a set of fluid equations that are maximally ordered in the ''short-radial-gradient-scale-length'' (srgsl) ordering that is appropriate for the edge of tokamak plasmas. The srgsl ordering raises viscous drifts and other viscous terms to leading order and fundamentally alters the character of the fluid equations. A leasing order viscous drift is identified. Viscous-driven radial particle and energy fluxes in the scrape-off layer and divertor channel are estimated to have an order unity effect in reducing radial peaking of energy fluxes transported along the field lines to divertor collector plates

  12. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin


    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  13. Edge plasma fluctuations measurements in fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Ionitha, C.; Balan, P.C.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Figueiredo, H.F.C.; Silva, C.; Stoeckel, J.; Adamek, J.; Hron, M.; Tichy, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Calderon, E.; Martines, E.; Van Oost, G.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Naulin, V.


    We report on investigations on electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma region which have been carried out during the last few years at several European fusion experiments. Various methods and probe arrangements have been used to determine fluctuations of the plasma potential, the electric field and the electron temperature. Investigations were under-taken in ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak), Lisbon, Portugal, in CASTOR (Czech Academy of Science TORus), Prague, Czech Republic, and the TJ-II Flexible Heliac at CIEMAT in Madrid, Spain. (author)

  14. Near edge x-ray spectroscopy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    We propose to develop a quantitative theory of x-ray spectroscopies in the near edge region, within about 100 eV of threshold. These spectroscopies include XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), photoelectron diffraction (PD), and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), all of which are important tools for structural studies using synchrotron radiation x-ray sources. Of primary importance in these studies are many-body effects, such as the photoelectron self-energy, and inelastic losses. A better understanding of these quantities is needed to obtain theories without adjustable parameters. We propose both analytical and numerical calculations, the latter based on our x-ray spectroscopy codes FEFF

  15. Plasma Edge Control in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Foster, C.; Haste, G.; Horton, L.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Chatelier, M.; Capes, H.; Michelis, C. De; Fall, T.; Geraud, A.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Hutter, T.


    TORE SUPRA is a large superconducting tokamak designed for sustaining long inductive pulses (t∼ 30 s). In particular, all the first wall components have been designed for steady-state heat and particle exhaust, particle injection, and additional heating. In addition to these technological assets, a strict control of the plasma-wall interactions is required. This has been done at low power: experiments with ohmic heating have been mainly devoted to the pump limiter, ergodic divertor and pellet injection experiments. Some specific problems arising in large tokamaks are encountered; the pump limiter and the ergodic divertor yield the expected effects on the plasma edge. The effects on the bulk are discussed

  16. Laser Surface Hardening of Groove Edges (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Hamdani, A. H.; Akhter, R.; Aslam, M.


    Surface hardening of groove-edges made of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel has been carried out using 500 W CO2 laser with a rectangular beam of 2.5×3 mm2. The processing speed was varied from 150-500 mm/min. It was seen that the hardened depth increases with increase in laser interaction time. A maximum hardened depth of around 1mm was achieved. The microhardness of the transformed zone was 2.5 times the hardness of base metal. The XRD's and microstructural analysis were also reported.

  17. Thermal physics of transition edge sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevers, H.F.C.


    Thermal transport in transition edge sensor (TES)-based microcalorimeter arrays is reviewed. The fundamentals of thermal conductance in Si 3 N 4 membranes are discussed and the magnitude of the electron-phonon coupling and Kapitza coupling in practical devices is summarized. Next, the thermal transport in high-stopping power and low-heat capacity absorbers, required for arrays of TES microcalorimeters, is discussed in combination with a performance analysis of detectors with mushroom-absorbers. Finally, the phenomenology of unexplained excess noise, observed in both Mo- and Ti-based TESs, is briefly summarized and related with the coupling of the TES to the heat bath

  18. Green's function asymptotics near the internal edges of spectra of periodic elliptic operators. Spectral edge case

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter


    Precise asymptotics known for the Green\\'s function of the Laplace operator have found their analogs for periodic elliptic operators of the second order at and below the bottom of the spectrum. Due to the band-gap structure of the spectra of such operators, the question arises whether similar results can be obtained near or at the edges of spectral gaps. As the result of this work shows, this is possible at a spectral edge when the dimension d ≥ 3. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven H.


    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  20. Edge detection in gravity field of the Gheshm sedimentary basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Hosseini


    Full Text Available Edge detection and edge enhancement techniques play an essential role in interpreting potential field data. This paper describes the application of various edge detection techniques to gravity data in order to delineate the edges of subsurface structures. The edge detection methods comprise analytic signal, total horizontal derivative (THDR, theta angle, tilt angle, hyperbolic of tilt angle (HTA, normalised total horizontal gradient (TDX and normalised horizontal derivative (NTHD. The results showed that almost all filters delineated edges of anomalies successfully. However, the capability of these filters in edge detection decreased as the depth of sources increased. Of the edge enhancement filters, normalized standard deviation filter provided much better results in delineating deeper sources. The edge detection techniques were further applied on a real gravity data from the Gheshm sedimentary basin in the Persian Gulf in Iran. All filters specified a northeast-southwest structural trend. The THDR better outlined the structural morphology and trend. Moreover, it indicated the salt plugs much better than other filters. Analytic signal and THDR successfully enhanced the edges of the shorter wavelength residual structures. Normalized standard deviation (NSTD, TDX and hyperbolic of tilt angle (HTA filters highlighted the likely fault pattern and lineaments, with a dominant northeast-southwest structural trend. This case study shows that the edge detection techniques provides valuable information for geologists and petroleum engineers to outline the horizontal location of geological sources including salt plugs and stand out buried faults, contacts and other tectonic and geological features.

  1. Red edge parameters as indicators of rice nitrogen levels (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Renchao


    The canopy spectra of rice under different nitrogen levels were studied. Some red edge parameters in the first derivative reflectance curve (wavelength, amplitude and area of the red edge peak) were used to evaluate rice leaf chlorophyll, LAI. Red edge positions move to longer wave bands till booting stage and move to short bands after booting stage. A high correlation was found between chlorophyll content of top leaves and the wavelength of the red edge position and between LAI and the red edge parameter. Then, the red edge was found valuable for assessment of rice above stand leaves chlorophyll contents. But a correlation was not found between chlorophyll b content of leaves or carotenoid or albumen-nitrogen or non-albumen-nitrogen and the wavelength of the red parameters. Some red edge parameters are one of the best remote sensing descriptors.

  2. Slim edges in double-sided silicon 3D detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M; Dalla Betta, G-F; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Vianello, E; Zorzi, N


    Minimization of the insensitive edge area is one of the key requirements for silicon radiation detectors to be used in future silicon trackers. In 3D detectors this goal can be achieved with the active edge, at the expense of a high fabrication process complexity. In the framework of the ATLAS 3D sensor collaboration, we produced modified 3D silicon sensors with a double-sided technology. While this approach is not suitable to obtain active edges, because it does not use a support wafer, it allows for a new type of edge termination, the slim edge. In this paper we report on the development of the slim edge, from numerical simulations to design and testing, proving that it works effectively without increasing the fabrication complexity of silicon 3D detectors, and that it could be further optimized to reduce the insensitive edge region to less than 100 μm.

  3. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun


    characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase......The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  4. Measuring the Edge Recombination Velocity of Monolayer Semiconductors. (United States)

    Zhao, Peida; Amani, Matin; Lien, Der-Hsien; Ahn, Geun Ho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Mastandrea, James P; Ager, Joel W; Yablonovitch, Eli; Chrzan, Daryl C; Javey, Ali


    Understanding edge effects and quantifying their impact on the carrier properties of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors is an essential step toward utilizing this material for high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices. WS 2 monolayers patterned into disks of varying diameters are used to experimentally explore the influence of edges on the material's optical properties. Carrier lifetime measurements show a decrease in the effective lifetime, τ effective , as a function of decreasing diameter, suggesting that the edges are active sites for carrier recombination. Accordingly, we introduce a metric called edge recombination velocity (ERV) to characterize the impact of 2D material edges on nonradiative carrier recombination. The unpassivated WS 2 monolayer disks yield an ERV ∼ 4 × 10 4 cm/s. This work quantifies the nonradiative recombination edge effects in monolayer semiconductors, while simultaneously establishing a practical characterization approach that can be used to experimentally explore edge passivation methods for 2D materials.

  5. Edge states in quantum Hall effect in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Sharapov, S.G.; Shovkovy, I.A.


    We review recent results concerning the spectrum of edge states in the quantum Hall effect in graphene. In particular, special attention is paid to the derivation of the conditions under which gapless edge states exist in the spectrum of graphene with 'zigzag' and 'armchair' edges. It is found that in the case of a half-plane or a ribbon with zigzag edges, there are gapless edge states only when a spin gap dominates over a Dirac mass gap. In the case of a half-plane with an armchair edge, the existence of the gapless edge states depends on the specific type of Dirac mass gaps. The implications of these results for the dynamics in the quantum Hall effect in graphene are discussed

  6. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish. (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J


    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  7. Inertial gravity currents from edge drainage (United States)

    Momen, Mostafa; Zheng, Zhong; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Stone, Howard


    Gravity currents are formed due to a density gradient in the horizontal direction between the current and an ambient fluid. In this work, we present theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of the release of a finite volume of fluid instantaneously from the edge of a rectangular domain for high-Reynolds-number flows. The setup is relevant in geophysical and engineering applications such as open channels, and dam-break problems. For the cases we considered, the results indicate that about half of the initial volume exits during an early adjustment period. Then, the inertial gravity current reaches a self-similar phase during which about 40% of its volume drains and its height decreases as τ-2, where τ is a dimensionless time that is derived with the typical gravity wave speed and the horizontal length of the domain. Based on scaling arguments, we reduce the shallow-water PDEs into two nonlinear ODEs, which are then solved analytically. The new self-similar solutions are in good agreement with the performed experiments and direct numerical simulations for various geometries and fluid densities. This study provides new insights into the dynamical behavior of edge drainage flows, particularly during the inertial regime. The simulations were performed on the Della computer clusters of Princeton University.

  8. Converging social classes through humanized urban edges (United States)

    Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.


    Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.

  9. Strength on cut edge and ground edge glass beams with the failure analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agnetti


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study of the effect of the finishing of the edge of glass when it has a structural function. Experimental investigations carried out for glass specimens are presented. Various series of annealed glass beam were tested, with cut edge and with ground edge. The glass specimens are tested in four-point bending performing flaw detection on the tested specimens after failure, in order to determine glass strength. As a result, bending strength values are obtained for each specimen. Determining some physical parameter as the depth of the flaw and the mirror radius of the fracture, after the failure of a glass element, it could be possible to calculate the failure strength of that.The experimental results were analyzed with the LEFM theory and the glass strength was analyzed with a statistical study using two-parameter Weibull distribution fitting quite well the failure stress data. The results obtained constitute a validation of the theoretical models and show the influence of the edge processing on the failure strength of the glass. Furthermore, series with different sizes were tested in order to evaluate the size effect.

  10. Edge effects on the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xihong, E-mail: [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); Copple, Andrew [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Wei, Qun [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)


    Two dimensional few-layer black phosphorus crystal structures have recently been fabricated and have demonstrated great potential in electronic applications. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to study the edge and quantum confinement effects on the electronic properties of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNR). Different edge functionalization groups, such as H, F, Cl, OH, O, S, and Se, in addition to a pristine case were studied for a series of ribbon widths up to 3.5 nm. It was found that the armchair-PNRs (APNRs) are semiconductors for all edge groups considered in this work. However, the zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) show either semiconductor or metallic behavior in dependence on their edge chemical species. Family 1 edges (i.e., H, F, Cl, OH) form saturated bonds with P atoms in the APNRs and ZPNRs, and the edge states keep far away from the band gap. However, Family 2 edges (pristine, O, S, Se) form weak unsaturated bonds with the p{sub z} orbital of the phosphorus atoms and bring edge states within the band gap of the ribbons. For the ZPNRs, the edge states of Family 2 are present around the Fermi level within the band gap, which close up the band gap of the ZPNRs. For the APNRs, these edge states are located at the bottom of the conduction band and result in a reduced band gap.

  11. The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry


    The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

  12. Study of edge detection task in dental panoramic radiographs. (United States)

    Gráfová, L; Kasparová, M; Kakawand, S; Procházka, A; Dostálová, T


    The purpose of this study is (1) to introduce a new approach for edge detection in orthopantograms (OPGs) and an improved automatic parameter selector for common edge detectors, (2) to present a comparison between our novel approach with common edge detectors and (3) to provide faster outputs without compromising quality. A new approach for edge detection based on statistical measures was introduced: (1) a set of N edge detection results is calculated from a given input image and a selected type of edge detector, (2) N correspondence maps are constructed from N edge detection results, (3) probabilities and average probabilities are computed, (4) an overall correspondence is evaluated for each correspondence map and (5) the correspondence map providing the best overall correspondence is taken as the result of edge detection procedure. A comparison with common edge detectors (the Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, Laplacian of the Gaussian and Canny methods) with various parameter settings (304 combinations for each test image) was carried out. The methods were assessed objectively [edge mismatch error (EME), modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) and principal component analysis] and subjectively by experts in dentistry and based on time demands. The suitability of the new approach for edge detection in OPGs was confirmed by experts. The current conventional methods in edge detection in OPGs are inadequate (none of the tested methods reach an EME value or MHD value below 0.1). Our proposed approach for edge detection shows promising potential for its implementation in clinical dentistry. It enhances the accuracy of OPG interpretation and advances diagnosis and treatment planning.

  13. Study of edge turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarazin, Y.


    The aim of this work is to propose a new frame to study turbulent transport in plasmas. In order to avoid the restraint of scale separability the forcing by flux is used. A critical one-dimension self-organized cellular model is developed. In keeping with experience the average transport can be described by means of diffusion and convection terms whereas the local transport could not. The instability due to interchanging process is thoroughly studied and some simplified equations are derived. The proposed model agrees with the following experimental results: the relative fluctuations of density are maximized on the edge, the profile shows an exponential behaviour and the amplitude of density fluctuations depends on ionization source strongly. (A.C.)

  14. On the edge between tradition and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Nandhakumar, Joe


    Museums are undergoing an organizational shift, regarding their role within society and professional competences. This shift is often depicted as positive, turning museums into more democratic, creative, and efficient organizations (Fleming 2005). Others claim, however, that an innovation process...... cannot succeed, if it is not supported by a favourable global network, providing a negotiation space (Law and Callon 1992). Starting from this theory, we analyze the case of two local museums, in order to gain insights into museum innovation and the emerging interplay with traditional practices. We...... investigate also how external pressure from a network, apparently supporting innovation, may instead create a conflicting system of values, compromising the emergence of a negotiation space and hindering the innovation process. Our study suggests that museum innovation is still unsettled, on the edge between...

  15. A dynamics investigation into edge plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.


    The present experimental work investigates plasma turbulence in the edge region of magnetized high-temperature plasmas. A main topic is the turbulent dynamics parallel to the magnetic field, where hitherto only a small data basis existed, especially for very long scale lengths in the order of ten of meters. A second point of special interest is the coupling of the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. This anisotropic turbulent dynamics is investigated by two different approaches. Firstly, spatially and temporally high-resolution measurements of fluctuating plasma parameters are investigated by means of two-point correlation analysis. Secondly, the propagation of signals externally imposed into the turbulent plasma background is studied. For both approaches, Langmuir probe arrays were utilized for diagnostic purposes. (orig.)

  16. Photoelectric interaction below the K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, D.K.S.; Premachand, K.; Radha Krishna Murty, V.; Rama Rao, J.; Lakshminarayana, V.


    Total photon cross sections are measured, using the transmission method in the heavy elements U, Th, Pb, and Au at energies of 30.9, 35.9, and 55.4 keV, to study the photoelectric interaction below the K edges of these elements. A krypton-filled proportional counter with a 512-channel analyzer is used as the detector of photons. The photoelectric cross sections, obtained by subtracting the small scattering contributions from the total cross section, are compared with theoretical predictions of Scofield and of Storm and Israel. General agreement is obtained, except for U and Th at 30.9 keV where the present experimental values show a slight preference to the calculations of Storm and Israel rather than the theoretical ones used by Scofield

  17. Computational Investigation of Flap-Edges (United States)

    Cummings, Russell M.


    The current study expands the application of computational fluid dynamics to three-dimensional multi-element high-lift systems by investigating the flow dynamics created by a slat edge. Flow is computed over a three-element high-lift configuration using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver with structured, overset grids processed assuming full turbulence with the one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model. The geometry consists of an unswept wing, which spans the wind tunnel test section, a single element half-span Fowler flap, and a three-quarter span slat. Results are presented for the wing configured for landing with a chord based Reynolds number of 3.7 million. Results for the three-quarter span slat case are compared to the full-span slat and two-dimensional investigations.

  18. The Two Edge Knife of Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khoirul Umam


    Full Text Available A centralistic government model has become a trend in a number of developing countries, in which the ideosycretic aspect becomes pivotal key in the policy making. The situation constitutes authoritarianism, cronyism, and corruption. To break the impasse, the decentralized system is proposed to make people closer to the public policy making. Decentralization is also convinced to be the solution to create a good governance. But a number of facts in the developing countries demonstrates that decentralization indeed has ignite emerges backfires such as decentralized corruption, parochialism, horizontal conflict, local political instability and others. This article elaborates the theoretical framework on decentralization's ouput as the a double-edge knife. In a simple words, the concept of decentralization does not have a permanent relationship with the creation of good governance and development. Without substantive democracy, decentralization is indeed potential to be a destructive political instrument threating the state's future.

  19. Transparent Aluminum Oxide Films by Edge Anodization (United States)

    Stott, Jonathan; Greenwood, Thomas; Winn, David

    In this paper we present our recent work on manufacturing thin (3 - 5 μm) films of porous aluminum(III) oxide [PAO] using a novel edge-anodization technique. With this modified anodization process, we are able to create transparent PAO films on top of insulating substrates such as glass or plastic. By controlling the processing parameters, the index of refraction of PAO films can be engineered to match the substrate, which gives us a durable reflection-free and scratch-resistant coating over conventional optics or LCD displays. Eventually we hope to create ordered porous aluminum oxide cladding around an optical fiber core, which could have a number of interesting optical properties if the pore spacing can be matched to the wavelength of light in the fiber. This work was funded by Fairfield University startup funding.

