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Sample records for adhesion molecule expression

  1. Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecules in biliary atresia.

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, P.; Belchis, D.; Tracy, T.; Cilley, R.; Hafer, L.; Krummel, T

    1994-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, was studied in six infants with biliary atresia using an immunoperoxidase technique on frozen sections. Controls consisted of five patients with various conditions including total parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis, choledochal cyst, viral hepatitis, metastatic carcinoma, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. None o...

  2. Methylene blue modulates adhesion molecule expression on microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Stock, Ulrich A; Lupinski, Michèle; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2014-08-01

    As methylene blue (MB) has been recently proposed to preserve blood pressure in case of vasoplegic syndrome and shock, an entity directly related to systemic inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the effect of MB on the expression of adhesion-molecules in endothelial-cells. Human microvascular endothelial-cells (HuMEC-1) were treated with 10, 30 or 60 µM MB for 30 min and 2 h each. Additionally, the treated HuMEC-1 were co-cultured with either human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells (human T-lymphocytes) for 2 h. HuMEC-1 were analyzed after MB treatment and after co-culture experiments for expression of different adhesion-molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, L-selectin, E-selectin) via FACS measurement and western blot analysis. The supernatants of the experiments were analyzed with regard to the soluble forms of the adhesion molecules. We found that MB is able to modulate the expression of adhesion-molecules on EC. Administration of MB increases the expression of E-selectin and VCAM-1 depending on the dosage and time of exposure. ICAM-1 measurements provide evidence that different circulating blood cells can differently alter the adhesion-molecule expression on EC after MB exposure. Our results provide evidence regarding the immunomodulatory effect of MB upon endothelial-cells after inflammation.

  3. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Jung, Juliana Elizabeth; Silva de Castro, Caio César; de Noronha, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. The average value of the immunohistochemically positive reaction area of the vitiligo specimens was 3053.2μm2, compared with the observed value of 3431.8μm2 in non vitiligo skin (p=0.003) for laminin. The immuno-positive area was 7174.6μm2 (vitiligo) and 8966.7μm2 (non lesional skin) for integrin (p=0.042). A reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the basal layer of the epidermis in vitiligo samples was also observed (p=0.001 and pvitiligo and non lesional skin. Our results suggest that an impairment in adhesion exists in vitiligo skin, which is supported by the diminished immunohistochemical expression of laminin, beta1 integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth hormone increases vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Krarup; Fisker, Sanne; Dall, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the impact of GH administration on endothelial adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, in vivo and in vitro. Soluble VCAM-1, E-selectin, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured before and after treatment in 25 healthy subjects...

  5. Adhesion Molecule Expression in Human Endothelial Cells under Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudimov, E. G.; Andreeva, E. R.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2013-02-01

    High gravisensitivity of endothelium is now well recognized. Therefore, the microgravity can be one of the main factors affecting the endothelium in space flight. In this work we studied the effects of gravity vector randomization (3D-clinorotation in RPM) on the viability of endothelial cells from human umbilical vein (HUVEC) and the expression of adhesion molecules on its surface. After RPM exposure, HUVEC conditioning medium was collected for cytokines evaluation, a part of vials was used for immunocytochemistry and other one - for cytofluorimetric analysis of ICAM-I, VCAM-I, PECAM-I, E-selectin, Endoglin, VE-cadherin expression. The viability of HUVEC and constitutive expression of EC marker molecules PECAM-I and Endoglin were similar in all experimental groups both after 6 and 24 hrs of exposure. There were no differences in ICAM-I and E-selectin expression on HUVEC in 3 groups after 6 hrs of exposure. 24 hrs incubation has provoked decrease in ICAM-I and E-selectin expression. Thus, gravity vector randomization can lead to the disruption of ECs monolayer.

  6. Clock upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes mononuclear cells adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yinghua; Meng, Dan; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Zhu; Zhao, Ran; Lu, Chao; Chen, Sifeng; Hua, Luchun; Qian, Ruizhe

    2014-01-10

    Clock is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that plays important role in circadian rhythms of various physiological functions. Previous study showed that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was reduced in the liver tissues of Clock mutant mice. However, how Clock regulates ICAM-1 expression and whether Clock affects cell adhesion function remain unknown. In the present study, we found that exogenous expression of Clock upregulated the gene expressions of ICAM-1 and other adhesion-related genes including VCAM1 and CCL-2, and increased the transcriptional activity of ICAM-1 in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell lines. In contrast, loss of Clock decreased these gene expressions and ICAM-1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that Clock binds to the E-box-like enhancer of ICAM-1 gene. ICAM-1 gene showed rhythmic expression in endothelial cells after serum shock in vitro, suggesting ICAM-1 may be a Clock-controlled gene. Clock regulates the adhesion of mononuclear cells to endothelial cells via ICAM-1. Together, our findings show that Clock is a positive regulator of ICAM-1, and promotes the adhesion of mononuclear cells to endothelial cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential expression of neural cell adhesion molecule and cadherins in pancreatic islets, glucagonomas, and insulinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, C J; Christgau, S; Williamson, M R

    1992-01-01

    in a process where cell adhesion molecules are involved. In this study we have analyzed the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and cadherin molecules in neonatal, young, and adult rat islet cells as well as in glucagonomas and insulinomas derived from a pluripotent rat islet cell tumor. Whereas...

  8. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression evolves between the neutrophilic and lymphocytic phases of viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makis, Alexandros; Shipway, David; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Pshezhetskiy, Dmitry; Chaliasos, Nikolaos; Stebbing, Justin; Siamopoulou, Antigone

    2010-09-01

    Viral meningitis is characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte pleocytosis, although neutrophils may predominate in the early phase. The T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance and expression of adhesion molecules seem to be involved in the CSF chemotaxis. We aimed to determine expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules in enteroviral meningitis. We investigated the serum and CSF levels of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, L-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) and cytokines (interleukin-12 [IL-12] and IL-4) in 105 children during an outbreak of enteroviral meningitis. Diagnosis was confirmed with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or serology for echovirus or Coxsackie virus, and matched with control subjects for clinical features but with negative PCR and/or serology. Apart from VCAM-1, the CSF levels of all investigated inflammatory molecules were significantly increased. In serum, sL-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher than control subjects. Serum and CSF L-selectin, serum VCAM-1, and CSF IL-12 were all observed to be expressed in significantly higher levels in the neutrophil-dominant subgroup (72% had duration of symptoms 24 h). Serum and CSF ICAM-1 was found at significantly higher levels in the latter group. Evolving expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines indicates a shift from Th1 to Th2 immune responses as infection progresses.

  9. Effects of Helicobacter pylori Water Extract on Expression of Endothelial Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Yoshida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether Helicobacter pylori water extract induces the upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, using an ELISA. The nature of the substances mediating this upregulation was also analyzed. H pylori water extract derived from type strain (NCTC 11637 significantly upregulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin to the same extent as interleukin-1. Treatments with extracts from clinical strains showed no significant increases in expression of these adhesion molecules. In a fractionation study, approximately 7 kDa fraction showed peak activity. This activity was tolerant to heating and trypsin digestion. These results indicate that H pylori water extract contains water-soluble, low-molecular, nonprotein substances which induce upregulation of adhesion molecules on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, suggesting that products of H pylori may elicit gastric mucosal inflammation by promoting expression of endothelial adhesion molecules.

  10. Myricitrin inhibits vascular adhesion molecule expression in TNF‑α‑stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jie; Yang, Hai-Tao; Duan, Hong-Yan; Wu, Jin-Tao; Qian, Peng; Fan, Xian-Wei; Wang, Shanling

    2017-11-01

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules is thought to serve an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Myricitrin, a bioactive compound of Myrica cerifera, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑atherogenic effects. However, the effect of myricitrin on the expression of adhesion molecules in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of myricitrin on tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)‑induced expression of adhesion molecules in VSMCs in vitro. The results revealed that myricitrin inhibited the adhesion of human THP‑1 monocyte cells to TNF‑α‑stimulated mouse MOVAS‑1 VSMC cells, and reduced the expression of adhesion molecules in TNF‑α‑stimulated MOVAS‑1 cells. In addition, myricitrin significantly inhibited the TNF‑α‑induced expression of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65, and prevented the TNF‑α‑induced degradation of nuclear factor of κ light chain enhancer in B‑cells inhibitor α. Furthermore, myricitrin inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in TNF‑α‑stimulated MOVAS‑1 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that myricitrin inhibits the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein‑1 and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 in TNF‑α‑stimulated MOVAS‑1 cells potentially via the NF‑κB signaling pathway. Therefore, myricitrin may be an effective pharmacological agent for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

  11. [Adhesion molecules and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierres, A; Benoliel, A M; Bongrand, P

    1999-12-01

    This review was aimed at summarizing recent advances in the understanding of cell adhesion in order to discuss the possible relevance of new knowledge to the exploration of cancer patients and elaboration of therapeutic strategies. During the last 10 years, many adhesion molecules were identified, thus allowing to determine their tissue distribution and functional regulation. The concept of adhesiveness was refined. It is now well known that adhesive rate (i.e., the minimal contact time required for bond formation) and binding strength (i.e., the minimal force required to detach bound cells) are distinct parameters. They may be regulated independently, and influence the cell behavior in different ways. It is now possible to achieve accurate control of tumor cell adhesiveness, either by inhibiting an adhesive mechanism (through monoclonal antibodies, competitive ligands, or inhibition of receptor expression with antisense strategy or gene knock-out) or by promoting a binding mechanism (with receptor transfection or pro-inflammatory stimulation). Recent progress opens new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment. First, the interpretation of experimental data may be improved. Cell adhesive behavior is not entirely accounted for by the density of membrane adhesion receptors. Indeed, adhesion is influenced by receptor connection to the cytoskeleton and structure of the cell coat. An adhesion receptor may be anti-metastatic through an increase in tumor cohesion and cell differentiation, or pro-metastatic, through facilitation of cell migration towards a target tissue. New therapeutic strategies may include anti-adhesive procedure aimed at preventing metastasis formation. The potential importance of a better control of inflammatory processes is also emphasized in view of the influence of these processes on the expression of adhesion molecules.

  12. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open...

  13. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua; Zhang, Mei

    2016-09-01

    The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  15. Exenatide Alters Gene Expression of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule (ICAM), and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM) in the Hippocampus of Type 2 Diabetic Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumuslu, Esen; Cine, Naci; Ertan Gökbayrak, Merve; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Ulak, Guner

    2016-07-28

    BACKGROUND Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor, ameliorates the symptoms of diabetes through stimulation of insulin secretion. Exenatide is a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor. Cell adhesion molecules are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and are involved in synaptic rearrangements in the mature brain. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present study demonstrated the effects of exenatide treatment (0.1 µg/kg, subcutaneously, twice daily for 2 weeks) on the gene expression levels of cell adhesion molecules, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in the brain tissue of diabetic BALB/c male mice by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA) injection to male mice. RESULTS The results of this study revealed that hippocampal gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were found to be up-regulated in STZ-NA-induced diabetic mice compared to those of controls. A significant decrease in the gene expression levels of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were determined after 2 weeks of exenatide administration. CONCLUSIONS Cell adhesion molecules may be involved in the molecular mechanism of diabetes. Exenatide has a strong beneficial action in managing diabetes induced by STZ/NA by altering gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM.

  16. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  17. Cordycepin inhibits vascular adhesion molecule expression in TNF-α-stimulated vascular muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jie; Yang, Hai-Tao; Duan, Hong-Yan; Wu, Jin-Tao; Qian, Peng; Fan, Xian-Wei; Wang, Shanling

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is associated with the increased expression of adhesion molecules in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Cordycepin is one of the major bioactive components of Ophiocordyceps sinensis that has been demonstrated to exert anti-atherogenic activity; however, its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro effects of cordycepin on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced suppression of adhesion molecule expression. The results of the present study demonstrated that cordycepin markedly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in TNF-α-stimulated human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs). Cordycepin significantly inhibited the TNF-α-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) activation (P<0.05), markedly inhibited the TNF-α-induced expression level of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and markedly prevented the TNF-α-associated degradation of IκBα in HA-VSMCs. The results of the present study suggest that cordycepin inhibits the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in TNF-α-stimulated HA-VSMCs via downregulating the MAPK/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, cordycepin may have a potential therapeutic application for preventing the advancement of atherosclerotic lesions.

  18. Regulation of Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression by Mast Cells, Macrophages, and Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Alcaide, Pilar; Liu, Li; Sun, Jiusong; He, Aina; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The leukocyte adhesion is mediated by localized activation of the endothelium through the action of inflammatory cytokines. The exact proinflammatory factors, however, that activate the endothelium and their cellular sources remain incompletely defined. Methods and Results Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf−/−, Ifng−/−, Il6−/− mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), P-selectin, and E-selectin in murine heart endothelial cells (MHEC) at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared with TNF-α and IL6, IFN-γ appeared weaker in the induction of the mRNA levels, but at protein levels, both IL6 and IFN-γ were weaker inducers than TNF-α. Under physiological shear flow conditions, mast cell-derived TNF-α and IL6 were more potent than IFN-γ in activating MHEC and in promoting neutrophil adhesion. Similar observations were made when neutrophils or macrophages were used. Neutrophils and macrophages produced the same sets of pro-inflammatory cytokines as did mast cells to induce MHEC adhesion molecule expression, with the exception that macrophage-derived IFN-γ showed negligible effect in inducing VCAM-1 expression in MHEC. Conclusion Mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL6 that induce expression of adhesion molecules in endothelium and recruit of leukocytes, which is essential to the pathogenesis of vascular inflammatory diseases. PMID:21264293

  19. Regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression by mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The leukocyte adhesion is mediated by localized activation of the endothelium through the action of inflammatory cytokines. The exact proinflammatory factors, however, that activate the endothelium and their cellular sources remain incompletely defined.Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf(-/-, Ifng(-/-, Il6(-/- mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin in murine heart endothelial cells (MHEC at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared with TNF-α and IL6, IFN-γ appeared weaker in the induction of the mRNA levels, but at protein levels, both IL6 and IFN-γ were weaker inducers than TNF-α. Under physiological shear flow conditions, mast cell-derived TNF-α and IL6 were more potent than IFN-γ in activating MHEC and in promoting neutrophil adhesion. Similar observations were made when neutrophils or macrophages were used. Neutrophils and macrophages produced the same sets of pro-inflammatory cytokines as did mast cells to induce MHEC adhesion molecule expression, with the exception that macrophage-derived IFN-γ showed negligible effect in inducing VCAM-1 expression in MHEC.Mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL6 that induce expression of adhesion molecules in endothelium and recruit of leukocytes, which is essential to the pathogenesis of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  20. Glutathione peroxidase-1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells by altering CD14 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubos, Edith; Mahoney, Christopher E; Leopold, Jane A; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Loscalzo, Joseph; Handy, Diane E

    2010-07-01

    CD14 contributes to LPS signaling in leukocytes through formation of toll-like receptor 4/CD14 receptor complexes; however, a specific role for endogenous cell-surface CD14 in endothelial cells is unclear. We have found that suppression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in human microvascular endothelial cells increases CD14 gene expression compared to untreated or siControl (siCtrl)-treated conditions. Following LPS treatment, GPx-1 deficiency augmented LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, CD14 expression, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and protein expression compared to LPS-treated control cells. GPx-1 deficiency also transiently augmented LPS-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Adenoviral overexpression of GPx-1 significantly diminished LPS-mediated responses in adhesion molecule expression. Consistent with these findings, LPS responses were also greater in endothelial cells derived from GPx-1-knockout mice, whereas adhesion molecule expression was decreased in cells from GPx-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. Knockdown of CD14 attenuated LPS-mediated up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA and protein, and it mitigated the effects of GPx-1 deficiency on LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression. Taken together, these data suggest that GPx-1 modulates the endothelial cell response to LPS, in part, by altering CD14-mediated effects.

  1. Regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression by mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jie; Alcaide, Pilar; Liu, Li; Sun, Jiusong; He, Aina; Luscinskas, Francis W; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2011-01-01

    .... Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf(-/-), Ifng(-/-), Il6(-/-) mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1...

  2. Serotonin and ionizing radiation synergistically affect proliferation and adhesion molecule expression of malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Gilbertz, Klaus-Peter; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-11-01

    Mast cells are key effectors of the immune system and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Dermal mast cells have been demonstrated to degranulate as a consequence of ionizing radiation exposure. Mast cells accumulate at the periphery of skin tumours including malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells thus represent a potential target for the action of mediators released from irradiated mast cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of serotonin and ionizing radiation on the proliferation and the adhesion molecule expression of malignant melanoma cells. Human mast cells (HMC-1) were examined for serotonin release after irradiation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein expression of serotonin receptors and adhesion molecules on human melanoma cells (IPC-298) was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell attachment to fibronectin was determined by an adhesion assay. Proliferation and cell cycle kinetics were analysed by proliferation assay and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)/DNA dual parameter flow cytometry, respectively. Ionizing radiation exposure resulted in serotonin release by HMC-1 cells. Expression of serotonin receptors was detected on IPC-298 cells. Serotonin enhanced the radiation-induced reduction in melanoma cell proliferation. Serotonin and ionizing radiation synergistically increased the expression of adhesion molecules on melanoma cells and improved cell adhesion to fibronectin. The up-regulation of cellular adhesion molecule expression was attenuated by inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) ERK kinase and protein kinase C. Our data suggest that serotonin released from irradiated dermal mast cells modulates the radiation response of human melanoma cells. We postulate that radiation-induced mast cell degranulation and mediator release have a great impact on malignant melanoma cell development. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  3. Laminar shear stress prevents simvastatin-induced adhesion molecule expression in cytokine activated endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Joanna; Rouleau, Leonie; Emmott, Alexander; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Leask, Richard L

    2010-12-15

    In addition to lowering cholesterol, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been shown to modulate gene expression in endothelial cells. The effect of statins on cell adhesion molecule expression is unclear and largely unexplored in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress, an important regulator of endothelial cell function. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was evaluated in human abdominal aortic endothelial cells (HAAEC) conditioned with various levels of laminar wall shear stress with or without tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). As expected, TNFα alone greatly enhanced both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein. In static culture, simvastatin potentiated the TNFα-induced increase in VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA but not total protein at 24 h. Mevalonate, a precursor to cholesterol biosynthesis, eliminated the effect of simvastatin. Exposure of endothelial cells to elevated levels of laminar shear stress during simvastatin treatment prevented the potentiating effect of simvastatin on cell adhesion molecule mRNA. A shear stress of 12.5 dyn/cm² eliminated the increase in VCAM-1 by simvastatin, while 25 dyn/cm² was needed for ICAM-1. We conclude that simvastatin enhances VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 gene expression in TNFα-activated endothelial cells through inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. High levels of laminar shear stress prevented the upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 by simvastatin suggesting that an induction of cell adhesion molecules by statins may not occur in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress from blood flow. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open......-heart surgery and eight with abdominal surgery were studied. The adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1_, CD11c/CD18 and CD44 and the activation molecules CD25, CD69, CD71 and MHCII were measured, using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Lymphocytopenia was observed during CPB and for some hours after both...... open-heart and abdominal surgery. The proportion of CD11a/CD18-positive lymphocytes rose from 67.6 +/- 8% to 86.4 +/- 3% after aortic declamping (p

  5. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open-heart...... open-heart and abdominal surgery. The proportion of CD11a/CD18-positive lymphocytes rose from 67.6 +/- 8% to 86.4 +/- 3% after aortic declamping (p heart as well as abdominal operations. Thus CPB...... surgery and eight with abdominal surgery were studied. The adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1_, CD11c/CD18 and CD44 and the activation molecules CD25, CD69, CD71 and MHCII were measured, using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Lymphocytopenia was observed during CPB and for some hours after both...

  6. Highly sensitivity adhesion molecules detection in hereditary haemochromatosis patients reveals altered expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norris, S

    2012-02-01

    Several abnormalities in the immune status of patients with hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) have been reported, suggesting an imbalance in their immune function. This may include persistent production of, or exposure to, altered immune signalling contributing to the pathogenesis of this disorder. Adhesion molecules L-, E- and P-Selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are some of the major regulators of the immune processes and altered levels of these proteins have been found in pathological states including cardiovascular diseases, arthritis and liver cancer. The aim of this study was to assess L-, E- and P-Selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in patients with HH and correlate these results with HFE mutation status and iron indexes. A total of 139 subjects were diagnosed with HH (C282Y homozygotes = 87, C282Y\\/H63D = 26 heterozygotes, H63D homozygotes = 26), 27 healthy control subjects with no HFE mutation (N\\/N), 18 normal subjects heterozygous for the H63D mutation served as age-sex-matched controls. We observed a significant decrease in L-selectin (P = 0.0002) and increased E-selectin and ICAM-1 (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0059) expression in HH patients compared with healthy controls. This study observes for the first time that an altered adhesion molecules profile occurs in patients with HH that is associated with specific HFE genetic component for iron overload, suggesting that differential expression of adhesion molecules may play a role in the pathogenesis of HH.

  7. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L; Corbett, Jacob T; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  9. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by sulforaphane reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young S; Kim, Chan H; Ha, Tae S; Ahn, Hee Y

    2015-11-18

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) play key roles in the initiation of vascular inflammation. In this study, we explored whether sulforaphane, a dietary phytochemical, can inhibit the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the mechanisms involved. Sulforaphane prevented the LPS-mediated increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, (P < 0.01) in HUVEC. Sulforaphane also prevented the LPS-mediated increase in the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (P < 0.01). Stattic, a STAT3 inhibitor, reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.01). STAT3 small interfering RNA treatment reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and STAT3 (P < 0.01). Sulforaphane reduced LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC (P < 0.01). In C57BL/6 mice, injection of LPS increased aortic ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, and this effect was prevented by sulforaphane. These data provide insight into the mechanism through which sulforaphane partly reduces the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on the vascular wall by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation.

  10. Changes in cell adhesion molecule expression on T cells associated with systemic virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O

    1994-01-01

    Virus-induced changes in adhesion molecule expression on T cells were investigated to understand how antiviral effector cells migrate into infectious foci. FACS analysis revealed that after systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus a number of cell adhesion molecules, including VLA......, it was found that up-regulation of VLA-4 expression on splenic T cells correlated with influx of inflammatory cells into the cerebrospinal fluid of intracerebrally infected animals, and that the number of CD8+VLA-4hi cells increased from lymph nodes and spleen to blood and cerebrospinal fluid. These results......-4, LFA-1, and ICAM-1, are up-regulated on CD8+ cells, whereas the lymph node homing receptor MEL-14 is down-regulated during the infection; only marginal changes were observed for CD4+ cells. Basically similar but less marked results were obtained in mice infected with Pichinde virus. Further...

  11. Gene Expression Profile of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in the Human Normal Corneal Stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Huang, Hu; Sun, Guoying; Alwadani, Saeed; Semba, Richard D; Lutty, Gerard A; Yiu, Samuel; Edward, Deepak P

    2017-04-01

    There is limited information on region-specific gene expression in the human corneal stroma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression profile of the extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in the normal corneal stroma using laser capture microdissection (LCM) and molecular techniques. Frozen sections of human cornea without ocular disease were used to isolate the central and peripheral corneal stromal keratocytes by LCM. RNA was extracted from LCM-captured tissues and the RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays were used to examine the expression profile of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in the central and peripheral stroma. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify gene expression. Proteomic and western blotting (WB) analyses were performed to confirm gene expression at protein level. Function association network was generated via the web tools String and Cytoscape. The gene expression profiling demonstrated that 35 out of the 84 extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules represented in the array were expressed in stromal keratocytes. Among them, 24 genes were not previously described in the corneal stroma. Two genes were found more abundantly expressed in the central stroma than in the periphery: TGFBI, COL6A2 (p < 0.05). ADAMTS13 was detected only in the central stroma. Proteomics and WB analysis confirmed the expression of 10 genes. Functional analysis revealed that most identified genes were presented in a core cluster that had multiple and strong associations with other genes. This study identified genes not previously described in the corneal stroma, revealed regional differences in gene expression between central and peripheral stroma, and also detected some interesting candidate genes that may play important roles in corneal function. These observations serve as the foundation to further investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating the pathogenesis of regional corneal stromal disorders such as keratoconus.

  12. Experimental rhinovirus 16 infection increases intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in bronchial epithelium of asthmatics regardless of inhaled steroid treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünberg, K; Sharon, R F; Hiltermann, T J; Brahim, J J; Dick, E C; Sterk, P J; Van Krieken, J H

    BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus infections in airway epithelial cells in vitro have been shown to upregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Epithelial ICAM-1, in its dual role as the major rhinovirus receptor and as adhesion molecule for inflammatory cells may be involved in the

  13. Effects of drospirenone on adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adherence in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Takaoka, Osamu; Tanaka, Yukiko; Koshiba, Akemi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo

    2016-06-01

    A major concern in hormone replacement therapy is the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A progestogen without the unfavorable effects on cardiovascular disease should be explored. Monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is an important initial event in atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of the alternative progestogen drospirenone (DRSP) on monocyte adhesion in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined. In HUVECs treated with estrogens and progestogens, including DRSP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were examined by real-time PCR and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A flow chamber system was used to investigate the effects of DRSP on U937 monocytoid cell adherence to HUVEC monolayers. All experimental data were compared using one-way Analysis of Variance. Upregulation of adhesion molecule mRNA or protein was not seen in HUVECs treated with DRSP alone or with 17β-estradiol+DRSP. DRSP alone, 17β-estradiol+DRSP or ethinylestradiol+DRSP did not increase the number of adherent monocytoid cells to HUVECs in the flow chamber system. However, MPA significantly enhanced the monocytoid cell adherence (Padhesion molecules or monocytoid cell adherence to endothelial cells, indicating that DRSP could reduce the risk of atherogenesis caused by MPA. These results suggest that DRSP may be an alternative to MPA in hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Motorcycle exhaust particles up-regulate expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Li, Ching-Hao; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between atherosclerosis and ambient air pollution. In this study, we found that motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP) induced adhesion between cells of the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a time-and dose-dependent manner. In addition, MEP treatment induced both mRNA and protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HUVECs. The IκB degradation and p65 nuclear translocation was found in MEP-treated HUVECs, suggested the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). MEP-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression was inhibited by NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7085. Oxidative stress was also involved in the signaling of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. MEP treatment caused hydrogen peroxide and superoxide formation. Pretreatment with α-tocopherol could inhibit MEP-induced reactive oxygen intermediates generation and suppressed MEP-induced IκB degradation and adhesion molecules expression. Furthermore, the carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with different diameters could induce VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression; however, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only increased the expression of ICAM-1 but not that of VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In this study, we found that MEPs could induce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression through oxidative stress and NF-κB activation in HUVECs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadherin transfection of Xenopus XTC cells downregulates expression of substrate adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemann, S; Kühl, M; Otto, G; Wedlich, D

    1995-09-01

    Cadherins are discussed not in terms of their adhesive function but rather as morphoregulatory proteins. Changes in gene expression following cadherin transfection of cells in culture or by overexpression in embryos have, until now, not been reported. We established a protocol for stable transfection of Xenopus XTC cells and generated cells bearing high levels of membrane-integrated mouse uvomorulin (E-cadherin) or Xenopus XB-cadherin. These cell lines showed drastically impaired substrate adhesion on fibronectin and laminin. In immunoblot and radioimmunoprecipitation experiments, we found that fibronectin and alpha 3/beta 1 integrin are downregulated. The reduced amounts of proteins result from a decrease of the respective mRNAs as proven by RNase protection assays. Coprecipitations revealed that transfected cadherin molecules are complexed with alpha-catenin and beta-catenin at plasma membranes. However, the alpha-catenin present in the XB-cadherin complex differs immunologically from that found in the uvomorulin complex. When a truncated form of XB-cadherin lacking 38 of the most C-terminal amino acids was expressed in XTC cells, complex formation with endogenous catenins was abolished. In these transfectants, substrate adhesion was not affected. These results prove that complex formation of transfected cadherins in XTC cells with endogenous beta-catenin correlates with altered synthesis of certain substrate adhesion molecules.

  16. Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT in adult human lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Toru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine which adhesion molecules are expressed on lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs in human BALT. Methods We immunostained frozen sections of BALT from lobectomy specimens from 17 patients with lung carcinoma with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules. Results Sections of BALT showed B cell follicles surrounded by T cells. Most BALT CD4+ T cells had a CD45RO+ memory phenotype. Almost all BALT B cells expressed α4 integrin and L-selectin. In contrast, 43% of BALT T cells expressed α4 integrin and 20% of BALT T cells expressed L-selectin. Almost all BALT lymphocytes expressed LFA-1. HEVs, which support the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues, were prominent in BALT. All HEVs expressed peripheral node addressin, most HEVs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and no HEVs expressed mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1. Conclusion Human BALT expresses endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that may be important in recruiting naive and memory/effector lymphocytes to BALT during protective and pathologic bronchopulmonary immune responses.