  20. Edge instability in incompressible planar active fluids (United States)

    Nesbitt, David; Pruessner, Gunnar; Lee, Chiu Fan


    Interfacial instability is highly relevant to many important biological processes. A key example arises in wound healing experiments, which observe that an epithelial layer with an initially straight edge does not heal uniformly. We consider the phenomenon in the context of active fluids. Improving upon the approximation used by Zimmermann, Basan, and Levine [Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 1259 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02189-7], we perform a linear stability analysis on a two-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamic model of an active fluid with an open interface. We categorize the stability of the model and find that for experimentally relevant parameters, fingering instability is always absent in this minimal model. Our results point to the crucial role of density variation in the fingering instability in tissue regeneration.

  1. Timing discriminator using leading-edge extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, B.


    A discriminator circuit to recover timing information from slow-rising pulses by means of an output trailing edge, a fixed time after the starting corner of the input pulse, which is nearly independent of risetime and threshold setting. This apparatus comprises means for comparing pulses with a threshold voltage; a capacitor to be charged at a certain rate when the input signal is one-third threshold voltage, and at a lower rate when the input signal is two-thirds threshold voltage; current-generating means for charging the capacitor; means for comparing voltage capacitor with a bias voltage; a flipflop to be set when the input pulse reaches threshold voltage and reset when capacitor voltage reaches the bias voltage; and a clamping means for discharging the capacitor when the input signal returns below one-third threshold voltage

  2. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng


    the concentration and flux fields against those of a uniform forested surface. We use an atmospheric boundary layer two-equation closure model that accounts for the flow dynamics and vertical divergence of CO2 sources/sinks within a plant canopy. This paper characterizes the spatial variation of CO2 fluxes...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...... monotonously. Such a variation is caused by scalar advection in the trunk space and reveals itself as a decrease or increase in vertical fluxes over the forest relative to carbon dioxide exchange of the underlying forest. The effect was more pronounced in model forests where the leaf area is concentrated...

  3. At the edge of the school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Lars Stubbe; Hansen, Britt Blaabjerg; Højholdt, Andy

    and participants in their own lives. Using this narrative approach, the study encompasses the relational and social processes in which pupils take part at school and in other social contexts. We also discuss new ways in which both professionals and young people can act to support this participation (Ricoeur 1994....../1 -2016) Ploug, N. (2005): Social arv – sammenfatning. SFI. Ritchie, Jane et. al (2013): Qualitative research practice, Natcen Ricoeur, P. (1994): Oneself as Another. The University of Chicago Press. Rumberger, R. (2011): Dropping Out -Why Students Drop Out of High School and What Can Be Done About It...... the knowledge generated in the research project entitled “At the edge of the school - school affiliation and prevention in a youth perspective”. The project was aimed to generate knowledge about how young adolescents with weak school affiliation and declining school participation perceive school and the special...

  4. Vortex dynamics in superconducting transition edge sensors (United States)

    Ezaki, S.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Asano, T.; Shinozaki, B.


    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance (R-T) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been measured and analyzed in a 40 nm thick Ti thin film, which is used as a transition edge sensor (TES). The analyses of the I-V characteristics with the vortex-antivortex pair dissociation model indicate the possible existence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in two-dimensional superconducting Ti thin films. We investigated the noise due to the vortices' flow in TESs. The values of the current noise spectral density in the TESs were estimated by employing the vortex dynamics caused by the BKT transition in the Ti thin films. The estimated values of the current noise spectral density induced by the vortices' flow were in respectable agreement with the values of excess noise experimentally observed in the TESs with Ti/Au bilayer.

  5. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, J


    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  6. Edge Response and NIIRS Estimates for Commercial Remote Sensing Satellites (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, mary; Stanley, Thomas


    Spatial resolution of panchromatic imagery from commercial remote sensing satellites was characterized based on edge response measurements using edge targets and the tilted-edge technique. Relative Edge Response (RER) was estimated as a geometric mean of normalized edge response differences measured in two directions of image pixels at points distanced from the edge by -0.5 and 0.5 of ground sample distance. RER is one of the engineering parameters used in the General Image Quality Equation to provide predictions of imaging system performance expressed in terms of the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS). By assuming a plausible range of signal-to-noise ratio and assessing the effects of Modulation Transfer Function compensation, the NIIRS estimates were made and then compared with vendor-provided values and evaluations conducted by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.

  7. Edge detection based on computational ghost imaging with structured illuminations (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Xiang, Dong; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Bing, Pibin


    Edge detection is one of the most important tools to recognize the features of an object. In this paper, we propose an optical edge detection method based on computational ghost imaging (CGI) with structured illuminations which are generated by an interference system. The structured intensity patterns are designed to make the edge of an object be directly imaged from detected data in CGI. This edge detection method can extract the boundaries for both binary and grayscale objects in any direction at one time. We also numerically test the influence of distance deviations in the interference system on edge extraction, i.e., the tolerance of the optical edge detection system to distance deviation. Hopefully, it may provide a guideline for scholars to build an experimental system.

  8. Optimal Scale Edge Detection Utilizing Noise within Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Khashman


    Full Text Available Edge detection techniques have common problems that include poor edge detection in low contrast images, speed of recognition and high computational cost. An efficient solution to the edge detection of objects in low to high contrast images is scale space analysis. However, this approach is time consuming and computationally expensive. These expenses can be marginally reduced if an optimal scale is found in scale space edge detection. This paper presents a new approach to detecting objects within images using noise within the images. The novel idea is based on selecting one optimal scale for the entire image at which scale space edge detection can be applied. The selection of an ideal scale is based on the hypothesis that "the optimal edge detection scale (ideal scale depends on the noise within an image". This paper aims at providing the experimental evidence on the relationship between the optimal scale and the noise within images.

  9. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied...... to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...... results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing edge flap and flow control using trailing edge flap is an efficient way to regulate the aerodynamic loading on airfoils....

  10. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak


    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  11. Edge effect modeling of small tool polishing in planetary movement (United States)

    Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng


    As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects

  12. Spin and edge channel dependent transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, T; Rogge, M C; Haug, R J [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail:


    We investigate the influence of spin polarized currents and non-equilibrated edge channels on the transport properties of a single quantum dot. Polarized currents are realized by the manual depletion of edge channels in high magnetic fields via a metallic top gate covering the source contact in the system. We observe a suppression and enhancement in the conductance of the quantum dot dependent on the edge channel configuration in the leads.

  13. Strain-tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Baoyue; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Miao; Ma, Tianxing


    Using the determinant quantum Monte-Carlo method, we elucidate the strain tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Our intensive numerical results show that a relatively weak Coulomb interaction may induce a ferromagnetic-like behaviour with a proper strain, and the edge magnetism can be enhanced greatly as the strain along the zigzag edge increases, which provides another way to control graphene magnetism even at room temperature.

  14. Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.


    A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge, to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. This paper examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)

  15. Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.


    A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge, to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. This paper examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)

  16. Selective sampling and edge enhancement in bar code laser scanning (United States)

    Shellhammer, Stephen J.; Goren, David P.; Pavlidis, Theo


    This paper describes the basic design principles for a new series of bar code scanners from Symbol Technologies. Traditional bar code scanners include an edge detector which has several innate limitations. We propose replacing this edge detector with a selective sampling circuit. While the superiority of decoding the analog signal has been demonstrated, its implementation is too costly because of the need for considerable additional memory. Selective sampling achieves most of the advantages of analog decoding at a cost comparable to that of conventional decoders. Instead of sampling the signal periodically, it is only sampled when a certain event (e.g. an edge) is detected. At each edge two data values are produced: the edge time and the sampled value, often referred to as the edge strength. This strength value gives a measure of the intensity of the edge. Using selective sampling the new scanners can read poorly printed and noisy bar codes that cannot be read by traditional scanners. Another innate limitation of bar code laser scanners is the density of bar code that can be read. This limitation is due to the blurring of the bar code when scanned by a laser beam with a finite spot size. We propose the addition of an edge enhancement filter to the scanner, which compensates for the finite width of the optical beam. The proposed filter is designed to enhance the edges of the bar code so that for a given optical focusing it is possible to read higher density bar codes.

  17. Study on edge-extraction of remote sensing image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianguang; Xiao Qing; Xu Huiping


    Image edge-extraction is an important step in image processing and recognition, and also a hot spot in science study. In this paper, based on primary methods of the remote sensing image edge-extraction, authors, for the first time, have proposed several elements which should be considered before processing. Then, the qualities of several methods in remote sensing image edge-extraction are systematically summarized. At last, taking Near Nasca area (Peru) as an example the edge-extraction of Magmatic Range is analysed. (authors)

  18. Calculation of the Capture Edge in the OGMS Superconducting Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, S.


    Many ferromagnetic particles, that should be deflected, are captured on the wall of an OGMS (Open Gradient Magnetic Separation) separator. This ferromagnetic material influences magnetic and hydrodynamic conditions in the separator working area. The problem how to calculate the capture edge can be defined as the search for the geometry of a nonlinear system at known boundary conditions. The boundary conditions on the capture edge are the function of the capture edge geometry. The experimental results of the separation recovery are given. The capture edge calculation has been performed by FLUX 2D and the results are presented. (author)

  19. Absorption edge and ion bombardment of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, H.J.


    The optical absorption edge for chemical-vapor-deposited silicon nitride films on sapphire substrates has been measured for different deposition conditions, and as a function of ion bombardment and subsequent annealing. An exponential form for the absorption edge, consistent with a disorder-limited edge, is observed for all films. While the slope of the absorption edge is independent of the measurement temperature, the energy for the edge decreases with increasing temperature by (2--4) x 10 -4 eV/degreeC. The energy and slope of the absorption edge are lower for films deposited at 760 degreeC than for films deposited at 1000 degreeC, and displacement damage introduced by ion bombardment causes a decrease in both the slope and energy for the edge. Ion-bombardment-induced changes saturate when the energy deposition into damage processes is approx.10 eV/atom. The effects of a lower deposition temperature and of ion bombardment upon the absorption edge are attributed to a degradation of short-range order. Annealing of the bombardment-induced effects occurs over a broad temperature range, and the prebombardment absorption edge is essentially recovered by annealing at the deposition temperature

  20. A Computational Framework for Experimentation with Edge Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramsey, Marc S; Levitt, Raymond E


    .... Traditional project modeling tools cannot adequately represent the critical impact of information and knowledge flows, nor the importance of developing trust between workers in Edge organizations...

  1. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia


    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Sometimes, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present Spiraling Edge, a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that is filled by the final triangle.

  2. Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.


    Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Edge detection in digital images using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani


    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is an optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies to approximate the solutions of difficult optimization problems. In this paper, ACO is introduced to tackle the image edge detection problem. The proposed approach is based on the distribution of ants on an image; ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function. Experimental results show that the proposed method compared to standard edge detectors is less sensitive to Gaussian noise and gives finer details and thinner edges when compared to earlier ant-based approaches.

  4. Understanding the edge effect in wetting: a thermodynamic approach. (United States)

    Fang, Guoping; Amirfazli, A


    Edge effect is known to hinder spreading of a sessile drop. However, the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the edge effect still is not well-understood. In this study, a free energy model has been developed to investigate the energetic state of drops on a single pillar (from upright frustum to inverted frustum geometries). An analysis of drop free energy levels before and after crossing the edge allows us to understand the thermodynamic origin of the edge effect. In particular, four wetting cases for a drop on a single pillar with different edge angles have been determined by understanding the characteristics of FE plots. A wetting map describing the four wetting cases is given in terms of edge angle and intrinsic contact angle. The results show that the free energy barrier observed near the edge plays an important role in determining the drop states, i.e., (1) stable or metastable drop states at the pillar's edge, and (2) drop collapse by liquid spilling over the edge completely or staying at an intermediate sidewall position of the pillar. This thermodynamic model presents an energetic framework to describe the functioning of the so-called "re-entrant" structures. Results show good consistency with the literature and expand the current understanding of Gibbs' inequality condition.

  5. Anomalous edge states and the bulk-edge correspondence for periodically-driven two dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudner, Mark Spencer; Lindner, Netanel; Berg, Erez


    revealed phenomena that cannot be characterized by analogy to the topological classification framework for static systems. In particular, in driven systems in two dimensions (2D), robust chiral edge states can appear even though the Chern numbers of all the bulk Floquet bands are zero. Here, we elucidate...... the crucial distinctions between static and driven 2D systems, and construct a new topological invariant that yields the correct edge-state structure in the driven case. We provide formulations in both the time and frequency domains, which afford additional insight into the origins of the “anomalous” spectra...... that arise in driven systems. Possibilities for realizing these phenomena in solid-state and cold-atomic systems are discussed....

  6. Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair in heart failure. (United States)

    Orban, Mathias; Orban, Martin; Braun, Daniel; Nabauer, Michael; Massberg, Steffen; Hausleiter, Jörg


    Heart failure and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) are mutually dependent. Secondary MR is a consequence of chronic heart failure in patients with severely depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) and LV dilatation. Severe MR in heart failure patients worsens prognosis and accelerates LV dilatation and decline in LV-EF. Interventional therapies have changed clinical practice for heart failure patients with secondary MR. In this review we summarize the available data of patients with chronic heart failure undergoing transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TMVR) with the MitraClip® system for severe secondary mitral regurgitation. TMVR could be a therapeutic option with a favorable long-term outcome even in patients with severely depressed LV-EF. Selection criteria predicting mortality in patients undergoing TMVR comprise clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters and can help for clinical decision-making. Ongoing randomized trials will influence the use of interventional treatment of MR in these high-risk patients.

  7. A Study of Two Dimensional Tapered Periodic Edge Treatments to Reduce Wideband Edge Diffraction (United States)


    Possible. -’ TEM Horn Antenna ’%/ \\ Parabolic Dish Antenna Trailing Edge Diffraction Reduction Figure 2. Possible Uses of Geometrical Tapers. This...wedge in 2D . This antenna was resistively loaded such that the impedance of the source was slowly matched to the impedance of free space. This antenna ...configuration was considered to be infinite and constant in the i direction. For both FDTD and MoM numerical techniques, 2D analysis was much faster and

  8. Constraints on very-high-β, edge-stabilized tandem-mirror reactors (United States)

    Potok, R. E.


    There are several tandem-mirror schemes which propose a very high β and edge stabilization for the center-cell plasma ( β being the ratio of the plasma pressure to the vacuum magnetic-field pressure). While the exact criteria for the edge stabilization are uncertain, it is possible to analyze the option space in which a very-high- β mirror reactor would operate. The primary physics constraints on such a reactor are the energy balance at ignition, the buildup of He4 ash and the hot α-particle β( β {α/hot}), and the need for adiabatic conservation of the hot α-particle gyro-orbits in the axial field gradients at the center-cell ends. There are also engineering constraints on the allowable wall loading and plant size. In this paper, a wall-stabilized tandem-mirror reactor is analyzed and is found to be an attractive device requiring low center-cell vacuum fields (of the order of 2 to 3 tesla). A primary requirement is that the plasma edge have a thermal conductivity near classical values.

  9. Tuning colloidal quantum dot band edge positions through solution-phase surface chemistry modification (United States)

    Kroupa, Daniel M.; Vörös, Márton; Brawand, Nicholas P.; McNichols, Brett W.; Miller, Elisa M.; Gu, Jing; Nozik, Arthur J.; Sellinger, Alan; Galli, Giulia; Beard, Matthew C.


    Band edge positions of semiconductors determine their functionality in many optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical cells and light emitting diodes. Here we show that band edge positions of lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, specifically quantum dots (QDs), can be tuned over 2.0 eV through surface chemistry modification. We achieved this remarkable control through the development of simple, robust and scalable solution-phase ligand exchange methods, which completely replace native ligands with functionalized cinnamate ligands, allowing for well-defined, highly tunable chemical systems. By combining experiments and ab initio simulations, we establish clear relationships between QD surface chemistry and the band edge positions of ligand/QD hybrid systems. We find that in addition to ligand dipole, inter-QD ligand shell inter-digitization contributes to the band edge shifts. We expect that our established relationships and principles can help guide future optimization of functional organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructures for diverse optoelectronic applications.

  10. The effect of edge and impurities sites properties on their localized states in semi-infinite zigzag edged 2D honeycomb graphene sheet


    Ahmed, Maher


    In this work, the tridiagonal method is used to distinguish between edges modes and area modes to study the edge sites properties effect on edge localized states of semi-infinite zigzag 2D honeycomb graphene sheet. The results show a realistic behavior for the dependance of edge localized states of zigzag graphene on the edge sites properties which explaining the experimental results of measured local density of states at the edge of graphene, while at the same time removing the inconsistence...

  11. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia. (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B


    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Computational investigation of miniature trailing edge effectors (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Tae

    Miniature trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are small flaps (typically 1% to 5% chord) actuated with deflection angles of up to 90 degrees. The small size, combined with little required power and good control authority, enables the device to be used for high bandwidth control as well as conventional attitude control. However, some of the aerodynamic characteristics of these devices are complex and poorly understood. This research investigated the aerodynamics of MiTEs using incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solvers, INS2D and INS3D. To understand the flow structure and establish a parametric database, two dimensional steady-state computations were performed for MiTEs with various geometries and flow conditions. Time accurate computations were used to resolve the unsteady characteristics including transient response and vortex shedding phenomena. The frequency response was studied to fully identify the dynamics of MiTEs. Three dimensional computations show the change in control effectiveness with respect to the spanwise length of MiTEs as well as the spanwise lift distribution induced by these devices. Based on the CFD results, an approximate vortex panel model was developed for design purposes that reproduces the key characteristics of MiTEs. Two application areas for MiTEs were explored. Flutter suppression was demonstrated by combining a finite element structural model with the vortex panel model. The application of MiTEs to augment maximum lift and improve the post stall behavior of an airfoil was also investigated.

  13. Position-sensitive transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyomoto, N. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail:; Bandler, S.R. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brekosky, R.P. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J.A. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F.M. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Murphy, K. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J.E. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Talley, D.J. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We report the latest results from our development of Position-Sensitive Transition-edge sensors (PoSTs), which are one-dimensional imaging spectrometers. In PoSTs with segmented Au absorbers, we obtained 8eV energy resolution on K K{alpha} lines, which is consistent to the baseline energy resolution and the design values, on all of the nine pixels, by choosing the best combination of the thermal conductance in absorbers and in links that connects the absorbers. The pulse decay time of 193{mu}s is fast enough for our purpose. In a PoST with a continuous Bi/Cu absorber, by dividing the events into 63 effective pixels, we obtained energy resolutions of 16eV at the center 'pixel', which is comparable to the baseline energy resolution, and 33eV at the outer 'pixel'. The degradation of the energy resolution in the outer 'pixel' is due to position dependence, which we can cancel out by dividing the events into smaller 'pixels' when we have sufficient X-ray events.

  14. Mobile Edge Computing Empowers Internet of Things (United States)

    Ansari, Nirwan; Sun, Xiang

    In this paper, we propose a Mobile Edge Internet of Things (MEIoT) architecture by leveraging the fiber-wireless access technology, the cloudlet concept, and the software defined networking framework. The MEIoT architecture brings computing and storage resources close to Internet of Things (IoT) devices in order to speed up IoT data sharing and analytics. Specifically, the IoT devices (belonging to the same user) are associated to a specific proxy Virtual Machine (VM) in the nearby cloudlet. The proxy VM stores and analyzes the IoT data (generated by its IoT devices) in real-time. Moreover, we introduce the semantic and social IoT technology in the context of MEIoT to solve the interoperability and inefficient access control problem in the IoT system. In addition, we propose two dynamic proxy VM migration methods to minimize the end-to-end delay between proxy VMs and their IoT devices and to minimize the total on-grid energy consumption of the cloudlets, respectively. Performance of the proposed methods are validated via extensive simulations.

  15. Optimization of transition-edge calorimeter performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Beall, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.; Duncan, W.D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G.C.; Irwin, K.D.; O'Neil, G.C.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Zink, B.L.


    Calorimeters that exploit the superconducting-to-normal transition are used to detect individual photons from near-infrared to γ-ray wavelengths. Across this wide range, absorption efficiency, speed, and energy resolution are key performance parameters. Here, we describe recent improvements in the resolution of X-ray and γ-ray transition-edge sensors (TESs). Using the measured dependencies of the high-frequency unexplained noise in TESs, we have optimized the design of our TES X-ray sensors and achieved FWHM energy resolutions of 2.4 eV at 5.9 keV in Constellation-X style sensors and ∼2.9 eV at 5.9 keV in larger sensors suitable for materials analysis. We have also achieved a FWHM energy resolution of 42 eV at 103 keV in a TES calorimeter optimized for the detection of hard X-rays and γ-rays

  16. Sliding mean edge estimation. [in digital image processing (United States)

    Ford, G. E.


    A method for determining the locations of the major edges of objects in digital images is presented. The method is based on an algorithm utilizing maximum likelihood concepts. An image line-scan interval is processed to determine if an edge exists within the interval and its location. The proposed algorithm has demonstrated good results even in noisy images.

  17. Polarimetric Edge Detector Based on the Complex Wishart Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    A new edge detector for polarimetric SAR data has been developed. The edge detector is based on a newly developed test statistic for equality of two complex covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and an associated asymptotic probability for the test statistic. The new...... for the full polarimetric detector compared to single channel approaches....

  18. Processing of Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Josephson Edge Junctions (United States)

    Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.


    The electrical behavior of epitaxial superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson edge junctions is strongly affected by processing conditions. Ex-situ processes, utilizing photoresist and polyimide/photoresist mask layers, are employed for ion milling edges for junctions with Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) electrodes and primarily Co-doped YBCO interlayers.

  19. Network Unfolding Map by Vertex-Edge Dynamics Modeling. (United States)

    Verri, Filipe Alves Neto; Urio, Paulo Roberto; Zhao, Liang


    The emergence of collective dynamics in neural networks is a mechanism of the animal and human brain for information processing. In this paper, we develop a computational technique using distributed processing elements in a complex network, which are called particles, to solve semisupervised learning problems. Three actions govern the particles' dynamics: generation, walking, and absorption. Labeled vertices generate new particles that compete against rival particles for edge domination. Active particles randomly walk in the network until they are absorbed by either a rival vertex or an edge currently dominated by rival particles. The result from the model evolution consists of sets of edges arranged by the label dominance. Each set tends to form a connected subnetwork to represent a data class. Although the intrinsic dynamics of the model is a stochastic one, we prove that there exists a deterministic version with largely reduced computational complexity; specifically, with linear growth. Furthermore, the edge domination process corresponds to an unfolding map in such way that edges "stretch" and "shrink" according to the vertex-edge dynamics. Consequently, the unfolding effect summarizes the relevant relationships between vertices and the uncovered data classes. The proposed model captures important details of connectivity patterns over the vertex-edge dynamics evolution, in contrast to the previous approaches, which focused on only vertex or only edge dynamics. Computer simulations reveal that the new model can identify nonlinear features in both real and artificial data, including boundaries between distinct classes and overlapping structures of data.

  20. Chinese Postman Problem on edge-colored multigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    It is well-known that the Chinese Postman Problem on undirected and directed graphs is polynomial-time solvable. We extend this result to edge-colored multigraphs. Our result is in sharp contrast to the Chinese Postman Problem on mixed graphs, i.e., graphs with directed and undirected edges......, for which the problem is NP-hard....

  1. Strain-Dependent Edge Structures in MoS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinoco Rivas, M.; Maduro, L.A.; Masaki, Mukai; Okunishi, Eiji; Conesa Boj, S.C.


    Edge structures are low-dimensional defects unavoidable in layered materials of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) family. Among the various types of such structures, the armchair (AC) and zigzag (ZZ) edge types are the most common. It has been predicted that the presence of intrinsic

  2. On longest edge division in simplicial branch and bound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, J.F.R.; Casado, L.G.; Hendrix, E.M.T.


    Simplicial partitions are suitable to divide a bounded area in branch and bound. In the iterative refinement process, a popular strategy is to divide simplices by their longest edge, thus avoiding needle-shaped simplices. A range of possibilities arises when the number of longest edges in a simplex

  3. The Edge Detectors Suitable for Retinal OCT Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Luo


    Full Text Available Retinal layer thickness measurement offers important information for reliable diagnosis of retinal diseases and for the evaluation of disease development and medical treatment responses. This task critically depends on the accurate edge detection of the retinal layers in OCT images. Here, we intended to search for the most suitable edge detectors for the retinal OCT image segmentation task. The three most promising edge detection algorithms were identified in the related literature: Canny edge detector, the two-pass method, and the EdgeFlow technique. The quantitative evaluation results show that the two-pass method outperforms consistently the Canny detector and the EdgeFlow technique in delineating the retinal layer boundaries in the OCT images. In addition, the mean localization deviation metrics show that the two-pass method caused the smallest edge shifting problem. These findings suggest that the two-pass method is the best among the three algorithms for detecting retinal layer boundaries. The overall better performance of Canny and two-pass methods over EdgeFlow technique implies that the OCT images contain more intensity gradient information than texture changes along the retinal layer boundaries. The results will guide our future efforts in the quantitative analysis of retinal OCT images for the effective use of OCT technologies in the field of ophthalmology.

  4. Shadow edge detection using geometric and photometric features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.


    The detection of shadow and shading edges is a first step towards reducing the imaging effects that are caused by interactions of the light source with surfaces that are in the scene. As most of the algorithms for shadow edge detection use photometric information, geometric information have been

  5. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta


    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest...

  6. Edge effects and submicron tracks in magnetic tape recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Hozoi, Adrian

    Edge Effects and Submicron Tracks in Magnetic Tape Recording As track widths in magnetic tape recording are approaching few micrometers, increasingly better control of the track edges is required. This thesis is concerned with the investigation of the recording process in narrow tracks down to the

  7. Attenuation studies near K-absorption edges using Compton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. Keywords. Photon interaction; 241Am; gamma ray attenuation; Compton scattering; absorption edge; rare earth elements. PACS Nos 32.80.-t; 32.90.+a. 1. Introduction. Photon interaction studies at energies around the absorption edge have ...

  8. Developing guidelines for repairing severe edge failures : technical report. (United States)


    This report presents various edge failures, the methods used by districts to repair them, and the results of the : repair. While there was no clear consensus on the best treatment of in-situ material for pavements with edge : failures, the districts ...

  9. Parallel Algorithms for Switching Edges in Heterogeneous Graphs. (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman; Khan, Maleq; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Marathe, Madhav


    An edge switch is an operation on a graph (or network) where two edges are selected randomly and one of their end vertices are swapped with each other. Edge switch operations have important applications in graph theory and network analysis, such as in generating random networks with a given degree sequence, modeling and analyzing dynamic networks, and in studying various dynamic phenomena over a network. The recent growth of real-world networks motivates the need for efficient parallel algorithms. The dependencies among successive edge switch operations and the requirement to keep the graph simple (i.e., no self-loops or parallel edges) as the edges are switched lead to significant challenges in designing a parallel algorithm. Addressing these challenges requires complex synchronization and communication among the processors leading to difficulties in achieving a good speedup by parallelization. In this paper, we present distributed memory parallel algorithms for switching edges in massive networks. These algorithms provide good speedup and scale well to a large number of processors. A harmonic mean speedup of 73.25 is achieved on eight different networks with 1024 processors. One of the steps in our edge switch algorithms requires the computation of multinomial random variables in parallel. This paper presents the first non-trivial parallel algorithm for the problem, achieving a speedup of 925 using 1024 processors.

  10. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, E.; Crossno, P.


    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Often, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that fills itself in.

  11. 12 CFR 211.5 - Edge and agreement corporations. (United States)


    ... proposed Edge corporation shall become a body corporate when the Board issues a permit approving its... include no-par-value shares and shall be issued and transferred only on its books and in compliance with... imposed by section 25A of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.); and (2) Any rules that the Edge corporation...

  12. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A database that contains both images was created in the Matlab environment. Edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation were performed on the images. The edge based segmentation involves finding ridges, lines and contours along the images, while the watershed segmentation involves opening and ...

  13. Edge Cover Domination in Mangoldt Graph | Madhavi | Momona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In their recent study of arithmetic graphs associated with certain arithmetic functions, the authors have introduced a new class of arithmetic graphs associated with Mangoldt function Λ(n), n ≥ 1, an integer and studied their basic properties and vertex cover. In this paper the edge cover, edge domination set, bondage ...

  14. Spherical aberration from trajectories in real and hard-edge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. For analytical, real and hard-edge solenoidal axial magnetic fields, the low-energy electron trajectories are obtained using the third-order paraxial ray equation. Using the particle trajectories, it is shown that the spherical aberration in the hard-edge model is high and it increases monotonously with hard edginess, ...

  15. Responses of Cells to Flow in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto


    Full Text Available The response of cells to a flow has been studied in vitro. The response of cells was examined in two types of flow channels: a circumnutating flow in a donut-shaped open channel in a culture dish, and a one-way flow in a parallelepiped rhombus flow channel. Variation was made on the material of the parallelepiped channel to study on adhesion of cells to the plates: glass and polydimethylsiloxane. Behavior of cells on the plate was observed under a flow of a medium with an inverted phase-contrast-microscope. The shear stress on the plate is calculated with an estimated parabolic distribution of the velocity between the parallel plates. The adhesion of cells was evaluated with the cumulated shear, which is a product of the shear stress and the exposure time. The experimental results show that cells are responsive to the flow, which governs orientation, exfoliation, and differentiation. The response depends on the kinds of cells: endothelial cells orient along the stream line, although myocytes orient perpendicular to the stream line. The adhesion depends on the combination between scaffold and cell: myocytes are more adhesive to glass than cartilage cells, and fibroblasts are more adhesive to oxygenated polydimethylsiloxane than glass.

  16. Strain-activated edge reconstruction of graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    The edge structure and width of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are crucial factors for the electronic properties. A combination of experiment and first-principles calculations allows us to determine the mechanism of the hexagon-hexagon to pentagon-heptagon transformation. GNRs thinner than 2 nm have been fabricated by bombardment of graphene with high-energetic Au clusters. The edges of the GNRs are modified in situ by electron irradiation. Tensile strain along the edge decreases the transformation energy barrier. Antiferromagnetism and a direct band gap are found for a zigzag GNR, while a fully reconstructed GNR shows an indirect band gap. A GNR reconstructed on only one edge exhibits ferromagnetism. We propose that strain is an effective method to tune the edge and, therefore, the electronic structure of thin GNRs for graphene-based electronics.

  17. Measurement of fluctuations in the plasma edge (Particularly on ATF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.


    The observed energy losses in tokamaks and stellarator are larger than those predicted by the neoclassical theory (i.e. the transport is anomalous). Making progress in understanding the basic mechanisms causing the experimentally observed anomalous transport is one of the key issues currently confronting fusion research. Turbulence studies performed in the edge region of many devices has shown that fluctuations are large enough to explain anomalous transport in the edge plasma region. The study of edge fluctuations provides a good chance to identify the instabilities and the energy source of the turbulence. By comparing the structure of the edge turbulence in devices with different sizes and magnetic structures (tokamaks and stellarators) additional experimental criteria to test theoretical models may be provided. The characteristics of the edge turbulence are described, with emphasis in the structure of the fluctuations in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). (Author)

  18. Optimizing 3D Triangulations to Recapture Sharp Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    sharp edges. The energy is minimized using edge swapping, and this can be done either in a greedy fashion or using simulated annealing. The latter is more costly, but effectively avoids local minima. The method has been used on a number of models. Particularly good results have been obtained on digital......In this report, a technique for optimizing 3D triangulations is proposed. The method seeks to minimize an energy defined as a sum of energy terms for each edge in a triangle mesh. The main contribution is a novel per edge energy which strikes a balance between penalizing dihedral angle yet allowing...... terrain models. It is demonstrated how the method has been able to recapture sharp edges which are clearly present in the data but not reflected by the original triangulation of the elevation points....

  19. Fuzzy Index to Evaluate Edge Detection in Digital Images (United States)

    Perez-Ornelas, Felicitas; Mendoza, Olivia; Melin, Patricia; Castro, Juan R.; Rodriguez-Diaz, Antonio; Castillo, Oscar


    In literature, we can find different metrics to evaluate the detected edges in digital images, like Pratt's figure of merit (FOM), Jaccard’s index (JI) and Dice’s coefficient (DC). These metrics compare two images, the first one is the reference edges image, and the second one is the detected edges image. It is important to mention that all existing metrics must binarize images before their evaluation. Binarization step causes information to be lost because an incomplete image is being evaluated. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy index (FI) for edge evaluation that does not use a binarization step. In order to process all detected edges, images are represented in their fuzzy form and all calculations are made with fuzzy sets operators and fuzzy Euclidean distance between both images. Our proposed index is compared to the most used metrics using synthetic images, with good results. PMID:26115362

  20. Effect of gender on results of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Settergren, Magnus; Winter, Reidar


    Knowledge regarding gender-specific results of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in outcomes in a cohort of patients treated with MitraClip implantation. A multicenter registry of 173 patients treated with Mitra...

  1. Interleukin-17 acts as double-edged sword in anti-tumor immunity and tumorigenesis. (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Chen, Hankui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ling; Huang, Qi; Jin, Yang


    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a proinflammatory cytokine, mainly produced by Th17 cells, participates in both innate and adaptive immune responses and is involved in various diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that IL-17 not only has an oncogenic role in tumorigenesis by regulating tumor angiogenesis and enhancing tumor immune evasion but also exerts anti-tumor functions by enhancing natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activation and through the recruitment of neutrophils, NK cells and CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to tumor tissue. In this review, we provide an overview on the basic biology of IL-17 and recent findings regarding its enigmatic double-edged features in tumorigenesis, with special attention to the roles of IL-17 produced by tumor cells interacting with other factors in the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Programming Efficiency through Additional Boron Implantation at the Active Area Edge in 90 nm Localized Charge-Trapping Non-volatile Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Xu; Feng, Yan; Dun-Jun, Chen; Yi, Shi; Yong-Gang, Wang; Zhi-Guo, Li; Fan, Yang; Jos-Hua, Wang; Peter, Lin; Jian-Guang, Chang


    As the scaling-down of non-volatile memory (NVM) cells continues, the impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) on NVM cells becomes more severe. It has been observed in the 90 nm localized charge-trapping non-volatile memory (NROM™) that the programming efficiency of edge cells adjacent to STI is remarkably lower than that of other cells when channel hot electron injection is applied. Boron segregation is found to be mainly responsible for the low programming efficiency of edge cells. Meanwhile, an additional boron implantation of 10° tilt at the active area edge as a new solution to solve this problem is developed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Near-field tsunami edge waves and complex earthquake rupture (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.


    The effect of distributed coseismic slip on progressive, near-field edge waves is examined for continental shelf tsunamis. Detailed observations of edge waves are difficult to separate from the other tsunami phases that are observed on tide gauge records. In this study, analytic methods are used to compute tsunami edge waves distributed over a finite number of modes and for uniformly sloping bathymetry. Coseismic displacements from static elastic theory are introduced as initial conditions in calculating the evolution of progressive edge-waves. Both simple crack representations (constant stress drop) and stochastic slip models (heterogeneous stress drop) are tested on a fault with geometry similar to that of the M w = 8.8 2010 Chile earthquake. Crack-like ruptures that are beneath or that span the shoreline result in similar longshore patterns of maximum edge-wave amplitude. Ruptures located farther offshore result in reduced edge-wave excitation, consistent with previous studies. Introduction of stress-drop heterogeneity by way of stochastic slip models results in significantly more variability in longshore edge-wave patterns compared to crack-like ruptures for the same offshore source position. In some cases, regions of high slip that are spatially distinct will yield sub-events, in terms of tsunami generation. Constructive interference of both non-trapped and trapped waves can yield significantly larger tsunamis than those that produced by simple earthquake characterizations.