  17. Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in adult human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Nakaaki; Xu, Baohui; Nishijima, Hiroo; Aoyama, Kohji; Kusumoto, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Toru; Tei, Chuwa; Michie, Sara A; Matsuyama, Takami

    2009-10-22

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine which adhesion molecules are expressed on lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs) in human BALT. We immunostained frozen sections of BALT from lobectomy specimens from 17 patients with lung carcinoma with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules. Sections of BALT showed B cell follicles surrounded by T cells. Most BALT CD4+ T cells had a CD45RO+ memory phenotype. Almost all BALT B cells expressed alpha4 integrin and L-selectin. In contrast, 43% of BALT T cells expressed alpha4 integrin and 20% of BALT T cells expressed L-selectin. Almost all BALT lymphocytes expressed LFA-1. HEVs, which support the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues, were prominent in BALT. All HEVs expressed peripheral node addressin, most HEVs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and no HEVs expressed mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1. Human BALT expresses endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that may be important in recruiting naive and memory/effector lymphocytes to BALT during protective and pathologic bronchopulmonary immune responses.

  18. INFLUENCE OF SOLUBLE PLACENTAL TISSUE-DERIVED MOLECULES UPON EXPRESSION OF ADHESION MOLECULES BY EA.HY926 ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Stepanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.  Leukocyte  recruitment  to  placental  tissue  is  an  important  factor  of  its  development.  In  this respect, adhesion molecules at the endothelial cell surface represent a key determining factor of leukocyte adhesion and their trans-endothelial migration. The goal of investigation was to evaluate changed expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial cells induced by supernates of placental tissue cultures. Placental tissue supernatants produced by the first- and third-trimester placental tissue from normal pregnancy, as well as from women with gestosis, induced higher expression of CD31, CD9, CD62E, CD62P, CD34, CD54, CD51/61, CD49d  and  integrin  β7  expression  by  endothelial  cells,  as  compared  with  their  baseline  levels.  However, the  supernates  from  pre-eclamptic  placental  tissue (3rd  trimester  caused  an  increased  CD9  expression by  endothelial  cells,  as  compared  with  effects  of placental  supernates  from  eclampsia-free  cases.  Our data  contribute  to  understanding  a  possible  role  of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in recruitment of leukocytes to placental tissue and possible participation of adhesion molecules in pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. The work was supported by a grant from Russian Ministry of Education and Science ГК №02.740.11.0711 and Presidential grant № НШ-3594.2010.7 and МД-150.2011.7. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 6, pp 589-596

  19. Palmitate-stimulated monocytes induce adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells via IL-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikama, Yosuke; Aki, Nanako; Hata, Akiko; Nishimura, Miho; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Funaki, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Increased intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate (Pal), is linked to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although recent studies have investigated the direct effects of SFAs on inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, it remains unknown whether SFAs also induce these responses mediated by circulating cells. In this study, especially focused on adhesion molecules and monocytes, we investigated the indirect effects of Pal on expression and release of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in vascular endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 (pTHP-1) cells and human monocytes were stimulated with various free fatty acids (FFAs). SFAs, but not unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion and decreased IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) secretion, resulting in an increase in the IL-1β/IL-1Ra secretion ratio. UFAs dose-dependently inhibited the increase in IL-1β secretion and decrease in IL-1Ra secretion induced by Pal. Moreover, in human aortic and vein endothelial cells, expression and release of ICAM-1 and E-selectin were induced by treatment with conditioned medium collected from Pal-stimulated pTHP-1 cells and human monocytes, but not by Pal itself. The up-regulated expression and release of adhesion molecules by the conditioned medium were mostly abolished by recombinant human IL-1Ra supplementation. These results suggest that the Pal-induced increase in the ratio of IL-1β/IL-1Ra secretion in monocytes up-regulates endothelial adhesion molecules, which could enhance leukocyte adhesion to endothelium. This study provides further evidence that IL-1β neutralization through receptor antagonism may be useful for preventing the onset and development of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua; Zhang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p...

  1. Effects of ethanol and NAP on cerebellar expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon M Fitzgerald

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is critical for brain development and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult. Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs, and these actions might underlie the cerebellar dysmorphology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The peptide NAP potently blocks ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and prevents ethanol teratogenesis. We used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting of extracts of cerebellar slices, CGNs, and astrocytes from postnatal day 7 (PD7 rats to investigate whether ethanol and NAP act in part by regulating the expression of L1. Treatment of cerebellar slices with 20 mM ethanol, 10(-12 M NAP, or both for 4 hours, 24 hours, and 10 days did not significantly affect L1 mRNA and protein levels. Similar treatment for 4 or 24 hours did not regulate L1 expression in primary cultures of CGNs and astrocytes, the predominant cerebellar cell types. Because ethanol also damages the adult cerebellum, we studied the effects of chronic ethanol exposure in adult rats. One year of binge drinking did not alter L1 gene and protein expression in extracts from whole cerebellum. Thus, ethanol does not alter L1 expression in the developing or adult cerebellum; more likely, ethanol disrupts L1 function by modifying its conformation and signaling. Likewise, NAP antagonizes the actions of ethanol without altering L1 expression.

  2. Rosiglitazone Influences the Expression of Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules and CD14 Receptor in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Stulc; H Svobodová; Z Krupicková; R Dolezalová; I Marinov; R Ceska

    2014-01-01

    .... We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects...

  3. Expression of adhesion molecules and the proliferative activity of carcinosarcoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Hiroshi; Kizaki, Tomohiko; Ito, Takashi; Okimura, Akira; Yamanegi, Koji; Nakasho, Keiji

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the mechanism underlying the formation of a sarcomatous component of ovarian carcinosarcoma, we investigated the expression of adhesion molecules and the proliferative activity of carcinosarcomas. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, and the Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) in six carcinosarcomas containing endometrioid carcinoma as a carcinomatous component. The sarcomatous components of the carcinosarcomas did not express E-cadherin or β-catenin. All carcinomatous components expressed these molecules but the expression was reduced compared to that in endometrioid ovarian carcinomas. In five of the six carcinosarcomas, the Ki-67 LI of the sarcomatous component was less than that of the carcinomatous component. The present results suggest that a carcinomatous component transforms more easily than an ordinary endometrioid carcinoma from the viewpoint of the cell adhesion, and cells in a carcinomatous component continuously transform into sarcomatous cells during the growth of carcinosarcoma. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Dextromethorphan attenuates LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Deng, Chuan-Rou; Huang, Huey-Chun; Liu, Shu-Lin; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the effect of Dextromethorphan (d-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan; DXM), a commonly used cough-suppressing drug, on the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of DXM on expression of cell adhesion molecules induced by LPS was evaluated by monocyte bindings in vitro and ex vivo and transmigration assays. The signaling pathways involved in the inflammation inhibitory effect of DXM were analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescent stain. Pretreatment of HUVECs with DXM inhibited LPS-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells in vitro and ex vivo, and reduced transendothelial migration of these cells. Furthermore, treatment of HUVECs with DXM can significantly decrease LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. DXM abrogated LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. The translocation of early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), a downstream transcription factor involved in the mitogen-activated kinase (MEK)-ERK signaling pathway, was suppressed by DXM treatment. Furthermore, DXM inhibited LPS-induced IκBα degradation and nuclear translocation of p65. Dextromethorphan inhibits the adhesive capacity of HUVECs by reducing the LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression via the suppression of the ERK, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Thus, DXM is a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic that may modulate atherogenesis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Abrogation of junctional adhesion molecule-A expression induces cell apoptosis and reduces breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Murakami

    Full Text Available Intercellular junctions promote homotypic cell to cell adhesion and transfer intracellular signals which control cell growth and apoptosis. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A is a transmembrane immunoglobulin located at tight junctions of normal epithelial cells of mammary ducts and glands. In the present paper we show that JAM-A acts as a survival factor for mammary carcinoma cells. JAM-A null mice expressing Polyoma Middle T under MMTV promoter develop significantly smaller mammary tumors than JAM-A positive mice. Angiogenesis and inflammatory or immune infiltrate were not statistically modified in absence of JAM-A but tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased. Tumor cells isolated from JAM-A null mice or 4T1 cells incubated with JAM-A blocking antibodies showed reduced growth and increased apoptosis which paralleled altered junctional architecture and adhesive function. In a breast cancer clinical data set, tissue microarray data show that JAM-A expression correlates with poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis of mouse tumor samples showed a correlation between genes enriched in human G3 tumors and genes over expressed in JAM-A +/+ mammary tumors. Conversely, genes enriched in G1 human tumors correlate with genes overexpressed in JAM-A-/- tumors. We conclude that down regulation of JAM-A reduces tumor aggressive behavior by increasing cell susceptibility to apoptosis. JAM-A may be considered a negative prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target.

  6. Curcumin attenuates TNF-α-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in human endometriotic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyung; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Lee, Ja-Rang; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lee, Hee-Woo; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Yoon, Sik

    2012-07-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa, has long been used in folk medicine as an antiinflammatory remedy in Asian countries. Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological inflammatory disorder in which immune system deregulation may play a role in its initiation and progression. A number of mediators, including cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1); proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and IL-8; and chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), play key roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of curcumin on the expression of these critical molecules in human ectopic endometriotic stromal cells isolated from women with endometriosis. Endometriotic stromal cells treated with curcumin showed marked suppression of TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Curcumin treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of endometriotic stromal cells with curcumin markedly inhibited TNF-α-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the activation of transcription factor NF-κB, a key regulator of inflammation, in human endometriotic stromal cells. These findings suggest that curcumin may have potential therapeutic uses in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of sesame lignans on TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mika; Tsuchie, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Naruomi; Miyake, Yoshiaki; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) has been implicated as one of the most important causes of the development of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and, it is speculated that the prevention of it is an effective approach to the control of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sesame lignans on the expression of CAMs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Based on cell-ELISA analysis, we found that sesaminol-6-catechol downregulated the TNF-alpha-induced expression of CAMs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, these inhibitory effects were caused to be drastically exerted by downregulating the CAM proteins in TNF-alpha-activated HUVECs at transcriptional level. This suggests, that sesaminol-6-catehcol suppresses the expression of CAMs, and may be an active component of sesame lignans.

  8. Berberine‑attenuated monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low‑density lipoprotein via inhibition of adhesion molecule expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhouqing; Cai, Xueli; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Hao; Chu, Maoping; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian

    2013-02-01

    Recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. This process is predominantly mediated by cellular adhesion molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 (VCAM‑1) and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), which are expressed by activated endothelial cells in response to a number of inflammatory stimuli, including oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Previous studies have demonstrated that berberine, a natural extract from Rhizoma coptidis, prevents oxLDL‑induced endothelial cellular apoptosis. However, its effect on the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and the mechanism associated with this process remains unclear. In the present study, berberine was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL‑induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, the inhibitory mechanism of berberine was associated with suppression of adhesion molecule expression, including VCAM‑1 and ICAM‑1. Results indicate that berberine plays a protective role in the early stages of atherosclerosis.

  9. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity.

  11. Regulated Expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Human Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjic, Nives; Martìn-Padura, Inés; Pollicino, Teresa; Bernasconi, Sergio; Jílek, Petr; Bigotti, Aldo; Mortarini, Roberta; Anichini, Andrea; Parmiani, Giorgio; Colotta, Francesco; Dejana, Elisabetta; Mantovani, Alberto; Natali, Pier Giorgio

    1992-01-01

    Expression of the endothelial adhesion molecule VCAM-1 was studied in human malignant melanoma lines by flow cytometry. Clones 2/4 and 2/14(derived from the same lesion) had appreciable levels of VCAM-1 expression, whereas clone 2/21 and thelines A2058, Mel24, and A375 were negative. Clone 2/14 was selected for further analysis. Exposure to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) markedly augmented VCAM-1 on melanoma cells. Surface VCAM-1 was associated with expression of specific transcripts that were augmented by TNF. Analysis by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction using appropriate primers revealed that TNF-stimulated melanoma cells expressed both 7 and 6 immunoglobulin domain transcripts with predominance of the longer species. Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated melanoma cells bound more VLA-4-expressing cells (melanoma and monocytes) than resting tumor cells and anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies significantly inhibited binding, thus suggesting that surface VCAM-1 on melanoma is functional. Analysis of melanoma tissue sections demonstrated that VCAM-1 is not a marker of transformation of melanocytes because it can be detected in benign nevi. Although, unlike ICAM-1, VCAM-1 is not correlated with tumor progression, its expression in a fraction of primary melanomas indicates that it may play a role in regulating host immune response and homotypic interactions in some malignant melanomas ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:1281617

  12. γ-Oryzanol reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cells via suppression of nuclear factor-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Satoshi; Murata, Takahisa; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Ushio, Hideki; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-04-04

    γ-Oryzanol (γ-ORZ) is a mixture of phytosteryl ferulates purified from rice bran oil. In this study, we examined whether γ-ORZ represents a suppressive effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adhesion molecule expression on vascular endothelium. Treatment with LPS elevated the mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently decreased the LPS-mediated expression of these genes. Western blotting also revealed that pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Consistently, pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently reduced LPS-induced U937 monocyte adhesion to BAECs. In immunofluorescence, LPS caused nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in 40% of BAECs, which indicates NF-κB activation. Pretreatment with γ-ORZ, as well as its components (cycloartenyl ferulate, ferulic acid, or cycloartenol), dose-dependently inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our results suggested that γ-ORZ reduced LPS-mediated adhesion molecule expression through NF-κB inhibition in vascular endothelium.

  13. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endometrium: implications for long term progestin only contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczynski Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophils infiltrate the endometrium pre-menstrually and after long-term progestin only-contraceptive (LTPOC treatment. Trafficking of neutrophils involves endothelial cell-expressed intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1. Previous studies observed that ICAM-1 was immunolocalized to the endothelium of endometrial specimens across the menstrual cycle, but disagreed as to whether extra-endothelial cell types express ICAM-1 and whether ICAM-1 expression varies across the menstrual cycle. Methods Endometrial biopsies were obtained from women across the menstrual cycle and from those on LTPOC treatment (either Mirena or Norplant. The biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded with subsequent immunohistochemical staining for ICAM-1. Results The current study found prominent ICAM-1 staining in the endometrial endothelium that was of equivalent intensity in different blood vessel types irrespective of the steroidal or inflammatory endometrial milieu across the menstrual cycle and during LTPOC therapy. Unlike the endothelial cells, the glands were negative and the stromal cells were weakly positive for ICAM immunostaining. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that altered expression of ICAM-1 by endothelial cells does not account for the influx of neutrophils into the premenstrual and LTPOC-derived endometrium. Such neutrophil infiltration may depend on altered expression of neutrophil chemoattractants.

  14. Effects of phytoestrogens derived from soy bean on expression of adhesion molecules on HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C M de; Sá, M F Silva de; Toloi, M R Torqueti

    2012-04-01

    The risks of hormone replacement therapy have led to a search for new alternatives such as phytoestrogens, plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Isoflavones are the phytoestrogens most extensively studied and can be found in soybean, red clover and other plants. Due to this estrogen-like activity, phytoestrogens can have some effect on atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) have been extensively used to study the biology and pathobiology of human endothelial cells and most of the knowledge acquired is due to experiments with cultures of these cells. To evaluate the effects of the phytoestrogen extracts from Glycine max soy bean, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as a mixture of these extracts (Mix), on expression of adhesion molecules, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, by endothelial cell HUVEC, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. HUVEC were cultured in medium EBM(2), pretreated with isoflavones for 24 and 48 h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide; in addition, isoflavones were added, after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide, to HUVEC. We evaluated the production of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin on cell surface, by cell-based enzyme immunoassay, and of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin in culture supernatant, by ELISA. Genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as the Mix were able to reduce VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin on cell surface and in culture supernatant. Conclusion Isoflavones extracted from Glycine max soy bean, in vitro, presented antiatherogenic effects, reducing the expression of adhesion molecules and acting as preventive agents as well as therapeutic agents.

  15. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1607–1638. PMID:21050132

  16. Effect of irradiation on gene expression of rat liver adhesion molecules. In vivo and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriconi, Federico; Malik, Ihtzaz; Ahmad, Ghayyor; Dudas, Joszef; Ramadori, Giuliano [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Background and purpose: Migration of leukocytes into tissue is a key element of innate and adaptive immunity. An animal study showed that liver irradiation, in spite of induction of chemokine gene expression, does not lead to recruitment of leukocytes into the parenchyma. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression of adhesion molecules, which mediate leukocyte recruitment into organs, in irradiated rat liver in vivo and rat hepatocytes in vitro. Material and methods: Rat livers in vivo were irradiated selectively at 25 Gy. Isolated hepatocytes in vitro were irradiated at 8 Gy. RNA extracted within 48 h after irradiation in vivo and in vitro was analyzed by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Northern blot. Adhesion molecule concentration in serum was measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Cryostat sections of livers were used for immunohistology. Results: Significant radiation-induced increase of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), JAM-1 (junctional adhesion molecule-1), {beta}{sub 1}-integrin, {beta}{sub 2}-integrin, E-cadherin, and P-selectin gene expression could be detected in vivo, while PECAM-1 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) gene expression remained unchanged. In vitro, {beta}{sub 1}-integrin, JAM-1, and ICAM-2 showed a radiation-induced increased expression, whereas the levels of P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, VCAM-1, Madcam-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1), {beta}{sub 2}-integrin, and E-cadherin were downregulated. However, incubation of irradiated hepatocytes with either tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL-)1{beta}, or IL-6 plus TNF-{alpha} led to an upregulation of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Conclusion: The findings suggest that liver irradiation modulates gene expression of the main adhesion molecules in vivo and in cytokine-activated hepatocytes, with the exception of PECAM-1. This may be one reason for the lack of

  17. RUNX3 regulates intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3 expression during macrophage differentiation and monocyte extravasation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Estecha

    Full Text Available The adhesion molecule ICAM-3 belongs to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily and functions as a ligand for the β2 integrins LFA-1, Mac-1 and α(dβ(2. The expression of ICAM-3 is restricted to cells of the hematopoietic lineage. We present evidences that the ICAM-3 gene promoter exhibits a leukocyte-specific activity, as its activity is significantly higher in ICAM-3+ hematopoietic cell lines. The activity of the ICAM-3 gene promoter is dependent on the occupancy of RUNX cognate sequences both in vitro and in vivo, and whose integrity is required for RUNX responsiveness and for the cooperative actions of RUNX with transcription factors of the Ets and C/EBP families. Protein analysis revealed that ICAM-3 levels diminish upon monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation, monocyte transendothelial migration and dendritic cell maturation, changes that correlate with an increase in RUNX3. Importantly, disruption of RUNX-binding sites led to enhanced promoter activity, and small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of RUNX3 expression resulted in increased ICAM-3 mRNA levels. Altogether these results indicate that the ICAM-3 gene promoter is negatively regulated by RUNX transcription factors, which contribute to the leukocyte-restricted and the regulated expression of ICAM-3 during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and monocyte extravasation.

  18. Age-related changes in expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardsvoll, H; Krog, L; Zhernosekov, D

    1993-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been implicated in cellular interactions involved in cardiac morphogenesis and innervation. In this study, expression of NCAM mRNA and protein was characterized in rat heart during postnatal development and aging (postnatal days 1, 10, 40, 270, and 730......). Alternative splicing of NCAM mRNA was analyzed by Northern blotting using DNA oligonucleotide probes designed for demonstration of certain exons or exon combinations. Total NCAM mRNA was downregulated during postnatal development followed by upregulation in the aging heart. Three major NCAM mRNA classes of 6.......7, 5.2 and 2.9 kb were expressed in newborn heart in approximately equal proportions. At all other ages, the mRNAs of 5.2 and 2.9 kb were more predominant than the 6.7 kb mRNA. During postnatal development and aging, expression of exon VASE was selectively downregulated in the 6.7 kb NCAM mRNA class...

  19. Rosiglitazone influences the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and CD14 receptor in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulc, T; Svobodová, H; Krupičková, Z; Doležalová, R; Marinov, I; Češka, R

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased inflammatory response, which may contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Experimental results demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of glitazones; their effect on leukocyte adhesion molecules has not been studied to date. We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects. 33 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 32 healthy controls were included; patients were examined at baseline and after 5 months of rosiglitazone treatment (4 mg/d). Leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules LFA-1, CD18 and ICAM-1 was quantified using flow cytometry; in addition, CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) expression was analyzed as a marker of nonspecific immunity. The expression of examined molecules at baseline was higher in patients compared to controls. Despite only mild decrease in blood glucose, rosiglitazone treatment induced substantial decrease of CD18 and CD14 expression and borderline decrease of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression (on monocytes only). We thus observed improvement in the expression of leukocyte inflammatory markers after rosiglitazone treatment. This effect is supposed to be mediated by direct effect of rosiglitazone on PPAR-gamma receptors on leukocytes.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide suppresses high glucose-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingbo; Wang, Xiaolei; Gao, Ling; Chen, Jicui; Liu, Yuantao; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Jiajun

    2013-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a newly identified endogenous gasotransmitter that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several biologic systems. However, the role of H₂S in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular injury remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of H₂S on the high glucose (HG)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed either to a normal concentration of D-glucose (5.5 mmol/L) or to HG (16.7 mmol/L) in the absence or presence of NaHS for the indicated periods. The ICAM-1 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were analyzed by Western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Exposure to HG for 48 or 72 hours significantly increased ICAM-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels, and these increases correlated with increases in both the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the activation of nuclear factor-κB. Pretreatment with NaHS inhibited HG-induced ICAM-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels and resulted in a reduction in the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and the suppression of nuclear factor-κB activity. NaHS also inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression, which was similar to the effect of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These findings indicate that H₂S might protect against HG-induced vascular damage by down-regulating ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells.

  1. Ciprofloxacin inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S; Takahashi, H K; Liu, K; Wake, H; Zhang, J; Liu, R; Yoshino, T; Nishibori, M

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) subtypes, proteins or lipids that become glycated after exposure to sugars, can induce complications in diabetes. Among the various AGE subtypes, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-2) and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-3) are involved in inflammation in diabetic patients; monocytes are activated by these AGEs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluorinated 4-quinolone, is often used clinically to treat infections associated with diabetis due to its antibacterial properties. It also modulates immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) therefore we investigated the involvement of AGEs in these effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 was examined by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cAMP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by [(3)H]-thymidine uptake. KEY RESULTS CIP induced PGE(2) production in monocytes, irrespective of the presence of AGE-2 and AGE-3, by enhancing COX-2 expression; this led to an elevation of intracellular cAMP in monocytes. Non-selective and selective COX-2 inhibitors, indomethacin and NS398, inhibited CIP-induced PGE(2) and cAMP production. In addition, CIP inhibited AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced expressions of ICAM-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 in monocytes, the production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and lymphocyte proliferation in PBMC. Indomethacin, NS398 and a protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, inhibited the actions of CIP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CIP exerts immunomodulatory activity via PGE(2), implying therapeutic potential of CIP for the treatment of AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced inflammatory responses.

  2. Expression of adhesion molecules on CD34+ cells: CD34+ L-selectin+ cells predict a rapid platelet recovery after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, M. W.; Gerritsen, W. R.; Rodenhuis, S.; Dirkson, M. K.; Slaper-Cortenbach, I. C.; Schaasberg, W. P.; Pinedo, H. M.; von dem Borne, A. E.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play a role in the migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells and regulation of hematopoiesis. To study whether the mobilization process is associated with changes in expression of adhesion molecules, the expression of CD31, CD44, L-selectin, sialyl Lewisx, beta 1 integrins very

  3. Gingipains of Porphyromonas gingivalis Modulate Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule Expression Induced in Human Endothelial Cells by Ligation of CD99

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Peter L. W.; Decarlo, Arthur A.; Hunter, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a key etiologic agent in the pathogenesis of destructive chronic periodontitis. Among virulence factors of this organism are cysteine proteinases, or gingipains, that have the capacity to modulate host inflammatory defenses. Intercellular adhesion molecule expression by vascular endothelium represents a crucial process for leukocyte transendothelial migration into inflamed tissue. Ligation of CD99 on endothelial cells was shown to induce express...

  4. Cell adhesion assay to determine the interaction between NGL-3 with LAR cell adhesion molecules

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    In the cell adhesion assay, two groups of cells expressing different cell adhesion molecules are mixed together to determine whether the adhesion molecules can interact with each other and whether their interaction mediates cell adhesion. We used this assay to determine the interaction of NGL-3 with other synaptic cell adhesion molecules including LAR.

  5. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  6. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  7. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-compromised human bone marrow endothelial cells exhibit decreased adhesion molecule expression and CD34+ hematopoietic cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Dehn, Donna; Kepa, Jadwiga K; Siegel, David; Scott, Devon E; Tan, Wei; Ross, David

    2010-07-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) deficiency resulting from a homozygous NQO1*2 polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk of benzene-induced myeloid toxicity and a variety of de novo and therapy-induced leukemias. Endothelial cells in human bone marrow form one of the two known hematopoietic stem cell microenvironments and are one of the major cell types that express NQO1 in bone marrow. We have used a transformed human bone marrow endothelial cell (TrHBMEC) line to study the potential impact of a lack of NQO1 activity on adhesion molecule [endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (E-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] expression and functional adhesion to bone marrow progenitor cells. We used both 5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione (ES936), a mechanism-based inhibitor of NQO1, and anti-NQO1 small interfering RNA to abrogate NQO1 activity. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated a significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha-induced E-selectin mRNA levels after ES936 pretreatment. Immunoblot assays demonstrated a significant reduction in TNFalpha-stimulated E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 proteins after inhibition or knockdown of NQO1. The mechanisms underlying this effect remain undefined, but modulation of nuclear factor-kappaB (p65), c-Jun, and activating transcription factor 2, transcriptional regulators of adhesion molecules, were observed after inhibition or knockdown of NQO1. Decreased level of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 also resulted in a functional deficit in adhesion. A parallel plate flow chamber study demonstrated a marked reduction in CD34(+) cell (KG1a) adhesion to NQO1-deficient TrHBMECs relative to controls. The reduced adhesive ability of TrHBMECs may affect the function of the vascular stem cell niche and also may contribute to the increased susceptibility of polymorphic individuals

  8. Quercetin attenuates atherosclerotic inflammation and adhesion molecule expression by modulating TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Sudhakaran, P R; Helen, A

    2016-12-01

    Adhesion molecules expressed by activated endothelial cells play key role in regulating leukocyte trafficking to sites of inflammation. The present study attempted to explore whether the polyphenolic flavonoid quercetin influence leukocyte endothelial attraction and the involvement of TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway in the expression of adhesion molecules involved in the early development of atherosclerosis. Quercetin at 25μM concentration significantly reduced the HUVEC expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 evidently enhanced by oxLDL. In addition, quercetin significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of MCP-1 and alleviated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in oxLDL induced HUVECs. Western blot and PCR analyses revealed that quercetin significantly attenuated the expression of both protein and mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Quercetin supplementation significantly decreased the inflammatory mediators like COX, 5-LOX, MPO, NOS, CRP and the mRNA expression of the cytokine; IL-6 in hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) fed atherosclerotic rats. The results demonstrate that quercetin is effective to regulate the atherosclerotic inflammatory process by inhibiting oxLDL induced endothelial leukocyte adhesion by attenuating the TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway in endothelial cells and decrease the inflammatory process induced by HCD in rats. Therefore, quercetin acts as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic agent, which may have implications for strategies attenuating endothelial dysfunction-related atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in some Blood Micronutrients, Leukocytes and Neutrophil Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersson L

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, like mastitis, during the period around calving. Although factors contributing to increased susceptibility to infection have not been fully elucidated, impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection and changes in the concentrations of some micronutrients related with the function of the immune defence has been implicated. Most of the current information is based on studies outside the Nordic countries where the conditions for dairy cows are different. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood concentrations of the vitamins A and E, the minerals calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, and magnesium (Mg, the electrolytes potassium (K and sodium (Na and the trace elements selenium (Se, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, as well as changes in total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC and expression of the adhesion molecules CD62L and CD18 on blood neutrophils in Swedish dairy cows during the period around calving. Blood samples were taken from 10 cows one month before expected calving, at calving and one month after calving. The results were mainly in line with reports from other countries. The concentrations of vitamins A and E, and of Zn, Ca and P decreased significantly at calving, while Se, Cu, and Na increased. Leukocytosis was detected at calving, mainly explained by neutrophilia, but also by monocytosis. The numbers of lymphocytes tended to decrease at the same time. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of CD62L and CD18 molecules on blood neutrophils remained constant over time. The proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils decreased significantly at calving. The animals were fed according to, or above, their requirements. Therefore, changes in blood levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were mainly in response to colostrum formation, changes in dry matter intake, and ruminal metabolism around calving. Decreased levels of vitamins A and E, and of Zn at calving

  10. Increased fluidity and oxidation of malarial lipoproteins: relation with severity and induction of endothelial expression of adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looareesuwan Sornchai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxidative stress has been demonstrated in malaria. The potential oxidative modification of lipoproteins derived from malaria patients was studied. These oxidized lipids may have role in pathogenesis of malaria. Method The plasma lipid profile and existence of oxidized forms of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL were investigated in malaria (17 mild and 24 severe patients and 37 control subjects. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs, conjugated dienes, tryptophan fluorescence and fluidity of lipoproteins were determined as markers of oxidation. The biological effect of malarial lipoproteins was assessed by the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Results Malarial lipoproteins had decreased cholesterol (except in VLDL and phospholipid. The triglyceride levels were unchanged. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of LDL was decreased in malaria, but increased in VLDL and HDL. TBARs and conjugate dienes were increased in malarial lipoproteins, while the tryptophan fluorescence was decreased. The fluidity of lipoproteins was increased in malaria. These indicated the presence of oxidized lipoproteins in malaria by which the degree of oxidation was correlated with severity. Of three lipoproteins from malarial patients, LDL displayed the most pronounced oxidative modification. In addition, oxidized LDL from malaria patients increased endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. Conclusion In malaria, the lipoproteins are oxidatively modified, and the degree of oxidation is related with severity. Oxidized LDL from malarial patients increases the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. These suggest the role of oxidized lipoproteins, especially LDL, on the pathogenesis of disease.