  4. Chiral Luttinger liquids at the fractional quantum Hall edge (United States)

    Chang, A. M.


    The edges of quantum Hall fluids behave as one-dimensional conductors. This article reviews electron transport into these edge states, covering both the theory based on the chiral Luttinger liquid and the experimental findings using electron tunneling as the probe. The first part of the review presents a basic description of this theory, including a derivation of the density of states, to provide a framework and language for discussing the experimental observations. The signature of the chiral Luttinger liquid is a power-law behavior for the density of states and the tunneling conductances. Experimentally, two techniques have been applied to study the tunneling conductance, using a gated point contact between two quantum Hall edges, or using a cleaved-edge barrier between an edge and a normal conductor. The point-contact method exhibits resonant tunneling, which appears to show some aspects of the Luttinger liquid, and the cleaved-edge method has yielded clear power-law dependences in the off-resonance conductances. Power-law behavior over many orders of magnitude is observed, confirming the Luttinger-liquid character of the edge states. However, the power-law exponents, while in agreement with finite-size numerical calculations, can differ from the universal values predicted by the Chern-Simon field theory. This disagreement is still not well understood. The review concludes with a brief survey of other one-dimensional conductors that have been studied to look for characteristics of the nonchiral Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid.

  5. Dynamics of edge currents in a linearly quenched Haldane model (United States)

    Mardanya, Sougata; Bhattacharya, Utso; Agarwal, Amit; Dutta, Amit


    In a finite-time quantum quench of the Haldane model, the Chern number determining the topology of the bulk remains invariant, as long as the dynamics is unitary. Nonetheless, the corresponding boundary attribute, the edge current, displays interesting dynamics. For the case of sudden and adiabatic quenches the postquench edge current is solely determined by the initial and the final Hamiltonians, respectively. However for a finite-time (τ ) linear quench in a Haldane nanoribbon, we show that the evolution of the edge current from the sudden to the adiabatic limit is not monotonic in τ and has a turning point at a characteristic time scale τ =τ0 . For small τ , the excited states lead to a huge unidirectional surge in the edge current of both edges. On the other hand, in the limit of large τ , the edge current saturates to its expected equilibrium ground-state value. This competition between the two limits lead to the observed nonmonotonic behavior. Interestingly, τ0 seems to depend only on the Semenoff mass and the Haldane flux. A similar dynamics for the edge current is also expected in other systems with topological phases.

  6. Low scatter edge blackening compounds for refractive optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, I.T.; Telkamp, A.R.; Ledebuhr, A.G.


    This paper reports on low scatter edge blackening compounds for refractive optical elements. Perkin-Elmer's Applied Optics Operation recently delivered several prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV), F/2.8, 250 mm efl, near diffraction limited, concentric lenses toLawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these lenses, special attention was paid to reducing stray light to allow viewing of very dim objects. Because of the very large FOV, the use of a long baffle to eliminate direct illumination of lens edges was not practical. With the existing relatively short baffle design, one-bounce stray light paths off the element edges are possible. The scattering off the inside edges thus had to be kept to an absolute minimum. While common means for blackening the edges of optical elements are easy to apply and quite cost effective for normal lens assemblies, their blackening effect is limited by the Fresnel reflection due to the index of refraction mismatch at the glass boundary. At high angles of incidence, total internal reflection (TIR) might occur ruining the effect of the blackening process. An index-match absorbing medium applied to the edges of such elements is the most effective approach for reducing the amount of undesired light reflection or scattered off these edges. The presence of such a medium provides an extended path outside the glass boundary in which an absorptive non-scattering dye can be used to eliminate light that might otherwise have propagated to the focal plane

  7. Talbot effect of grating with fractal rough edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Shuyun; Cui, Yuwei; Li, Zhong


    Since the random edges of practically manufactured grating can be described by the self-affine fractal model, this paper investigates theoretically Fresnel diffraction of grating with rough edges on the basis of the self-affine fractal theory and discusses the variation of the Talbot image of grating with the rough parameters of edges. The amplitude gratings with different rough edges are produced with the help of the correlation function of the random distribution. Then, simulations of the diffraction intensity distributions of rough gratings are performed, and the modulation effect of speckles on Talbot image are shown. In order to explain the variation of the Talbot image of grating with rough edges, the theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect of grating with rough edges is given according to the statistic optics theory. The presented approximate analytic expression of the average diffraction intensity indicates the relationship between the diffraction and rough parameters of grating edges. The conclusions of this paper are useful for evaluating the Talbot image of practical grating. (paper)

  8. An edge index for the quantum spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil


    Quantum spin-Hall systems are topological insulators displaying dissipationless spin currents flowing at the edges of the samples. In contradistinction to the quantum Hall systems where the charge conductance of the edge modes is quantized, the spin conductance is not and it remained an open problem to find the observable whose edge current is quantized. In this paper, we define a particular observable and the edge current corresponding to this observable. We show that this current is quantized and that the quantization is given by the index of a certain Fredholm operator. This provides a new topological invariant that is shown to take the generic values 0 and 2, in line with the Z 2 topological classification of time-reversal invariant systems. The result gives an effective tool for the investigation of the edge structure in quantum spin-Hall systems. Based on a reasonable assumption, we also show that the edge conducting channels are not destroyed by a random edge. (fast track communication)

  9. The Red Edge Problem in asteroid band parameter analysis (United States)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Dunn, Tasha L.; Emery, Joshua P.; Bowles, Neil E.


    Near-infrared reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids contain two absorptions at 1 and 2 μm (band I and II) that are diagnostic of mineralogy. A parameterization of these two bands is frequently employed to determine the mineralogy of S(IV) asteroids through the use of ordinary chondrite calibration equations that link the mineralogy to band parameters. The most widely used calibration study uses a Band II terminal wavelength point (red edge) at 2.50 μm. However, due to the limitations of the NIR detectors on prominent telescopes used in asteroid research, spectral data for asteroids are typically only reliable out to 2.45 μm. We refer to this discrepancy as "The Red Edge Problem." In this report, we evaluate the associated errors for measured band area ratios (BAR = Area BII/BI) and calculated relative abundance measurements. We find that the Red Edge Problem is often not the dominant source of error for the observationally limited red edge set at 2.45 μm, but it frequently is for a red edge set at 2.40 μm. The error, however, is one sided and therefore systematic. As such, we provide equations to adjust measured BARs to values with a different red edge definition. We also provide new ol/(ol+px) calibration equations for red edges set at 2.40 and 2.45 μm.

  10. Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge Film Cooling Bibliography: 1972–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kercher


    Full Text Available Film cooling for turbine airfoil leading edges has been a common practice for at least 35 years as turbine inlet gas temperatures and pressures have continually increased along with cooling air temperatures for higher engine cycle efficiency. With substantial engine cycle performance improvements from higher gas temperatures, it has become increasingly necessary to film cool nozzle and rotor blade leading edges since external heat transfer coefficients and thus heat load are the highest in this airfoil region. Optimum cooling air requirements in this harsh environment has prompted a significant number of film cooling investigations and analytical studies reported over the past 25 years from academia, industry and government agencies. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the complex nature of leading edge film cooling from airfoil cascades, simulated airfoil leading edges and environment. This bibliography is a report of the open-literature references available which provide information on the complex aero–thermo interaction of leading edge gaseous film cooling with mainstream flow. From much of this investigative information has come successful operational leading edge film cooling design systems capable of sustaining airfoil leading edge durability in very hostile turbine environments.

  11. A simplified implementation of edge detection in MATLAB is faster and more sensitive than fast fourier transform for actin fiber alignment quantification. (United States)

    Kemeny, Steven Frank; Clyne, Alisa Morss


    Fiber alignment plays a critical role in the structure and function of cells and tissues. While fiber alignment quantification is important to experimental analysis and several different methods for quantifying fiber alignment exist, many studies focus on qualitative rather than quantitative analysis perhaps due to the complexity of current fiber alignment methods. Speed and sensitivity were compared in edge detection and fast Fourier transform (FFT) for measuring actin fiber alignment in cells exposed to shear stress. While edge detection using matrix multiplication was consistently more sensitive than FFT, image processing time was significantly longer. However, when MATLAB functions were used to implement edge detection, MATLAB's efficient element-by-element calculations and fast filtering techniques reduced computation cost 100 times compared to the matrix multiplication edge detection method. The new computation time was comparable to the FFT method, and MATLAB edge detection produced well-distributed fiber angle distributions that statistically distinguished aligned and unaligned fibers in half as many sample images. When the FFT sensitivity was improved by dividing images into smaller subsections, processing time grew larger than the time required for MATLAB edge detection. Implementation of edge detection in MATLAB is simpler, faster, and more sensitive than FFT for fiber alignment quantification.

  12. Edge effects in game-theoretic dynamics of spatially structured tumours. (United States)

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Scott, Jacob G; Basanta, David


    Cancer dynamics are an evolutionary game between cellular phenotypes. A typical assumption in this modelling paradigm is that the probability of a given phenotypic strategy interacting with another depends exclusively on the abundance of those strategies without regard for local neighbourhood structure. We address this limitation by using the Ohtsuki-Nowak transform to introduce spatial structure to the go versus grow game. We show that spatial structure can promote the invasive (go) strategy. By considering the change in neighbourhood size at a static boundary--such as a blood vessel, organ capsule or basement membrane--we show an edge effect that allows a tumour without invasive phenotypes in the bulk to have a polyclonal boundary with invasive cells. We present an example of this promotion of invasive (epithelial-mesenchymal transition-positive) cells in a metastatic colony of prostate adenocarcinoma in bone marrow. Our results caution that pathologic analyses that do not distinguish between cells in the bulk and cells at a static edge of a tumour can underestimate the number of invasive cells. Although we concentrate on applications in mathematical oncology, we expect our approach to extend to other evolutionary game models where interaction neighbourhoods change at fixed system boundaries. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerodynamic improvement of a delta wing in combination with leading edge flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadateru Ishide


    Full Text Available Recently, various studies of micro air vehicle (MAV and unmanned air vehicle (UAV have been reported from wide range points of view. The aim of this study is to research the aerodynamic improvement of delta wing in low Reynold’s number region to develop an applicative these air vehicle. As an attractive tool in delta wing, leading edge flap (LEF is employed to directly modify the strength and structure of vortices originating from the separation point along the leading edge. Various configurations of LEF such as drooping apex flap and upward deflected flap are used in combination to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics in the delta wing. The fluid force measurement by six component load cell and particle image velocimetry (PIV analysis are performed as the experimental method. The relations between the aerodynamic superiority and the vortex behavior around the models are demonstrated.

  14. Tunable plasmons in regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag-shaped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vacacela Gomez


    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence for and the theoretical confirmation of tunable edge plasmons and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons have opened up new opportunities to scrutinize the main geometric and conformation factors, which can be used to modulate these collective modes in the infrared-to-terahertz frequency band. Here, we show how the extrinsic plasmon structure of regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons, with perfectly symmetric edges, is influenced by the width, chirality and unit-cell length of each ribbon, as well as the in-plane vacuum distance between two contiguous ribbons. Our predictions, based on time-dependent density functional theory, in the random phase approximation, are expected to be of immediate help for measurements of plasmonic features in nanoscale architectures of nanoribbon devices.

  15. Lattice positions of Sn in Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles and thin films studied by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis (United States)

    Zillner, E.; Paul, A.; Jutimoosik, J.; Chandarak, S.; Monnor, T.; Rujirawat, S.; Yimnirun, R.; Lin, X. Z.; Ennaoui, A.; Dittrich, Th.; Lux-Steiner, M.


    Lattice positions of Sn in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles and thin films were investigated by XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure) analysis at the S K-edge. XANES spectra were analyzed by comparison with simulations taking into account anti-site defects and vacancies. Annealing of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films led to a decrease of Sn at its native and defect sites. The results show that XANES analysis at the S K-edge is a sensitive tool for the investigation of defect sites, being critical in kesterite thin film solar cells.

  16. Modelling the possible interaction between edge-driven convection and the Canary Islands mantle plume (United States)

    Negredo, A. M.; Rodríguez-González, J.; Fullea, J.; Van Hunen, J.


    The close location between many hotspots and the edges of cratonic lithosphere has led to the hypothesis that these hotspots could be explained by small-scale mantle convection at the edge of cratons (Edge Driven Convection, EDC). The Canary Volcanic Province hotspot represents a paradigmatic example of this situation due to its close location to the NW edge of the African Craton. Geochemical evidence, prominent low seismic velocity anomalies in the upper and lower mantle, and the rough NE-SW age-progression of volcanic centers consistently point out to a deep-seated mantle plume as the origin of the Canary Volcanic Province. It has been hypothesized that the plume material could be affected by upper mantle convection caused by the thermal contrast between thin oceanic lithosphere and thick (cold) African craton. Deflection of upwelling blobs due to convection currents would be responsible for the broader and more irregular pattern of volcanism in the Canary Province compared to the Madeira Province. In this study we design a model setup inspired on this scenario to investigate the consequences of possible interaction between ascending mantle plumes and EDC. The Finite Element code ASPECT is used to solve convection in a 2D box. The compositional field and melt fraction distribution are also computed. Free slip along all boundaries and constant temperature at top and bottom boundaries are assumed. The initial temperature distribution assumes a small long-wavelength perturbation. The viscosity structure is based on a thick cratonic lithosphere progressively varying to a thin, or initially inexistent, oceanic lithosphere. The effects of assuming different rheologies, as well as steep or gradual changes in lithospheric thickness are tested. Modelling results show that a very thin oceanic lithosphere (< 30 km) is needed to generate partial melting by EDC. In this case partial melting can occur as far as 700 km away from the edge of the craton. The size of EDC cells is

  17. Effect of random edge failure on the average path length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Dongchao; Liang Mangui; Li Dandan; Jiang Zhongyuan, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing (China)


    We study the effect of random removal of edges on the average path length (APL) in a large class of uncorrelated random networks in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the attachment of edges between pairs of vertices. A formula for approximating the APL of networks suffering random edge removal is derived first. Then, the formula is confirmed by simulations for classical ER (Erdoes and Renyi) random graphs, BA (Barabasi and Albert) networks, networks with exponential degree distributions as well as random networks with asymptotic power-law degree distributions with exponent {alpha} > 2. (paper)

  18. Colossal spin transfer torque effect on skyrmion along the edge. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junichi; Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto


    We study by the micromagnetic simulations the skyrmion motion along the edge driven by the current transverse to it. We found that (i) the velocity is enhanced by the factor of ∼ 1/α (α: the Gilbert damping) with the maximum value determined only by the confining force from the edge, (ii) the inertia appear due to the confining potential with the coordinate perpendicular to the edge playing the role of the kinetic momentum, and (iii) the collision between the two skyrmions is almost elastic without causing any internal distortions.

  19. Gaining the Edge: Connecting with the Millennials (United States)


    Millenials . Powerful influences: Things. Technology became more powerful, smaller and accessible to most Americans. Millennials grew up with a cell...Millennials want to have fun at work—it makes them feel like it is more than a job. Most will not work for an organization long as the Millennial trend

  20. Diamond, graphite, and graphene oxide nanoparticles decrease migration and invasiveness in glioblastoma cell lines by impairing extracellular adhesion. (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Grodzik, Marta; Strojny, Barbara; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafał; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa


    The highly invasive nature of glioblastoma is one of the most significant problems regarding the treatment of this tumor. Diamond nanoparticles (ND), graphite nanoparticles (NG), and graphene oxide nanoplatelets (nGO) have been explored for their biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery. The objective of this research was to assess changes in the adhesion, migration, and invasiveness of two glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U118, after ND, NG, and nGO treatment. All treatments affected the cell surface structure, adhesion-dependent EGFR/AKT/mTOR, and β-catenin signaling pathways, decreasing the migration and invasiveness of both glioblastoma cell lines. The examined nanoparticles did not show strong toxicity but effectively deregulated cell migration. ND was effectively taken up by cells, whereas nGO and NG strongly interacted with the cell surface. These results indicate that nanoparticles could be used in biomedical applications as a low toxicity active compound for glioblastoma treatment.

  1. Quantification of local morphodynamics and local GTPase activity by edge evolution tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tsukada


    Full Text Available Advances in time-lapse fluorescence microscopy have enabled us to directly observe dynamic cellular phenomena. Although the techniques themselves have promoted the understanding of dynamic cellular functions, the vast number of images acquired has generated a need for automated processing tools to extract statistical information. A problem underlying the analysis of time-lapse cell images is the lack of rigorous methods to extract morphodynamic properties. Here, we propose an algorithm called edge evolution tracking (EET to quantify the relationship between local morphological changes and local fluorescence intensities around a cell edge using time-lapse microscopy images. This algorithm enables us to trace the local edge extension and contraction by defining subdivided edges and their corresponding positions in successive frames. Thus, this algorithm enables the investigation of cross-correlations between local morphological changes and local intensity of fluorescent signals by considering the time shifts. By applying EET to fluorescence resonance energy transfer images of the Rho-family GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, we examined the cross-correlation between the local area difference and GTPase activity. The calculated correlations changed with time-shifts as expected, but surprisingly, the peak of the correlation coefficients appeared with a 6-8 min time shift of morphological changes and preceded the Rac1 or Cdc42 activities. Our method enables the quantification of the dynamics of local morphological change and local protein activity and statistical investigation of the relationship between them by considering time shifts in the relationship. Thus, this algorithm extends the value of time-lapse imaging data to better understand dynamics of cellular function.