  11. Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Mei Fen; Chen, Lih Chi; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. PMID:24129228

  12. The carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM-3) inhibits expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin independently of haem oxygenase-1 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, H.; Bergstrasser, C.; Rafat, N.; Hoeger, S.; Schmidt, M.; Endres, N.; Goebeler, M.; Hillebrands, J. L.; Brigelius-Flohe, R.; Banning, A.; Beck, G.; Loesel, R.; Yard, B. A.

    Background and purpose: Although carbon monoxide (CO) can modulate inflammatory processes, the influence of CO on adhesion molecules is less clear. This might be due to the limited amount of CO generated by haem degradation. We therefore tested the ability of a CO releasing molecule (CORM-3), used

  13. In vivo imaging of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression after radiosurgery in an animal model of arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newsha Raoufi-Rad

    Full Text Available Focussed radiosurgery may provide a means of inducing molecular changes on the luminal surface of diseased endothelium to allow targeted delivery of novel therapeutic compounds. We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation to induce surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1 on endothelial cells (EC in vitro and in vivo, to assess their suitability as vascular targets in irradiated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Cultured brain microvascular EC were irradiated by linear accelerator at single doses of 0, 5, 15 or 25 Gy and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 measured by qRT-PCR, Western, ELISA and immunocytochemistry. In vivo, near-infrared (NIR fluorescence optical imaging using Xenolight 750-conjugated ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 antibodies examined luminal biodistribution over 84 days in a rat AVM model after Gamma Knife surgery at a single 15 Gy dose. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were minimally expressed on untreated EC in vitro. Doses of 15 and 25 Gy stimulated expression equally; 5 Gy was not different from the unirradiated. In vivo, normal vessels did not bind or retain the fluorescent probes, however binding was significant in AVM vessels. No additive increases in probe binding were found in response to radiosurgery at a dose of 15 Gy. In summary, radiation induces adhesion molecule expression in vitro but elevated baseline levels in AVM vessels precludes further induction in vivo. These molecules may be suitable targets in irradiated vessels without hemodynamic derangement, but not AVMs. These findings demonstrate the importance of using flow-modulated, pre-clinical animal models for validating candidate proteins for vascular targeting in irradiated AVMs.

  14. In vivo imaging of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression after radiosurgery in an animal model of arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi-Rad, Newsha; McRobb, Lucinda S; Lee, Vivienne S; Bervini, David; Grace, Michael; Ukath, Jaysree; Mchattan, Joshua; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Duong, T T Hong; Zhao, Zhenjun; Stoodley, Marcus A

    2017-01-01

    Focussed radiosurgery may provide a means of inducing molecular changes on the luminal surface of diseased endothelium to allow targeted delivery of novel therapeutic compounds. We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation to induce surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells (EC) in vitro and in vivo, to assess their suitability as vascular targets in irradiated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Cultured brain microvascular EC were irradiated by linear accelerator at single doses of 0, 5, 15 or 25 Gy and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 measured by qRT-PCR, Western, ELISA and immunocytochemistry. In vivo, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence optical imaging using Xenolight 750-conjugated ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 antibodies examined luminal biodistribution over 84 days in a rat AVM model after Gamma Knife surgery at a single 15 Gy dose. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were minimally expressed on untreated EC in vitro. Doses of 15 and 25 Gy stimulated expression equally; 5 Gy was not different from the unirradiated. In vivo, normal vessels did not bind or retain the fluorescent probes, however binding was significant in AVM vessels. No additive increases in probe binding were found in response to radiosurgery at a dose of 15 Gy. In summary, radiation induces adhesion molecule expression in vitro but elevated baseline levels in AVM vessels precludes further induction in vivo. These molecules may be suitable targets in irradiated vessels without hemodynamic derangement, but not AVMs. These findings demonstrate the importance of using flow-modulated, pre-clinical animal models for validating candidate proteins for vascular targeting in irradiated AVMs.

  15. 17β estradiol regulates adhesion molecule expression in mesangial cells during glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Neelakshi R; Caricchio, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    We showed previously that 17β estradiol (E2) led to improved survival in nephrotoxic serum induced nephritis (NTN) in male mice. In this study we determined whether E2 regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, an adhesion molecule that is upregulated in kidney during autoimmune nephritis, in mesangial cells (MC). We show that E2 inhibited VCAM-1 up-regulation in kidneys in vivo during NTN, and in MCs upon TNFα stimulation. VCAM-1 up-regulation in MCs was controlled by the transcription factor NFκB. E2 inhibited RNA polymerase II recruitment to the VCAM-1 promoter, but not p65 recruitment. Interestingly E2 inhibited TNFα stimulated interaction between poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and p65. As PARP-1 is required for VCAM-1 upregulation in MCs, our data suggest that E2 may inhibit pre-initiation complex formation at VCAM-1 promoter by inhibiting PARP-1 recruitment to p65. We propose that E2 plays an important role in regulating renal inflammation locally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STAT3 activation in endothelial cells is important for tumor metastasis via increased cell adhesion molecule expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-J; Kwon, S-H; Yun, J-H; Jeong, H-S; Kim, H-R; Lee, E H; Ye, S-K; Cho, C-H

    2017-09-28

    Metastasis is a life-threatening feature of cancer and is primarily responsible for cancer patient mortality. Cross talk between tumor cells and endothelium is important for tumor progression and metastasis. However, very little is known about the mechanisms by which endothelial cells (ECs) that are close to tumor cells, respond to the tumor cells during tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we exploited the use of EC-specific signal transducer activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) knockout mice to investigate the role of STAT3 in ECs in tumor progression and metastasis. We found that the loss of STAT3 in ECs did not affect primary Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor growth, but it reduced in vivo LLC metastasis in experimental and spontaneous metastasis models. Mechanistically, STAT3 activation upregulated cell adhesion molecule expression, including E-selectin and P-selectin, in murine endothelial MS-1 cells treated with tumor cell-conditioned media in vitro and in pre-metastatic lungs of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. We also found that both E-selectin and P-selectin were, at least in part, responsible for STAT3-induced adhesion and invasion of LLC cells through an EC monolayer. However, tumor cell-conditioned media from B16F10 melanoma cells did not activate STAT3 in MS-1 cells. As a result, EC STAT3 knockout did not affect B16F10 melanoma cell metastasis. In addition, various human cancer cells activated STAT3 in human ECs (HUVECs), resulting in increased cell adhesion molecule expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that STAT3 activation in ECs promotes tumor metastasis through the induction of cell adhesion molecules, demonstrating a role for ECs in response to tumor cells during tumor metastasis.

  17. Expression of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules in the developing spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zirong; Imai, Fumiyasu; Kim, In Jung; Fujita, Hiroko; Katayama, Kei ichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) control synaptic specificity through hetero- or homophilic interactions in different regions of the nervous system. In the developing spinal cord, monosynaptic connections of exquisite specificity form between proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons, however, it is not known whether IgSF molecules participate in regulating this process. To determine whether IgSF molecules influence the establishment of synaptic specificity in sensory-motor circuits, we examined the expression of 157 IgSF genes in the developing dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by in situ hybridization assays. We find that many IgSF genes are expressed by sensory and motor neurons in the mouse developing DRG and spinal cord. For instance, Alcam, Mcam, and Ocam are expressed by a subset of motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Further analyses show that Ocam is expressed by obturator but not quadriceps motor neurons, suggesting that Ocam may regulate sensory-motor specificity in these sensory-motor reflex arcs. Electrophysiological analysis shows no obvious defects in synaptic specificity of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections involving obturator and quadriceps motor neurons in Ocam mutant mice. Since a subset of Ocam+ motor neurons also express Alcam, Alcam or other functionally redundant IgSF molecules may compensate for Ocam in controlling sensory-motor specificity. Taken together, these results reveal that IgSF molecules are broadly expressed by sensory and motor neurons during development, and that Ocam and other IgSF molecules may have redundant functions in controlling the specificity of sensory-motor circuits.

  18. Expression of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules in the developing spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirong Gu

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF control synaptic specificity through hetero- or homophilic interactions in different regions of the nervous system. In the developing spinal cord, monosynaptic connections of exquisite specificity form between proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons, however, it is not known whether IgSF molecules participate in regulating this process. To determine whether IgSF molecules influence the establishment of synaptic specificity in sensory-motor circuits, we examined the expression of 157 IgSF genes in the developing dorsal root ganglion (DRG and spinal cord by in situ hybridization assays. We find that many IgSF genes are expressed by sensory and motor neurons in the mouse developing DRG and spinal cord. For instance, Alcam, Mcam, and Ocam are expressed by a subset of motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Further analyses show that Ocam is expressed by obturator but not quadriceps motor neurons, suggesting that Ocam may regulate sensory-motor specificity in these sensory-motor reflex arcs. Electrophysiological analysis shows no obvious defects in synaptic specificity of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections involving obturator and quadriceps motor neurons in Ocam mutant mice. Since a subset of Ocam+ motor neurons also express Alcam, Alcam or other functionally redundant IgSF molecules may compensate for Ocam in controlling sensory-motor specificity. Taken together, these results reveal that IgSF molecules are broadly expressed by sensory and motor neurons during development, and that Ocam and other IgSF molecules may have redundant functions in controlling the specificity of sensory-motor circuits.

  19. Sulphoraphane inhibited the expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor-4 pathway in cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Y; Lin, N; Yang, X; Tan, J; Zhao, R; Dong, S; Wang, S

    2012-03-01

    Chronic inflammation plays pivotal roles in both cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A large body of evidence suggests that high intake of cruciferous vegetables is closely related with low risk of these disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms of protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to test the protective effects of an isothiocyanate sulphoraphane on inflammatory injury and related regulation pathways in cultured endothelial cells. The expressions of adhesion molecules were determined by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB) translocation was detected by immunofluorescent hybridisation. Other proteins were measured by Western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that sulphoraphane significantly suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both at the transcriptional and translational levels. In addition, sulphoraphane inhibited the translocation of NF-кB into the nucleus. Sulphoraphane decreased the phosphorylation of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), while further blockade and activation using individually specific agents confirm that p38 MAPK and JNK are mainly involved. Interestingly, sulphoraphane down-regulated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, a receptor of LPS located on the membrane. In addition, MyD88, an effector downstream TLR-4 signal pathway was subsequently attenuated. Taken all together, adhesion molecules are confirmed to be the novel targets of sulphoraphane in preventing inflammatory insult to endothelial cells. Sulphoraphane suppressed TLR-4 followed by MyD88 and downstream factors such as p38 MAPK and JNK, ultimately blocking NF-кB translocation and the subsequent expression of adhesion molecules. These data suggested a novel inflammatory pathway

  20. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Inhibits Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Interleukin-1β-Treated Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Katsuhiro; Obinata, Yusuke; Konishi, Akihiro; Kajiya, Mikihito; Matsuda, Shinji; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Sasaki, Shinya; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2016-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration is characterized by inflammation, which directs the quality of tissue repair. The objective of this study is to propose the relevance of BDNF to inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of BDNF on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is an inflammatory marker, expressed in interleukin (IL)-1β-treated human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). In addition, we studied the effect of BDNF on the adhesion of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells to HMVECs in a cell adhesion assay. We demonstrated that BDNF attenuates the IL-1β-induced ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression. Treatment of HMVECs with IL-1β led to an increase in the number of adherent neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. BDNF significantly decreased the number of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells attached to HMVECs. In conclusion, BDNF may reduce excess inflammation through reduced neutrophil recruitment by regulating ICAM-1 expression.

  1. The influence of pre-operative radiotherapy on the expression of p53 and adhesion molecules: correlation with treatment results in patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, J.; Blom, J.; Linthorst, M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Krimpen, C.

    2002-01-01

    E-cadherin and the catenins are responsible for inter-cellular adhesion in epithelial tissues. E-cadherin and/or catenin expression is often altered in malignancies, leading to increased invasiveness and metastatic activity of tumour cells. Intact adhesion molecules reduce the risk on distant

  2. The neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berezin, V; Bock, E; Poulsen, F M

    2000-01-01

    During the past year, the understanding of the structure and function of neural cell adhesion has advanced considerably. The three-dimensional structures of several of the individual modules of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been determined, as well as the structure of the complex...... between two identical fragments of the NCAM. Also during the past year, a link between homophilic cell adhesion and several signal transduction pathways has been proposed, connecting the event of cell surface adhesion to cellular responses such as neurite outgrowth. Finally, the stimulation of neurite...

  3. [Expression and significance of adhesion molecules CD62P and CD44 in peripheral blood of infants with bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Li

    2015-11-01

    To explore the expression and significance of the adhesion molecules CD62P and CD44 in the peripheral blood of infants with bronchiolitis. Thirty-three infants with bronchiolitis in the acute phase and 19 infants with bronchiolitis in the recovery phase, who were hospitalized between November 2014 and May 2015, were enrolled. Thirty infants with bronchopneumonia and 26 infants without infection were enrolled as the bronchopneumonia group and the control group, respectively. The CD62P expression in the peripheral blood of each group was measured by flow cytometry, and the CD44 level in serum was determined using ELISA. The levels of the adhesion molecules CD62P and CD44 in the bronchiolitis group in the acute phase were significantly higher than those in the bronchiolitis group in the recovery phase, the bronchopneumonia group, and the control group (Pbronchiolitis group in the recovery phase were also significantly higher than those in the control group (Pbronchiolitis group in the acute phase, there was a positive correlation between CD62P expression and serum CD44 level (r=0.91; Pbronchiolitis, and their levels can reflect the severity of inflammatory response in infants with bronchiolitis.

  4. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates TNF-α-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thichanpiang, Peeradech; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and demonstrates anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG has been shown to protect retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) against oxidative stress-induced cell death. The pathogenesis of diseases in the retina is usually initiated by local inflammation at the RPE cell layer, and inflammation is mostly associated with leukocyte migration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether EGCG can modulate the cytokine-induced inflammatory response of RPE, particularly leukocyte migration, has not been clearly elucidated, and was therefore the objective of this study. ARPE-19 cells were cultured with different concentrations of TNF-α in the presence or absence of EGCG to different time points. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and phosphor-NF-κB and IκB expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Phosphor-NF-κB nuclear translocation and monocyte-RPE adhesion were investigated using immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to further determine the ultrastructure of monocyte-RPE adhesion. The results demonstrated that TNF-α modulated inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 by induction of ROS and up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, TNF-α-induced phosphor-NF-κB nuclear translocation, increased phosphor-NF-κB expression and IκB degradation, and increased the degree of monocyte-RPE adhesion. Pretreating the cells with EGCG ameliorated the inflammatory effects of TNF-α. The results indicated that EGCG significantly exerts anti-inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 cells, partly as a suppressor of TNF-α signaling and that the inhibition was mediated via the NF-κB pathway.

  5. Dexamethasone-induced effects on lymphocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules in treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Moisés E; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Poon, Lucia; Perks, Paula; Lightman, Stafford L; Checkley, Stuart; Shanks, Nola

    2002-12-15

    Alterations in immune function are associated with major depression and have been related to changes in endocrine function. We investigated whether alterations in immune function were associated with altered basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function (salivary cortisol) and lymphocyte sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX) intake (1 mg PO). The latter was explored by comparing the impact of DEX-induced changes on peripheral lymphocyte redistribution and expression of adhesion molecules (beta2 integrins and L-selectin). The study included 36 inpatients with treatment-resistant major depression (unipolar subtype) and 31 matched healthy controls. The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) was carried out and used to classify 10 patients as HPA axis non-suppressors. The latter presented significantly higher post-DEX salivary cortisol levels than DST suppressors, 82.0 vs. 8.9 nM l(-1) h(-1). No differences in basal salivary cortisol levels were found between patients and controls. Changes in cell redistribution (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+), CD56(+) and HLADR(+) cells) after DEX administration were more prominent in controls than in patients, but the effects of DEX varied dependent on whether patients exhibited DEX-induced suppression of cortisol secretion. Glucocorticoid-induced suppression of adhesion molecule expression was also generally less marked in patients than controls. Our data indicate that alterations in immune function and steroid regulation associated with depression are not related to elevated basal levels of cortisol and further suggest that lymphocyte steroid resistance is associated with drug-resistant depression.

  6. Alcohol Differentially Alters Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Skeletal Muscle and Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Pruznak, Anne M; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Lang, Charles H

    2015-08-01

    The production of fibrosis in response to chronic alcohol abuse is well recognized in liver but has not been fully characterized in striated muscle and may contribute to functional impairment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use an unbiased discovery-based approach to determine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the expression profile of genes important for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Adult male rats were pair-fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet or control diet for 24 weeks, and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) and heart were collected in the freely fed state. A pathway-focused gene expression polymerase chain reaction array was performed on these tissues to assess mRNA content for 84 ECM proteins, and selected proteins were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In gastrocnemius, alcohol feeding up-regulated the expression of 11 genes and down-regulated the expression of 1 gene. Alcohol increased fibrosis as indicated by increased mRNA and/or protein for collagens α1(I), α2(I), α1(III), and α2(IV) as well as hydroxyproline. Alcohol also increased α-smooth muscle actin protein, an index of myofibroblast activation, but no concomitant change in transforming growth factor-β was detected. The mRNA and protein content for other ECM components, such as integrin-α5, L-selectin, PECAM, SPARC, and ADAMTS2, were also increased by alcohol. Only laminin-α3 mRNA was decreased in gastrocnemius from alcohol-fed rats, while 66 ECM- or cell adhesion-related mRNAs were unchanged by alcohol. For heart, expression of 16 genes was up-regulated, expression of 3 genes was down-regulated, and 65 mRNAs were unchanged by alcohol; there were no common alcohol-induced gene expression changes between heart and skeletal muscle. Finally, alcohol increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-12 mRNA in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, but IL-6 mRNA was increased and IL-10 mRNA decreased

  7. Dietary Selenium Supplementation Modulates Growth of Brain Metastatic Tumors and Changes the Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Brain Microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Jagoda K; Wolff, Gretchen; Xiao, Rijin; Power, Ronan F; Toborek, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Various dietary agents can modulate tumor invasiveness. The current study explored whether selenoglycoproteins (SeGPs) extracted from selenium-enriched yeast affect tumor cell homing and growth in the brain. Mice were fed diets enriched with specific SeGPs (SeGP40 or SeGP65, 1 mg/kg Se each), glycoproteins (GP40 or GP65, 0.2-0.3 mg/kg Se each) or a control diet (0.2-0.3 mg/kg Se) for 12 weeks. Then, murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells were infused into the brain circulation. Analyses were performed at early (48 h) and late stages (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Imaging of tumor progression in the brain revealed that mice fed SeGP65-enriched diet displayed diminished metastatic tumor growth, fewer extravasating tumor cells and smaller metastatic lesions. While administration of tumor cells resulted in a significant upregulation of adhesion molecules in the early stage of tumor progression, overexpression of VCAM-1 (vascular call adhesion molecule-1) and ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule) messenger RNA (mRNA) was diminished in SeGP65 supplemented mice. Additionally, mice fed SeGP65 showed decreased expression of acetylated NF-κB p65, 48 h post tumor cell infusion. The results indicate that tumor progression in the brain can be modulated by specific SeGPs. Selenium-containing compounds were more effective than their glycoprotein controls, implicating selenium as a potential negative regulator of metastatic process.

  8. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules and class II major histocompatibility antigens in human lungs: lack of influence by conditions of organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, S; Ritter, J H; Patterson, A; Ockner, D M; Sawa, H; Mohanakumar, T; Cooper, J D; Wick, M R

    1995-01-01

    The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens was studied in control lung tissue and preserved human donor lungs. The three controls were represented by wedge biopsy specimens taken from non-neoplastic lung surrounding bronchogenic carcinomas. Nine lungs were harvested from six brain-dead donors, flushed with Euro-Collins solution or low potassium-dextran-glucose solution, and stored at 1 degree C or 10 degrees C. Samples of the latter organs were taken at the time of surgical harvest (baseline) and after 2, 12, 24, and 48 hours of preservation time. Immunostains with monoclonal antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules were performed on all samples, and the relative presence of these determinants was evaluated. In both the controls and preserved lungs, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was intense in the septal capillary endothelium and alveolar pneumocytes, but essentially absent in bronchial epithelium. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was moderately to strongly labeled in the endothelia of large and small blood vessels of all types, and it was not seen in other cell types. Class II major histocompatibility complex antigens were variably observed in pulmonary epithelial cells, but they were not expressed by endothelia. There appeared to be no significant difference in the immunohistologic density of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 immunostaining in allografts at the specified time points of preservation; this conclusion was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Similar findings pertained to staining results for human leukocyte DR antigens. There was likewise no significant difference in the expression of the three analytes when donor lungs perfused with Euro-Collins solution versus low potassium

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid suppress adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells via differential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Chiang, An-Na

    2015-04-01

    Dietary PUFAs modulate the progression of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms within vascular cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological function and regulatory mechanisms of PUFAs in LPS-activated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). To simulate the in vivo conditions of atherosclerosis, we have established an in vitro model in which THP-1 monocytes adhere to HAECs. Our results showed that n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) remarkably attenuated the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HAECs, probably through inhibiting the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Using lipid raft isolation and confocal microscopy, we found that DHA and EPA suppressed the translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. Furthermore, DHA and EPA inhibited the ubiquitination and translocation of TRAF6, and the phosphorylation of TAK1, p38, and IκBα. We demonstrated that DHA reduced the phosphorylation of PKR, but EPA increased the expression of A20. Additionally, silencing of A20 reversed the inhibitory effect of EPA on the expression of adhesion molecules. Our study revealed differential signaling pathways modulated by n-3 PUFAs in LPS-stimulated HAECs. These signaling pathways are potential targets for the prevention of atherosclerotic progression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 and 8 in primary myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2011-01-01

    for the egress of CD34+ cells from the bone marrow. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 has been implicated in cell adhesion, cellular invasiveness, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which are all key processes in the pathophysiology of PMF. Accordingly, CEACAMs may play an important...

  12. Effects of a thrombomodulin-derived peptide on monocyte adhesion and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Xu, Xun; Jin, Huiyi; Yang, Xiaolu; Gu, Qing; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    It has been documented that GC31, a 31-animo acid peptide from human thrombomodulin, has potent anti-inflammatory properties in endotoxin-induced uveitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells, while the role of GC31 in the endothelial cells has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of GC31 on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in LPS-activated endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with LPS (1 μg/ml) and peptide GC31 or control peptide VP30 simultaneously. ICAM-1 messenger RNA and protein levels were evaluated with real-time PCR and western blot. The adhesion of U937 cells labeled with CM-H2DCFDA to HUVECs was examined with fluorescence microscope. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha (IκBα) degradation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation were detected with western blot. Upon LPS stimulation, GC31 suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1 in HUVECs and remarkably reduced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GC31 significantly inhibited the degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and moderately blocked the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in activated HUVECs. Our results suggested that GC31 suppressed LPS-mediated ICAM-1 expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and partially by attenuating the activity of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in vascular endothelium, which may contribute to ameliorating vascular inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis.

  13. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoung Ho [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang Won, E-mail: swyeo@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Troy, Frederic A., E-mail: fatroy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen City (China)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  14. Stroke Status Evoked Adhesion Molecule Genetic Alterations in Astrocytes Isolated from Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Apigenin Inhibition of Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the possibility that the expression of adhesion molecules is regulated differently in cultured astrocytes from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/IZM rats than in those from Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/IZM by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- or hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R and the inhibitory effects of apigenin. It was found that the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 by TNF- in astrocytes isolated from SHRSP/IZM was increased compared with that in WKY/IZM. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 mRNA induced by H/R in SHRSP/IZM astrocytes was increased compared with that in normal oxygen concentrations. Apigenin strongly attenuated TNF--induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression and suppressed the adhesion of U937 cells and SHRSP/IZM astrocytes. These results suggest that the expression levels of adhesion molecules during H/R affect disease outcome and can drive SHRSP/IZM to stroke. It is suggested that apigenin regulates adhesion molecule expression in reactive astrocytes during ischemia.

  15. Cell adhesion molecules and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Emma Kate; Ballester Roig, Maria Neus; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-03-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation. Further, some potential mechanisms by which SAMs may act to regulate sleep are outlined, and the proposition that these molecules may serve as molecular machinery in the two sleep regulatory processes, the circadian and homeostatic components, is presented. Together, the data argue that SAMs regulate the neuronal plasticity that underlies sleep and wakefulness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to dust from paints with or without nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lone; Jensen, Keld A; Koponen, Ismo K; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Håkan; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Møller, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles in primary form and nanoproducts might elicit different toxicological responses. We compared paint-related nanoparticles with respect to effects on endothelial oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and cell adhesion molecule expression. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to primary nanoparticles (fine, photocatalytic or nanosized TiO(2), aluminium silicate, carbon black, nano-silicasol or axilate) and dust from sanding reference- or nanoparticle-containing paints. Most of the samples increased cell surface expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), but paint sanding dust samples generally generated less response than primary particles of TiO(2) and carbon black. We found no relationship between the expression of adhesion molecules, cytotoxicity and production of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paint did not generate more oxidative stress or expression of cell adhesion molecules than sanding dust from paint without nanoparticles, whereas the primary particles had the largest effect on mass basis.

  17. The influence of propofol on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in reoxygenated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcoran, T B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Leucocytes are a pivotal component of the inflammatory cascade that results in tissue injury in a large group of disorders. Free radical production and endothelial activation promote leucocyte-endothelium interactions via endothelial expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) which augment these processes, particularly in the setting of reperfusion injury. Propofol has antioxidant properties which may attenuate the increased expression of these molecules that is observed. METHODS: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to 20 h of hypoxia, then returned to normoxic conditions. Cells were treated with saline, Diprivan 5 microg mL(-1) or propofol 5 microg mL(-1), for 4 h after reoxygenation and were examined for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. RESULTS: Hypoxia did not increase the expression of ICAM-1\\/VCAM-1. ICAM-1 expression peaked 12 h after reoxygenation (21.75(0.6) vs. 9.6(1.3), P = 0.02). Propofol, but not Diprivan, prevented this increase (8.2(2.9) vs. 21.75(0.6), P = 0.009). VCAM-1 expression peaked 24 h after reoxygenation (9.8(0.9) vs. 6.6(0.6), P = 0.03). Propofol and Diprivan prevented this increase, with no difference between the two treatments observed (4.3(0.3) and 6.4(0.5) vs. 9.8(0.9), P = 0.001, 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: These effects are likely to be attributable to the antioxidant properties of propofol, and suggest that propofol may have a protective role in disorders where free radical mediated injury promotes leucocyte-endothelium adhesive interactions.

  18. Exosomes from iPSCs Delivering siRNA Attenuate Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Neutrophils Adhesion in Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhihai; Ma, Jinhui; Wang, Chen; Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yeru; Hei, Feilong

    2017-04-01

    The pro-inflammatory activation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells resulting in continuous expression of cellular adhesion molecules, and subsequently recruiting primed neutrophils to form a firm neutrophils-endothelium (PMN-EC) adhesion, has been examined and found to play a vital role in acute lung injury (ALI). RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular process through harnessing a natural pathway silencing target gene based on recognition and subsequent degradation of specific mRNA sequences. It opens a promising approach for precision medicine. However, this application was hampered by many obstacles, such as immunogenicity, instability, toxicity problems, and difficulty in across the biological membrane. In this study, we reprogrammed urine exfoliated renal epithelial cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (huiPSCs) and purified the exosomes (Exo) from huiPSCs as RNAi delivery system. Through choosing the episomal system to deliver transcription factors, we obtained a non-integrating huiPSCs. Experiments in both vitro and vivo demonstrated that these huiPSCs possess the pluripotent properties. The exosomes of huiPSCs isolated by differential centrifugation were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing a typical exosomal appearance with an average diameter of 122 nm. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of the typical exosomal markers, including CD63, TSG 101, and Alix. Co-cultured PKH26-labeled exosomes with human primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) confirmed that they could be internalized by recipient cells at a time-dependent manner. Then, electroporation was used to introduce siRNA against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) into exosomes to form an Exo/siRNA compound. The Exo/siRNA compound efficiently delivered the target siRNA into HMVECs causing selective gene silencing, inhibiting the ICAM-1 protein expression, and PMN-EC adhesion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These data suggest

  19. Quercetin inhibits LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression and oxidant production in human aortic endothelial cells by p38-mediated Nrf2 activation and antioxidant enzyme induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Frei, Balz

    2016-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of ischemic heart disease and stroke, is an inflammatory disease of arteries in a hyperlipidemic milieu. Endothelial expression of cellular adhesion molecules, such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The dietary flavonoid, quercetin, has been reported to inhibit expression of cellular adhesion molecules, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that quercetin dose-dependently (5-20µM) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA and protein expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Incubation of HAEC with quercetin also significantly reduced LPS-induced oxidant production, but did not inhibit activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Furthermore, quercetin induced activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequent mRNA and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase. The induction of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes was partly inhibited by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) inhibitor, SB203580. Our results suggest that quercetin suppresses LPS-induced oxidant production and adhesion molecule expression by inducing Nrf2 activation and antioxidant enzyme expression, which is partially mediated by p38; and the inhibitory effect of quercetin on adhesion molecule expression is not due to inhibition of NF-κB activation, but instead due to antioxidant-independent effects of HO-1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to dust from paints with or without nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone; Jensen, Keld A; Koponen, Ismo K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanoparticles in primary form and nanoproducts might elicit different toxicological responses. We compared paint-related nanoparticles with respect to effects on endothelial oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and cell adhesion molecule expression. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells...... were exposed to primary nanoparticles (fine, photocatalytic or nanosized TiO(2), aluminium silicate, carbon black, nano-silicasol or axilate) and dust from sanding reference- or nanoparticle-containing paints. Most of the samples increased cell surface expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1....... In conclusion, sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paint did not generate more oxidative stress or expression of cell adhesion molecules than sanding dust from paint without nanoparticles, whereas the primary particles had the largest effect on mass basis....