  2. ARF1 recruits RAC1 to leading edge in neutrophil chemotaxis. (United States)

    Mazaki, Yuichi; Onodera, Yasuhito; Higashi, Tsunehito; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Sabe, Hisataka


    The small GTPase ARF1 mediates membrane trafficking mostly from the Golgi, and is essential for the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. In this process, ARF1 is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchanger GBF1, and is inactivated by the GTPase-activating protein GIT2. Neutrophils generate the Gβγ-PAK1-αPIX-GIT2 linear complex during GPCR-induced chemotaxis, in which αPIX activates RAC1/CDC42, which then employs PAK1. However, it has remained unclear as to why GIT2 is included in this complex. We investigated the association between ARF1 and RAC1/CDC42 during the fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis of HL60 cells. We found that the silencing of GBF1 significantly impaired the recruitment of RAC1 to the leading edges, but not PAK1, αPIX, RAC2, or CDC42. A significant population of RAC1 colocalized with ARF1 at the leading edges in stimulated cells, whereas fMLP activated both ARF1 and ARF5. Consistently, the silencing of ARF1, but not ARF5, impaired the recruitment of RAC1, whereas the silencing of RAC1 did not affect the recruitment of ARF1 to the leading edges. Our results indicated that the activation of ARF1 triggers the plasma membrane recruitment of RAC1 in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis, which is essential for cortical actin remodeling. Thus, membrane remodeling at the leading edges appears to precede actin remodeling in chemotaxis. Together with the fact that GIT2, which inactivates ARF1, is an integral component of the machinery activating RAC1, we proposed a model in which the ARF1-RAC1 linkage enables the regulation of ARF1 by repetitive on/off cycles during GPCR-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis.

  3. Parameters Influencing Sulfur Speciation in Environmental Samples Using Sulfur K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan


    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the credibility of applying the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as an innovative “fingerprint” for characterizing environmental samples. The sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of ten sulfur compound standards detected by two different detectors, namely, Lytle detector (LyD and Germanium detector (GeD, were studied and compared. Further investigation on “self-absorption” effect revealed that the maximum sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were achieved when diluting sulfur compound standards with boron nitride (BN at the mixing ratio of 0.1%. The “particle-size” effect on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum sensitivities was examined by comparing signal-to-noise ratios of total suspended particles (TSP and particulate matter of less than 10 millionths of a meter (PM10 collected at three major cities of Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratios of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were positively correlated with sulfate content in aerosols and negatively connected with particle sizes. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA has proved that sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum can be used to characterize German terrestrial soils and Andaman coastal sediments. In addition, this study highlighted the capability of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra as an innovative “fingerprint” to distinguish tsunami backwash deposits (TBD from typical marine sediments (TMS.

  4. Simulation studies of structure and edge tension of lipid bilayer edges: effects of tail structure and force-field. (United States)

    West, Ana; Ma, Kevin; Chung, Jonathan L; Kindt, James T


    Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer ribbons have been performed to investigate the structures and line tensions associated with free bilayer edges. Simulations carried out for dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine with three different force-field parameter sets yielded edge line tensions of 45 ± 2 pN, over 50% greater than the most recently reported experimentally determined value for this lipid. Edge tensions obtained from simulations of a series of phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer ribbons with saturated acyl tails of length 12-16 carbons and with monounsaturated acyl tails of length 14-18 carbons could be correlated with the excess area associated with forming the edge, through a two-parameter fit. Saturated-tail lipids underwent local thickening near the edge, producing denser packing that correlated with lower line tensions, while unsaturated-tail lipids showed little or no local thickening. In a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine ribbon initiated in a tilted gel-phase structure, lipid headgroups tended to tilt toward the nearer edge producing a herringbone pattern, an accommodation that may account for the reported edge-induced stabilization of an ordered structure at temperatures near a lipid gel-fluid phase transition.

  5. The End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision making in the water sector in Europe (EDgE) (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Wanders, Niko; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohinni; Prudhomme, Christel; Houghton-Carr, Helen


    High-resolution simulations of water resources from hydrological models are vital to supporting important climate services. Apart from a high level of detail, both spatially and temporally, it is important to provide simulations that consistently cover a range of timescales, from historical reanalysis to seasonal forecast and future projections. In the new EDgE project commissioned by the ECMWF (C3S) we try to fulfill these requirements. EDgE is a proof-of-concept project which combines climate data and state-of-the-art hydrological modelling to demonstrate a water-oriented information system implemented through a web application. EDgE is working with key European stakeholders representative of private and public sectors to jointly develop and tailor approaches and techniques. With these tools, stakeholders are assisted in using improved climate information in decision-making, and supported in the development of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. Here, we present the first results of the EDgE modelling chain, which is divided into three main processes: 1) pre-processing and downscaling; 2) hydrological modelling; 3) post-processing. Consistent downscaling and bias corrections for historical simulations, seasonal forecasts and climate projections ensure that the results across scales are robust. The daily temporal resolution and 5km spatial resolution ensure locally relevant simulations. With the use of four hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, VIC, mHM, Noah-MP), uncertainty between models is properly addressed, while consistency is guaranteed by using identical input data for static land surface parameterizations. The forecast results are communicated to stakeholders via Sectoral Climate Impact Indicators (SCIIs) that have been created in collaboration with the end-user community of the EDgE project. The final product of this project is composed of 15 years of seasonal forecast and 10 climate change projections, all combined with four hydrological

  6. Numerical solution of an edge flame boundary value problem (United States)

    Shields, Benjamin; Freund, Jonathan; Pantano, Carlos


    We study edge flames for modeling extinction, reignition, and flame lifting in turbulent non-premixed combustion. An adaptive resolution finite element method is developed for solving a strained laminar edge flame in the intrinsic moving frame of reference of a spatially evolving shear layer. The variable-density zero Mach Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve for both advancing and retreating edge flames. The eigenvalues of the system are determined simultaneously (implicitly) with the scalar fields using a Schur complement strategy. A homotopy transformation over density is used to transition from constant- to variable-density, and pseudo arc-length continuation is used for parametric tracing of solutions. Full details of the edge flames as a function of strain and Lewis numbers will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported [in part] by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, under Award Number DE-NA0002374.

  7. Urbach absorption edge in epitaxial erbium-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmagin, V. B., E-mail:; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950, GSP-105, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia and Nizhniy Novgorod State University, 603950, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhniy Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    We investigate the dependencies of the photocurrent in Si:Er p-n junctions on the energy of the incident photons. The exponential absorption edge (Urbach edge) just below fundamental edge of silicon was observed in the absorption spectra of epitaxial Si:Er layers grown at 400–600 C. It is shown that the introduction of erbium significantly enhances the structural disorder in the silicon crystal which was estimated from the slope of the Urbach edge. We discuss the possible nature of the structural disorder in Si:Er and a new mechanism of erbium excitation, which does not require the presence of deep levels in the band gap of silicon.

  8. Intercultural Knowledge Flows in Edge Organizations: Trust as an Enabler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavrieli, Dana A; Scott, W. R


    ...., across military services and coalition partners) and knowledge flows. A major factor that emerges as an enabler of knowledge flows, especially in dynamic environments such as those in which Edge organizations operate, is trust...

  9. Surface Micromachined Arrays of Transition-Edge Detectors, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative surface micromachining technique is described for the fabrication of closely-packed arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters....

  10. Coupling and manipulation of edge states in multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (United States)

    Lv, Z. T.; Gao, J. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Jiang, Z. T.


    We investigate the couplings among the edge states of the normal zigzag and skewed armchair multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons, as well as the effect of the electric field on the corresponding energy levels, by using the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach. It is found that there appear different transitions from the coupled to uncoupled edge states in the normal zigzag and skewed armchair nanoribbons with the increasing of the nanoribbon width, which is fundamentally attributed to the edge asymmetry of the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons. Moreover, the energy bands of the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons can be effectively adjusted by applying the perpendicular electric field. Therefore, this research should be thought of as a useful reference for determining the width, the edge types, and the layer numbers of the nanoribbons in manipulating the properties of the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons.

  11. Amount of Future Forest Edge at a 2 Hectare Scale (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and...

  12. Magnetic susceptibility in the edged topological disordered nanoscopic cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizabadi, Edris; Omidi, Mahboubeh


    The effects of edged topological disorder on magnetic susceptibility are investigated in a nanoscopic cylinder threaded by a magnetic flux. Persistent current versus even or odd number of electrons shows different signs in ordered and disordered cylinders and also in short or long ones. In addition, temperature-averaged susceptibility has only diamagnetic signs in strong regimes and it is associated with paramagnetic signs in ordered and weak disordered ones. Besides, in an edged topological disordered cylinder, the temperature-averaged susceptibility decreases by raising the temperature somewhat and then increasing initiates and finally at high temperature tends to zero as the ordered one. - Research highlights: → Magnetic susceptibility in one-dimensional topological disordered quantum ring. → Edged topological disorder effect on magnetic susceptibility in nanoscopic cylinder. → Edged topological disorder effect on temperature-averaged susceptibility in cylinder.

  13. Edge Antimagic Total Labeling on Two Copies of Path (United States)

    Nurdin; Abrar, A. M.; Bhayangkara, A. R. M.; Muliani; Samsir, A. U.; Nahdi, M. R. An


    A graph G = (V(G), E(G)) denotes the vertex set and the edge set, respectively. A (p,q)-graph G is a graph such that |V(G) | = p and |E(G) | = q. Graph of order p and size q is called (a,d)-edge-anti magic total if there exists a bijection f : V(G) U E(G)→ {1,2,..., p + q} such that the edge weights w(u,v) = f(u) + f(uv) + f(v) form an arithmetic sequence {a, a + d, a + 2d,...,a + (q - 1)d} with the first term a and common difference d. Two copies of path is disjoint union of two path graph with same order (Pn ∪Pn ) denoted by 2Pn . In this paper we construct the (a,d)-edge-anti magic total labeling in two copies of path for some differences d.

  14. A Computational Modeling Mystery Involving Airfoil Trailing Edge Treatments (United States)

    Choo, Yeunun; Epps, Brenden


    In a curious result, Fairman (2002) observed that steady RANS calculations predicted larger lift than the experimentally-measured data for six different airfoils with non-traditional trailing edge treatments, whereas the time average of unsteady RANS calculations matched the experiments almost exactly. Are these results reproducible? If so, is the difference between steady and unsteady RANS calculations a numerical artifact, or is there a physical explanation? The goals of this project are to solve this thirteen year old mystery and further to model viscous/load coupling for airfoils with non-traditional trailing edges. These include cupped, beveled, and blunt trailing edges, which are common anti-singing treatments for marine propeller sections. In this talk, we present steady and unsteady RANS calculations (ANSYS Fluent) with careful attention paid to the possible effects of asymmetric unsteady vortex shedding and the modeling of turbulence anisotropy. The effects of non-traditional trailing edge treatments are visualized and explained.

  15. Potential environmental effects of the leading edge hydrokinetic energy technology. (United States)


    The Volpe Center evaluated potential environmental challenges and benefits of the ARPA-E funded research project, Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Harvesting Using Cyber-Physical Systems, led by Brown University. The Leading Edge research team develo...

  16. The edge detection enhancement on satellite image using bilateral filter (United States)

    Fawwaz, I.; Zarlis, M.; Suherman; Rahmat, R. F.


    Satellite imagery is the image taken from satellites from outer space. It captures the appearance of the earth’s surface through remote sensing. Usually, satellite image’s object is hardly detected because many objects are covered with cloud shadows in the sky. Edge detection has an important role in image analysis. Edge detection aims to extract the boundary of an object contained in the image. Gaussian Filter is usually used on edge detection to smooth the image and reduce noise. However, in satellite image, we can improve it by using another filter. In this research, we compare gaussian filter with bilateral filter and analyze those two methods. We also using several operators to see the optimized process. After the experiment, by using the comparison parameter such as largest PSNR value, and the smallest MSE value, we can conclude that Bilateral Filter with Canny Operator is the most optimized edge detection for Satellite Imagery.

  17. Edge-Based Image Compression with Homogeneous Diffusion (United States)

    Mainberger, Markus; Weickert, Joachim

    It is well-known that edges contain semantically important image information. In this paper we present a lossy compression method for cartoon-like images that exploits information at image edges. These edges are extracted with the Marr-Hildreth operator followed by hysteresis thresholding. Their locations are stored in a lossless way using JBIG. Moreover, we encode the grey or colour values at both sides of each edge by applying quantisation, subsampling and PAQ coding. In the decoding step, information outside these encoded data is recovered by solving the Laplace equation, i.e. we inpaint with the steady state of a homogeneous diffusion process. Our experiments show that the suggested method outperforms the widely-used JPEG standard and can even beat the advanced JPEG2000 standard for cartoon-like images.

  18. Dynamic Edge Tracing for 2D Image Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Withey, D


    ...) image segmentation is presented. The technique utilizes a dynamic target tracking algorithm and a Kalman filter and permits edges to be followed in the presence of intensity variation similar to that found in MR images...

  19. Amount of Forest Edge at a 65 Hectare Scale (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and...

  20. Variable range of the RKKY interaction in edged graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J M; Gorman, P D; Power, S R


    The indirect exchange interaction is one of the key factors in determining the overall alignment of magnetic impurities embedded in metallic host materials. In this work we examine the range of this interaction in magnetically doped graphene systems in the presence of armchair edges using...... a combination of analytical and numerical Green function approaches. We consider both a semi-infinite sheet of graphene with a single armchair edge, and also quasi-one-dimensional armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). While we find signals of the bulk decay rate in semi-infinite graphene and signals...... of the expected one-dimensional decay rate in GNRs, we also find an unusually rapid decay for certain instances in both, which manifests itself whenever the impurities are located at sites which are a multiple of three atoms from the edge. This decay behavior emerges from both the analytic and numerical...

  1. Inverse halftoning algorithm using edge-based lookup table approach. (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Shih-Tung


    The inverse halftoning algorithm is used to reconstruct a gray image from an input halftone image. Based on the recently published lookup table (LUT) technique, this paper presents a novel edge-based LUT method for inverse halftoning which improves the quality of the reconstructed gray image. The proposed method first uses the LUT-based inverse halftoning method as a preprocessing step to transform the given halftone image to a base gray image, and then the edges are extracted and classified from the base gray image. According to these classified edges, a novel edge-based LUT is built up to reconstruct the gray image. Based on a set of 30 real training images with both low-and high-frequency contents, experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method achieves a better image quality when compared to the currently published two methods, by Chang et al. and Meşe and Vaidyanathan.

  2. Ergodic divertor impact on Tore Supra plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Agostini, E.; Bruneau, J.L.; Michelis, C. De; Fall, T.; Gil, C.; Guilhem, D.; Hess, W.; Hutter, T.


    Present ergodic divertor experiments in TORE SUPRA have been devoted to benchmarking the operational regimes of the apparatus. Two major effects are reported; on one hand, strong changes occur in the ergodized boundary layer (up to 20% of the minor radius), and on the other hand, the central plasma and especially the confinement is not directly affected, i.e. the observed modifications are induced by edge effects. The basic trends, which are recorded are a decrease of both the edge electronic temperature and the edge density gradient while the radiated power is increased at the very edge of the ergodic region. The latter feature is in agreement with the impurity line emission characterized by an increase of the peripheral lines with a strong decrease of the central lines

  3. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.


    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  4. Edge-Induced Shear Banding in Entangled Polymeric Fluids (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J.; Fielding, Suzanne M.


    Despite decades of research, the question of whether solutions and melts of highly entangled polymers exhibit shear banding as their steady state response to a steadily imposed shear flow remains controversial. From a theoretical viewpoint, an important unanswered question is whether the underlying constitutive curve of shear stress σ as a function of shear rate γ ˙ (for states of homogeneous shear) is monotonic, or has a region of negative slope, d σ /d γ ˙ edge fracture." Here we show by numerical simulation that in fact even only very modest edge disturbances—which are the precursor of full edge fracture but might well, in themselves, go unnoticed experimentally—can cause strong secondary flows in the form of shear bands that invade deep into the fluid bulk. Crucially, this is true even when the underlying constitutive curve is monotonically increasing, precluding true bulk shear banding in the absence of edge effects.

  5. Amount of Forest Edge at a 2 Hectare Scale (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest edge indicates a highly fragmented forest, which generally diminishes those economic and...

  6. Edge loading of plasma facing components in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanti, R.; Deksnis, E.; Lomas, P.; Pick, M.


    The new poloidal and the inner wall guard limiter tiles of the Joint European Torus Experiment (JET) have been shaped to maximise power handling capability. The existing design of the divertor tiles of JET have been modified to reduce edge exposure. All of these components consist of discrete tiles with finite gaps. Under the assumption that the particle power flow is along field lines, the leading edges of the tiles are exposed due to field line penetration between gaps. The peak loading of these tiles to be at the edges. The report presents a generalised solution to the edge problem which indicates the steps required to shape the tiles for maximum power handling capability. (Author)

  7. Effect of surface wettability on microfluidic EDGE emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, A.A.; Sahin, S.; Mujawar, L.H.; Boom, R.M.; Schroen, C.G.P.H.


    The effect of wettability on microfluidic EDGE emulsification was investigated at dispersed phase contact angles between 90 and 160. The highest contact angle (160) produced monodispersed emulsions with droplet size 5.0 lm and coefficient of variation

  8. Free-edge delamination - Laminate width and loading conditions effects (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.


    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progressive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  9. Longitudinal Proximity Effect Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) hold the highest energy resolving power of any nondispersive spectrometer.   They are used for imaging spectroscopy...

  10. Solar: at the cutting edge of innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile; Durand, Yvonnick; Madon, Frederic; Deneux, Benjamin; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Malbranche, Philippe; Dumas, Julien; Mouterde, Jerome; Cuczer, Eric; Barreau, Francois; Molleron, Henri


    A set of articles proposes an overview of the dynamic context of solar energy. It first addresses the case of the photovoltaic sector which becomes more competitive, presents high efficiencies, lower costs in a context of higher industrialisation, and of innovation (new fabrication processes, new solar cells, development of two-face cells, use of micro-converters). It then addresses the case of the solar thermal sector with possibilities of application other than hot water production, notably by coupling with photovoltaic or with heat networks. The last article evokes the new applications of photovoltaic, i.e. other than ground-based or roof-based power production. Various applications are envisaged as photovoltaic sensors could be placed on various mobile surfaces: a car, a telephone, and so on

  11. Matrix model of QCD: Edge localized glueballs and phase transitions (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmalendu; Balachandran, A. P.


    In a matrix model of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, boundaries emerge in the space of Mat3(R ) and the Hamiltonian requires boundary conditions. We show the existence of edge localized glueball states that can have negative energies. These edge levels can be lifted to positive energies if the gluons acquire a London-like mass. This suggests a new phase of QCD with an incompressible bulk.