  1. A novel population of CD4+CD56+ myelin-reactive T cells lyses target cells expressing CD56/neural cell adhesion molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergelli, M.; Le, H.; Noort, J.M. van; Dhib-Jalbut, S.; McFarland, H.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    CD56 is a member of the neural cell adhesion molecule family expressed on cells of the central nervous system and also on NK cells. Previous studies suggest the involvement of CD56 in effector-to-target cell conjugation mediated by NK cells. It was shown recently that CD56 is also expressed by

  2. Vaspin inhibits cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Yu Mi; Lee, Yoo La; Yoon, Hae Kyeong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2014-02-12

    Vaspin is an adipocytokine that was recently identified in the visceral adipose tissue of diabetic rats and has anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic effects. We hypothesized that vaspin prevents inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular endothelial cells. We examined the effects of vaspin on NF-κB activation and the expression of the NF-κB-mediated genes intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECS) were used. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was used as a representative proinflammatory cytokine. Treatment with vaspin significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the down-stream target of AMPK. Furthermore, treatment with vaspin significantly decreased TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB, as well as the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and MCP-1. These effects were abolished following transfection of AMPKα1-specific small interfering RNA. In an adhesion assay using THP-1 cells, vaspin reduced TNFα-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAECS in an AMPK-dependent manner. Vaspin might attenuate the cytokine-induced expression of adhesion molecule genes by inhibiting NF-κB following AMPK activation.

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes Phospholipase A2 Induces the Expression of Adhesion Molecules on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Aorta of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Kurosawa, Mie; Isono, Toshihito; Maekawa, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada; Terao, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    The Streptococcus pyogenes phospholipase A2 (SlaA) gene is highly conserved in the M3 serotype of group A S. pyogenes, which often involves hypervirulent clones. However, the role of SlaA in S. pyogenes pathogenesis is unclear. Herein, we report that SlaA induces the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) via the arachidonic acid signaling cascade. Notably, recombinant SlaA induced ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), resulting in enhanced adhesion of human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells. However, C134A, a variant enzyme with no enzymatic activity, did not induce such events. In addition, culture supernatants from S. pyogenes SSI-1 enhanced the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs, but culture supernatants from the ΔslaA isogenic mutant strain had limited effects. Aspirin, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, prevented the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and did not induce ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression in HUVECs treated with SlaA. However, zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, did not exhibit such effects. Furthermore, pre-administration of aspirin in mice intravenously injected with SlaA attenuated the transcriptional abundance of ICAM1 and VCAM1 in the aorta. These results suggested that SlaA from S. pyogenes stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules in vascular endothelial cells. Thus, SlaA contributes to the inflammation of vascular endothelial cells upon S. pyogenes infection.

  4. Expression of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Developing Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    Zirong Gu; Fumiyasu Imai; In Jung Kim; Hiroko Fujita; Kei ichi Katayama; Kensaku Mori; Yoshihiro Yoshihara; Yutaka Yoshida

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) control synaptic specificity through hetero- or homophilic interactions in different regions of the nervous system. In the developing spinal cord, monosynaptic connections of exquisite specificity form between proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons, however, it is not known whether IgSF molecules participate in regulating this process. To determine whether IgSF molecules influence the establishment of synapti...

  5. Endothelium adhesion molecules ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1 and VLA-4 expression in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Juarez; Sousa Aarão, Tinara Leila; Rodrigues de Sousa, Jorge; Hirai, Kelly Emi; Silva, Luciana Mota; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Oliveira Carneiro, Francisca Regina; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy triggers a complex relationship between the pathogen and host immune response. Endothelium plays an important role in this immune response by directly influencing cell migration to infected tissues. The objective of this work is to investigate the possible role of endothelium in M. leprae infection, correlating the characteristics of endothelial markers with the expression pattern of cytokines. Thirty-six skin biopsy samples were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen for morphological analysis and then submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, and VLA-4. Immunostaining for ICAM-1 showed a significantly larger number of stained endothelial cells in the tuberculoid leprosy (9.92 ± 1.11 cells/mm 2 ) when compared to lepromatous samples (5.87 ± 1.01 cells/mm 2 ) and ICAM-2 revealed no significant difference in the number of endothelial cells expressing this marker between the tuberculoid (13.21 ± 1.27 cells/mm 2 ) and lepromatous leprosy (14.3 ± 1.02 cells/mm 2 ). VCAM-1-immunostained showed 18.28 ± 1.46/mm 2 cells in tuberculoid leprosy and 10.67 ± 1.25 cells/mm 2 in the lepromatous leprosy. VLA-4 exhibited 22.46 ± 1.38 cells/mm 2 in the tuberculoid leprosy 16.04 ± 1.56 cells/mm 2 in the lepromatous leprosy. Samples with characteristics of the tuberculoid leprosy exhibited a larger number of cells stained with ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and VLA-4, demonstrating the importance of these molecules in the migration and selection of cells that reach the inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Naringin suppress chondrosarcoma migration through inhibition vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression by modulating miR-126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tzu-Wei; Chou, Ying-Erh; Yang, Wei-Hung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it have poor prognosis. Naringin, polymethoxylated flavonoid commonly found in citrus fruits, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether naringin regulates migration of chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here we report that naringin does not expedite apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma. By contrast, at noncytotoxic concentrations, naringin suppressed migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) of the immunoglobulin superfamily is linked with metastasis; we found incubation of chondrosarcoma cells with naringin reducing mRNA transcription for, and cell surface expression of, VCAM-1. We also observed that naringin enhancing miR-126 expression, and miR-126 inhibitor reversed the naringin-inhibited cell motility and VCAM-1 expression. Therefore, naringin inhibits migration and invasion of human chondrosarcoma via down-regulation of VCAM-1 by increasing miR-126. Thus, naringin may be a novel anti-migration agent for the treatment of migration in chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of lidocaine on in vitro neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression induced by plasma obtained during tourniquet-induced ischaemia and reperfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression occur during perioperative ischaemia and reperfusion (I\\/R) injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on neutrophil-independent changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression associated with tourniquet-induced I\\/R. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from venous blood samples (tourniquet arm) taken before (baseline), during, 15 min, 2 and 24 h following tourniquet release in seven patients undergoing elective upper limb surgery with tourniquet application. Isolated neutrophils from healthy volunteers (n = 7) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1) for 1 h, and then incubated with I\\/R plasma for 2 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)) for 1 h, and then incubated with the plasma for 4 h. Adhesion molecule expression was estimated using flow cytometry. Data were analysed using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. RESULTS: I\\/R plasma (withdrawn 15 min following tourniquet release) increased isolated neutrophil CD11b (P = 0.03), CD18 (P = 0.01) and endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.008) expression compared to baseline. CD11b, CD18 and ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils was similar to control. CD11b (P < 0.001), CD18 (P = 0.03) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.002) expression on lidocaine (0.05 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils and HUVECs was less than that on controls. CONCLUSION: Increased in vitro neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression on exposure to plasma obtained during the early reperfusion phase is diminished by lidocaine at greater than clinically relevant plasma concentrations.

  8. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule - More than a carcinoma marker and adhesion molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; de Leij, Lou M. F. H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    The epithetial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a glycoprotein of similar to 40 kd that was originally identified as a marker for carcinoma, attributable to its high expression on rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Normal epithelia express EpCAM at a variable but generally

  9. Differential expression and distribution of epithelial adhesion molecules in non-small cell lung cancer and normal bronchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, M. C.; van den Berg, Anke; Vogelzang, I.; Wesseling, J.; Postma, D. S.; Timens, W.; Groen, H. J. M.

    Background: Changes in epithelial cell interactions have been implicated in carcinogenesis, tumour invasion and metastasis. Aim: To screen for altered expression of epithelial adhesion genes in lung cancer development. Methods: Gene expression profiles were assessed with cDNA expression arrays in

  10. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of extracellular modules of the neural cell-adhesion molecules NCAM and L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kasper, Christina; Gajhede, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant proteins consisting of either the four or five amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) modules of the rat neural cell-adhesion molecule NCAM or the whole extracellular part [six Ig and five fibronectin type III (F3) modules] of mouse L1 have been expressed in Drosophila S2 cells...

  11. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... a role in reperfusion injury....

  12. Activated endothelial interleukin-1beta, -6, and -8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression are attenuated by lidocaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, Wei

    2012-02-03

    Endothelial cells play a key role in ischemia reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. HUVECs were pretreated with different concentrations of lidocaine (0 to 0.5 mg\\/mL) for 60 min, thereafter tumor necrosis factor-alpha was added at a concentration of 2.5 ng\\/mL and the cells incubated for 4 h. Supernatants were harvested, and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial ICAM-1 expression was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Differences were assessed using analysis of variance and post hoc unpaired Student\\'s t-test where appropriate. Lidocaine (0.5 mg\\/mL) decreased IL-1beta (1.89 +\\/- 0.11 versus 4.16 +\\/- 1.27 pg\\/mL; P = 0.009), IL-6 (65.5 +\\/- 5.14 versus 162 +\\/- 11.5 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001), and IL-8 (3869 +\\/- 785 versus 14,961 +\\/- 406 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001) concentrations compared with the control. IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations in HUVECs treated with clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine (0.005 mg\\/mL) were similar to control. ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine-treated (0.05 mg\\/mL) HUVECs was less than on controls (198 +\\/- 52.7 versus 298 +\\/- 50.3; Mean Channel Fluorescence; P < 0.001). Activated endothelial IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and ICAM-1 expression are attenuated only by lidocaine at concentrations larger than clinically relevant concentrations.

  13. Factor Xa induces cytokine production and expression of adhesion molecules by human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, N. H.; Jeunhomme, T. M.; Heemskerk, J. W.; Wagenvoord, R.; van't Veer, C.; Hemker, H. C.; Buurman, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Proinflammatory effects induced by the serine protease factor Xa were investigated in HUVEC. Exposure of cells to factor Xa (5-80 nM) concentration dependently stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and the expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1,

  14. N-myc down regulates neural cell adhesion molecule expression in rat neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akeson, R.; Bernards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    In human neuroblastoma, amplification of the N-myc oncogene is correlated with increased metastatic ability. We recently showed that transfection of the rat neuroblastoma cell line B104 with an N-myc expression vector resulted in an increase in metastatic ability and a significant reduction in the

  15. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-8 production in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Keiko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hirano, Reiji; Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kittaka, Setsuaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile vasculitis of childhood that is associated with elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, causing damage to the coronary arteries. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) is regulated by nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. We have previously reported that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression (vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) and cytokine production (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8) in HCAECs. Pretreatment with 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression and IL-8 production in HCAECs. Our results suggest that adjunctive 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) therapy may modulate the inflammatory response during Kawasaki disease vasculitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubina, Kseniya A., E-mail: rkseniya@mail.ru; Surkova, Ekaterina I.; Semina, Ekaterina V.; Sysoeva, Veronika Y.; Kalinina, Natalia I. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky av., 31/5, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Poliakov, Alexei A. [Division of Developmental Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Treshalina, Helena M. [Federal State Budgetary Scietific Institution «N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center» (FSBSI “N.N.Blokhin RCRC”), Kashirskoe Shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tkachuk, Vsevolod A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky av., 31/5, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-21

    T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate that T-cadherin overexpression leads to the increase in the expression of anti-angiogenic molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  17. Rhein inhibits the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with or without lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Liu, Jiang; Zhen, Yong-Zhan; Wei, Jie; Qiao, Yue; Lin, Ya-Jun; Tu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs) is known to decrease inflammation-induced vascular complications. In this study, we explored whether rhein can reduce the inflammation-induced expression of ECAMs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of rhein with or without 2.5 μg/ml LPS stimulation. Cell viability was assayed using the MTT method. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to measure the transcription and expression levels of ECAMs, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-SELECTIN and related signaling proteins. The results indicated that rhein (0-20 μmol/L) and LPS (0-10 μg/ml) had no effect on the viability of HUVECs. LPS could promote the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-SELECTIN. Rhein appeared to target VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-SELECTIN, with the transcription and expression of all three factors being reduced by the rhein treatment (10 and 20 μmol/L). The transcription and expression of VCAM-1 were also reduced by treatment with rhein (10 and 20 μmol/L) in the presence of LPS stimulation. In conclusion, rhein treatment reduced the expression of VCAM-1 in HUVECs via a p38-dependent pathway.

  18. Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule in human liver development and in congenital and acquired liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, L; Cassiman, D; Desmet, V; Roskams, T

    2001-09-01

    In the liver, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a marker of immature cells committed to the biliary lineage and is expressed by reactive bile ductules in human liver diseases. We investigated the possible role of NCAM in the development of intrahepatic bile ducts and aimed at determining whether immature biliary cells can contribute to the repair of damaged bile ducts in chronic liver diseases. Therefore, we performed immunohistochemistry for NCAM and bile duct cell markers cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 19 on frozen sections of 85 liver specimens taken from 14 fetuses, 10 donor livers, 18 patients with congenital liver diseases characterized by ductal plate malformations (DPMs), and 43 cirrhotic explant livers. Duplicated ductal plates and incorporating bile ducts during development showed a patchy immunoreactivity for NCAM, while DPMs were continuously positive for NCAM. Bile ducts showing complete or patchy immunoreactivity for NCAM were found in cirrhotic livers, with higher frequency in biliary than in posthepatitic cirrhosis. Our results suggest that NCAM may have a function in the development of the intrahepatic bile ducts and that NCAM-positive immature biliary cells can contribute to the repair of damaged bile ducts in chronic liver diseases.

  19. Effect of GPIIb/IIIa inhibition with eptifibatide or tirofiban on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules on monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Stefanie; Walter, Thomas; Lang, Siegfried; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Beyer, Martin E; Griesel, Eva; Hoffmeister, Hans-Martin; Gruettner, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of GPIIb/IIIa inhibition with eptifibatide and tirofiban on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules on monocytes at different temperatures. Circulation of blood from six volunteers was performed in an extracorporal circulation model at 36°C and 18°C for 30 min. The blood of each donor was prepared either with addition of eptifibatide or tirofiban, or was left untreated as control. CD54 and CD162 on monocytes was measured using flow cytometry. Expression of CD11b was lower at 18°C compared to 36°C by 51% in the eptifibatide group (p=0.0043), by 29% in the tirofiban group (p=0.095) and by 34% in the control group (p=0.038). Expression of CD54 was not significantly different at 18°C compared to 36°C, neither with eptifibatide (p=0.29) nor tirofiban (p=0.48) nor in the control group (p=0.26). Expression of CD162 was lower at 18°C compared to 36°C by 40% using eptifibatide (p=0.0010), by 94% using tirofiban (p=0.0095) and by 34% in the control group (p=0.019). At 36°C and 18°C, no significant differences were found regarding the expression of CD11b, CD54 and CD162 between the eptifibatide-treated group, the tirofiban-treated group and the control group. GPIIb/IIIa inhibition with eptifibatide or tirofiban seems to have no effect on the expression of CD11b, CD54 and CD162 on monocytes during normothermia or hypothermia. Our results show that the beneficial effect induced by hypothermia on the extracorporal circulation-associated alteration of leukocyte function, with decreased expression of CD11b and CD162, seems not to be affected by additional treatment with eptifibatide or tirofiban. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. The Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Naringin Is Associated with Reduced Expressions of Cell Adhesion Molecules and Chemokines through NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Pin Hsueh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Naringin has been reported to have an anti-atherosclerosis effect but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of naringin on the TNF-α-induced expressions of cell adhesion molecules, chemokines and NF-κB signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The experiments revealed that naringin, at concentrations without cytotoxicity, dose-dependently inhibited the adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to the TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The TNF-α-induced expressions of cell adhesion molecules, including VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, at both the mRNA and protein levels, were significantly suppressed by naringin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the TNF-α-induced mRNA and protein levels of chemokines, including fractalkine/CX3CL1, MCP-1 and RANTES, were also reduced by naringin. Naringin significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which resulted from the inhibited phosphorylation of IKKα/β, IκB-α and NF-κB. Altogether, we proposed that naringin modulated TNF-α-induced expressions of cell adhesion molecules and chemokines through the inhibition of TNF-α-induced activation of IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway to exert the anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  1. Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in adult human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamata, N.; Xu, B.; Nishijima, H.; Aoyama, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Tei, C.; Michie, S. A.; Matsuyama, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine w...

  2. Effects of Chinese yellow wine on nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expressions in rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Zhai, Xiaoya; Meng, Liping; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine similarities in the effect of yellow wine as compared to statin and the possibility that yellow wine inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs). We isolated VECs, and cultivated and purified Sprague Dawley (SD) rat thoracic aortas in vitro. We selected the optimal wine concentration using clonogenic and MTT assays to measure cell survival. Next, we divided the cells into 9 groups: (1) control, (2) TNF-α, (3) TNF-α + rosuvastatin (10 μmol/L), (4) TNF-α + ethanol 0.5%, (5) TNF-α + yellow wine 0.5%, (6) TNF-α + ethanol 1.0%, (7) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.0%, (8) TNF-α + ethanol 1.5%, and (9) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.5% and they were given the corresponding treatment for 24 h. We determined NO production with nitrate reductase. We then measured eNOS activity, and detected eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein levels by Western blotting. Compared with the TNF-α group, NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression in the rosuvastatin, and yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly increased. Protein expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the rosuvastatin, yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly decreased. Compared with the rosuvastatin group, eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein expression in the yellow wine (0.5% -1.5%) groups were significantly different. Treatment with yellow wine increased NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression, which decreases iNOS and ICAM-1 protein expression. We conclude that yellow wine may have similar beneficial effects as rosuvastatin on the cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions.

  3. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Suk; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kim, Han Na; Ha, Tae-Sun; Ahn, Hee Yul

    2014-11-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), P- and E-selectin play a key role for initiation of vascular inflammation. Ginsenoside, a class of steroid glycosides, is abundant in Panax ginseng root, which has been used for health promotion in Korea. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which ginsenoside Rg3 may inhibit ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and C57BL/6 mice. LPS increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevented LPS-mediated increase of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LPS induced IkappaBα (IκBα) degradation within 1 hr. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevented the IκBα degradation stimulated with LPS. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg3 reduced LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, in a concentration-dependent manner. In C57BL/6 mice, injection of LPS increased aortic ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, which was prevented by ginsenoside Rg3. These data provide a novel mechanism where the ginsenoside Rg3 may provide direct vascular benefits with inhibition of leukocyte adhesion into vascular wall thereby providing prevention against vascular inflammatory disease.

  4. A Phenanthrene Derivative, 5,7-Dimethoxy-1,4-Phenanthrenequinone, Inhibits Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression and Migration in Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Huey-Ming; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    The activation of endothelial cells (ECs) and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have played a crucial role in monocyte chemotaxis/adhesion and intima thickening during vascular injury and atherosclerosis, respectively. Several phenanthrenes isolated from plants and natural products have been shown to possess different bioactivities such as anti-platelet aggregation and anti-inflammation. The current study was designated to investigate the effects of a phenanthrene derivative, 5,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinone (DMPQ), on cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression in vascular ECs and migration in VSMCs. The DMPQ attenuated monocyte-EC interaction but it did not affect monocyte adhesion to matrix. In parallel, DMPQ reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced intercellular adhesion molecule and vascular CAM expression in ECs. DMPQ compromised TNF-α-induced IκB activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) translocation, and NF-κB-DNA complex formation. Moreover, it affected TNF-α- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced reactive oxygen species production and IκB activation. These suggest that DMPQ affects CAM expression by affecting NF-κB signaling. Meanwhile, DMPQ could also inhibit platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC migration toward collagen by affecting cellular PDGF signaling, including PDGFRβ, PLCγ, ERK1/2, and Akt phosphorylation. The VSMC adhesion to collagen and collagen-induced focal adhesion kinase activation during cell adhesion were impaired by DMPQ treatment. This study reveals a phenanthrene derivative-DMPQ-with anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory bioactivity toward vascular ECs and SMCs, suggesting its protective effect on vascular injuries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in endothelial cells through NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, M; Liu, J; Ouyang, X

    2015-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to actively invade endothelial cells and induce vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) overexpression. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an intracellular pattern recognition reporter, and its involvement in this process was unknown. This study focused on endothelial cells infected with P. gingivalis, the detection of NOD1 expression and the role that NOD1 plays in the upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (ECV-304) was intruded by P. gingivalis W83, and cells without any treatment were the control group. Expression levels of NOD1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, phosphorylated P65 between cells with and without treatment on both mRNA and protein levels were compared. Then we examined whether mesodiaminopimelic acid (NOD1 agonist) could increase VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression, meanwhile, NOD1 gene silence by RNA interference could reduce VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and phosphorylated P65 release. At last, we examined whether inhibition of NF-κB by Bay117082 could reduce VCAM-1 and ICAM- 1 expression. The mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels by western blot or electrophoretic mobility shift assays (for phosphorylated P65). P. gingivalis invasion showed significant upregulation of NOD1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. NOD1 activation by meso-diaminopimelic acid increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression, and NOD1 gene silence reduced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 release markedly. The NF-κB signaling pathway was activated by P. gingivalis, while NOD1 gene silence decreased the activation of NF-κB. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB reduced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced by P. gingivalis in endothelial cells. The results revealed that P. gingivalis induced NOD1 overexpression in endothelial cells and that NOD1 played an important role in the process of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells infected with P

  6. Magnolol reduced TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via JNK/p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chan-Jung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Wu, Chau-Chung; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-α induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-α-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-κB activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-α-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-α-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-κB activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  7. Inhibition of cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression; possible mechanism for anti-atherogenic effect of Agastache rugosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J J; Choi, J H; Oh, S R; Lee, H K; Park, J H; Lee, K Y; Kim, J J; Jeong, T S; Oh, G T

    2001-04-27

    Adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) play an important role during the early stages of atherogenesis. Agastache rugosa has an anti-atherogenic effect in low density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice. Moreover, A. rugosa reduced macrophage infiltration and VCAM-1 expression has been localized in aortic endothelium that overlies early foam cell lesions. This study ascertained that tilianin (100 microM), a major component of A. rugosa, inhibits the tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of VCAM-1 by 74% in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Also, tilianin (100 microM) reduced TNF-alpha-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in HUVECs.

  8. Ectopic expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in adult macaque Schwann cells promotes their migration and remyelination potential in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelin, C; Zujovic, V; Buchet, D; Mallet, J; Baron-Van Evercooren, A

    2010-02-01

    Recent findings suggested that inducing neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation in rodents is a promising strategy for promoting tissue repair in the injured central nervous system. Since autologous grafting of Schwann cells is one potential strategy to promote central nervous system remyelination, it is essential to show that such a strategy can be translated to adult primate Schwann cells and is of interest for myelin diseases. Adult macaque Schwann cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding sialyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation. In vitro, we found that ectopic expression of polysialylate promoted adult macaque Schwann cell migration and improved their integration among astrocytes in vitro without modifying their antigenic properties as either non-myelinating or pro-myelinating. In addition, forced expression of polysialylate in adult macaque Schwann cells decreased their adhesion with sister cells. To investigate the ability of adult macaque Schwann cells to integrate and migrate in vivo, focally induced demyelination was targeted to the spinal cord dorsal funiculus of nude mice, and both control and sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells overexpressing green fluorescein protein were grafted remotely from the lesion site. Analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the grafted Schwann cells performed in toto and in situ, showed that in both groups, Schwann cells migrated towards the lesion site. However, migration of sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells was more efficient than that of control Schwann cells, leading to their accelerated recruitment by the lesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule promoted adult macaque Schwann cell interaction with reactive astrocytes when exiting the graft, and their 'chain-like' migration along the dorsal midline. The accelerated migration of sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells to the lesion

  9. Effects of the AT1 receptor antagonist on adhesion molecule expression in leukocytes and brain microvessels of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, K; Ito, H; Suzuki, T

    2000-11-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of angiotensin II (AII) in the pathogenesis of microvascular changes in severe hypertension, we investigated the effects of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on the expression of adhesion molecules of leukocytes and brain microvessels. Male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) at 19 weeks of age were divided into three groups and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the control group. AT1 receptor antagonist (TCV-116, 0.5 mg/kg/day) and ACEI (captopril, 20 mg/kg/day) were administered to SHRSP for 4 weeks. Mac-1 expression in leukocytes was investigated by flow cytometric analysis. For endothelial cells, we examined the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the AT1 receptor, and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1, a marker of the blood-brain barrier) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The blood pressure of AT1 receptor antagonist and ACEI-treated groups was slightly lower than that of the control, but was still greater than 220 mm Hg. Mac-1 expression, as well as ICAM-1 expression, was higher in control SHRSP than in WKY. Such enhanced expression of adhesion molecules in SHRSP was ameliorated by the administration of AT1 receptor antagonist or ACEI, the former being more effective. AT1 receptor expression was higher in control SHRSP than in WKY, and was lower in the AT1 receptor antagonist group, whereas no difference was found in the ACEI group. No significant differences were found in GLUT-1 expression among all groups. In the case of hypertensive cerebral injuries in SHRSP, leukocytes may have an important role for initiation via adhesion to endothelial cells. AT1 receptor antagonist showed a beneficial effect for the amelioration of enhanced expression of adhesion molecule in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. Thus, AII seems to be an important mediator for the hypertensive

  10. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  11. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  12. Expression of co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules and chemokine or apoptosis receptors on acute myeloid leukaemia : high CD40 and CD11a expression correlates with poor prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, RE; Hoefnagel, J; van der Burg, BB; Jedema, [No Value; Zwinderman, KH; Starrenburg, ICW; Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Barge, RMY; Willemze, R; Falkenburg, JHF

    2001-01-01

    The expression of adhesion and co-stimulatory molecules. and chemokine and death receptors such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and FAS on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) may influence the biology of the disease and response to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. In this study, we analysed the expression

  13. Treatment with tanshinone IIA suppresses disruption of the blood-brain barrier and reduces expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Yan, Jun; Feng, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), one of the major bioactive components of the traditional Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been reported to have both anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. The effect of treatment with TSIIA in multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory neurodegenerative disease, however, remains poorly understood. In the present study, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a classical experimental model of MS, was used to investigate the therapeutic effect of TSIIA. TSIIA attenuated motor dysfunction and improved inflammation and demyelination associated with EAE in a dose-dependent manner. TSIIA also significantly reduced the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), and protected the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by increasing the expression of critical endothelial tight junction (TJ) proteins. TSIIA also inhibited the expression of some adhesion molecules and chemokines, which are considered to be critical for adhesion of immune cells and migration across the BBB. TSIIA was thus shown to be effective in the treatment of EAE through preventing the infiltration of immune cells into the CNS, strengthening the integrity of the BBB and decreasing the numbers of adhesion molecules and chemokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, E

    1998-01-01

    burst of the granulocytes and monocytes decreased after declamping to 15% and 27% of initial values in vitro. Several hours after surgery, there was no significant difference between the two groups. These results can be explained by a granulocyte and monocyte refractory response developing subsequent......Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... surgery. The ability to respond with an oxidative burst was measured by means of flow cytometry using 123-dihydrorhodamine. The adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18, CD11c/CD18, CD44 were measured using monoclonal antibodies. Blood samples from eight patients undergoing open-heart surgery were taken before...

  15. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... during cardiopulmonary bypass was observed. The percentage of CD11a-positive granulocytes increased from 30% pre-operatively to 75% following cardiopulmonary bypass, while CD44-positive granulocytes increased from 5% to 13%. Despite the extent of the changes, these were not significant. The oxidative...... to an increased per-operative oxidative burst activity, and the induction of adhesion molecules on granulocytes associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass and surgery. In conclusion, open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a rapid and pronounced activation of leukocytes which may play...

  16. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thieme, Sebastian; Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal str...