  12. Negative edge plasma currents in the SINP tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conditions. In the ohmic discharges of the SINP tokamak, we observed 'negative edge plasma currents' at the edge region (r/a ∼ 0.7–0.8, where a = 7.5 cm is the ... The horizontal plasma column (figure 1c) is observed to move inwards/ ... (b) 3 by 3 NaI(Tl) output (HX) in MeV, (c) horizontal plasma column motion ( hor).

  13. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils (United States)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen


    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  14. Extended fluid transport theory in the tokamak plasma edge (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.


    Fluid theory expressions for the radial particle and energy fluxes and the radial distributions of pressure and temperature in the edge plasma are derived from fundamental conservation (particle, energy, momentum) relations, taking into account kinetic corrections arising from ion orbit loss, and integrated to illustrate the dependence of the observed edge pedestal profile structure on fueling, heating, and electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces. Solution procedures for the fluid plasma and associated neutral transport equations are discussed.


    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spolaore, M.; Martines, E.; Brotánková, Jana; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Dufková, Edita; Ďuran, Ivan; Hron, Martin; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Peleman, P.; Van Oost, G.; Devynck, P.; Figueiredo, H.; Kirnev, G.


    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2005), s. 1597-1606 ISSN 0011-4626. [Electric Fields, Structures and Relaxation in Edge Plasmas,. Tarragona, 3.7.2005-4.7.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * edge biasing * relaxation * ExB flow Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005

  16. Local adaptation at range edges: comparing elevation and latitudinal gradients. (United States)

    Halbritter, A H; Billeter, R; Edwards, P J; Alexander, J M


    Local adaptation at range edges influences species' distributions and how they respond to environmental change. However, the factors that affect adaptation, including gene flow and local selection pressures, are likely to vary across different types of range edge. We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate local adaptation in populations of Plantago lanceolata and P. major from central locations in their European range and from their latitudinal and elevation range edges (in northern Scandinavia and Swiss Alps, respectively). We also characterized patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in populations using molecular markers. Range-centre plants of P. major were adapted to conditions at the range centre, but performed similarly to range-edge plants when grown at the range edges. There was no evidence for local adaptation when comparing central and edge populations of P. lanceolata. However, plants of both species from high elevation were locally adapted when compared with plants from high latitude, although the reverse was not true. This asymmetry was associated with greater genetic diversity and less genetic differentiation over the elevation gradient than over the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that adaptation in some range-edge populations could increase their performance following climate change. However, responses are likely to differ along elevation and latitudinal gradients, with adaptation more likely at high-elevation. Furthermore, based upon these results, we suggest that gene flow is unlikely to constrain adaptation in range-edge populations of these species. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Leading edge effects on boundary layers behind weak shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckker, B.E.L.; Singh, D.


    This paper discusses experiments carried out in which normal shock waves of strength M s =1.22 and M s =1.30 were made to impinge on plates of three different thicknesses in order to examine the effects of leading edge thickness on the boundary layers growing from the foot of the shock and from the leading edge. The work describes the anomalous growth of these boundary layers on a slender wedge, supported as a cantilever

  18. Observation of edge refraction in ultra small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Hilger, A.


    Slits and macroscopic objects such as edges give rise to refraction and diffraction. In this Letter we show the effect of Cd edges and slits if they are inserted between the monochromator and analyser in a double crystal diffractometer. Despite to the use of wavelengths of tens of nanometer and strong absorbing materials refraction is observed which contributes to enhanced wing intensity of the instrumental curve of the double crystal diffractometer

  19. Observation of edge refraction in ultra small angle neutron scattering (United States)

    Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Hilger, A.


    Slits and macroscopic objects such as edges give rise to refraction and diffraction. In this Letter we show the effect of Cd edges and slits if they are inserted between the monochromator and analyser in a double crystal diffractometer. Despite to the use of wavelengths of tens of nanometer and strong absorbing materials refraction is observed which contributes to enhanced wing intensity of the instrumental curve of the double crystal diffractometer.

  20. Spectral characteristics of edge magnetic turbulence in COMPASS-D[Nuclear fusion; Edge localised modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W.; Thyagaraja, A.; Fielding, S. [and others


    Edge fluctuation data from both COMPASS-D and calculations with the large-eddy simulation code CUTIE have been analysed with a number of techniques, revealing coherent structures which exhibit high frequency standing-wave oscillations; some of those observed during ELMs have an 'inverse-chirp' character and these are related to a disturbance of the plasma boundary in the lower-inboard quadrant of the poloidal plane. A 'precursor' mode, seen in Ohmic discharges at about 220kHz just before large ELMs, appears to be outward ballooning in character. Although the CUTIE calculations do not yet include ELM simulations, the results seem to correspond qualitatively with those seen between ELMs or during ELM-free periods on COMPASS-D. (author)

  1. Edge-Guided Single Depth Image Super Resolution. (United States)

    Jun Xie; Feris, Rogerio Schmidt; Ming-Ting Sun


    Recently, consumer depth cameras have gained significant popularity due to their affordable cost. However, the limited resolution and the quality of the depth map generated by these cameras are still problematic for several applications. In this paper, a novel framework for the single depth image superresolution is proposed. In our framework, the upscaling of a single depth image is guided by a high-resolution edge map, which is constructed from the edges of the low-resolution depth image through a Markov random field optimization in a patch synthesis based manner. We also explore the self-similarity of patches during the edge construction stage, when limited training data are available. With the guidance of the high-resolution edge map, we propose upsampling the high-resolution depth image through a modified joint bilateral filter. The edge-based guidance not only helps avoiding artifacts introduced by direct texture prediction, but also reduces jagged artifacts and preserves the sharp edges. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method both qualitatively and quantitatively compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. First principles study of edge carboxylated graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Medhat A.


    The structure stability and electronic properties of edge carboxylated hexagonal and triangular graphene quantum dots are investigated using density functional theory. The calculated binding energies show that the hexagonal clusters with armchair edges have the highest stability among all the quantum dots. The binding energy of carboxylated graphene quantum dots increases by increasing the number of carboxyl groups. Our study shows that the total dipole moment significantly increases by adding COOH with the highest value observed in triangular clusters. The edge states in triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges produce completely different energy spectrum from other dots: (a) the energy gap in triangular zigzag is very small as compared to other clusters and (b) the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized at the edges which is in contrast to other clusters where it is distributed over the cluster surface. The enhanced reactivity and the controllable energy gap by shape and edge termination make graphene quantum dots ideal for various nanodevice applications such as sensors. The infrared spectra are presented to confirm the stability of the quantum dots.

  3. Dynamics of the edge excitations in the FQH effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.


    Fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) discovered by Tsui, Stormer and Gossard open a new era in theory of strongly correlated system. In the first time the authors have to completely abandon the theories based on the single-body picture and use an intrinsic many-body theory proposed by Laughlin and others to describe the FQHE. Due to the repulsive interaction, the strongly correlated FQH liquid is an incompressible state despite the first Landau level is only partially filled. All the bulk excitations in the FQH states have finite energy gaps. The FQH states and insulators are similar in the sense that both states have finite energy gap and short ranged electron propagators. Because of this similarity, it is puzzling that the FQH systems apparently have very different transport properties than ordinary insulators. Halperin first point out that the integral quantum Hall (IQH) states contain gapless edge excitations. Although the electronic states in the bulk are localized, the electronic states at the edge of the sample are extended. Therefore the nontrivial transport properties of the IQH states come from the gapless edge excitations. Such an edge transport picture has been supported by many experiments. One also found that the edge excitations in the IQH states are described by a chiral 1D Fermi liquid theory. Here, the authors review the dynamical theory of the edge excitations in the FQH effects

  4. Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise. (United States)

    Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P


    Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number.

  5. Data Processing Delay Optimization in Mobile Edge Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Li


    Full Text Available With the development of Internet of Things (IoT, the number of mobile terminal devices is increasing rapidly. Because of high transmission delay and limited bandwidth, in this paper, we propose a novel three-layer network architecture model which combines cloud computing and edge computing (abbreviated as CENAM. In edge computing layer, we propose a computational scheme of mutual cooperation between the edge devices and use the Kruskal algorithm to compute the minimum spanning tree of weighted undirected graph consisting of edge nodes, so as to reduce the communication delay between them. Then we divide and assign the tasks based on the constrained optimization problem and solve the computation delay of edge nodes by using the Lagrange multiplier method. In cloud computing layer, we focus on the balanced transmission method to solve the data transmission delay from edge devices to cloud servers and obtain an optimal allocation matrix, which reduces the data communication delay. Finally, according to the characteristics of cloud servers, we solve the computation delay of cloud computing layer. Simulation shows that the CENAM has better performance in data processing delay than traditional cloud computing.

  6. Generalized adaptive strategies for edge detection in digital imagery (United States)

    Sundaram, Ramakrishnan


    Edges in digital imagery can be identified from the zero- crossings of Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) filtered images. Time or frequency-sampled LOG filters have been developed for the detection and localization of edges in digital image data. The image is decomposed into overlapping subblocks and processed in the transform domain. Adaptive algorithms are developed to minimize spurious edge classifications. In order to achieve accurate and efficient implementations, the discrete symmetric cosine transform of the input data is employed in conjunction with adaptive filters. The adaptive selection of the filter coefficients is based on the gradient criterion. For instance, in the case of the frequency-sampled LOG filter, the filter parameter is systemically varied to force the rejection of false or weak edges. In addition, the proposed algorithms easily extend to higher dimensions. This is useful where 3D medical image data containing edge information has been corrupted by noise. This paper employs isotropic and non-isotropic filters to track edges in such images.

  7. Are networks with more edges easier to synchronize, or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Sheng, Duan; Chao, Liu; Guan-Rong, Chen; Wen-Xu, Wang


    In this paper, the relationship between network synchronizability and the edge-addition of its associated graph is investigated. First, it is shown that adding one edge to a cycle definitely decreases the network synchronizability. Then, since sometimes the synchronizability can be enhanced by changing the network structure, the question of whether the networks with more edges are easier to synchronize is addressed. Based on a subgraph and complementary graph method, it is shown by examples that the answer is negative even if the network structure is arbitrarily optimized. This reveals that generally there are redundant edges in a network, which not only make no contributions to synchronization but actually may reduce the synchronizability. Moreover, a simple example shows that the node betweenness centrality is not always a good indicator for the network synchronizability. Finally, some more examples are presented to illustrate how the network synchronizability varies following the addition of edges, where all the examples show that the network synchronizability globally increases but locally fluctuates as the number of added edges increases. (general)

  8. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; Jonge, Martin D. de; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra are presented for a diverse set of 44 phosphate minerals. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens

  9. Theory of Magnetic Edge States in Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons (United States)

    Capaz, Rodrigo; Yazyev, Oleg; Louie, Steven


    Using a model Hamiltonian approach including electron Coulomb interactions, we systematically investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of chiral graphene nanoribbons. We show that the presence of magnetic edge states is an intrinsic feature of any smooth graphene nanoribbons with chiral edges, and discover a number of structure-property relations. Specifically, we describe how the edge-state energy gap, zone-boundary edge-state energy splitting, and magnetic moment per edge length depend on the nanoribbon width and chiral angle. The role of environmental screening effects is also studied. Our results address a recent experimental observation of signatures of magnetic ordering at smooth edges of chiral graphene nanoribbons and provide an avenue towards tuning their properties via the structural and environmental degrees of freedom. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the ONR MURI program. RBC acknowledges financial support from Brazilian agencies CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono.

  10. Near-field edge fringes at sharp material boundaries. (United States)

    Babicheva, V E; Gamage, S; Stockman, M I; Abate, Y


    We have studied the formation of near-field fringes when sharp edges of materials are imaged using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM). The materials we have investigated include dielectrics, metals, a near-perfect conductor, and those that possess anisotropic permittivity and hyperbolic dispersion. For our theoretical analysis, we use a technique that combines full-wave numerical simulations of tip-sample near-field interaction and signal demodulation at higher orders akin to what is done in typical s-SNOM experiments. Unlike previous tip-sample interaction near-field models, our advanced technique allows simulation of the realistic tip and sample structure. Our analysis clarifies edge imaging of recently emerged layered materials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides (in particular, molybdenum disulfide), as well as traditional plasmonic materials such as gold. Hexagonal boron nitride is studied at several wavelengths, including the wavelength where it possesses excitation of phonon-polaritons and hyperbolic dispersion. Based on our results of s-SNOM imaging in different demodulation orders, we specify resonant and non-resonant types of edges and describe the edge fringes for each case. We clarify near-field edge-fringe formation at material sharp boundaries, both outside bright fringes and the low-contrast region at the edge, and elaborate on the necessity of separating them from propagating waves on the surface of polaritonic materials.

  11. Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing. (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian


    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.

  12. Analytic approach to the edge state of the Kane-Mele Model


    Doh, Hyeonjin; Jeon, Gun Sang; Choi, Hyoung Joon


    We investigate the edge state of a two-dimensional topological insulator based on the Kane-Mele model. Using complex wave numbers of the Bloch wave function, we derive an analytical expression for the edge state localized near the edge of a semi-infinite honeycomb lattice with a straight edge. For the comparison of the edge type effects, two types of the edges are considered in this calculation; one is a zigzag edge and the other is an armchair edge. The complex wave numbers and the boundary ...

  13. Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell


    For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel

  14. Investigation of a Wedge Adhesion Test for Edge Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Miller, David; Postak, Lori; Booth, Dennis; Phillips, Nancy


    Many photovoltaic (PV) technologies have been found to be sensitive to moisture that diffuses into a PV package. Even with the use of impermeable frontsheets and backsheets, moisture can penetrate from the edges of a module. To limit this moisture ingress pathway from occurring, manufacturers often use a low permeability polyisobutylene (PIB) based edge seal filled with desiccant to further restrict moisture ingress. Moisture ingress studies have shown that these materials are capable of blocking moisture for the 25-year life of a module; but to do so, they must remain well-adhered and free of cracks. This work focuses on adapting the Boeing Wedge test for use with edge seals laminated using glass substrates as part of a strategy to assess the long-term durability of edge seals. The advantage of this method is that it duplicates the residual stresses and strains that a glass/glass module may have when the lamination process results in some residual glass bending that puts the perimeter in tension. Additionally, this method allows one to simultaneously expose the material to thermal stress, humidity, mechanical stress, and ultraviolet radiation. The disadvantage of this method generally is that we are limited by the fracture toughness of the glass substrates that the edge seal is adhered to. However, the low toughness of typical uncrosslinked or sparsely crosslinked PIB makes them suitable for this technique. We present data obtained during the development of the wedge test for use with PV edge seal materials. This includes development of the measuring techniques and evaluation of the test method with relevant materials. We find consistent data within a given experiment, along with the theoretical independence of fracture toughness measurements with wedge thickness. This indicates that the test methodology is reproducible. However, even though individual experimental sets are consistent, the reproducibility between experimental sets is poor. We believe this may be

  15. Synucleins: are they two-edged swords? (United States)

    Surguchov, Andrei


    The synuclein family consists of three distinct highly homologous genes, α-synuclein, β-synuclein, and γ-synuclein, which have so far been found only in vertebrates. Proteins encoded by these genes are characterized by an acidic C-terminal region and five or six imperfect repeat motifs (KTKEGV) distributed throughout the highly conserved N-terminal region. Numerous data demonstrate that synucleins are implicated in two groups of the most devastating human disorders, i.e., neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and cancer. Mutations in the α-synuclein gene are associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), and accumulation of α-synuclein inclusions is a hallmark of this disorder. In breast cancer, increased expression of γ-synuclein correlates with disease progression. Conversely, some results indicate that the members of the synuclein family may have a protective effect. How might these small proteins combine such controversial properties? We present evidence that synuclein's features are basically regulated by two mechanisms, i.e., posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and the level of their expression. We also discuss a new, emerging area of investigation of synucleins, namely, their role in the cell-to-cell propagation of pathology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Origin of the pre-edge structure at the Al K-edge: The role of atomic vibrations (United States)

    Cabaret, Delphine; Brouder, Christian


    We present a detailed analysis of the pre-edge peak present in the Al K-edge XANES spectra of corundum (α-Al2O3) and diaspore (α-AlOOH), as measured at room temperature. This is achieved by XANES and DOS calculations performed using the density functional theory in a pseudopotential plane-wave framework. The XANES calculations carried out for the equilibrium atomic positions do not reproduce the pre-edge of corundum and partially reproduce it in the case of diaspore. It is shown that the electronic transitions occuring in the pre-edge involves the 3s empty states of the aluminium absorbing atom. The Al 3s states can be probed in the electric dipole approximation via a p-s mixing, which is possible only if the Al site is not centrosymmetric. Although Al does not occupy an inversion center in the two minerals under study, the p-s mixing is too weak to provide a pre-edge feature in good agreement with experiment. The deviation from centrosymmetry can be enhanced by the atomic vibrations. We develop a theory that takes into account the atomic vibrations directly in the calculation of the absorption cross section, based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This theory is applied to corundum and diaspore and yields satisfactory results in the pre-edge region.

  17. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Nobles, Dylan L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Postak, Lori [Quanex IG Systems, Inc., Cambridge OH 43725 USA; Calderon, Jose Alonzo [First Solar, Inc., Perrysburg OH 43551 USA


    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate the ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.

  18. Bird community responses to the edge between suburbs and reserves. (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Knight, Emma; Lindenmayer, David B; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian D


    New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies.