  17. Growth arrest-specific 6 regulates thrombin-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through forkhead box O1 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Lemarié, C A; Robins, R S; Blostein, M D

    2015-12-01

    Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6)-deficient mice are protected against venous thromboembolism (VTE), suggesting a role for Gas6 in this disorder. We previously demonstrated that Gas6 induces forkhead box O1 (FoxO-1) phosphorylation through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway. FoxO-1 regulates the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a molecule that has been implicated in VTE. To assess the role of FoxO-1 in Gas6-dependent VCAM-1 expression. Thrombin was used to stimulate endothelial cells (ECs). Wild-type (WT) and Gas6(-/-) ECs were transfected with small interfering RNA targeting Axl or FoxO-1, a luciferase-coupled plasmid containing the FoxO-1 consensus sequence, and a phosphorylation-resistant FoxO-1 mutant, or treated with an Akt inhibitor. VCAM-1 mRNA expression was measured by real time-qPCR. VCAM-1 protein expression and FoxO-1 and Akt phosphorylation were assessed by western blot analysis. FoxO-1 localization was assessed by immunofluorescence. Adhesion of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MCs) on ECs was assessed by fluorescence. Thrombin induces both VCAM-1 expression and FoxO-1 phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion in WT ECs only. Silencing of FoxO-1 enhances VCAM-1 expression in both WT and Gas6(-/-) ECs. Inhibition of Akt or FoxO-1 phosphorylation prevents VCAM-1 expression in WT ECs. These data show that Gas6 induces FoxO-1 phosphorylation, leading to derepression of VCAM-1 expression. BM-MC-EC adhesion is increased by thrombin in WT ECs. BM-MC-EC adhesion is further increased when FoxO-1 is silenced, but decreased when FoxO-1 phosphorylation is inhibited. These results demonstrate that the Gas6-FoxO-1 signaling axis plays an important role in VCAM-1 expression in the context of VTE by promoting BM-MC-EC adhesion. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10-100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1-0.5 μM), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1-5 μM), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1-50 μM), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells.

  19. Reduction of adhesion molecule production and alteration of eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA expression in endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through its beneficial β-amyrin molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Mei Fen; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2014-07-18

    The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line) were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media) without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM). The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  20. Junctional adhesion molecule A: expression in the murine epididymal tract and accessory organs and acquisition by maturing sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kathie Z; Li, Kun; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2017-02-10

    Is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), a sperm protein essential for normal motility, expressed in the murine post-testicular pathway and involved in sperm maturation? JAM-A is present in the prostate and seminal vesicles and in all three regions of the epididymis where it is secreted in epididymosomes in the luminal fluid and can be delivered to sperm in vitro. JAM-A shares with the plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase 4 (PMCA4, the major Ca2+ efflux pump in murine sperm) a common interacting partner, CASK (Ca2+/CaM-dependent serine kinase). JAM-A, like PMCA4, plays a role in Ca2+ regulation, since deletion of Jam-A results in significantly elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels and reduced sperm motility. Recently, PMCA4 was reported to be expressed in the epididymis and along with CASK was shown to be in a complex on epididymosomes where it was transferred to sperm. Because of the association of JAM-A with CASK in sperm and because of the presence of PMCA4 and CASK in the epididymis, the present study was performed to determine whether JAM-A is expressed in the epididymis and delivered to sperm during their maturation. The epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles were collected from sexually mature C57BL/6J and Institute for Cancer Research mice and antibodies specific for JAM-A and Ser285 -phosphorylated JAM-A (pJAM-A) were used for the analysis. Tissues, sperm and epididymal luminal fluid (ELF) were studied. Epididymosomes were also isolated for study. Caput and caudal sperm were co-incubated with ELF individually to determine their abilities to acquire JAM-A in vitro. Sections of all three regions of the epididymis were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Epididymal tissues, fluid, sperm, prostate and seminal vesicle tissues were analyzed for JAM-A and/or pJAM-A via western blotting analysis. The relative amounts of JAM-A and pJAM-A among epididymal tissues, ELF and sperm were detected by western blot via quantification of band intensities

  1. Lanthanum Chloride Inhibits LPS Mediated Expressions of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules in HUVECs: Involvement of NF-κB-Jmjd3 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the regulation of LaCl3 on lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods: Primary cultured HUVECs were pretreated with 2.5 µM LaCl3 for 30 min followed by 1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h. Pro-inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule expressions were determined by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation was examined by immunofluorescence and immuno-blot, and its DNA-binding activity was measured by chemiluminescence. Recruitment of NF-κB/p65, Jmjd3, and H3K27me3 to gene promoter regions was determined by ChIP-qPCR. Results: LaCl3 exhibited no cytotoxic effects to primary HUVECs at concentrations ≤ 50 µM. LPS-mediated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-9, and ICAM-1 production, nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB/p65, as well as Jmjd3 expression, were all reduced significantly by LaCl3. Furthermore, LaCl3 treatment significantly impaired LPS-induced enrichment of NF-κB/p65 to the promoter regions of TNF-α, MMP-9, IL-1β, ICAM-1, and IL-6; and of Jmjd3 to the promoter regions of TNF-α, MMP-9, IL-1β, and IL-6. H3K27me3 abundance in the promoter regions of TNF-α and ICAM-1 increased significantly in following LaCl3 treatment. Conclusion: LaCl3 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule expressions induced by LPS in HUVECs. NF-κB and histone demethylase Jmjd3 are involved in this effect.

  2. Gene expression profiles in hypoxic preconditioning using cDNA microarray analysis: altered expression of an angiogenic factor, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jone; Chen, Huei-Wen; Yu, Sung-Liang; Huang, Chien-Hua; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2005-08-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning has been shown to exhibit cardioprotective effects on myocardium from ischemic or reperfusion injury. The specific regulated gene involved in the hypoxia-induced cardioprotective effects is profiled in this study. Young male Wistar rats and ICR mice were exposed to sea level (as normal control) or simulated high altitude for 15 h/day for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, or for 4 weeks at high altitude after 2 weeks at sea level. The left ventricles of the animals were isolated for mRNA isolation and cDNA microarray analysis. Our data demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning significantly ameliorated cardiac ischemic injury by minimizing the infarct size. After cluster analysis of expression profiles after different courses of hypoxic preconditioning (0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), 386 genes showed an ascending pattern, whereas 301 genes showed a descending pattern. The ascending genes include several angiogenic factors: FGF receptor 4, vascular endothelial growth factor (vEGF), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM-1). The microvessel density was also significantly increased in hypoxic hearts. Using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis, the protein expression level and localization of CEACAM-1 were observed in hypoxic myocardium. The results also indicated that CEACAM-1 was upregulated as with other hypoxic angiogenic factors, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), in in vitro cultured cardiomyocytes (H9c2) after hypoxia treatment and in vivo hypoxic preconditioning. Furthermore, incubation with recombinant vEGF could also increase the expression level of CEACAM-1 in H9c2 cells. These results demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning resulted in transcriptional changes, and some of these genes have been correlated with angiogenesis. The HIF-1/vEGF/CEACAM-1 pathway might be important for hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in the heart during hypoxic preconditioning.

  3. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract prevents TNFα-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Young-Whan; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Da-Jung; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2011-07-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product; the reaction occurs during heat-processing and the preparation of many types of foods and beverages. Although 5-HMF has been proposed to have harmful effects, recently, its beneficial effects, including antioxidant, cytoprotective and antitumor effects have become increasingly apparent. It was found recently that a chloroform extract of aged black garlic shows antiinflammatory properties when administered to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigated the antiinflammatory potential of 5-HMF purified from the chloroform extract of aged black garlic in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HMF strongly suppressed TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as their mRNA expression. In addition, 5-HMF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species formation, and markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, 5-HMF significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of 5-HMF in support of its potential therapeutic use for the prevention and management of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Interleukin-1 alpha produced by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I-infected T cells induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yuko; Ishikawa, Chie; Tamaki, Kazumi; Senba, Masachika; Fujita, Jiro; Mori, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-related pulmonary disease, which involves overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in lung epithelial cells, was investigated. The supernatant of HTLV-I-infected Tax(+) MT-2 and C5/MJ cells induced ICAM-1 expression on A549 cells, a human tumour cell line with the properties of alveolar epithelial cells. Neutralization of ICAM-1 partially inhibited HTLV-I-infected T-cell adhesion to A549 cells. Analysis of the ICAM-1 promoter showed that the nuclear factor-kappa B-binding site was important for supernatant-induced ICAM-1 expression. Induction of interleukin (IL)-1 alpha (IL-1α) expression in MT-2 and C5/MJ cells was observed compared with uninfected controls and HTLV-I-infected Tax-negative cell lines. The significance of IL-1α as a soluble messenger was supported by blocking the biological activities of MT-2 supernatant with an IL-1α-neutralizing mAb. Moreover, Tax and IL-1α expression was demonstrated in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with HTLV-I-related pulmonary disease. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ICAM-1 and IL-1α expression in lung epithelial cells and lymphocytes of patients with HTLV-I-related pulmonary diseases, and in a transgenic mouse model of Tax expression. These results suggest that IL-1α produced by HTLV-I-infected Tax(+) T cells is crucial for ICAM-1 expression in lung epithelial cells and subsequent adhesion of lymphocytes in HTLV-I-related pulmonary diseases. © 2011 SGM

  5. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule: More than a Carcinoma Marker and Adhesion Molecule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M.J; de Leij, Lou M.F.H; Harmsen, Martin C

    2007-01-01

    From the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326...

  6. Transfected HEK293 cells expressing functional recombinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)--a receptor associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R; Craig, Alister; Hviid, Lars; Jensen, Anja T R

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes. Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral malaria. However, more studies identifying cross-reactive antibody and ICAM-1-binding epitopes and the establishment of a clinical link between DBLβ expression and e.g. cerebral malaria are needed before the DBLβ domains can be put forward as vaccine candidates and go into clinical trials. Such studies require availability of functional recombinant ICAM-1 in large quantities. In this study, we compared recombinant ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 and COS-7 cells with mouse myeloma NS0 ICAM-1 purchased from a commercial vendor in terms of protein purity, yield, fold, ability to bind DBLβ, and relative cost. We present a HEK293 cell-based, high-yield expression and purification scheme for producing inexpensive, functional ICAM‑1. ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 is applicable to malaria research and can also be useful in other research fields.

  7. Simple modifications to methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Lanier, Olivia L; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E; Burdick, Monica M; Schwartz, Frank L; McCall, Kelly D; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Goetz, Douglas J

    2015-03-15

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves׳ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ginkgo biloba extract reduces high-glucose-induced endothelial reactive oxygen species generation and cell adhesion molecule expression by enhancing HO-1 expression via Akt/eNOS and p38 MAP kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Ya; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Feng-Yen; Chen, Jia-Shiong; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-03-12

    Hyperglycemia is one of the major risk factors leading to vascular complications in clinical diabetes mellitus. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), an antioxidant herbal medicine, possesses anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether GBE can reduce high glucose-induced endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes, an in vitro sign mimicking in vivo early atherogenesis, through selective regulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured with normal glucose or high glucose (25 mM) for 4 days and subsequently combined with GBE (EGb761, Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Karlsruhe, Germany) treatment in the last 18 h of the 4-day period. The endothelial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, adhesion molecule expression and the adhesiveness to monocytes were examined. The specific signal pathways such as HO-1 were also examined. High glucose increased ROS generation, adhesion molecule expression and the adhesiveness to monocytes in HAECs. These high glucose-induced phenomena could be suppressed by GBE (100 μg/ml)-induced HO-1 expression in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, jun N-terminal kinases inhibitor or phosphoinositide 3 kinase inhibitor could reduce GBE-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, HO-1 inhibitor, HO-1 siRNA, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) siRNA, or nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf) 2 siRNA blocked the cytoprotective effects of GBE. Meanwhile, p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor could also reduce the effects of GBE on HO-1 induction. GBE could reduce high glucose-induced endothelial adhesion via enhancing HO-1 expression through the Akt/eNOS and p38/MAPK pathways. Our findings suggest a potential strategy targeting on HO-1 induction by GBE for endothelial protection in the presence of high glucose such as that in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  10. Mesothelium expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Jennifer M; Arapovic, Sanja; Saks, Erin J; Atkins, Kristen A; Petroni, Gina; Duska, Linda R; Slack-Davis, Jill K

    2017-05-15

    Mesothelium vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in the metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) microenvironment is induced by tumor and mediates tumor cell invasion. VCAM-1 imaging suggests expression during treatment is an indicator of platinum resistance. Here, we assess the potential prognostic significance of mesothelium VCAM-1 expression and prospectively evaluate whether soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) is a surrogate for mesothelium expression. A retrospective review of EOC patients was performed to evaluate outcomes with mesothelium VCAM-1 expression determined by immunohistochemistry of peritoneum or omentum specimens. A prospective cohort of EOC patients was identified and followed through primary treatment. Serum for sVCAM-1 evaluation, which was performed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was collected before surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and at each treatment cycle. Peritoneal specimens were obtained during debulking to assess mesothelial VCAM-1 expression. A retrospective review identified 54 advanced-stage EOC patients. Patients expressing mesothelium VCAM-1 had shortened overall survival (44 vs 79 months, P = 0.035) and progression-free survival (18 vs 67 months, P = 0.010); the median time to platinum resistance was 36 months for VCAM-1-expressing patients and not yet determined for the VCAM-1-negative group. In our prospective observational cohort, 18 EOC patients completed primary treatment; 3 were negative for mesothelium VCAM-1 expression, and sVCAM-1 did not vary between groups. Mesothelium VCAM-1 expression is negatively associated with progression-free and overall survival in EOC. This is especially compelling in light of previous data suggesting that persistent VCAM-1 expression during treatment is an indicator of platinum resistance. Our pilot study had insufficient cases to determine whether sVCAM-1 would substitute for mesothelium expression. Cancer 2017;123:977-84. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016

  11. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. reduces the oxidized LDL-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lei, Yen-Ping; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsieh, Yun-Sheng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2010-03-02

    The flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (CM) with antioxidant, cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory functions, has been widely used in China for hundreds of years as a healthy beverage and medicine. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of HCM (a hot water extract of the flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. [CM]), ECM (an ethanol extract of CM), and the abundant flavonoids apigenin and luteolin in CM on the oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-induced expression of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The possible mechanism of these effects was also determined. MTT assay was for cell viability. Western blot was used for ICAM-1 and E-selection protein expression, and for activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) proteins. Fluorescence flow cytometry was for ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression on cell surface. DCF-DA flow cytometric assay was used for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. HCM, ECM, apigenin, and luteolin dose-dependently inhibited ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression and adhesion of HL-60 by oxLDL. HCM, ECM, apigenin, and luteolin reversed the inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt and CREB by oxLDL; however, this reversion was abolished by wortmannin. In addition, wortmannin abrogated the inhibitory effects of CM extracts, apigenin and luteolin on adhesion molecule expression. The ROS scavenging capability of HCM, ECM, apigenin, and luteolin proceeded dose-dependently in the presence of oxLDL. CM is a plant with cardiovascular-protective potential and the inhibitory effects of CM on ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression are, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity and modulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Altered Expression Profile of IgLON Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ. IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Here we optimized custom 5′-isoform-specific TaqMan gene-expression analysis for the transcripts of human IgLON genes to study the expression of IgLONs in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of schizophrenic patients (n = 36 and control subjects (n = 36. Uniform 5′-region and a single promoter was confirmed for the human NEGR1 gene by in silico analysis. IgLON5, a recently described family member, was also included in the study. We detected significantly elevated levels of the NEGR1 transcript (1.33-fold increase and the NTM 1b isoform transcript (1.47-fold increase in the DLPFC of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Consequent protein analysis performed in male subjects confirmed the increase in NEGR1 protein content both in patients with the paranoid subtype and in patients with other subtypes. In-group analysis of patients revealed that lower expression of certain IgLON transcripts, mostly LSAMP 1a and 1b, could be related with concurrent depressive endophenotype in schizophrenic patients. Additionally, our study cohort provides further evidence that cannabis use may be a relevant risk factor associated with suicidal behaviors in psychotic patients. In conclusion, we provide clinical evidence of increased expression levels of particular IgLON family members in the DLPFC of schizophrenic patients. We propose that alterations in the expression profile of IgLON neural adhesion molecules are associated with brain

  13. Cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) expressed on adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells is not involved in the interaction with macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komohara, Yoshihiro; Ma, Chaoya; Yano, Hiromu; Pan, Cheng; Horlad, Hasita; Saito, Yoichi; Ohnishi, Koji; Fujiwara, Yukio; Okuno, Yutaka; Nosaka, Kisato; Shimosaki, Shunsuke; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuoka, Masao; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Takeya, Motohiro

    2017-07-05

    Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a cell adhesion molecule that is expressed in brain, liver, lung, testis, and some kinds of cancer cells including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CADM1 in cell-cell contact between cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and virus infected cells. We previously reported that cell-cell interaction between lymphoma cells and macrophages induces lymphoma cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether CADM1 is associated with cell-cell interaction between several human lymphoma cell lines and macrophages.CADM1 expression was observed in the ATLL cell lines, ATN-1, ATL-T, and ATL-35T, and in the B cell lymphoma cell lines, TL-1, DAUDI, and SLVL, using western blotting. Significant cell-cell interaction between macrophages and ATN-1, ATL-T, ATL-35T and MT-2, DAUDI, and SLVL cells, as assessed by induction of cell proliferation, was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis of human biopsy samples indicated CADM1 expression in 10 of 14 ATLL cases; however, no case of follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positive for CADM1. Finally, the interaction of macrophages with cells of the CADM1-negative ED ATLL cell line and CADM1-transfected ED cells was tested. However, significant cell-cell interaction between macrophage and CADM1-transfected ED cells was not observed. We conclude that CADM1 was not associated with cell-cell interaction between lymphoma cells and macrophages, although CADM1 may be a useful marker of ATLL for diagnostic procedures.

  14. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality in the United States as well as globally. Epidemiological studies show that regular fruit and vegetable consumption reduces CVD risk, in part, due to antioxidant activity and immunomodulation since oxidative stress and inflammation are features of atherogenesis. Accumulating evidence also shows that dietary fungi, viz., mushrooms, can protect against chronic disease by altering inflammatory environments such as those associated with CVD although most research has focused on specialty mushrooms. In this study, we tested the ability of both common and specialty mushrooms to inhibit cellular processes associated with CVD. Methods Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were incubated overnight with control media with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) vehicle (1% v/v) or containing DMSO extracts of whole dehydrated mushrooms (0.1 mg/mL), which included Agaricus bisporus (white button and crimini), Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster), and Grifola frondosa (maitake). Monolayers were subsequently washed and incubated with medium alone or containing the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β (5 ng/mL) for 6 h to upregulate pro-atherosclerotic adhesion molecules (AM). AM expression was assayed by ELISA and binding of U937 human monocytes pre-loaded with fluorescent dye was determined. Results White button mushrooms consistently reduced (p mushrooms significantly modulated AM expression singly, collectively, or combinatorially. All mushrooms, however, significantly reduced binding of monocytes to both quiescent and cytokine-stimulated monolayers. Conclusion These data provide evidence that dietary mushrooms can inhibit cellular processes such as adhesion molecule expression and ultimate binding of monocytes to the endothelium under pro-inflammatory conditions, which are associated with CVD. As a result, these findings support the notion that dietary mushrooms can be protective against CVD. PMID

  15. Expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule are linked with aggressive local recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinichiro; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Yusue; Kanamoto, Mami; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Saito, Yu; Takasu, Chie; Ishikawa, Daichi; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2014-06-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a widely used therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several reports have demonstrated the aggressive local recurrence of HCC after RFA, suggesting that induction of further malignant transformation of HCC has occurred. Eighty-eight (88) patients with HCC who underwent hepatic resection were included in this study. Hepatectomy was indicated for local recurrence of HCC after RFA (n = 10, RFA group) and for HCC without prior RFA (n = 78, non-RFA group). Clinicopathological data and the patient's prognosis after hepatectomy were compared between the two groups. Expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44, and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA) in the tumor tissues were also examined. The RFA group showed higher frequency of portal vein invasion and less tumor differentiation compared with the non-RFA group (p treatment by RFA.

  16. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... surgery, 1, 5, 10 and 20 min after aortic clamping, and then 1, 5, 10 and 20 min and 1, 2 and 3 h after declamping. Samples from eight patients undergoing abdominal surgery were taken before surgery, at the end of surgery, and 2 and 3 h post-operatively. A decrease in number of granulocytes and monocytes...... during cardiopulmonary bypass was observed. The percentage of CD11a-positive granulocytes increased from 30% pre-operatively to 75% following cardiopulmonary bypass, while CD44-positive granulocytes increased from 5% to 13%. Despite the extent of the changes, these were not significant. The oxidative...

  17. Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengwei; Feinberg, Mark W.; Zhang, Dorothy; Patel, Anand; Sim, Chang U.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Chapman, Susan M.; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Wagner, Denisa D.; Sibinga, Nicholas E.S.; Haber, Edgar

    1999-01-01

    Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin–deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I–deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I–deficient arteries, and that of α-actin–positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect. PMID:10021454

  18. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keith R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of mortality in the United States as well as globally. Epidemiological studies show that regular fruit and vegetable consumption reduces CVD risk, in part, due to antioxidant activity and immunomodulation since oxidative stress and inflammation are features of atherogenesis. Accumulating evidence also shows that dietary fungi, viz., mushrooms, can protect against chronic disease by altering inflammatory environments such as those associated with CVD although most research has focused on specialty mushrooms. In this study, we tested the ability of both common and specialty mushrooms to inhibit cellular processes associated with CVD. Methods Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC were incubated overnight with control media with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO vehicle (1% v/v or containing DMSO extracts of whole dehydrated mushrooms (0.1 mg/mL, which included Agaricus bisporus (white button and crimini, Lentinula edodes (shiitake, Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster, and Grifola frondosa (maitake. Monolayers were subsequently washed and incubated with medium alone or containing the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β (5 ng/mL for 6 h to upregulate pro-atherosclerotic adhesion molecules (AM. AM expression was assayed by ELISA and binding of U937 human monocytes pre-loaded with fluorescent dye was determined. Results White button mushrooms consistently reduced (p Conclusion These data provide evidence that dietary mushrooms can inhibit cellular processes such as adhesion molecule expression and ultimate binding of monocytes to the endothelium under pro-inflammatory conditions, which are associated with CVD. As a result, these findings support the notion that dietary mushrooms can be protective against CVD.

  19. The relation between oxidative stress and adhesion molecules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    P-selectin is found in the storage granules of resting platelets as well as in the weibel–palade bodies of endothelial cells. After endothelial or platelet activation ..... in the regulation of actin binding proteins and adhesion molecules expressed on the endothelial cell membrane. In the present study MDA level was positively.

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5: Novel mediator of insulin and tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackesy, Daniel Z; Goalstone, Marc L

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis may be stimulated by the increased presence of insulin and tumor necrosis-factor-α (TNFα) with subsequent expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). We hypothesized that extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 (ERK5) plays an important role in insulin and TNFα-stimulated total and cell surface VCAM-1 expression. Rat aorta vascular endothelial cells were first transfected with either no inhibitory RNA, inactive (scrambled) inhibitory ERK5 RNA (scERK5) or active inhibitory ERK5 RNA (siERK5) and then treated with either (i) no analog; (ii) insulin (1 nM), or TNFα (1 ng/mL) alone, or (iii) insulin plus TNFα for 6 h. Thereafter either total VCAM-1 protein or surface VCAM-1 protein was determined. Genetic inhibition of ERK5 decreased TNFα-stimulated total VCAM-1 expression by 57% and surface expression by 27%. In contrast, genetic inhibition of ERK5 did not significantly decrease insulin-stimulated total or surface VCAM-1 expression. Interestingly, genetic inhibition of ERK5 did not significantly decrease insulin plus TNFα-stimulated total VCAM-1 expression, but significantly (P cell surface VCAM-1 protein expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only does ERK5 have differential mediation of insulin and TNFα-stimulated VCAM-1 expression, but also has differential regulation of insulin plus TNFα-stimulated total and surface VCAM-1 expression, suggesting that other intermediates of the insulin and TNFα intracellular pathways are contributing to atherogenesis. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Immunohistochemical Expression Profiles of Cell Adhesion Molecules, Matrix Metalloproteinases and their Tissue Inhibitors in Central and Peripheral Neoplastic Foci of Feline Mammary Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisamai, S; Rungsipipat, A; Kunnasut, N; Suriyaphol, G

    Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is a common cancer with high metastatic potential and high mortality rate. Loss of cell-cell interactions and degradation of the extracellular matrix by proteinases enhances tumour invasion and metastasis. Peripheral neoplastic foci (PNF) are defined as the presence of discrete tumour cell clusters, splitting off from central neoplastic foci (CNF) and lodging around these CNF. PNF therefore locate at the tumour-host interface at the site of invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically the expression of cell adhesion molecules (e-cadherin [CDH-1], syndecan 1 [SDC-1] and nectin-2), matrix metalloproteinases (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1 and TIMP-2) together with the cellular proliferation marker, Ki67, in CNF and PNF of FMCs of different clinical stages and histological grades. Compared with control sections from areas of mammary gland hyperplasia, lower expression of MMP-7 and TIMP-2 was observed in all stages. Increased expression of TIMP-1 was observed in PNF in early-stage disease with no metastasis, while marked expression of CDH-1 and Ki67 occurred in late-stage FMC. In addition, the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in PNF of tumours with high histological grade (grade III) was higher than in low-grade tumours. The observed divergent protein expression in PNF could potentially form the basis of acting as novel markers in FMC. Potential markers may include the expression of TIMP-1 in PNF in early stage lesions, the expression of CDH-1 and Ki67 in late stages and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in high-grade tumours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inverse expression of olfactory cell adhesion molecule in a subset of olfactory axons and a subset of mitral/tufted cells in the developing rat main olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Helen B; Gabeau, Darlene; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kensaku; Greer, Charles A

    2003-04-14

    The projection of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB) is highly organized but topographically complex. Evidence suggests that odorant receptor expression zones in the OE map to the OB about orthogonal axes. One candidate molecule for the formation of zone-specific targeting of OSN axon synapses onto the OB is the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM). OCAM(+) OSNs are restricted to three of the four zones in the OE and project their axons to the ventral OB where they form synapses with mitral/tufted (M/T) cells. To determine when this zonal connection is established, we have examined OCAM expression in rat olfactory system, during seminal periods of glomerular formation. OCAM(+) axons sort out in the ventral olfactory nerve layer of the OB before glomerular formation. Surprisingly, OCAM was also expressed transiently by subsets of M/T cell dendrites located in the dorsal OB. The expression of OCAM by OSN axons and M/T dendrites was asymmetrical; in the dorsal OB, OCAM(-) OSN axons synapsed on OCAM(+) M/T dendrites, whereas in the ventral OB, OCAM(+) OSN axons synapsed on OCAM(-) M/T dendrites. The restricted spatial map of OCAM(+) M/T cells appeared earlier in development than the zonal segregation of OCAM(+) OSN axons. Thus, OCAM on M/T cell dendrites may act in a spatiotemporal window to specify regions of the developing rat OB, thereby establishing a foundation for mapping of the OE zonal organization onto the OB. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. CD166/activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is expressed on glioblastoma progenitor cells and involved in the regulation of tumor cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Noriyuki; Hosen, Naoki; Kagawa, Naoki; Hashimoto, Naoya; Nakano, Akiko; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Manabu; Sugiyama, Haruo; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2012-10-01

    For improvement of prognosis for glioblastoma patients, which remains poor, identification and targeting of glioblastoma progenitor cells are crucial. In this study, we found that the cluster of differentiation (CD)166/activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) was highly expressed on CD133+ glioblastoma progenitor cells. ALCAM+ CD133+ cells were highly enriched with tumor sphere-initiating cells in vitro. Among gliomas with isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/R132H mutation, the frequencies of ALCAM+ cells were significantly higher for glioblastomas than for World Health Organization grade II or III gliomas. The function of ALCAM in glioblastoma was then investigated. An in vitro invasion assay showed that transfection of ALCAM small interfering RNA or small hairpin RNA into glioblastoma cells significantly increased cell invasion without affecting cell proliferation. A soluble isoform of ALCAM (sALCAM) was also expressed in all glioblastoma samples and at levels that correlated well with ALCAM expression levels. In vitro invasion of glioblastoma cells was significantly enhanced by administration of purified sALCAM. Furthermore, overexpression of sALCAM in U87MG glioblastoma cells promoted tumor progression in i.c. transplants into immune-deficient mice. In summary, we were able to show that ALCAM constitutes a novel glioblastoma progenitor cell marker. We could also demonstrate that ALCAM and its soluble isoform are involved in the regulation of glioblastoma invasion and progression.

  4. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Molchanova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture presents the materials of foreign studies on the mechanisms responsible for the formation of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The hypotheses accounting for the occurrence of SIRS in emergencies are described. Adhesion molecules (AM and endothelial dysfunction are apparent to be involved in the inflammatory process, no matter what the causes of SIRS are. The current classification of AM and adhesion cascades with altered blood flow is presented. There are two lines in the studies of AM. One line is to measure the concentration of AM in the plasma of patients with emergencies of various etiology. The other is to study the impact of antiadhesion therapy on the alleviation of the severity of terminal state and its outcome. The studies provide evidence for that an adhesive process is a peculiar prelude to a systemic inflammatory response.

  5. Methylxanthines and calcium-mobilizing agents inhibit the expression of cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in murine microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, M; Bereta, J; Georgoff, I; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Cohen, M C

    1994-06-01

    In response to exposure to the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (MME) synthesize the cell surface molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the intracellular enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, iNOS synthesis requires the presence of both TNF and IFN-gamma, while VCAM-1 can be induced by either cytokine alone. We examined the induction of VCAM-1 and iNOS under a variety of conditions to better define the regulation of TNF and IFN-gamma signal transduction pathways in MME. We utilized the analysis of steady-state levels of iNOS mRNA as well as the measurement of MME-released NO-EDRF (nitric oxide as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor) activity and accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium to define iNOS expression and activity. VCAM-1 expression was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Our data indicate that low density lipoproteins inhibited cytokine-induced iNOS activity by affecting the steady-state levels of iNOS mRNA. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline) as well as several calcium-mobilizing agents inhibited the expression/activity of both iNOS and VCAM-1 in MME. The effectiveness of these agents was dependent upon the degree of disruption in cell calcium homeostasis during cytokine treatment. Cells which had been pretreated with calcium-modulating drugs and then washed and allowed to return to normal calcium homeostasis showed little to no effect from these agents. In addition, our results suggest that NO produced by iNOS acts as a metabolic switch during inflammation by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation and forcing vascular endothelial cells to temporarily utilize anaerobic energy metabolism.

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonist CYM5442 inhibits expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) in endothelial cells infected with influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Shen, Si-Mei; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Peng-Peng; Shi, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus infection and its complications effect a large population worldwide. Endothelial cells are an important component in lung inflammation caused by influenza A virus infection. The roles of endothelial sphingosine 1-phophate receptor 1 (S1PR1) in the regulation of molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment during influenza A virus infection still remain unknown. In this report, we tested our hypothesis that S1PR1 agonist CYM5442 inhibits expression of intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM1) in endothelial cells infected with influenza A virus. Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) were infected with influenza A virus H1N1. Expression of cytokines, chemokines, interferons, and cellular adhesion molecules was measured by q-PCR. Expression of ICAM1 was further tested by Western Blotting. A S1PR1 agonist CYM5442 was added to the culture media to assess CYM5442's inhibitory effects during virus infection. HPMEC could be infected with H1N1 and responded to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, type I interferons, and cellular adhesion molecules. Addition of CYM5442 in culture media reduced the production of ICAM1 via a dosage- and time-dependent manner. CYM5442 inhibited the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The regulatory effects of CYM5442 were β-arrestin2-dependent. Activated S1PR1 signaling regulates the production of cellular adhesion molecules by inhibiting NF- κB activation via a β-arrestin2-dependent manner.

  7. [Down-regulation of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in MCF-7 cells infected by lentiviral short hairpin RNA interference vectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Dalin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Lina; Wang, Chengdong; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-08-01

    To construct lentiviral interference vectors of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), then infect human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and identify the interference effects. Three short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference sequences targeting human ICAM-1 gene (ICAM-1 shRNA1, ICAM-1 shRNA2 and ICAM-1 shRNA3) and a negative control sequence (NS) were designed, synthesized and cloned into the pLKO.1-SP6-PGK-GFP vector. After DNA sequencing, three plasmid-based lentiviral packaging system (vector plasmid-psPAX2-pMD2.G) was used to transfect HEK293T cells to package lentiviruses. The supernatants containing viruses were harvested to detect the viral titer. Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells were infected with the lentiviruses and the interference efficiency was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. PCR showed that the designed sequences were successfully inserted into the pLKO.1-SP6-PGK-GFP vector and DNA sequencing results were correct. The qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of ICAM-1 in the infected MCF-7 cells decreased significantly in the ICAM-1 shRNA3 group. Lentiviral interference vectors of human ICAM-1 were constructed successfully and the expression of ICAM-1 in MCF-7 cells was down-regulated by ICAM-1 shRNA.

  8. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    and MHC II in the presence of IL-5 induced expression of a functional IL-2R on small resting B cells. By contrast CD40 ligation, which induced B cell proliferation, did not induce IL-2 responsiveness. These data show that CD40 ligation is necessary but may not be sufficient for B cell differentiation......We have examined signaling roles for CD54 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II as contact ligands during T help for B cell activation. We used a T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent helper system that was previously shown to be contact as well as interleukin 2 (IL-2......) dependent to demonstrate the relative roles of CD54, MHC II, and CD40 signaling in the events leading to the induction of B cell proliferation and responsiveness to IL-2. Paraformaldehyde-fixed activated Th1-induced expression of IL-2R alpha, IL-2R beta, and B7, and upregulated MHC II and CD54 on B cells...

  9. Pyocyanin and its precursor phenazine-1-carboxylic acid increase IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in human airway epithelial cells by oxidant-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Dwight C; Stoll, Lynn L; Romig, Sara A; Humlicek, Alicia; Britigan, Bradley E; Denning, Gerene M

    2005-09-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes numerous factors that alter host cell function and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Among recognized virulence factors is the redox-active phenazine pyocyanin. We have recently demonstrated that the precursor for pyocyanin, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), increases oxidant formation and alters gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report in this work that PCA and pyocyanin increase expression of ICAM-1 both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, phenazines enhanced cytokine-dependent increases in IL-8 and ICAM-1. Antioxidant intervention studies indicated both similarities and differences between PCA and pyocyanin. The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, extracellular catalase, and inducible NO synthase inhibitors inhibited ICAM-1 and IL-8 increases in response to both phenazines. However, pyocyanin was significantly more sensitive to N-acetylcysteine inhibition. Interestingly, hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibited the response to pyocyanin, but not to PCA. These studies suggest that P. aeruginosa phenazines coordinately up-regulate chemokines (IL-8) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) by mechanisms that are, at least in part, oxidant dependent. However, results indicate that the mechanisms by which PCA and pyocyanin exert their effects are not identical, and not all antioxidant interventions are equally effective in inhibiting phenazine-mediated proinflammatory effects.

  10. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i. The effect on cultured endothelial cells and the rapid decrease after delivery suggests the presence of a circulating serum

  11. Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM is an adverse prognosis factor in glioblastoma, and regulates olig2 expression in glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metellus Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive and frequent brain tumor, albeit without cure. Although patient survival is limited to one year on average, significant variability in outcome is observed. The assessment of biomarkers is needed to gain better knowledge of this type of tumor, help prognosis, design and evaluate therapies. The neurodevelopmental polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM protein is overexpressed in various cancers. Here, we studied its expression in GBM and evaluated its prognosis value for overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS. Methods We set up a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test for PSA-NCAM quantification, which correlated well with PSA-NCAM semi quantitative analysis by immunohistochemistry, and thus provides an accurate quantitative measurement of PSA-NCAM content for the 56 GBM biopsies analyzed. For statistics, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency between the immunohistochemistry and ELISA data. Patients' survival was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and curves were compared using the log-rank test. On multivariate analysis, the effect of potential risk factors on the DFS and OS were evaluated using the cox regression proportional hazard models. The threshold for statistical significance was p = 0.05. Results We showed that PSA-NCAM was expressed by approximately two thirds of the GBM at variable levels. On univariate analysis, PSA-NCAM content was an adverse prognosis factor for both OS (p = 0.04 and DFS (p = 0.0017. On multivariate analysis, PSA-NCAM expression was an independent negative predictor of OS (p = 0.046 and DFS (p = 0.007. Furthermore, in glioma cell lines, PSA-NCAM level expression was correlated to the one of olig2, a transcription factor required for gliomagenesis. Conclusion PSA-NCAM represents a valuable biomarker for the prognosis of GBM patients.

  12. Effects of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum Officinale on expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 in LPS-stimulated RMMVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ge; Wang, Junjie; Hong, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Huiqin; Mu, Xiang; Yang, Zuojun

    2017-01-11

    Mastitis gives rise to big financial burden to farm industry (mainly dairy production) and public health. Its incidence is currently high and therefore, highly effective treatments for therapy, especially with natural products are required. Taraxacum officinale has been reported to use for anti-inflammation. However, its effect on endothelium during mastitis has not been reported. We firstly established inflammation experimental model of rat mammary microvascular endothelial cells (RMMVECs). We evaluated the effects of dandelion leaf aqueous extracts (DAE) on LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators in RMMVECs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. We treated RMMVECs with 1 μg/ml LPS for 4 h and then incubated with 10, 100 and 200 μg/mL DAE for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. The expression (mRNA and protein level) of targets (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) was analyzed by employing real-time PCR and Western blots. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of DAE on mastitis within an Staphylococcus aureus-induced mouse model was also determined. The obtained results showed that dandelion extracts at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL could significantly inhibit both TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in all time points checked while 10 μg/mL of dandelion only suppress both expression at 8 and 12 h post-treatment. The in vivo tests showed that the DAE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in a time-dependent manner. All results suggest that the endothelium may use as as a possible target of dandelion for anti-inflammation.

  13. Identification and characterisation of human Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L A; Martin-Padura, I; Dejana, E; Hogg, N; Simmons, D L

    1999-12-01

    It is widely believed that migrating immune cells utilise the intercellular junctions as routes of passage, and in doing so cause the transient disruption of junctional structures. Thus there is much interest in the molecules that have been identified at cell-cell contact points and their potential involvement in the control of leukocyte diapedesis. In this report we describe the human orthologue to Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM), a recently identified member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed at intercellular junctions (Martin-Padura et al., 1998). The human protein shares a highly conserved structure and sequence with the murine protein. However it is distinct in that it is constitutively expressed on circulating neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and lymphocyte subsets. This broad expression pattern is similar to another IgSF molecule, CD31, expressed at intercellular junctions, and may indicate further complexities in the control of leukocyte/ endothelial interactions.

  14. Effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine on bovine retinal capillary endothelial cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, permeability, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and occludin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hui; Xu, Xun; Sheng, Min-Jie; Zheng, Zhi; Gu, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is associated with impaired endothelial dysfunction, such as chronic heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, and pulmonary hypertension. The effects of ADMA on cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell permeability, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and tight-junction protein occludin levels in bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRCECs) were investigated. A cell proliferation assay was performed using the novel tetrazolium compound 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and an electron coupling reagent. Intracellular ROS levels were determined using the fluorescent probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Horseradish peroxidase was used for a permeability assay. ICAM-1 and tight-junction protein occludin were assessed by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by ADMA. ADMA increased intracellular ROS generation in BRCECs. The increased ROS production induced by ADMA was markedly inhibited by the angiotensin II receptor-blocker telmisartan, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril, the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI), or the antioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). ADMA significantly increased horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in BRCECs. Benazepril, telmisartan, DPI, and NAC downregulated cell permeability. ADMA markedly upregulated ICAM-1 expression in BRCECs, which were downregulated by telmisartan, DPI, and NAC. ADMA significantly downregulated occludin expression in BRCECs. Benazepril and telmisartan upregulated occludin expression in BRCECs exposed to ADMA. Our results provide the first reported evidence that ADMA has potent adverse effects on cell proliferation, intracellular ROS generation, cell permeability

  15. Transcriptional activation of mRNA of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and induction of its cell surface expression in normal human gingival fibroblasts by Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma fermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L; Shibata, K; Sawa, Y; Hasebe, A; Yamaoka, Y; Yoshida, S; Watanabe, T

    1999-06-01

    Lipoproteins in the cell membranes of both Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma fermentans were demonstrated to trigger the transcription of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA in normal fibroblasts isolated from human gingival tissue and to induce its cell surface expression by a mechanism distinct from that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The lipid moiety of the lipoproteins was suggested to play a key role in the expression of the activity.

  16. Sulforaphane suppresses vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated mouse vascular smooth muscle cells: involvement of the MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Hye-Jin; Um, Sung Hee; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kim, Byung-Oh; Moon, Eun-Yi; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a long-term inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Increased expression of the cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is associated with increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), leading to increased neointima or atherosclerotic lesion formation. Therefore, the functional inhibition of adhesion molecules could be a critical therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. In the present study, we investigate the effect of sulforaphane on the expression of VCAM-1 induced by TNF-α in cultured mouse vascular smooth muscle cell lines. Pretreatment of VSMCs for 2h with sulforaphane (1-5μg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cells and protein expression of VCAM-1. Sulforaphane also suppressed TNF-α-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38, ERK and JNK. Furthermore, sulforaphane inhibited NK-κB and AP-1 activation induced by TNF-α. Sulforaphane inhibited TNF-α-induced ΙκΒ kinase activation, subsequent degradation of ΙκΒα and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and decreased c-Jun and c-Fos protein level. This study suggests that sulforaphane inhibits the adhesive capacity of VSMC and downregulates the TNF-α-mediated induction of VCAM-1 in VSMC by inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways and intracellular ROS production. Thus, sulforaphane may have beneficial effects to suppress inflammation within the atherosclerotic lesion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inactivated Sendai virus particle upregulates cancer cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and enhances natural killer cell sensitivity on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simin; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2017-09-25

    We have already reported that the inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) has multiple anticancer effects, including induction of cancer-selective cell death and activation of anticancer immunity. The HVJ-E stimulates dendritic cells to produce cytokines and chemokines such as β-interferon, interleukin-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, which activate both CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and recruit them to the tumor microenvironment. However, the effect of HVJ-E on modulating the sensitivity of cancer cells to immune cell attack has yet to be investigated. In this study, we found that HVJ-E induced the production of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), a ligand of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, in several cancer cell lines through the activation of nuclear factor-κB downstream of retinoic acid-inducible gene I and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathway. The upregulation of ICAM-1 on the surface of cancer cells increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to NK cells. Knocking out expression of ICAM-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 method significantly reduced the killing effect of NK cells on ICAM-1-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, HVJ-E suppressed tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing SCID mice, and the HVJ-E antitumor effect was impaired when NK cells were depleted by treatment with the anti-asialo GM1 antibody. Our findings suggest that HVJ-E enhances NK cell sensitivity against cancer cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression on the cancer cell surface. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. The effect of clomethiazole on plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, -8, -1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, D

    2012-02-03

    Clomethiazole (CMZ), a neuroprotective drug, has antiinflammatory actions. We investigated the effects of CMZ administration on plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Five healthy volunteers each donated 500 mL of blood, which was subsequently divided into equal portions. Identical extracorporeal circuits were simultaneously primed with donated blood (250 mL) and circulated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. CMZ was added to 1 of the circuits of each pair to achieve a total plasma concentration of 40 micro mol\\/L. Blood samples were withdrawn at (i) donation, (ii) immediately after addition of CMZ, and at (iii) 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after commencing circulation. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were less in the CMZ group compared with control after 60 min of circulation (2.2 [0.3] versus 3.2 [0.4], 14.9 [4.8] versus 21.9 [18.4], 63.3 [43.5] versus 132.2 [118.9] pg\\/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). After 120 min of circulation, neutrophils from CMZ-treated circuits showed significantly less CD18 expression compared with control (237.5 [97.4] versus 280.5 [111.5], P = 0.03). The addition of CMZ to experimental extracorporeal circuits decreases the inflammatory response. This effect may be of clinical benefit by decreasing inflammatory-mediated neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. IMPLICATIONS: Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-mediated effects by clomethiazole (CMZ) and associated neuroprotection has been established in animal models of cerebral ischemia. In an ex vivo study, we demonstrated antiinflammatory activity of CMZ in experimental extracorporeal circulation. This represents a potential neuroprotective mechanism of CMZ in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

  19. Soluble adhesion molecules in human cancers: sources and fates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, J.W.J. van; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Ruiter, D.J.; Swart, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion molecules endow tumor cells with the necessary cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions. As such, adhesion molecules are involved in cell signalling, proliferation and tumor growth. Rearrangements in the adhesion repertoire allow tumor cells to migrate, invade and form metastases.

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-01-01

    During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move 'up and down' the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)-BTB-basement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. ICAMs are crucial regulatory molecules of spermatogenesis. The proposed

  1. Social defeat promotes a reactive endothelium in a brain region-dependent manner with increased expression of key adhesion molecules, selectins and chemokines associated with the recruitment of myeloid cells to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M.; McKim, Daniel B.; Wohleb, Eric S.; Jarrett, Brant L.; Reader, Brenda F.; Norden, Diana M.; Godbout, Jonathan P.; Sheridan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice causes myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that contributes to the development of prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Myeloid cell recruitment following RSD occurs in regions where neuronal and microglia activation is observed. Thus, we hypothesized that crosstalk between neurons, microglia, and endothelial cells contributes to brain-myeloid cell trafficking via chemokine signaling and vascular adhesion molecules. Here we show that social defeat caused an exposure- and brain region-dependent increase in several key adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in the recruitment of myeloid cells. For example, RSD induced distinct patterns of adhesion molecule expression that may explain brain region-dependent myeloid cell trafficking. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression were increased in an exposure-dependent manner. Furthermore, RSD-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression were localized to the vasculature of brain regions implicated in fear and anxiety responses, which spatially corresponded to previously reported patterns of myeloid cell trafficking. Next, mRNA expression of additional adhesion molecules (E- and P-selectin, PECAM-1) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL12, CCL2) were determined in the brain. Social defeat induced an exposure-dependent increase in mRNA levels of E-selectin, CXCL1, and CXCL2 that increased with additional days of social defeat. While CXCL12 was unaffected by RSD, CCL2 expression was increased by six days of social defeat. Last, comparison between enriched CD11b+ cells (microglia/macrophages) and enriched GLAST-1+/CD11b− cells (astrocytes) revealed RSD increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, CCL2, and CXCL2 in microglia/macrophages but not in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that key mediators of leukocyte recruitment were increased in the brain vasculature following RSD in an exposure- and brain-region dependent manner. PMID:25445193

  2. The role of epithelial cell adhesion molecule N-glycosylation on apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Xue; Gao, Jiujiao; Sun, Yan; Liu, Tingjiao; Yan, Qiu; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-03-01

    Glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that knockdown of epithelial cell adhesion molecule promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, and caused cell-cycle arrest. In this study, we investigated whether and how N-glycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule influenced the apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We applied the N-glycosylation mutation epithelial cell adhesion molecule plasmid to express deglycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule and then to study its function. Our results showed that deglycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. Deglycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil, promoting apoptosis by downregulating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and upregulating the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Caspase 3 via the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings are important for a better understanding of epithelial cell adhesion molecule apoptosis regulation and suggest epithelial cell adhesion molecule as a potential target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  4. TNF-α enhances vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zi-Yuan; Chen, Wan-Cheng; Li, Yong-Hua; Li, Li; Zhang, Hang; Pang, Yan; Xiao, Zhi-Fang; Xiao, Hao-Wen; Xiao, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The migration of circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to injured tissue is an important step in tissue regeneration and requires adhesion to the microvascular endothelium. The current study investigated the underlying mechanism of MSC adhesion to endothelial cells during inflammation. In in vitro MSC culture, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) increased the level of vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 (VCAM‑1) expression in a dose‑dependent manner. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), U0126 and SP600125, respectively, suppressed VCAM‑1 expression induced by TNF‑α at the mRNA and protein levels (Padhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells; however, the inhibitors of NF‑κB, ERK and JNK did not affect this process in these cells. The results of the current study indicate that adhesion of circulating MSCs to the endothelium is regulated by TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression, which is potentially mediated by the NF‑κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

  5. The role of adhesive molecules in endometrial cancer: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wojciechowski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenesis is a result of both functional and structural disorders in the tissue. It initiates as a mutation in a gene encoding protein that is essential for cellular function. The subsequent cascade of events leads to accumulation of mutations and loss of cellular function. The cell loses its tissue-specific morphology, disconnects from other cells and extracellular matrix and migrates – the invasion begins. It is now clear that adhesive molecules are a key player in this cascade. These proteins of the cell membrane surface are responsible for attachment of the cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These interactions are crucial for both structural and functional tissue organization. Lack of this homeostasis destroys the tissue architecture, impairs its function and results in invasion. Abnormal expression of adhesive molecules was reported in all examined cancers, including endometrial cancer.Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although in many cases it is diagnosed and treated in early stages, and thus with good results, some patients cannot be cured. A complete knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease will be helpful in identifying patients with negative prognostic factors, increased risk of recurrence and, perhaps, finding other therapeutic options. In the paper we are trying to sum up the up-to-date knowledge of the role of adhesive molecules in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  6. The novel carbohydrate epitope L3 is shared by some neural cell adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücherer, A; Faissner, A; Schachner, M

    1987-06-01

    The monoclonal L3 antibody reacts with an N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate structure on at least nine glycoproteins of adult mouse brain. Three out of the L3 epitope-carrying glycoproteins could be identified as the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and myelin-associated glycoprotein, and the novel adhesion molecule on glia. Expression of the L3 carbohydrate epitope is regulated independently of the protein backbone of these three glycoproteins. Based on the observation that out of three functionally characterized L3 epitope-carrying glycoproteins three fulfill the operational definition of an adhesion molecule, we would like to suggest that they form a new family of adhesion molecules that is distinct from the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope family of neural cell adhesion molecules. Interestingly, some members in each family appear to be unique to one family while other members belong to the two families.

  7. Increased expression of cell adhesion molecule 1 by mast cells as a cause of enhanced nerve-mast cell interaction in a hapten-induced mouse model of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiyama, M; Inoue, T; Furuno, T; Iino, T; Itami, S; Nakanishi, M; Asada, H; Hosokawa, Y; Ito, A

    2013-04-01

    Neuroimmunological disorders are involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), partly through enhanced sensory nerve-skin mast cell interaction. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a mast-cell adhesion molecule that mediates the adhesion to, and communication with, sympathetic nerves. To investigate the role of mast cell CADM1 in the pathogenesis of AD, CADM1 expression levels by comparing between lesional and nonlesional skin mast cells of an AD mouse model, which was developed by repeated application of trinitrochlorobenzene, and to examine, in cocultures, how the alterations in CADM1 detected in lesional mast cells might affect the sensory nerve-mast cell interaction. AD-like lesional and nonlesional skin mast cells were collected separately by laser capture microdissection. CADM1 expression was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and CADM1 immunohistochemistry. In cocultures, adhesion between dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurites and IC2 mast cells was analysed by loading a femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force on neurite-attendant IC2 cells, while cellular communication was monitored as the IC2 cellular response ([Ca(2+)]i increase) after nerve-specific stimulant-induced DRG activation. AD-like lesional mast cells expressed three-fold more CADM1 transcripts than nonlesional cells. This was supported at the protein level, shown by immunohistochemistry. In coculture, CADM1 overexpression in IC2 cells strengthened DRG neurite-IC2 cell adhesion and doubled the population of IC2 cells responding to DRG activation. A function-blocking anti-CADM1 antibody abolished these effects in a dose-dependent manner. Increased expression of CADM1 in mast cells appeared to be a cause of enhanced sensory nerve-mast cell interaction in a hapten-induced mouse model of AD. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Lauric acid abolishes interferon-gamma (IFN-γ-induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in human macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Siong Lim

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This study successfully proved that lauric acid was able to antagonize the up-regulatory effect of IFN-γ on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. This indicates that lauric acid may be an anti-inflammatory therapeutic and prophylaxis agent for atherosclerosis.

  9. The role of adhesive molecules in endometrial cancer: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Malinowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenesis is a result of both functional and structural disorders in the tissue. It initiates as a mutationin a gene encoding protein that is essential for cellular function. The subsequent cascade of eventsleads to accumulation of mutations and loss of cellular function. The cell loses its tissue-specific morphology,disconnects from other cells and extracellular matrix and migrates – the invasion begins. It is now clear thatadhesive molecules are a key player in this cascade. These proteins of the cell membrane surface are responsiblefor attachment of the cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These interactions are crucial forboth structural and functional tissue organization. Lack of this homeostasis destroys the tissue architectureand impairs its function and results in invasion. Abnormal expression of adhesive molecules was reported in allexamined cancers, including endometrial cancer.Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although in many casesdiagnosed and treated in early stages, and thus with good results, some patients cannot be cured. Completeknowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease will be helpful in identifying the patients with negative prognosticfactors, increased risk of recurrence and, perhaps, to find other therapeutic options. In the paper we are trying tosum up the up-to-date knowledge of the role of adhesive molecules in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  10. Adhesion Molecules in CNS Disorders: Biomarker and Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyi; Chen, Sheng; Klebe, Damon; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence has been provided regarding the crucial role of leukocyte extravasation and subsequent inflammatory response in several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The infiltrated leukocytes release pro-inflammatory mediators and activate resident cells, leading to tissue injury. Leukocyte-endothelia interaction is critical for leukocyte extravasation and migration from the intravascular space into the tissue during inflammation. The basic physiology of leukocyte-endothelia interaction has been investigated extensively. Traditionally, three kinds of adhesion molecules, selectin, integrin, and immunoglobulin families, are responsible for this multiple-step interaction. Furthermore, blocking adhesion molecule function by genetic knockout, antagonizing antibodies, or inhibitory pharmacological drugs provides neuroprotection, which is associated with a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with in the tissue. Detection of the soluble form of adhesion molecules has also been proven to predict outcomes in CNS disorders. Lately, vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), a novel adhesion molecule and endothelial cell surface enzyme, has been implicated as a brake during leukocyte extravasation. In this review, we summarize the functions of traditional adhesion molecules as well as VAP-1 in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. We also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of adhesion molecules in CNS disorders. PMID:23469854

  11. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, and Cluster of Differentiation 146 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoglu-Emre, F Sinem; Saribal, Devrim; Yenmis, Guven; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multisystemic, chronic disease accompanied by microvascular complications involving various complicated mechanisms. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and cluster of differentiation-146 (CD146) are mainly expressed by endothelial cells, and facilitate the adhesion and transmigration of immune cells, leading to inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with microvascular complications of T2DM. Serum and whole blood samples were collected from 58 T2DM patients with microvascular complications and 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while flow cytometry was used to determine CD146 levels. Serum sICAM-1 levels were lower in T2DM patients with microvascular complications than in healthy controls (Pmolecule levels were not correlated with the complication type. In the study group, most of the patients were on insulin therapy (76%), and 95% of them were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor agents. Insulin and ACE-inhibitors have been shown to decrease soluble adhesion molecule levels via various mechanisms, so we suggest that the decreased or unchanged levels of soluble forms of cellular adhesion molecules in our study group may have resulted from insulin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, as well as tissue-localized inflammation in patients with T2DM.

  12. Cleavage and cell adhesion properties of human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaktanis, Thanos; Kremling, Heidi; Pavšič, Miha; von Stackelberg, Ricarda; Mack, Brigitte; Fukumori, Akio; Steiner, Harald; Vielmuth, Franziska; Spindler, Volker; Huang, Zhe; Jakubowski, Jasmine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Luxenburger, Elke; Lauber, Kirsten; Lenarčič, Brigita; Gires, Olivier

    2015-10-02

    Human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed in carcinomas, which promotes proliferation after regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Here, we describe extracellular shedding of HEPCAM at two α-sites through a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) and at one β-site through BACE1. Transmembrane cleavage by γ-secretase occurs at three γ-sites to generate extracellular Aβ-like fragments and at two ϵ-sites to release human EPCAM intracellular domain HEPICD, which is efficiently degraded by the proteasome. Mapping of cleavage sites onto three-dimensional structures of HEPEX cis-dimer predicted conditional availability of α- and β-sites. Endocytosis of HEPCAM warrants acidification in cytoplasmic vesicles to dissociate protein cis-dimers required for cleavage by BACE1 at low pH values. Intramembrane cleavage sites are accessible and not part of the structurally important transmembrane helix dimer crossing region. Surprisingly, neither chemical inhibition of cleavage nor cellular knock-out of HEPCAM using CRISPR-Cas9 technology impacted the adhesion of carcinoma cell lines. Hence, a direct function of HEPCAM as an adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells is not supported and appears to be questionable. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Cleavage and Cell Adhesion Properties of Human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (HEPCAM)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaktanis, Thanos; Kremling, Heidi; Pavšič, Miha; von Stackelberg, Ricarda; Mack, Brigitte; Fukumori, Akio; Steiner, Harald; Vielmuth, Franziska; Spindler, Volker; Huang, Zhe; Jakubowski, Jasmine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Luxenburger, Elke; Lauber, Kirsten; Lenarčič, Brigita; Gires, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed in carcinomas, which promotes proliferation after regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Here, we describe extracellular shedding of HEPCAM at two α-sites through a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) and at one β-site through BACE1. Transmembrane cleavage by γ-secretase occurs at three γ-sites to generate extracellular Aβ-like fragments and at two ϵ-sites to release human EPCAM intracellular domain HEPICD, which is efficiently degraded by the proteasome. Mapping of cleavage sites onto three-dimensional structures of HEPEX cis-dimer predicted conditional availability of α- and β-sites. Endocytosis of HEPCAM warrants acidification in cytoplasmic vesicles to dissociate protein cis-dimers required for cleavage by BACE1 at low pH values. Intramembrane cleavage sites are accessible and not part of the structurally important transmembrane helix dimer crossing region. Surprisingly, neither chemical inhibition of cleavage nor cellular knock-out of HEPCAM using CRISPR-Cas9 technology impacted the adhesion of carcinoma cell lines. Hence, a direct function of HEPCAM as an adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells is not supported and appears to be questionable. PMID:26292218

  14. WITHDRAWN: The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM, a Close Relative to NCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Walmod, Peter S

    2008-03-27

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) constitute a large class of plasma membrane-anchored proteins that mediate attachment between neighboring cells and between cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). However, CAMs are more than simple mediators of cell adhesion. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a well characterized, ubiquitously expressed CAM that is highly expressed in the nervous system. In addition to mediating cell adhesion, NCAM participates in a multitude of cellular events, including survival, migration, and differentiation of cells, outgrowth of neurites, and formation and plasticity of synapses. NCAM shares an overall sequence identity of approximately 44% with the neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2), a protein also known as olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) and Rb-8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM), and the region-for-region sequence homology between the two proteins suggests that they are transcribed from paralogous genes. However, very little is known about the function of NCAM2, although it originally was described more than 20 years ago. In this review we summarize the known properties and functions of NCAM2 and describe some of the differences and similarities between NCAM and NCAM2.