  19. Thermodynamics of the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Julien


    The dead zone, a quiescent region enclosed in the turbulent flow of a protoplanetary disk, seems to be a promising site for planet formation. Indeed, the development of a density maximum at the dead zone inner edge, that has the property to trap the infalling dust, is a natural outcome of the accretion mismatch at this interface. Moreover, the flow here may be unstable and organize itself into vortical structures that efficiently collect dust grains. The inner edge location is however loosely constrained. In particular, it depends on the thermodynamical prescriptions of the disk model that is considered. It has been recently proposed that the inner edge is not static and that the variations of young stars accretion luminosity are the signature of this interface displacements. This thesis address the question of the impact of the gas thermodynamics onto its dynamics around the dead zone inner edge. MHD simulations including the complex interplay between thermodynamical processes and the dynamics confirmed the dynamical behaviour of the inner edge. A first measure of the interface velocity has been realised. This result has been compared to the predictions of a mean field model. It revealed the crucial role of the energy transport by density waves excited at the interface. These simulations also exhibit a new intriguing phenomenon: vortices forming at the interface follow a cycle of formation-migration-destruction. This vortex cycle may compromise the formation of planetesimals at the inner edge. This thesis claims that thermodynamical processes are at the heart of how the region around the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks works. (author) [fr

  20. Living on the edge: emergence of spontaneous gac mutations in Pseudomonas protegens during swarming motility. (United States)

    Song, Chunxu; Kidarsa, Teresa A; van de Mortel, Judith E; Loper, Joyce E; Raaijmakers, Jos M


    Swarming motility is a flagella-driven multicellular behaviour that allows bacteria to colonize new niches and escape competition. Here, we investigated the evolution of specific mutations in the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system in swarming colonies of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. Experimental evolution assays showed that repeated rounds of swarming by wildtype Pf-5 drives the accumulation of gacS/gacA spontaneous mutants on the swarming edge. These mutants cannot swarm on their own because they lack production of the biosurfactant orfamide A, but they do co-swarm with orfamide-producing wildtype Pf-5. These co-swarming assays further demonstrated that ΔgacA mutant cells indeed predominate on the edge and that initial ΔgacA:wildtype Pf-5 ratios of at least 2:1 lead to a collapse of the swarming colony. Subsequent whole-genome transcriptome analyses revealed that genes associated with motility, resource acquisition, chemotaxis and efflux were significantly upregulated in ΔgacA mutant on swarming medium. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that ΔgacA mutant cells were longer and more flagellated than wildtype cells, which may explain their predominance on the swarming edge. We postulate that adaptive evolution through point mutations is a common feature of range-expanding microbial populations and that the putative fitness benefits of these mutations during dispersal of bacteria into new territories are frequency-dependent. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EDgE multi-model hydro-meteorological seasonal hindcast experiments over Europe (United States)

    Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Rakovec, Oldrich; Wood, Eric; Sheffield, Justin; Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Prudhomme, Christel


    Extreme hydrometeorological events (e.g., floods, droughts and heat waves) caused serious damage to society and infrastructures over Europe during the past decades. Developing a seamless and skillful operational seasonal forecasting system of these extreme events is therefore a key tool for short-term decision making at local and regional scales. The EDgE project funded by the Copernicus programme (C3S) provides an unique opportunity to investigate the skill of a newly created large multi-model hydro-meteorological ensemble for predicting extreme events over the Pan-EU domain at a higher resolution 5×5 km2. Two state-of-the-art seasonal prediction systems were chosen for this project. Two models from the North American MultiModel ensemble (NMME) with 22 realizations, and two models provided by the ECMWF with 30 realizations. All models provide daily forcings (P, Ta, Tmin, Tmax) of the the Pan-EU at 1°. Downscaling has been carried out with the MTCLIM algorithm (Bohn et al. 2013) and external drift Kriging using elevation as drift to induce orographic effects. In this project, four high-resolution seamless hydrologic simulations with the mHM (, Noah-MP, VIC and PCR-GLOBWB have been completed for the common hindcast period of 1993-2012 resulting in an ensemble size of 208 realizations. Key indicators are focussing on six terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (tECVs): river runoff, soil moisture, groundwater recharge, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and snow water equivalent. Impact Indicators have been co-designed with stakeholders in Norway (hydro-power), UK (water supply), and Spain (river basin authority) to provide an improved information for decision making. The Indicators encompass diverse information such as the occurrence of high and low streamflow percentiles (floods, and hydrological drought) and lower percentiles of top soil moisture (agricultural drought) among others. Preliminary results evaluated at study sites in Norway

  2. Magnetic X-points, edge localized modes, and stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, L. E.; Strauss, H. R.


    Edge localized modes (ELMs) near the boundary of a high temperature, magnetically confined toroidal plasma represent a new type of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma instability that grows through a coherent plasma interaction with part of a chaotic magnetic field. Under perturbation, the freely moving magnetic boundary surface with an X-point splits into two different limiting asymptotic surfaces (manifolds), similar to the behavior of a hyperbolic saddle point in Hamiltonian dynamics. Numerical simulation using the extended MHD code M3D shows that field-aligned plasma instabilities, such as ballooning modes, can couple to the ''unstable'' manifold that forms helical, field-following lobes around the original surface. Large type I ELMs proceed in stages. Initially, a rapidly growing ballooning outburst involves the entire outboard side. Large plasma fingers grow well off the midplane, while low density regions penetrate deeply into the plasma. The magnetic field becomes superficially stochastic. A secondary inboard edge instability causes inboard plasma loss. The plasma gradually relaxes back toward axisymmetry, with diminishing cycles of edge instability. Poloidal rotation of the interior and edge plasma may be driven. The magnetic tangle constrains the early nonlinear ballooning, but may encourage the later inward penetration. Equilibrium toroidal rotation and two-fluid diamagnetic drifts have relatively small effects on a strong MHD instability. Intrinsic magnetic stochasticity may help explain the wide range of experimentally observed ELMs and ELM-free behavior in fusion plasmas, as well as properties of the H-mode and plasma edge.

  3. Laser speckle reduction based on compressive sensing and edge detection (United States)

    Wen, Dong-hai; Jiang, Yue-song; Hua, Hou-qiang; Yu, Rong; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Yan-zhong


    Polarization active imager technology obtains images encoded by parameters different than just the reflectivity and therefore provides new information on the image. So polarization active imager systems represent a very powerful observation tool. However, automatic interpretation of the information contained in the reflected intensity of the polarization active image data is extremely difficult because of the speckle phenomenon. An approach for speckle reduction of polarization active image based on the concepts of compressive sensing (CS) theory and edge detection. First, A Canny operator is first utilized to detect and remove edges from the polarization active image. Then, a dictionary learning algorithm which is applied to sparse image representation. The dictionary learning problem is expressed as a box-constrained quadratic program and a fast projected gradient method is introduced to solve it. The Gradient Projection for Square Reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm for solving bound constrained quadratic programming to reduce the speckle noise in the polarization active images. The block-matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithm is used to reduce speckle nosie, it works in two steps: The first one uses hard thresholding to build a relatively clean image for estimating statistics, while the second one performs the actual denoising through empirical Wiener filtering in the transform domain. Finally, the removed edges are added to the reconstructed image. Experimental results show that the visual quality and evaluation indexes outperform the other methods with no edge preservation. The proposed algorithm effectively realizes both despeckling and edge preservation and reaches the state-of-the-art performance.

  4. Surfing the edge: using feedback control to find nonlinear solutions (United States)

    Willis, A. P.; Duguet, Y.; Omel'chenko, O.; Wolfrum, M.


    Many transitional wall-bounded shear flows are characterised by the coexistence in state-space of laminar and turbulent regimes. Probing the edge boundary between the two attractors has led in the last decade to the numerical discovery of new (unstable) solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, the iterative bisection method used to achieve this can become prohibitively costly for large systems. Here we suggest a simple feedback control strategy to stabilise edge states, hence accelerating their numerical identification by several orders of magnitude. The method is illustrated for several configurations of cylindrical pipe flow. Travelling waves solutions are identified as edge states, and can be isolated rapidly in only one short numerical run. A new branch of solutions is also identified. When the edge state is a periodic orbit or chaotic state, the feedback control does not converge precisely to solutions of the uncontrolled system, but nevertheless brings the dynamics very close to the original edge manifold in a single run. We discuss the opportunities offered by the speed and simplicity of this new method to probe the structure of both state space and parameter space.

  5. Edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated anisotropic two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Yang, Juntan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yinfeng; Gao, Huajian; Chai, Yang; Yao, Haimin


    Mechanical exfoliation is an approach widely applied to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials for investigating their intrinsic physical properties. During mechanical exfoliation, in-plane cleavage results in new edges whose orientations play an important role in determining the properties of the as-exfoliated 2D materials especially those with high anisotropy. Here, we systematically investigate the factors affecting the edge orientation of 2D materials obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Our theoretical study manifests that the fractured direction during mechanical exfoliation is determined synergistically by the tearing direction and material anisotropy of fracture energy. For a specific 2D material, our theory enables us to predict the possible edge orientations of the exfoliated flakes as well as their occurring probabilities. The theoretical prediction is experimentally verified by examining the inter-edge angles of the exfoliated flakes of four typical 2D materials including graphene, MoS2, PtS2, and black phosphorus. This work not only sheds light on the mechanics of exfoliation of the 2D materials but also provides a new approach to deriving information of edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated 2D materials by data mining of their macroscopic geometric features.

  6. Topology and Edge Modes in Quantum Critical Chains (United States)

    Verresen, Ruben; Jones, Nick G.; Pollmann, Frank


    We show that topology can protect exponentially localized, zero energy edge modes at critical points between one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological phases. This is possible even without gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk—in contrast to recent work on edge modes in gapless chains. We present an intuitive picture for the existence of these edge modes in the case of noninteracting spinless fermions with time-reversal symmetry (BDI class of the tenfold way). The stability of this phenomenon relies on a topological invariant defined in terms of a complex function, counting its zeros and poles inside the unit circle. This invariant can prevent two models described by the same conformal field theory (CFT) from being smoothly connected. A full classification of critical phases in the noninteracting BDI class is obtained: Each phase is labeled by the central charge of the CFT, c ∈1/2 N , and the topological invariant, ω ∈Z . Moreover, c is determined by the difference in the number of edge modes between the phases neighboring the transition. Numerical simulations show that the topological edge modes of critical chains can be stable in the presence of interactions and disorder.

  7. Modeling the Acid-Base Properties of Montmorillonite Edge Surfaces. (United States)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Davis, James A; Chiaberge, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bourg, Ian C


    The surface reactivity of clay minerals remains challenging to characterize because of a duality of adsorption surfaces and mechanisms that does not exist in the case of simple oxide surfaces: edge surfaces of clay minerals have a variable proton surface charge arising from hydroxyl functional groups, whereas basal surfaces have a permanent negative charge arising from isomorphic substitutions. Hence, the relationship between surface charge and surface potential on edge surfaces cannot be described using the Gouy-Chapman relation, because of a spillover of negative electrostatic potential from the basal surface onto the edge surface. While surface complexation models can be modified to account for these features, a predictive fit of experimental data was not possible until recently, because of uncertainty regarding the densities and intrinsic pK a values of edge functional groups. Here, we reexamine this problem in light of new knowledge on intrinsic pK a values obtained over the past decade using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and we propose a new formalism to describe edge functional groups. Our simulation results yield reasonable predictions of the best available experimental acid-base titration data.

  8. Trailing edge noise estimation by tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (United States)

    Pröbsting, Stefan; Tuinstra, Marthijn; Scarano, Fulvio


    The feasibility of estimating broadband trailing edge noise with high-speed tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements is studied. A thin plate terminating in a sharp trailing edge provides a generic test case for turbulent boundary layer trailing edge interaction noise. Far-field noise is linked to the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of the surface pressure fluctuations in proximity of the trailing edge through diffraction theory. High-speed tomographic PIV measurements return volumetric and time-resolved information about all velocity components for the resolved spatio-temporal scales and can therefore provide the required statistical quantities. For the turbulent boundary layer interacting with the trailing edge, these statistics include the auto-spectral density, spanwise correlation length, and convection velocity of the unsteady surface pressure, which are thus estimated. Acoustic phased array measurements in an anechoic environment provide a reference for comparison. Over the resolved frequency band, PIV based noise estimation results compare favorably with the reference measurements. Especially at lower frequencies, where existing, empirical models for the unsteady surface pressure spectrum are not accurate, tomographic PIV can offer an alternative approach to complex and intrusive model instrumentation for assessing the relevant statistical quantities.

  9. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu


    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  10. Habitat heterogeneity hypothesis and edge effects in model metacommunities. (United States)

    Hamm, Michaela; Drossel, Barbara


    Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent property of any living environment and is expected to favour biodiversity due to a broader niche space. Furthermore, edges between different habitats can provide additional possibilities for species coexistence. Using computer simulations, this study examines metacommunities consisting of several trophic levels in heterogeneous environments in order to explore the above hypotheses on a community level. We model heterogeneous landscapes by using two different sized resource pools and evaluate the combined effect of dispersal and heterogeneity on local and regional species diversity. This diversity is obtained by running population dynamics and evaluating the robustness (i.e., the fraction of surviving species). The main results for regional robustness are in agreement with the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, as the largest robustness is found in heterogeneous systems with intermediate dispersal rates. This robustness is larger than in homogeneous systems with the same total amount of resources. We study the edge effect by arranging the two types of resources in two homogeneous blocks. Different edge responses in diversity are observed, depending on dispersal strength. Local robustness is highest for edge habitats that contain the smaller amount of resource in combination with intermediate dispersal. The results show that dispersal is relevant to correctly identify edge responses on community level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic comic page image understanding based on edge segment analysis (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Li, Luyuan; Gao, Liangcai


    Comic page image understanding aims to analyse the layout of the comic page images by detecting the storyboards and identifying the reading order automatically. It is the key technique to produce the digital comic documents suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic page image understanding method based on edge segment analysis. First, we propose an efficient edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input comic page image; second, we propose a top-down scheme to detect line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we develop a novel method to detect the storyboards by selecting the border lines and further identify the reading order of these storyboards. The proposed method is performed on a data set consisting of 2000 comic page images from ten printed comic series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves satisfactory results on different comics and outperforms the existing methods.

  12. Motion edges and regions guide image segmentation by colour. (United States)

    Møller, P; Hurlbert, A C


    Image segmentation is an important early stage in visual processing in which the visual system groups together parts of the image that belong together, prior to or in conjunction with object recognition. Two principal processes may be involved in image segmentation: an edge-based process that uses feature contrasts to mark boundaries of coherent regions, and a region-based process that groups similar features over a larger scale. Earlier, we have shown that motion and colour interact strongly in image segmentation by the human visual system. Here we explore the nature of this interaction in terms of edge- and region-based processes. We measure performance on a region-based colour segmentation task in the presence of distinct types of motion information, in the form of edges and regions which in themselves do not reveal the location of the colour target. The results show that both motion edges and regions may guide the integrative process required for this colour segmentation task. Motion edges appear to act by delimiting areas over which to integrate colour information, whereas motion similarities define primitive surfaces within which colour grouping and segmentation processes are deployed.

  13. Material Discrimination Based on K-edge Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He


    Full Text Available Spectral/multienergy CT employing the state-of-the-art energy-discriminative photon-counting detector can identify absorption features in the multiple ranges of photon energies and has the potential to distinguish different materials based on K-edge characteristics. K-edge characteristics involve the sudden attenuation increase in the attenuation profile of a relatively high atomic number material. Hence, spectral CT can utilize material K-edge characteristics (sudden attenuation increase to capture images in available energy bins (levels/windows to distinguish different material components. In this paper, we propose an imaging model based on K-edge characteristics for maximum material discrimination with spectral CT. The wider the energy bin width is, the lower the noise level is, but the poorer the reconstructed image contrast is. Here, we introduce the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR criterion to optimize the energy bin width after the K-edge jump for the maximum CNR. In the simulation, we analyze the reconstructed image quality in different energy bins and demonstrate that our proposed optimization approach can maximize CNR between target region and background region in reconstructed image.

  14. Microbial growth on the edge of desiccation. (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M


    The availability of water, which can be expressed in terms of water activity (a(w)), is one of the most important determinants for microbial homeostasis and growth on surface to air interfaces. Here we show, using an environmental control chamber containing a precisely controlled temperature/a(w) gradient in combination with a mathematical approach, that the environmental a(w) growth limit of a microorganism can be lower than its intracellular a(w) limit. This internal limit represents the point at which microbial cells cannot lower their internal a(w) any further in response to low external a(w) values without interfering with essential intracellular processes. To grow at external a(w) values below their internal limit, microbes need to generate more water metabolically than they lose to their environment. This internal a(w) limit can be calculated by measuring the a(w) growth limit of an organism at different water vapour diffusivities using barometric pressure as a variable. Fascinating morphological changes, such as rope-like superstructures formed by B. subtilis, are furthermore observed in response to low external a(w) values in particular around the calculated intracellular a(w) limit. The intracellular a(w) limit of an organism is a decisive parameter for water limitation-induced adaptations in cellular hydrophilicity and morphogenesis. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Edge transport barrier formation in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S; Minami, T; Oishi, T; Suzuki, C; Ida, K; Isobe, M; Yoshimura, Y; Nagaoka, K; Toi, K; Fujisawa, A; Akiyama, T; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, R; Kado, S; Matsuoka, K; Matsushita, H; Nakamura, K; Nakano, H; Nishimura, S; Nishiura, M; Ohshima, S; Shimizu, A; Takagi, S; Takahashi, C; Takeuchi, M; Yoshinuma, M


    The edge transport barrier (ETB) for particle transport is formed in the neutral beam (NB) heated hydrogen discharges in compact helical system (CHS). The transition to the ETB formation and the back transition are controlled by the heating power. The existence of the heating power threshold is confirmed and it is roughly proportional to the density. The Hα emission signal shows a clear drop at the transition (the timescale of signal decrease is ∼1 ms for the high heating power case). The ETB formation continues for the full duration of NB injection (100 ms) with a moderate level of radiation power loss. Local density profile measurement shows increase of the edge density and the movement of the density gradient region towards the edge

  16. Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji


    The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb interaction. Local probing of these submicrometer features, however, is challenging due to the buried 2DEG structures. Using a newly developed microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping of the edge and bulk states. The sizes, positions, and field dependence of the edge strips around the sample perimeter agree quantitatively with the self-consistent electrostatic picture. The evolution of microwave images as a function of magnetic fields provides rich microscopic information around the ν=2 QHE state. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  17. Canny Edge Detection in Cross-Spectral Fused Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Suárez


    Full Text Available Considering that the images of different spectra provide an ample information that helps a lo in the process of identification and distinction of objects that have unique spectral signatures. In this paper, the use of cross-spectral images in the process of edge detection is evaluated. This study aims to assess the Canny edge detector with two variants. The first relates to the use of merged cross-spectral images and the second the inclusion of morphological filters. To ensure the quality of the data used in this study the GQM (Goal-Question- Metrics, framework, was applied to reduce noise and increase the entropy on images. The metrics obtained in the experiments confirm that the quantity and quality of the detected edges increases significantly after the inclusion of a morphological filter and a channel of near infrared spectrum in the merged images.