  15. Regulation of RhoA Activity by Adhesion Molecules and Mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoram, R.J.; Lessey, E.C.; Burridge, K.

    2014-01-01

    The low molecular weight GTP-binding protein RhoA regulates many cellular events, including cell migration, organization of the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, progress through the cell cycle and gene expression. Physical forces influence these cellular processes in part by regulating RhoA activity through mechanotransduction of cell adhesion molecules (e.g. integrins, cadherins, Ig superfamily molecules). RhoA activity is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that are themselves regulated by many different signaling pathways. Significantly, the engagement of many cell adhesion molecules can affect RhoA activity in both positive and negative ways. In this brief review, we consider how RhoA activity is regulated downstream from cell adhesion molecules and mechanical force. Finally, we highlight the importance of mechanotransduction signaling to RhoA in normal cell biology as well as in certain pathological states. PMID:24467208

  16. Epithelial adhesion molecules and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis during neutrophil transepithelial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, Ronen; Parkos, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial adhesion molecules play essential roles in regulating cellular function and maintaining mucosal tissue homeostasis. Some form epithelial junctional complexes to provide structural support for epithelial monolayers and act as a selectively permeable barrier separating luminal contents from the surrounding tissue. Others serve as docking structures for invading viruses and bacteria, while also regulating the immune response. They can either obstruct or serve as footholds for the immune cells recruited to mucosal surfaces. Currently, it is well appreciated that adhesion molecules collectively serve as environmental cue sensors and trigger signaling events to regulate epithelial function through their association with the cell cytoskeleton and various intracellular adapter proteins. Immune cells, particularly neutrophils (PMN) during transepithelial migration (TEM), can modulate adhesion molecule expression, conformation, and distribution, significantly impacting epithelial function and tissue homeostasis. This review discusses the roles of key intestinal epithelial adhesion molecules in regulating PMN trafficking and outlines the potential consequences on epithelial function. PMID:25838976

  17. Kv2 Ion Channels Determine the Expression and Localization of the Associated AMIGO-1 Cell Adhesion Molecule in Adult Brain Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah I. Bishop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated K+ (Kv channels play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability. Kv channels comprise four principal α subunits, and transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic auxiliary subunits that modify diverse aspects of channel function. AMIGO-1, which mediates homophilic cell adhesion underlying neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during development, has recently been shown to be an auxiliary subunit of adult brain Kv2.1-containing Kv channels. We show that AMIGO-1 is extensively colocalized with both Kv2.1 and its paralog Kv2.2 in brain neurons across diverse mammals, and that in adult brain, there is no apparent population of AMIGO-1 outside of that colocalized with these Kv2 α subunits. AMIGO-1 is coclustered with Kv2 α subunits at specific plasma membrane (PM sites associated with hypolemmal subsurface cisternae at neuronal ER:PM junctions. This distinct PM clustering of AMIGO-1 is not observed in brain neurons of mice lacking Kv2 α subunit expression. Moreover, in heterologous cells, coexpression of either Kv2.1 or Kv2.2 is sufficient to drive clustering of the otherwise uniformly expressed AMIGO-1. Kv2 α subunit coexpression also increases biosynthetic intracellular trafficking and PM expression of AMIGO-1 in heterologous cells, and analyses of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 knockout mice show selective loss of AMIGO-1 expression and localization in neurons lacking the respective Kv2 α subunit. Together, these data suggest that in mammalian brain neurons, AMIGO-1 is exclusively associated with Kv2 α subunits, and that Kv2 α subunits are obligatory in determining the correct pattern of AMIGO-1 expression, PM trafficking and clustering.

  18. Acute stress-induced impairment of spatial memory is associated with decreased expression of neural cell adhesion molecule in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Carmen; Woodson, James C; Haynes, Vernon F; Park, Collin R; Touyarot, Katia; Lopez-Fernandez, Miguel A; Venero, César; Diamond, David M

    2005-04-15

    There is an extensive literature describing how stress disturbs cognitive processing and can exacerbate psychiatric disorders. There is, however, an insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in stress effects on brain and behavior. Rats were given spatial memory training in a hippocampus-dependent water maze task. We investigated how a fear-provoking experience (predator exposure) would affect their spatial memory and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) levels in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and cerebellum. Whereas the control (nonstress) group exhibited excellent memory for the hidden platform location in the water maze, the cat-exposed (stress) group exhibited a profound impairment of memory and a marked suppression of levels of the NCAM-180 isoform in the hippocampus. Predator stress produced a more global reduction of NCAM levels in the PFC but had no effect on NCAM levels in the amygdala and cerebellum. This work provides a novel perspective into dynamic and structure-specific changes in the molecular events involved in learning, memory, and stress. The selective suppression of NCAM-180 in the hippocampus and the more general suppression of NCAM in the PFC provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the great sensitivity of these two structures to be disturbed by stress.

  19. Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas S Rao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion molecules (AMs represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

  20. Targeting Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Transcription for Treatment of Inflammatory Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashander, Liam M; Appukuttan, Binoy; Ma, Yuefang; Gardner-Stephen, Dione; Smith, Justine R

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the endothelial adhesion molecules that control leukocyte trafficking into a tissue has been explored as a biological therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, these molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, and inhibiting the physiological level of an adhesion molecule might promote infection or malignancy. We explored the concept of targeting endothelial adhesion molecule transcription during inflammation in a human system. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) mediates leukocyte migration across the retinal endothelium in noninfectious posterior uveitis. We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1), in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and identified putative binding sites for NF-κB1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. We targeted induced NF-κB1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (si)RNA. Knockdown of NF-κB1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF-α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Consistently, NF-κB1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF-α but did not impact baseline binding. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that induced transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules might be targeted therapeutically for inflammatory disease in humans.

  1. Targeting Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Transcription for Treatment of Inflammatory Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam M. Ashander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting the endothelial adhesion molecules that control leukocyte trafficking into a tissue has been explored as a biological therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, these molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, and inhibiting the physiological level of an adhesion molecule might promote infection or malignancy. We explored the concept of targeting endothelial adhesion molecule transcription during inflammation in a human system. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 mediates leukocyte migration across the retinal endothelium in noninfectious posterior uveitis. We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1, in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and identified putative binding sites for NF-κB1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. We targeted induced NF-κB1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (siRNA. Knockdown of NF-κB1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF-α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Consistently, NF-κB1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF-α but did not impact baseline binding. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that induced transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules might be targeted therapeutically for inflammatory disease in humans.

  2. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, and Cluster of Differentiation 146 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sinem Hocaoglu-Emre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multisystemic, chronic disease accompanied by microvascular complications involving various complicated mechanisms. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, and cluster of differentiation-146 (CD146 are mainly expressed by endothelial cells, and facilitate the adhesion and transmigration of immune cells, leading to inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with microvascular complications of T2DM.MethodsSerum and whole blood samples were collected from 58 T2DM patients with microvascular complications and 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1 were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while flow cytometry was used to determine CD146 levels.ResultsSerum sICAM-1 levels were lower in T2DM patients with microvascular complications than in healthy controls (P<0.05. No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 and CD146 levels between the study and the control group. Although patients were subdivided into groups according to the type of microvascular complications that they experienced, cell adhesion molecule levels were not correlated with the complication type.ConclusionIn the study group, most of the patients were on insulin therapy (76%, and 95% of them were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitor agents. Insulin and ACE-inhibitors have been shown to decrease soluble adhesion molecule levels via various mechanisms, so we suggest that the decreased or unchanged levels of soluble forms of cellular adhesion molecules in our study group may have resulted from insulin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, as well as tissue-localized inflammation in patients with T2DM.

  3. The association between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and peritoneal injury in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yusuke; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizawa, Hiromichi; Imai, Reika; Imai, Toshimi; Hirahara, Ichiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ookawara, Susumu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum causes peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and its circulating form, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, play pivotal roles in inflammation. However, their role in peritoneal injury is unclear. We measured changes in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in rats. The associations between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and the solute transport rate (D/P-Cr and D/D0-glucose) determined by the peritoneal equilibration test, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in drained dialysate were investigated in 94 peritoneal drained dialysate samples. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in the peritoneum of rats with peritoneal injury. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate were significantly positively correlated with D/P-Cr (r = .51, p molecule-1expression is increased in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in the rat, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate are associated with peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. These results suggest that soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 could be a novel biomarker of peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  4. Antibodies against Shigella flexneri adhesion molecule outer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMP) as an adhesion factor and examine its ability to cross-react with the OMPs of other Shigella species. Methods: OMP was isolated from the bacterium S. flexneri after shaving the pili using a pili bacterial cutter in a solution of 0.5 ...

  5. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ubiquitination—Functions and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homrich, Mirka; Gotthard, Ingo; Wobst, Hilke; Diestel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily represent the biggest group of cell adhesion molecules. They have been analyzed since approximately 40 years ago and most of them have been shown to play a role in tumor progression and in the nervous system. All members of the Ig superfamily are intensively posttranslationally modified. However, many aspects of their cellular functions are not yet known. Since a few years ago it is known that some of the Ig superfamily members are modified by ubiquitin. Ubiquitination has classically been described as a proteasomal degradation signal but during the last years it became obvious that it can regulate many other processes including internalization of cell surface molecules and lysosomal sorting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the ubiquitination of cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily and to discuss its potential physiological roles in tumorigenesis and in the nervous system. PMID:26703751

  6. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Verde D.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble ß-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  7. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Verde, D M; Calado, T C; Ocampo, J S; Silva-Monteiro, E; Savino, W

    1999-05-01

    Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble beta-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  8. Post-transcriptional control of Amblyomin-X on secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, C C; Dias, R Y; Branco, V G; Cavalcante, M F; Souza, J G; Abdalla, D S P; Chudzinski-Tavassi, A M; Farsky, S H P

    2015-07-01

    Angiogenesis is a pivotal process of homeostasis and tissue repair, but it also favours neovascularisation syndromes and cancer nutrition. The chemical mediation of angiogenesis is complex, involving a balance between serine proteases and their inhibitors. We addressed the mechanisms of action of a Kunitz serine protease inhibitor (KPI) on spontaneous angiogenesis, using Amblyomin-X, a KPI designed from the cDNA library of the Amblyomma cajennense tick. Amblyomin-X treatment (10-1000 ng/10 μL; each 48 h; 3 times) reduced the number of vessels in the subcutaneous dorsal tissue of male Swiss mice, as measured by intravital microscopy, haematoxylin-eosin staining, and PECAM-1 immunofluorescence labeling. Incubation of Amblyomin-X with t-End endothelial cells, a murine endothelial microvascular lineage, did not alter cell proliferation, cell-cycle phases, necrosis and apoptosis, and the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Nevertheless, Amblyomin-X treatment reduced t-End migration and adhesion to Matrigel(®), and inhibited the VEGF-A secretion and VCAM-1 and β3 integrin expressions by posttranscriptional pathways. Together, data herein outline novel posttranscriptional mechanisms of KPIs on endothelial cells during angiogenesis and point out the possible application of Amblyomin-X as a local inhibitor to undesired neovascularisation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of CD4(+) T cells by pleural mesothelial cells via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms in tuberculous pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Li; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Jin, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Jian-Chu; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Ma, Wan-Li; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Qiong; Ye, Hong; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) have been demonstrated to be expressed on pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs), and to mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration; however, little is known about whether adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of CD4(+) T cells by PMCs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on PMCs, as well as expressions of CD11a and CD29, the counter-receptors for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively, expressed on CD4(+) T cells in TPE were determined using flow cytometry. The immune regulations on adhesion, proliferation, activation, selective expansion of CD4(+) helper T cell subgroups exerted by PMCs via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms were explored. Percentages of ICAM-1-positive and VCAM-1‒positive PMCs in TPE were increased compared with PMC line. Interferon-γ enhanced fluorescence intensity of ICAM-1, while IL-4 promoted VCAM-1 expression on PMCs. Percentages of CD11a(high)CD4(+) and CD29(high)CD4(+) T cells in TPE significantly increased as compared with peripheral blood. Prestimulation of PMCs with anti‒ICAM-1 or ‒VCAM-1 mAb significantly inhibited adhesion, activation, as well as effector regulatory T cell expansion induced by PMCs. Our current data showed that adhesion molecule pathways on PMCs regulated adhesion and activation of CD4(+) T cells, and selectively promoted the expansion of effector regulatory T cells.

  10. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the extracellular Ig modules I–IV and F3 modules I–III of the neural cell-adhesion molecule L1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj, E-mail: kulahin@plab.ku.dk [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kasper, Christina; Kristensen, Ole; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gajhede, Michael [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Mouse L1 modules Ig I–IV and F3 I–III were crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.5 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. Four amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) modules and three fibronectin type III (F3) modules of the mouse neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 have been expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. The Ig modules I–IV of L1 crystallized in a trigonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 239.6, c = 99.3 Å, and the crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of about 3.5 Å. The F3 modules I–III of L1 crystallized in a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 80.1, c = 131 Å, and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution. This is a step towards the structure determination of the multimodular constructs of the neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 in order to understand the function of L1 on a structural basis.

  11. The adhesion molecule Necl-3/SynCAM-2 localizes to myelinated axons, binds to oligodendrocytes and promotes cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballivet Marc

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell adhesion molecules are plasma membrane proteins specialized in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Two related adhesion molecules, Necl-1 and Necl-2/SynCAM, were recently described and shown to fulfill important functions in the central nervous system. The purpose of the work was to investigate the distribution, and the properties of Necl-3/SynCAM-2, a previously uncharacterized member of the Necl family with which it shares a conserved modular organization and extensive sequence homology. Results We show that Necl-3/SynCAM-2 is a plasma membrane protein that accumulates in several tissues, including those of the central and peripheral nervous system. There, Necl-3/SynCAM-2 is expressed in ependymal cells and in myelinated axons, and sits at the interface between the axon shaft and the myelin sheath. Several independent assays demonstrate that Necl-3/SynCAM-2 functionally and selectively interacts with oligodendrocytes. We finally prove that Necl-3/SynCAM-2 is a bona fide adhesion molecule that engages in homo- and heterophilic interactions with the other Necl family members, leading to cell aggregation. Conclusion Collectively, our manuscripts and the works on Necl-1 and SynCAM/Necl-2 reveal a complex set of interactions engaged in by the Necl proteins in the nervous system. Our work also support the notion that the family of Necl proteins fulfils key adhesion and recognition functions in the nervous system, in particular between different cell types.

  12. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the extracellular Ig modules I-IV and F3 modules I-III of the neural cell-adhesion molecule L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kasper, Christina; Kristensen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Four amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) modules and three fibronectin type III (F3) modules of the mouse neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 have been expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. The Ig modules I-IV of L1 crystallized in a trigonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 239.6, c = 99.3 A......, and the crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of about 3.5 A. The F3 modules I-III of L1 crystallized in a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 80.1, c = 131 A, and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.8 A resolution. This is a step towards the structure determination of the multimodular...

  13. Platelet-derived growth factor BB promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells towards C6 glioma and up-regulates the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yun-Hui; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2009-02-13

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the capacity of migrating towards gliomas. However, few data are available about the molecular mechanism responsible for this migratory capacity. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGFBB) in the migration of BMSCs towards C6 glioma and evaluate the effect of PDGFBB on the migrating capacity and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression of BMSCs. The chemokinetic activity of BMSCs in response to C6 glioma-conditioned medium and recombinant rat PDGFBB was analyzed by in vitro migration assay. The effect of PDGFBB on the expression of ICAM-1 was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence. Our data showed that C6 glioma-conditioned medium significantly increased the migration of BMSCs, which could be partially blocked by a PDGFBB neutralizing antibody. Recombinant rat PDGFBB enhanced the migration of BMSCs in a concentration-dependent way from 5 to 50ng/ml. Moreover, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence showed that 12h of 20ng/ml PDGFBB incubation could up-regulate the ICAM-1 expression of BMSCs. Our data also revealed that SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), significantly decreased the PDGFBB-induced migration and ICAM-1 expression of BMSCs. These results demonstrate that PDGFBB contributes to the migration of BMSCs towards C6 glioma and up-regulates the expression of ICAM-1, and that p38MAPK is an important signaling molecule correlating with the signal transduction of PDGFBB-induced migration and ICAM-1 expression of BMSCs.

  14. Neutrophil surface adhesion molecule and toll like receptor dynamics in crossbred cows suffering from Staphylococcus aureus subclinical and clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Swain

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Host elicits stage specific expression of surface adhesion molecules and TLR2 and TLR4 as dynamic host innate immune response against Staphylococcal mastitis. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 99-105

  15. Pharmacology of cell adhesion molecules of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiryushko, Darya; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system under normal conditions. They also are involved in numerous pathological processes such as inflammation, degenerative disorders, and cancer, making them attractive targets for drug...

  16. Levels Of Serum Intercellular And Vascular Adhesion Molecules In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the possible significant role of soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1), sE-selectin and interluekin-1β in development nephropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This study included 60 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) ...

  17. Epigenetic regulation of tumor endothelial cell anergy : Silencing of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by histone modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, Debby M. E. I.; Castermans, Karolien; Vire, Emmanuelle; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Hoebers, Nicole T. H.; Mayos, Kevin H.; Egbrink, Mirjam G. A. Oude; Molema, Grietje; Fuks, Francois; Griffloen, Arjan W.

    2006-01-01

    Tumors can escape from immunity by repressing leukocyte adhesion molecule expression on tumor endothelial cells and by rendering endothelial cells unresponsive to inflammatory activation. This endothelial cell anergy is induced by angiogenic growth factors and results in reduced leukocyte-vessel

  18. Signaling mechanisms of neurite outgrowth induced by the cell adhesion molecules NCAM and N-cadherin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S M; Berezin, V; Bock, E

    2008-01-01

    extracellular guidance cues to intracellular events and thereby regulating neurite outgrowth. In this review, we focus on two CAMs, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N-cadherin, and their ability to mediate signaling associated with a neurite outgrowth response. In particular, we will focus on direct......Formation of appropriate neural circuits depends on a complex interplay between extracellular guiding cues and intracellular signaling events that result in alterations of cytoskeletal dynamics and a neurite growth response. Surface-expressed cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) interact...

  19. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  20. Oldenlandia diffusa suppresses metastatic potential through inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression via p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyunju; Lee, Ji-Min; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Abekura, Fukushi; Park, Jun-Young; Chang, Young-Chae; Ha, Ki-Tae; Cho, Seung-Hak; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2017-01-04

    Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) has long been known as an apoptotic inducer in breast tumors in ethnomedicine. To scientifically confirm the anti-breast cancer effects of water, methanol (MeOH) and butanol (BuOH) extracts of O. diffusa on cell apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and intracellular signaling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MeOH extracts (MOD) and BuOH extracts (BOD) were prepared and examined for their ability to inhibit phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expressions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Additionally, transwell migration, invasion and transcriptional activity were assessed. Results of immunofluorescence confocal microscopy for translocation of NF-κB and p-ERK and p-p38 were also checked. Finally, apoptotic signals including processed caspase-8, caspase-7, poly ADP-ribose polymerase, Bax and Bcl-2 were examined. MOD and BOD specifically inhibited PMA-induced MMP-9 expression as well as invasive and migration potential via ICAM-1. The inhibitory activity was also based on the suppressed transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results of immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that translocation of NF-κB decreased upon BOD and MOD treatments, with a decreased level of p-ERK and p-p38 phosphorylation. In addition, treatment of MCF-7 cells with MOD and BOD activated apoptosis-linked proteins including enzymatically active forms of processed caspase-8, caspase-7 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, together with increased expression of mitochondrial apoptotic protein, Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2. The results indicate that OD as an anti-metastatic agent suppresses the metastatic response by targeting p-ERK, p-38 and NF-κB, thus reducing the invasion capacity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through inhibition of MMP-9 and ICAM-1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast

  1. Effect of methylprednisolone on the oxidative burst activity, adhesion molecules and clinical outcome following open heart surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Christiansen, K; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1997-01-01

    Following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), activated granulocytes may be involved with ischaemia/ reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether steroids could reduce the oxidative burst activity of granulocytes, the expression of adhesion molecules...... cytometrically using 123-dihydrorhodamine. A panel of adhesion molecules was measured using monoclonal antibodies. Following CPB the oxidative burst activity and the expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin more than doubled compared to initial values. There was no difference between the steroid group...... and the control group regarding the expression of adhesion molecules or the oxidative burst activity. In the steroid group the fluid gain during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) was 683 ml (median) compared to 1488 ml in the control group. Steroids prevented hyperthermia in the postoperative period but did...

  2. Calsyntenins Function as Synaptogenic Adhesion Molecules in Concert with Neurexins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Um

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple synaptic adhesion molecules govern synapse formation. Here, we propose calsyntenin-3/alcadein-β as a synapse organizer that specifically induces presynaptic differentiation in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Calsyntenin-3 (CST-3 is highly expressed during various postnatal periods of mouse brain development. The simultaneous knockdown of all three CSTs, but not CST-3 alone, decreases inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse densities in cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, the knockdown of CSTs specifically reduces inhibitory synaptic transmission in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, the loss of CSTs induces a concomitant decrease in neuron soma size in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, α-neurexins (α-Nrxs are components of a CST-3 complex involved in CST-3-mediated presynaptic differentiation. However, CST-3 does not directly bind to Nrxs. Viewed together, these data suggest that the three CSTs redundantly regulate inhibitory synapse formation, inhibitory synapse function, and neuron development in concert with Nrxs.

  3. Inhibition of nasal mucosal eosinophils after immunotherapy is associated with a decrease in interleukin-13 mRNA and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Successful grass pollen immunotherapy was associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in nasal eosinophils, IL-13 mRNA-expressing cells and VCAM-1 expression, but no change in CCR3 expression or in the number of apoptotic cells. The reduction in eosinophils after immunotherapy may be due to suppression of eosinophil recruitment to the nasal mucosa rather than enhanced apoptosis.

  4. An Evolutionary-Conserved Function of Mammalian Notch Family Members as Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akihiko; Yoshino, Miya; Hikosaka, Mari; Okuyama, Kazuki; Zhou, Lan; Sakano, Seiji; Yagita, Hideo; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion. PMID:25255288

  5. Overexpression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 predicts poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Aili; Lu, Funian; Chen, Hongxia; Fu, Pin; Zhao, Xianda; Chen, Honglei

    2017-02-01

    Junctional adhesion molecules are important components of tight junctions, and Eph/ephrin proteins constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both junctional adhesion molecules and Eph/ephrin are involved in normal tissue development and cancer progression. However, the expression levels and clinical significances of junctional adhesion molecule-A, a member of junctional adhesion molecules, and EphB2, a member of Eph/ephrin family, in lung adenocarcinoma patients are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify the expression and prognostic values of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 in lung adenocarcinoma patients' cohort. In our study, 70 (55.6%) showed high expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A protein and 51 (40.5%) showed high expression of EphB2 protein in 126 lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 expressions were both significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with noncancerous lung tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test indicated that low expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 proteins can predict better survival and low mortality rate of lung adenocarcinomas. In univariate analysis, high expression levels of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 were both found to be significantly correlated with poor overall survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.791, 95% confidence interval = 1.041-3.084, p = 0.035; hazard ratio = 1.762, 95% confidence interval = 1.038-2.992, p = 0.036, respectively). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that EphB2 expression is an independent prognosis parameter in lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.738, 95% confidence interval = 1.023-2.952, p = 0.016). Taken together, high expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 can predict poor overall survival and high mortality rate, and EphB2 is an independent prognostic biomarker in

  6. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Salunke, Sunita P; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATH+SR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

  7. Anti-adhesion molecule therapies in inflammatory bowel disease: touch and go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Tommaso; Malesci, Alberto; De La Rue, Sarah A; Danese, Silvio

    2008-05-01

    Exploration of the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory bowel diseases [N. Mori, Y. Horie, M.E. Gerritsen, D.C. Anderson, D.N. Granger, Anti-inflammatory drugs and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression in murine vascular beds. Gut 1999;44:186-95] is a leading field of medical research that drives the application of biological therapies to human diseases. Indeed, many inflammatory mediators can be targeted in the gut by monoclonal antibodies. A recent direction for these therapeutics is targeting of the adhesion molecule family. This molecule family mediates the adhesion and extravasation of leukocytes through the endothelium at sites of inflammation. This is a complex multistep process that has been extensively investigated in recent years; thanks to these studies some adhesion molecules have been identified to specifically mediate leukocyte migration to gut inflammatory sites, like alpha(4)beta(7) integrin. This review outlines the scientific basis behind this therapeutic approach, and describes the principal clinical studies that have been carried out on these new molecules in patients with IBD.

  8. Proanthocyanidins, from Ribes nigrum leaves, reduce endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacki, N; Kinet, M; Nusgens, B; Desmecht, D; Damas, J

    2005-01-01

    Background The effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs), isolated from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves, on neutrophil accumulation during inflammatory processes were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Methods In vivo studies were performed using carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats pre-treated with PACs. Exudate volume and PMNs accumulation were measured. Leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (LFA-1, Mac-1 and VLA-4) mobilization in circulating granulocytes were analysed by flow cytometry and endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry on lung sections. In vitro studies were conducted on endothelial LT2 cells, stimulated with TNF-α, to evaluate ICAM-1, IL-8 and VEGF mRNA expression upon PACs treatment. Data sets were examined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Scheffe post-hoc test. Results Pretreatment of the animals with PACs (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) inhibited dose-dependently carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats by reducing pleural exudate formation and PMNs infliltration. Leukocyte cell adhesion molecules mobilization was not down-regulated on granulocytes by PACs. Immunohistochemistry on lung sections showed a decreased production of endothelial cell adhesion molecules. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PACs were able to significantly inhibit ICAM-1 but not IL-8 and VEGF165 mRNA expression. Moreover, VEGF121 mRNA expression was dose-dependently enhanced. Conclusion This study provides evidence to support the anti-inflammatory activity of proanthocyanidins is related to an inhibition of leukocyte infiltration which can be explained at least in part by a down-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and that these compounds are capable of modulating TNF-α-induced VEGF transcription. PMID:16091140

  9. Proanthocyanidins, from Ribes nigrum leaves, reduce endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmecht D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs, isolated from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. leaves, on neutrophil accumulation during inflammatory processes were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Methods In vivo studies were performed using carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats pre-treated with PACs. Exudate volume and PMNs accumulation were measured. Leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (LFA-1, Mac-1 and VLA-4 mobilization in circulating granulocytes were analysed by flow cytometry and endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry on lung sections. In vitro studies were conducted on endothelial LT2 cells, stimulated with TNF-α, to evaluate ICAM-1, IL-8 and VEGF mRNA expression upon PACs treatment. Data sets were examined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by a Scheffe post-hoc test. Results Pretreatment of the animals with PACs (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg inhibited dose-dependently carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats by reducing pleural exudate formation and PMNs infliltration. Leukocyte cell adhesion molecules mobilization was not down-regulated on granulocytes by PACs. Immunohistochemistry on lung sections showed a decreased production of endothelial cell adhesion molecules. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PACs were able to significantly inhibit ICAM-1 but not IL-8 and VEGF165 mRNA expression. Moreover, VEGF121 mRNA expression was dose-dependently enhanced. Conclusion This study provides evidence to support the anti-inflammatory activity of proanthocyanidins is related to an inhibition of leukocyte infiltration which can be explained at least in part by a down-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and that these compounds are capable of modulating TNF-α-induced VEGF transcription.