  18. Phase dynamics of edge transport bifurcation induced by external biasing (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, X. Y.; Xie, Z. J.; Li, P. F.; Gentle, K. W.


    Edge transport bifurcation induced by external biasing is explored with self-consistent turbulence simulations in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. Without bias, the nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence produces large-scale turbulent eddies, leading to the high levels of radial transport in the edge region. With sufficiently strong biasing, a strong suppression of turbulence is found. The plasma potential structures are strongly modified with the generation of sheared mean flows at the plasma edge. Consequently, the turbulence-driven flux is decreased to a much lower level, indicating a transition to a state of reduced transport. The simulations show that the dynamics of the phase and amplitude of fluctuations play a crucial role in the mechanism of transport suppression driven by biasing.

  19. Radiative distortion of kinematic edges in cascade decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beneke


    Full Text Available Kinematic edges of cascade decays of new particles produced in high-energy collisions may provide important constraints on the involved particles' masses. For the exemplary case of gluino decay g˜→qq¯χ˜ into a pair of quarks and a neutralino through a squark resonance, we study the hadronic invariant mass distribution in the vicinity of the kinematic edge. We perform a next-to-leading order calculation in the strong coupling αs and the ratio of squark width and squark mass Γq˜/mq˜, based on a systematic expansion in Γq˜/mq˜. The separation into hard, collinear and soft contributions elucidates the process-dependent and universal features of distributions in the edge region, represented by on-shell decay matrix elements, universal jet functions and a soft function that depends on the resonance propagator and soft Wilson lines.

  20. Does vegetation prevent wave erosion of salt marsh edges? (United States)

    Feagin, R A; Lozada-Bernard, S M; Ravens, T M; Möller, I; Yeager, K M; Baird, A H


    This study challenges the paradigm that salt marsh plants prevent lateral wave-induced erosion along wetland edges by binding soil with live roots and clarifies the role of vegetation in protecting the coast. In both laboratory flume studies and controlled field experiments, we show that common salt marsh plants do not significantly mitigate the total amount of erosion along a wetland edge. We found that the soil type is the primary variable that influences the lateral erosion rate and although plants do not directly reduce wetland edge erosion, they may do so indirectly via modification of soil parameters. We conclude that coastal vegetation is best-suited to modify and control sedimentary dynamics in response to gradual phenomena like sea-level rise or tidal forces, but is less well-suited to resist punctuated disturbances at the seaward margin of salt marshes, specifically breaking waves.

  1. Wavelet domain image restoration with adaptive edge-preserving regularization. (United States)

    Belge, M; Kilmer, M E; Miller, E L


    In this paper, we consider a wavelet based edge-preserving regularization scheme for use in linear image restoration problems. Our efforts build on a collection of mathematical results indicating that wavelets are especially useful for representing functions that contain discontinuities (i.e., edges in two dimensions or jumps in one dimension). We interpret the resulting theory in a statistical signal processing framework and obtain a highly flexible framework for adapting the degree of regularization to the local structure of the underlying image. In particular, we are able to adapt quite easily to scale-varying and orientation-varying features in the image while simultaneously retaining the edge preservation properties of the regularizer. We demonstrate a half-quadratic algorithm for obtaining the restorations from observed data.

  2. Edge blurring in stacked x-ray film screen combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, J.W.


    The Advanced Experiments Group of B-Division, LLNL, has been seeking to improve the sensitivity and spatial resolution of stacked film screens for bremsstrahlung flash radiography of imploding, dense metal shells. In the work reported here, we experimentally measured the spreading of the x-ray shadow of the edge of a uranium block in two film-and-screen combinations. We also used the SANDYL code, which models photon and electron scattering, to calculate the theoretical edge spreading in an array of films and screens. Experimentally, the uranium edge was spread to a width of 1.7 mm in the combination 0.15-mm-Ta/NDT9-XAR5, and 1.5 mm in the combination 0.25-mm-Ta/NDT6-XAR5. The theoretical calculation agreed with these results

  3. A survey of problems in divertor and edge plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.; Braams, B.; Weitzner, H.; Hazeltine, R.; Houlberg, W.; Oktay, E.; Sadowski, W.; Wootton, A.


    Theoretical physics problems related to divertor design are presented, organized by the region in which they occur. Some of the open questions in edge physics are presented from a theoretician's point of view. After a cursory sketch of the fluid models of the edge plasma and their numerical realization, the following topics are taken up: time-dependent problems, non-axisymmetric effects, anomalous transport in the scrape-off layer, edge kinetic theory, sheath effects and boundary conditions in divertors, electric field effects, atomic and molecular data issues, impurity transport in the divertor region, poloidally localized power dissipation (MARFEs and dense gas targets), helium ash removal, and neutral transport. The report ends with a summary of selected problems of particular significance and a brief bibliography of survey articles and related conference proceedings

  4. Material matters: Controllable rubber trailing edge flap regulates load on wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    trailing edge flap, known as CRTEF. The trailing edge blade design is expected to help mitigate localized loading, and its molded rubber design, the sharp trailing edge, produces less noise and greater output. With CRTEF, the blade automatically has a completely sharp edge. The elastic flap tested...

  5. Variation in Local-Scale Edge Effects: Mechanisms and landscape Context (United States)

    Therese M. Donovan; Peter W. Jones; Elizabeth M. Annand; Frank R. Thompson III


    Ecological processes near habitat edges often differ from processes away from edges. Yet, the generality of "edge effects" has been hotly debated because results vary tremendously. To understand the factors responsible for this variation, we described nest predation and cowbird distribution patterns in forest edge and forest core habitats on 36 randomly...

  6. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  7. Edge plasma control using an LID configuration on CHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Morisaki, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki (Japan)] [and others


    A Local Island Divertor (LID) has been proposed to enhance energy confinement through neutral particle control. For the case of the Large Helical Device (LHD), the separatrix of an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island, formed at the edge region, will be utilized as a divertor configuration. The divertor head is inserted in the island, and the island separatrix provides connection between the edge plasma region surrounding the core plasma and the back plate of the divertor head through the field lines. The particle flux and associated heat flux from the core plasma strike the back plate of the divertor head, and thus particle recycling is localized in this region. A pumping duct covers the divertor head to form a closed divertor system for efficient particle exhaust. The advantages of the LID are ease of hydrogen pumping because of the localized particle recycling and avoidance of the high heat load that would be localized on the leading edge of the divertor head. With efficient pumping, the neutral pressure in the edge plasma region will be reduced, and hence the edge plasma temperature will be higher, hopefully leading to a better core confinement region. A LID configuration experiment was done on the Compact Helical System (CHS) to confirm the effect of the LID. The typical effects of the LID configuration on the core plasma are reduction of the line averaged density to a half, and small or no reduction of the stored energy. In this contribution, the experimental results which were obtained in edge plasma control experiments with the LID configuration in the CHS are presented.

  8. Dynamical phenomena at the inner edge of the Keeler gap (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Philip D.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; El Moutamid, Maryame


    We analyze several thousand Cassini ISS images in order to study the inner edge of the Keeler gap in Saturn's outer A ring. We find strong evidence for an m = 32 perturbation with a mean amplitude of radial variation of 4.5 km. Phase analysis yields a pattern speed consistent with the mean motion of Prometheus, indicating that this pattern is generated by the 32:31 Inner Lindblad resonance with Prometheus. In addition, we find evidence of 18-lobed and 20-lobed patterns with amplitudes of ∼1.5 km. These patterns, whose rotation rates correspond to resonance locations ∼4 km interior to the gap edge, are believed to be normal modes. The former is probably related to the nearby 18:17 (m = 18) resonance with Pandora. In addition to these resonant and normal mode patterns, we also observe multiple localized features that appear to move at the local keplerian rate and that persist for only a few months. One hypothesis is that different groups of ring particles at the inner edge of the gap may be reacting differently to the resonance with Prometheus, with local variations in the forced eccentricity and/or pericenter; an alternative hypothesis is the existence of several unseen objects embedded at or near the inner edge of the Keeler gap, similar to those suspected to exist at the outer edges of the A and B rings. In either case, observations of the ring edge at opposite ansae demonstrate that the localized features must be on eccentric orbits.

  9. Understanding the edge crack phenomenon in ceramic laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ševeček


    Full Text Available Layered ceramic materials (also referred to as “ceramic laminates” are becoming one of the most promising areas of materials technology aiming to improve the brittle behavior of bulk ceramics. The utilization of tailored compressive residual stresses acting as physical barriers to crack propagation has already succeeded in many ceramic systems. Relatively thick compressive layers located below the surface have proven very effective to enhance the fracture resistance and provide a minimum strength for the material. However, internal compressive stresses result in out-of plane stresses at the free surfaces, what can cause cracking of the compressive layer, forming the so-called edge cracks. Experimental observations have shown that edge cracking may be associated with the magnitude of the compressive stresses and with the thickness of the compressive layer. However, an understanding of the parameters related to the onset and extension of such edge cracks in the compressive layers is still lacking. In this work, a 2D parametric finite element model has been developed to predict the onset and propagation of an edge crack in ceramic laminates using a coupled stress-energy criterion. This approach states that a crack is originated when both stress and energy criteria are fulfilled simultaneously. Several designs with different residual stresses and a given thickness in the compressive layers have been computed. The results predict the existence of a lower bound, below no edge crack will be observed, and an upper bound, beyond which the onset of an edge crack would lead to the complete fracture of the layer

  10. Aerodynamic noise from rigid trailing edges with finite porous extensions (United States)

    Kisil, A.; Ayton, L. J.


    This paper investigates the effects of finite flat porous extensions to semi-infinite impermeable flat plates in an attempt to control trailing-edge noise through bio-inspired adaptations. Specifically the problem of sound generated by a gust convecting in uniform mean steady flow scattering off the trailing edge and permeable-impermeable junction is considered. This setup supposes that any realistic trailing-edge adaptation to a blade would be sufficiently small so that the turbulent boundary layer encapsulates both the porous edge and the permeable-impermeable junction, and therefore the interaction of acoustics generated at these two discontinuous boundaries is important. The acoustic problem is tackled analytically through use of the Wiener-Hopf method. A two-dimensional matrix Wiener-Hopf problem arises due to the two interaction points (the trailing edge and the permeable-impermeable junction). This paper discusses a new iterative method for solving this matrix Wiener-Hopf equation which extends to further two-dimensional problems in particular those involving analytic terms that exponentially grow in the upper or lower half planes. This method is an extension of the commonly used "pole removal" technique and avoids the needs for full matrix factorisation. Convergence of this iterative method to an exact solution is shown to be particularly fast when terms neglected in the second step are formally smaller than all other terms retained. The final acoustic solution highlights the effects of the permeable-impermeable junction on the generated noise, in particular how this junction affects the far-field noise generated by high-frequency gusts by creating an interference to typical trailing-edge scattering. This effect results in partially porous plates predicting a lower noise reduction than fully porous plates when compared to fully impermeable plates.

  11. Results of Edge Scatter Testing for a Starshade Mission (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Casement, L. Suzanne; Ellis, Scott; Stover, John; Warwick, Steve


    In the field of exoplanet detection and characterization, the use of a starshade, an external occulter in front of a telescope at large separations, has been identified as one of the highly promising methods to achieve the necessary high contrast imagery. Control of scattered sunlight from the edges of the starshade into the telescope has been identified as one of the key technology development areas in order to make the starshade feasible. Modeling of the scattered light has resulted in very different results so a campaign of experimentation with edge samples was undertaken to attempt to understand the discrepancies.Here, we present our results from the measurement of select samples of materials which would be suitable for manufacturing the starshade edge, and related models. We have focused on coating metallic samples for ease of fabrication: Titanium, Aluminum, and a Beryllium Copper alloy. Using standard machine shop methods, we fabricated samples which had sharp edges with radius of curvature (RoC) between 15 and 20 μm. We then had these samples coated by two suppliers to evaluate how well these coating types would conform to the edge and provide scatter suppression. The results of scatter measurements of these coated edge samples are presented. These scatter results have been incorporated into a new geometrical model in FRED which includes the details of the starshade mechanical model. This model predicts both the magnitude and distribution of the scattered sunlight in the image plane of a nominal telescope. We present these results, including a first effort at modeling the Solar System at 10 pc as seen by this mission architecture.

  12. Can retinal adhesion mechanisms determine cell-sorting patterns: a test of the differential adhesion hypothesis. (United States)

    Thomas, W A; Yancey, J


    Embryonic chick neural retina cells possess two classes of adhesion mechanism, one Ca2+-independent, one Ca2+-dependent, responsible for short-term cell aggregation. This study investigates the role of these mechanisms in the long-term cell sorting potentially relevant to in vivo histogenesis. Retina cells are prepared either with both (E cells) or with only one mechanism (TC cells, CD; LTE cells, CI), respectively. The two types of cell preparations are differentially labelled using fluorescein or rhodamine isothiocyanate, mixed and allowed to aggregate in the presence or absence of cycloheximide at 0.5 microgram ml-1 to retard metabolic recovery of the removed adhesive mechanism. When observed by fluorescence and phase-contrast microscopy, the aggregates formed in cycloheximide show cell sorting, the cells with both mechanisms assuming a more interior position relative to those with a single adhesion mechanism. In parallel hanging-drop experiments, preformed aggregates of cells with a single adhesion mechanism are seen to spread upon aggregates of cells with both mechanisms. No sorting occurs amongst cells from a given stage prepared using any single dissociation protocol. The observed cell sorting would thus seem to derive exclusively from differential cell adhesiveness dependent upon the different dissociation conditions and maintained in the presence of cycloheximide. The experiments support the hypothesis that the dual CI and CD adhesion mechanisms in question can play a central role in governing cell-sorting behaviour during normal histogenesis.

  13. Magnetic edge states in MoS2 characterized using density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Hinnemann, B.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    It is known that the edges of a two-dimensional slab of insulating MoS2 exhibit one-dimensional metallic edge states, the so-called "brim states." Here, we find from density-functional theory calculations that several edge structures, which are relevant for the hydrodesulfurization process......, are magnetic. The magnetism is an edge phenomenon associated with certain metallic edge states. Interestingly, we find that among the two low-index edges, only the S edge displays magnetism under hydrodesulfurization conditions. In addition, the implications of this on the catalytic activity are investigated...

  14. Detecting image edge from projections using Discrete Radon Transform properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Li Zheng


    The authors studied the distributed 2-D convolution of Discrete Radon Transform, and developed a method of image processing used directly on the projection data in Computerized Tomography. The special case of edge detection and its computer simulated results are demonstrated. The paper also compared the traditional image edge detection method with the new method, analyzed the effecting factors of calculating time. It is proved that the new method is superior to the traditional method in calculating time. The advantage and application potential of the new method are also discussed. (authors)

  15. Metallic and ferromagnetic edges in molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello-Mendez, A R; Lopez-Urias, F; Terrones, M; Terrones, H


    The magnetic and electronic properties of MoS 2 nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are investigated using LSDA-DFT. We found that the properties of the nanoribbons are very different from bulk MoS 2 due to edge states. Armchair nanoribbons could be metallic and exhibit a magnetic moment; however, when passivating with hydrogen, they become semiconducting. Zigzag nanoribbons are metallic and exhibit unusual magnetic properties regardless of passivation. Our results could explain the recent evidence of ferromagnetism in flat MoS 2 clusters, and motivate the synthesis of novel MoS 2 nanosystems.

  16. Edge-preserving seismic imaging using the total variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagaw, Amsalu Y; Sacchi, Mauricio D


    Inverse problems are generally mathematically ill-posed and, therefore, regularization methods are required to obtain stable and unique solutions. The total variation (TV) regularization method is used to resolve sharp interfaces and obtain solutions where edges and discontinuities are preserved. TV regularization accomplishes these goals by imposing sparsity on the gradient of the model parameters. In this paper, the TV method is applied to invert acoustic perturbations using the single-scattering Born modelling operator. The TV regularization leads to images of model parameters with preserved discontinuities and edges. Synthetic data examples are used to test the proposed seismic imaging algorithm. (paper)

  17. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian


    The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman-type dynamic stall model. In this work, a deformable trailing-edge flap has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in hea...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. Nonneutralized charge effects on tokamak edge magnetohydrodynamic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linjin; Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Shi, T.H.; Wang, H.Q.


    Owing to the large ion orbits, excessive electrons can accumulate at tokamak edge. We find that the nonneutralized electrons at tokamak edge can contribute an electric compressive stress in the direction parallel to magnetic field by their mutual repulsive force. By extending the Chew–Goldburger–Low theory (Chew et al., 1956 [13]), it is shown that this newly recognized compressive stress can significantly change the plasma average magnetic well, so that a stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes in the pedestal can result. This linear stability regime helps to explain why in certain parameter regimes the tokamak high confinement can be rather quiet as observed experimentally.

  19. Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.


    The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model is tested and validated by comparing with other results from the literature. Finally, this model is used in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RISOE-B1-18 and the S809 airfoils. (au)

  20. Modification of ferromagnetic nanostripe dynamic behavior by edge defects (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhao, Chunwang; Li, Yulian


    The dynamic spectra of ferromagnetic nanostripes with different edge defects are investigated using the three-dimensional object-oriented micromagnetic framework code. Two main resonance peaks are found in nanostripes due to nonuniformity of the static magnetization patterns. The higher peak can be identified by the precession of magnetization in the middle part of the nanostripes. The lower one can be identified by the sample end part. The values of two precession frequencies and linewidths can be modified using the edge defect to tune the magnetization of different parts of samples, which is important and useful in magnetic storage devices.