  10. Analyses of Gingival Adhesion Molecules in Periodontitis: Theoretical In Silico, Comparative In Vivo, and Explanatory In Vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Özdemir, Vural; Mäki-Petäys, Juho; Neves de Oliveira, Ben-Hur; Firatli, Yigit; Güncü, Güliz N; Caglayan, Feriha; Könönen, Eija

    2016-02-01

    A deeper understanding of periodontitis pathophysiology is central to future development of novel biomarkers and therapeutics. The following is reported here: 1) an in silico network model of interactions among cell adhesion molecules and a network-focused microarray analysis of the corresponding genes in periodontitis; 2) analysis of secretions of adhesion molecules in gingival tissue samples from patients with periodontitis and healthy controls; and 3) effect of the human neutrophilic peptide-1 (HNP-1) on epithelial adhesion molecules. The network model identified 85 nodes in relation to the interactions of adhesion molecules. Subsequently, the relative gene expression was overlaid on the network model. Differential gene expression was analyzed, and false discovery rate control was performed for statistical assessment of the microarray data. Both tissue and cell culture samples were immunostained for desmocollin (DSC)2, occludin (OCLN), desmoglein (DSG)1, tight junction protein 2, and gap junction protein α. The differential gene expression analysis revealed that the epithelial adhesion molecules were significantly lower in abundance in individuals with periodontitis than controls. In contrast, the genes for leukocyte adhesion molecules showed a significant upregulation. Immunostainings revealed elevated secretions of both DSG1 and OCLN in periodontitis. An in vitro model suggested reduced DSC2 and OCLN secretions in the presence of HNP-1. Gene expression of gingival adhesion molecules in periodontitis is regulated by leukocyte transmigration, whereas the neutrophilic antimicrobial peptide HNP-1 is noted as a putative regulator of epithelial adhesion molecules. These observations contribute to the key mechanisms by which future biomarkers might be developed for periodontitis.

  11. Oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and vascular cell adhesion molecule expression in cells exposed to particulate matter from combustion of conventional diesel and methyl ester biodiesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Nøjgaard, Jakob Klenø

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to compare hazards of particles from combustion of biodiesel blends and conventional diesel (D(100)) in old and improved engines. We determined DNA damage in A549 cells, mRNA levels of CCL2 and IL8 in THP-1 cells, and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical cord endothelial...

  12. Modulation of lens cell adhesion molecules by particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M. P.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; Chou, W.; Lockett, S. J.; Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins which anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but whose functions also include signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. We are testing a hypothesis that particle radiations modulate CAM expression and this contributes to radiation-induced lens opacification. We observed dose-dependent changes in the expression of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 in exponentially-growing and confluent cells of a differentiating human lens epithelial cell model after exposure to particle beams. Human lens epithelial (HLE) cells, less than 10 passages after their initial culture from fetal tissue, were grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell-derived ECM in medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum and supplemented with 5 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Multiple cell populations at three different stages of differentiation were prepared for experiment: cells in exponential growth, and cells at 5 and 10 days post-confluence. The differentiation status of cells was characterized morphologically by digital image analysis, and biochemically by Western blotting using lens epithelial and fiber cell-specific markers. Cultures were irradiated with single doses (4, 8 or 12 Gy) of 55 MeV protons and, along with unirradiated control samples, were fixed using -20 degrees C methanol at 6 hours after exposure. Replicate experiments and similar experiments with helium ions are in progress. The intracellular localization of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies specific for each CAM. Cells known to express each CAM were also processed as positive controls. Both exponentially-growing and confluent, differentiating cells demonstrated a dramatic proton-dose-dependent modulation (upregulation for exponential cells, downregulation for confluent cells) and a change in the intracellular distribution of the beta 1-integrin, compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast

  13. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) - A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R

    2013-01-01

    . Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has...... been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral malaria. However, more studies identifying cross-reactive antibody and ICAM-1-binding epitopes and the establishment of a clinical link between DBLβ expression and e.g. cerebral malaria are needed before the DBLβ domains can be put forward...... as vaccine candidates and go into clinical trials. Such studies require availability of functional recombinant ICAM-1 in large quantities. In this study, we compared recombinant ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 and COS-7 cells with mouse myeloma NS0 ICAM-1 purchased from a commercial vendor in terms of protein...

  14. The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM, a Close Relative to NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Walmod, Peter

    2008-01-01

    and plasticity of synapses. NCAM shares an overall sequence identity of approximately 44% with the neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2), a protein also known as olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) and Rb-8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM), and the region-for-region sequence homology between the two......Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) constitute a large class of plasma membrane-anchored proteins that mediate attachment between neighboring cells and between cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). However, CAMs are more than simple mediators of cell adhesion. The neural cell adhesion...

  15. Anti-CD22-mediated change of adhesion molecule expression and migrational behavior of B cells from patients with SLE in comparison to healthy donors

    OpenAIRE

    Blaßfeld, Daniela Anneliese Karin

    2013-01-01

    Epratuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD22 has reduced disease activity in SLE patients in clinical studies and represents a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of SLE. Further, a reduction in peripheral blood B lymphocytes has been described after epratuzumab treatment. Therefore this dissertation analyzes the influence of epratuzumab on expression and functionality of receptors of B cell migration in vitro using fluorescence activated cell sorting and a functi...

  16. Regulation of CD4(+ T cells by pleural mesothelial cells via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms in tuberculous pleurisy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Li Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 have been demonstrated to be expressed on pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs, and to mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration; however, little is known about whether adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of CD4(+ T cells by PMCs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE. METHODS: Expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on PMCs, as well as expressions of CD11a and CD29, the counter-receptors for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively, expressed on CD4(+ T cells in TPE were determined using flow cytometry. The immune regulations on adhesion, proliferation, activation, selective expansion of CD4(+ helper T cell subgroups exerted by PMCs via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms were explored. RESULTS: Percentages of ICAM-1-positive and VCAM-1‒positive PMCs in TPE were increased compared with PMC line. Interferon-γ enhanced fluorescence intensity of ICAM-1, while IL-4 promoted VCAM-1 expression on PMCs. Percentages of CD11a(highCD4(+ and CD29(highCD4(+ T cells in TPE significantly increased as compared with peripheral blood. Prestimulation of PMCs with anti‒ICAM-1 or ‒VCAM-1 mAb significantly inhibited adhesion, activation, as well as effector regulatory T cell expansion induced by PMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our current data showed that adhesion molecule pathways on PMCs regulated adhesion and activation of CD4(+ T cells, and selectively promoted the expansion of effector regulatory T cells.

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN PROTEIN-WITH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT-53 (P53, BURKIT CELL LYMPHOMA 2 (BCL2, AND FAS LIGAND (FASL AND VASCULAR-CELL-ADHESION-MOLECULE-1 (VCAM-1 MRNA EXPRESSION LEVELS IN A PATHOGENESIS STUDY OF PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintareja Teguh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of protein-with-molecular-weight-53 (p53, burkit cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2, Fas ligand (FasL mRNA, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, known as the apoptosis-related molecular pathway, in preeclamptic patients. Methods: Observation on the correlation between the mRNA levels of p53, Bcl2 and FasL and VCAM-1 in 31 subjects at 28-42 weeks gestational age was performed in this study using the real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: The results showed that p53 mRNA increased (>1.2350 ng/μL in the preeclampsia group compared to the normal pregnancy group (p=0.010, Bcl2 mRNA was lower (≤0.9271 ng/μL in the preeclampsia group than the control group (p=0.041. There was also a tendency of increased FasL mRNA expression (>0.5509 ng/μL in the preeclampsia group compared to the normal pregnancy group (p=0.300. The level of VCAM-1 elevated (>890.08 ng/mL in the preeclampsia group compared to the normal pregnancy group (p=0.001. In preeclampsia, the correlation between the Bcl2/p53 ratio and VCAM-1 was r=0.541 (p=0.002, whereas the correlation in normal pregnancy was r=0.099 (p=0.595. Conclusions: There are correlations between the mRNA expression levels of p53 and Bcl2 as an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis along with the VCAM-1 levels in the incidence of preeclampsia. However, no correlation is found between FasL mRNA expression and the incidence of preeclampsia.

  18. Junctional adhesion molecule-A: functional diversity through molecular promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Tim; Kummer, Daniel; Ebnet, Klaus

    2017-12-14

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) regulate important processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis. This activity is primarily due to their ability to initiate intracellular signaling cascades at cell-cell contact sites. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an IgSF-CAM with a short cytoplasmic tail that has no catalytic activity. Nevertheless, JAM-A is involved in a variety of biological processes. The functional diversity of JAM-A resides to a large part in a C-terminal PDZ domain binding motif which directly interacts with nine different PDZ domain-containing proteins. The molecular promiscuity of its PDZ domain motif allows JAM-A to recruit protein scaffolds to specific sites of cell-cell adhesion and to assemble signaling complexes at those sites. Here, we review the molecular characteristics of JAM-A, including its dimerization, its interaction with scaffolding proteins, and the phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain, and we describe how these characteristics translate into diverse biological activities.

  19. [Effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis with different fimA genotypes on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 production by human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Yu-Xiang; Xiao, Li; He, Quan-Min; Ge, Song; Qian, Min-Zhang

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) with different fimA genotypes on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) production by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In the present study, PgATCC33277 (type I fimA genotype), WCSP 115 (type II fimA genotype), W83 (type IV fimA genotype), and Escherichia coli-lipopolysaccharide (Ec-LPS) were designed as experimental group 1, 2, 3, and positive control group, respectively, to stimulate HUVEC, and the un-stimulated HUVEC were analyzed as negative control group. The three strains of Pg were cultured anaerobically in standard condition, and then the Pg cells and Ec-LPS were co-cultured with HUVEC for 2, 6, and 24 h, respectively. The amount of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 produced by HUVEC was detected with flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by HUVEC were assayed with confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of HUVEC were intensified after infected by Pg with I, II, and IV fimA genotypes (P 0.05). Expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in Pg infected HUVEC were confirmed by CLSM. Infection of HUVEC with Pg resulted in more fluorescence staining of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 compared with that in uninfected HUVEC cultures. The virulence and pathogenicity of Pg is associated with its fimA genotypes, Pg with type II and IV fimA genes possess stronger ability to stimulate HUVEC to up-regulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules, which may lead to disorders in vascular endothelial function.

  20. CKIP-1 ameliorates high glucose-induced expression of fibronectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway in glomerular mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenyan; Chen, Cheng; Xiong, Fengxiao; Yang, Zhiying; Wang, Yu; Huang, Junying; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2016-09-15

    Glucose and lipid metabolism disorders as well as oxidative stress (OSS) play important roles in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunctions are the basic pathological changes of chronic microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, such as DN. OSS can lead to the accumulation of extracellular matrix and inflammatory factors which will accelerate the progress of DN. Casein kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) mediates adipogenesis, cell proliferation and inflammation under many circumstances. However, whether CKIP-1 is involved in the development of DN remains unknown. Here, we show that CKIP-1 is a novel regulator of resisting the development of DN and the underlying molecular mechanism is related to activating the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) antioxidative stress pathway. The following findings were obtained: (1) The treatment of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) with high glucose (HG) decreased CKIP-1 levels in a time-dependent manner; (2) CKIP-1 overexpression dramatically reduced fibronectin (FN) and intercellular adhesionmolecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Depletion of CKIP-1 further induced the production of FN and ICAM-1; (3) CKIP-1 promoted the nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. Moreover, CKIP-1 upregulated the expression of Nrf2 downstream genes, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); and ultimately decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The molecular mechanisms clarify that the advantageous effect of CKIP-1 on DN are well connected with the activation of the Nrf2/ARE antioxidative stress pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear factor kappaB-mediated down-regulation of adhesion molecules: possible mechanism for inhibitory activity of bigelovin against inflammatory monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Oh, Goo Taeg; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Koo, Uk; Lee, Sung-Jin; Mar, Woongchon

    2009-06-22

    The flowers of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis (Rupr.) Reg. (Compositae) are used in traditional medicine to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and acute pleurisy in China and Korea. However, the pharmacological actions of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis on endothelial cells and inflammatory monocytes are not clear. In this study, we investigated whether bigelovin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the flowers of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis, inhibits monocyte adhesion and adhesion molecule expression in brain endothelial cells. We measured tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-enhanced Raw264.7 monocyte binding to brain endothelial cells and the levels of cell adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial-selectin (E-selectin) on the surface of brain endothelial cells. Bigelovin significantly inhibited these in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, bigelovin suppressed the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) promoter-driven luciferase activity, NF-kappaB activation, and degradation of NF-kappaB inhibitor protein alpha (IkappaBalpha). These results indicate that bigelovin inhibits inflammatory monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin by blocking IkappaBalpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation.

  2. Neural cell adhesion molecule is a cardioprotective factor up-regulated by metabolic stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Kazuya; Ono, Koh; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Yodo; Kojima, Yoji; Horie, Takahiro; Nishi, Hitoo; Kinoshita, Minako; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Hasegawa, Koji; Kita, Toru; KIMURA, TAKESHI

    2010-01-01

    Screening for cell surface proteins up-regulated under stress conditions may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. To search for genes whose expression was enhanced by treatment with oligomycin, a mitochondrial-F(0)F(1) ATP synthase inhibitor, signal sequence trapping was performed in H9C2 rat cardiac myoblasts. One of the genes identified was that for neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56), a major regulator of development, cell survival, migration, and neurite outgrowth...

  3. The Effects of Arterial Blood Pressure Reduction on Endocan and Soluble Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs and CAMs Ligands Expression in Hypertensive Patients on Ca-Channel Blocker Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refmir Tadzic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To determine the effect of arterial blood pressure (BP reduction on endocan and soluble cell adhesion molecules' (sCAM plasma concentration and expression of their ligands on circulatory leukocyte subpopulations. Methods: 24 hypertensive subjects of both sexes (age: 53±8 yrs were treated with Ca-channel blocker, amlodipin (5-10 mg/day for 8 weeks; to reach BP≤139/89mmHg. The serum sCAMs and endocan concentrations were determined by ELISA kits. Level of ICAM/VCAM ligands on leukocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, or t-test were used as appropriate, with Pearson's correlation calculated; pResults: sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were decreased (p≤0.001 and p=0.002, respectively, while E-selectin concentration was increased after amlodipin treatment (P=0.014. CD11a/LFA-1 (ICAM-1 and endocan ligand was significantly increased in all three cell types with BP decrease. CD15 and CD49d/VLA-4 (VCAM-1 ligand did not change after the treatment. There was significant positive correlation of systolic and diastolic BP with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and significant negative correlation of systolic BP with CD11a/LFA-1. Endocan significantly positively correlated with ICAM-1. Conclusions: The increased expression of ICAM/VACM ligands, together with decrease of sCAMs and endocan suggests the de-activation of endothelium with reduction in BP, decreasing the adherence of circulatory leukocytes to endothelium; subsequently decreasing the risk for development of atherosclerosis.

  4. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-09-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-α-induced activation of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The IκB kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-κB signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-α-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-κB, as well as expression of adhesion molecules. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cell surface adhesion molecules and cytokine profiles in primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukkonen, Maritta; Wu, Xingchen; Reipert, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the utility of adhesion molecule (AM) and cytokine/chemokine expressions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as markers of disease activity in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). METHODS: The expressions of AMs and the levels of 17 cytokines in patients...... of cytokines in serum or CSF between PPMS and SPMS or controls, but evidence suggesting intrathecal synthesis of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was found in PPMS. The expressions of CSF VLA-4 in PPMS correlated with the total volume of cerebral lesions and the number...

  6. The role of adhesion molecules in acute myeloid leukemia and (hemato)oncology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsa, Tomas; Horacek, Jan M; Jebavy, Ladislav

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of malignancies like acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is often complicated by the heterogeneity of the disease and the mechanisms of the disease progression. This heterogeneity is often not reflected in standard treatment approaches which provide predictable outcomes in the majority of patients but fail in individual cases even with high-dose multi-agent chemotherapy regimens and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Further, the unselective effect of chemotherapy causes high treatment-related toxicity and accelerates the risk of infection during prolonged pancytopenia, preventing further dose escalation. Despite rapid progress in therapeutic strategies, the fatality of high-grade malignancies remains enormous. Adhesive interactions trigger signal transduction pathway activation and this prevents the apoptosis of both normal and malignant cells. A correlation between expression of defined adhesion molecules and patient outcome has been found for several malignant diseases including AML. We aim to describe how disruption of these signalling pathways can overcome the high resistance to treatment and increase the selectivity of targeting malignant cells. This could effectively reduce the overall treatment-related toxicity and improve the general outcome. Adhesion molecules facilitate growth of malignant diseases. This review provides a deeper insight into these processes. Modulation of adhesion molecules-mediated interactions is an innovative and feasible approach in treatment of AML and many other malignancies. Due to expected low toxicity it is an acceptable addition to standard chemotherapeutical regimens for all age groups of patients. This approach could improve the overall treatment outcome in the future.

  7. Circulating soluble adhesion molecules in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, J; Mirapeix, E; Arrizabalaga, P; Rodriguez, R; Ascaso, C; Abellana, R; Font, J; Darnell, A

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether changes in concentrations of soluble (s) E-selectin, sP-selectin, sL-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) reflect disease activity in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and whether serum levels of these adhesion molecules are related to the degree of renal failure in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). A sandwich ELISA was used to measure these soluble adhesion molecules in (i) sera from 20 patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (10 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and 10 patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)), obtained at the time of diagnosis and during the remission period; (ii) sera from 40 patients with CRF not undergoing haemodialysis. At the time of diagnosis, serum levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 (88+/-42 ng/ml, 437+/-184 ng/ml, 1720+/-1174 ng/ml respectively) were significantly higher in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis than in healthy controls (P<0.0001, P=0.002 and P=0.001 respectively). Serum sP-selectin values did not differ from those obtained in normal donors. In contrast, sL-selectin levels (940+/-349 ng/ml) were significantly lower in patients than those recorded in healthy controls (P<0.0001). A significant decrease in concentrations of sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 was observed between active and remission phases (P<0.0001, P=0.002, P=0.001 and P=0.001 respectively). No significant differences were observed in sL-selectin levels between active and remission phases. sL-selectin concentrations (802+/-306 ng/ml) during the remission phase remained lower than those observed in healthy controls (P<0.0001). No correlation was observed between serum creatinine and sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in patients of the CRF group. A slight negative correlation was established between creatinine and sL-selectin concentration. Increased serum levels of s

  8. Alpha-tocopherol and BAY 11-7082 reduce vascular cell adhesion molecule in human aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Ursula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Pons, Laia; Heras, Mercedes; Aragonés, Gemma; Anglès, Neus; Morelló, Jose-Ramon; Solà, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    In endothelial dysfunction, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression (collectively termed cell adhesion molecules; CAMs) increase at sites of atherosclerosis and are stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We evaluated the effect of alpha-tocopherol (AT; 10-150 µM) and BAY 11-7082 (BAY; 0.1 or 1 µM) on CAMs mRNA expression as well as their protein in soluble release form (sCAMs) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) activated by TNF-α (1 or 10 ng/ml). Also, we determined the extent of lymphocyte adhesion to activated HAECs. BAY reduced VCAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA expression by 30, 30 and 10%, respectively. Furthermore, protein reduction of sVCAM-1 by 70%, sE-selectin by 51% and sICAM-1 by 25% compared to HAECs stimulated by TNF-α was observed (p adhesion to human Jurkat T lymphocytes was higher compared to nonactivated HAECs (p adhesion (p cell adhesion, while AT selectively inhibits VCAM-1; both induce endothelial dysfunction improvement. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Role of adhesion molecules and inflammation in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infected mouse brain

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    Honnold Shelley P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinvasion of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV and subsequent initiation of inflammation in the brain plays a crucial role in the outcome of VEEV infection in mice. Adhesion molecules expressed on microvascular endothelial cells in the brain have been implicated in the modulation of the blood brain barrier (BBB and inflammation in brain but their role in VEEV pathogenesis is not very well understood. In this study, we evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules genes in the brain of VEEV infected mice. Findings Several cell to cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix protein genes such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CD44, Cadherins, integrins, MMPs and Timp1 were differentially regulated post-VEEV infection. ICAM-1 knock-out (IKO mice infected with VEEV had markedly reduced inflammation in the brain and demonstrated a delay in the onset of clinical symptoms of disease. A differential regulation of inflammatory genes was observed in the IKO mice brain compared to their WT counterparts. Conclusions These results improve our present understanding of VEEV induced inflammation in mouse brain.

  10. Effect of methylprednisolone on the oxidative burst activity, adhesion molecules and clinical outcome following open heart surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Christiansen, K; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1997-01-01

    cytometrically using 123-dihydrorhodamine. A panel of adhesion molecules was measured using monoclonal antibodies. Following CPB the oxidative burst activity and the expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin more than doubled compared to initial values. There was no difference between the steroid group......Following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), activated granulocytes may be involved with ischaemia/ reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether steroids could reduce the oxidative burst activity of granulocytes, the expression of adhesion molecules...... on granulocytes and improve clinical outcome. Sixteen patients undergoing open heart surgery participated in the study. Eight were randomized to receive methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg intravenously) at the start of anaesthesia while eight patients served as a control group. The oxidative burst was measured flow...

  11. Quantitative analysis of adhesion molecules on cellular constituents of the human uterine microenvironment under the influence of estrogen and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackin, Martha N; Cruse, Julius M; Lewis, Robert E; Hines, Randal S; Stopple, J A; Cowan, Bryan D

    2002-04-01

    The uterus contains all the components of a tertiary lymphoid compartment. We hypothesize that specific leukocyte recruitment to the endometrium during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy limits the type of immunocyte that gains access. The present study utilized flow cytometry to define and quantify adhesion molecules possibly used by decidual infiltrating lymphocytes (DIL) as homing receptors, uterine microvascular myometrial endothelial cells (UtMVE-Myo) as addressins, and secretory endometrial stroma cells (STO) as retainment factors. Human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as control cells for comparison studies. DIL were composed of predominantly lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1+, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1+, LFA-2+, LFA-3+, gp150,95+, alpha1beta1+, Hermes cell adhesion molecule (H-CAM)+, and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM)+ (CD56(bright)) memory/effector natural killer cells. A significant number of UtMVEC-Myo expressed platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, a percentage were uniquely LFA-3+, and alpha4 integrin expression was uniquely high. An increased number of STO uniquely expressed alpha3, beta3, and LFA-3, whereas alpha2, alpha4, alphaVbeta3, and H-CAM were significantly increased. Possible unique adhesions of DIL:UtMVEC-Myo included SLe(x):PECAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1:alpha4, and LFA-2:LFA-3, whereas DIL:STO included LFA-2:LFA-3 and N-CAM:N-CAM. Unique molecules on DIL may also associate with extracellular matrix (ECM) or complement on UtMVEC-Myo or STO to form gp150,95:fibrinogen/iC3b/C3dg, alpha1beta1:laminin (LM)/collagen (CO), and ICAM-1:fibronectin (FN) interactions. Bridges of ECM may also form between DIL and UtMVEC-Myo adhesion molecules including ICAM-1:FN:ICAM-1 and alpha4beta1:FN:alpha4beta1. DIL:ECM:STO interactions may involve alpha2beta1:CO:alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1:LM/CO/FN:alpha3beta1, alphaVbeta3:VN

  12. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  13. Soluble endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule and incident cardiovascular events in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao-Yu; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; Ayers, Colby R; Rohatgi, Anand

    2017-09-01

    Cell adhesion molecules are key regulators of atherosclerotic plaque development, but circulating levels of soluble fragments, such as intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), have yielded conflicting associations with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) is expressed exclusively in platelets and endothelial cells, and soluble ESAM (sESAM) levels have been associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. We therefore hypothesized that sESAM would be associated with incident ASCVD. sESAM, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured in 2,442 participants without CVD in the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample aged 30-65 years enrolled between 2000 and 2002. ASCVD was defined as first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or CV death. A total of 162 ASCVD events were analyzed over 10.4 years. Increasing sESAM was associated with ASCVD, independent of risk factors (HR Q4 vs Q1: 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.6). Serial adjustment for renal function, sICAM-1, VCAM-1, and prevalent coronary calcium did not attenuate these associations. Continuous ESAM demonstrated similar findings (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Addition of sESAM to traditional risk factors improved discrimination and reclassification (delta c-index: P = .009; integrated-discrimination-improvement index P = .001; net reclassification index = 0.42, 95% CI 0.15-0.68). Neither sICAM-1 nor sVCAM-1 was independently associated with ASCVD. sESAM but not sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 levels are associated with incident ASCVD. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of sESAM in ASCVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression pattern and regulation of genes differ between fibroblasts of adhesion and normal human peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Ghassan M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury to the peritoneum during surgery is followed by a healing process that frequently results in the attachment of adjacent organs by a fibrous mass, referred commonly as adhesions. Because injuries to the peritoneum during surgery are inevitable, it is imperative that we understand the mechanisms of adhesion formation to prevent its occurrence. This requires thorough understanding of the molecular sequence that results in the attachment of injured peritoneum and the development of fibrous tissue. Recent data show that fibroblasts from the injured peritoneum may play a critical role in the formation of adhesion tissues. Therefore, identifying changes in gene expression pattern in the peritoneal fibroblasts during the process may provide clues to the mechanisms by which adhesion develop. Methods In this study, we compared expression patterns of larger number of genes in the fibroblasts isolated from adhesion and normal human peritoneum using gene filters. Contributions of TGF-beta1 and hypoxia in the altered expression of specific genes were also examined using a semiquantitative RT-PCR technique. Results Results show that several genes are differentially expressed between fibroblasts of normal and adhesion peritoneum and that the peritoneal fibroblast may acquire a different phenotype during adhesion formation. Genes that are differentially expressed between normal and adhesion fibroblasts encode molecules involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, migration and factors regulating cytokines, transcription, translation and protein/vesicle trafficking. Conclusions Our data substantiate that adhesion formation is a multigenic phenomenon and not all changes in gene expression pattern between normal and adhesion fibroblasts are the function of TGF-beta1 and hypoxia that are known to influence adhesion formation. Analysis of the gene expression data in the perspective of known functions of genes connote to

  15. L-tetrahydropalamatine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion through downregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 involving suppression of nuclear factor-κ B signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-rui; Yu, Nan; Deng, Yan-hui; Hoi, Pui Man; Yang, Bin; Liu, Guang-yu; Cong, Wei-hong; Lee, Simon Ming-yuen

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether I-tetrahydropalmatine (I-THP), an alkaloid mainly present in Corydalis family, could ameliorate early vascular inflammatory responses in atherosclerotic processes. Fluorescently labeled monocytes were co-incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which were pretreated with I-THP and then simulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in absence of I-THP to determine if I-THP could reduce thecytokine-induced adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. Then I-THP were further studied the underlying mechanisms through observing the transcriptional and translational level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κ B in HUVECs. L-THP could block TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and could significantly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on cell surface by 31% and 36% at 30 μ mol/L. L-THP pretreatment could also markedly reduce transcriptional and translational level of VCAM-1 as well as mildly reduce the total protein and mRNA expression levels of ICAM-1. Furthermore, I-THP attenuated TNF-α-stimulated NF-κ B nuclear translocation. These results provide evidences supporting that I-THP could be a promising compound in the prevention and treatment of the early vascular inflammatory reaction in atherosclerosis by inhibiting monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell through downregulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in vascular endothelial cell based on suppressing NF-κ B.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule1, vascular cell adhesion molecule1 and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule in patients with acute ischemic b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaković Vesna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leukocyte migration into the ischemic area is a complex process controlled by adhesion molecules (AM in leukocytes and endothelium, by migratory capacity of leukocytes and the presence of hemotaxic agents in the tissue. In this research it was supposed that in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients in the acute phase of ischemic brain disease (IBD there were relevant changes in the concentration of soluble AM (sICAM-1 sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin, that could have been the indicators of the intensity of damaging processes in central nervous system (CNS. Methods. The study included 45 IBD patients, 15 with transient ischemic attack (TIA 15 with reversible ischemic attack (RIA, and 15 with brain infarction (BI of both sexes, mean age 66±7. Control group consisted of 15 patients with radicular lesions of discal origin, subjected to diagnostic radiculography without the signs of interruption in the passage of CSF. Changes of selected biochemical parameters were determined in all patients in frame 72 hours since the occurence of an ischemic episode. Concentrations of soluble AM were determined in plasma and CSF by ELISA. Total number of leukocytes (TNL in peripheral blood was determined by hematological analyzer. Results. The results showed that during the first 72 hrs of IBD significant increases occured in TNL and that the increase was progressive compared to the severeness of the disease. Significant increase of soluble AM concentration was shown in plasma of IBD patients. The increase was highest in BI somewhat lower in RIA and the lowest in TIA patients compared to the control. In CSF concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin demonstrated similar increasing trend as in plasma. Conclusion. TNL, as well as the soluble AM concentrations in plasma and CSF, were increased during the acute IBD phase and progressive in relation to the severeness of the disease, so that they might have been the indicators of CNS inflammatory

  17. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben Rønn

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most...... role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border....

  18. NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM: cell adhesion molecule with a role in neuronal compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene; Berezin, Vladimir; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2012-03-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM), is a paralog of NCAM1. The protein exists in a transmembrane and a lipid-anchored isoform, and has an ectodomain consisting of five immunoglobulin modules and two fibronectin type 3 homology modules. Structural models of the NCAM2 ectodomain reveal that it facilitates cell adhesion through reciprocal interactions between the membrane-distal immunoglobulin modules. There are no known heterophilic NCAM2 binding partners, and NCAM2 is not glycosylated with polysialic acid, a posttranslational modification known to be a major modulator of NCAM1-mediated processes. This suggests that NCAM2 has a function or mode of action distinctly different from that of NCAM1. NCAM2 is primarily expressed in the brain, where it is believed to stimulate neurite outgrowth and to facilitate dendritic and axonal compartmentalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CXC chemokine ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 regulates cell adhesion in human colon cancer cells by induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Shui-Yi; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chou, Ming-Hui; Huang, Wen-Shih; Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Shen, Chien-Heng; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2012-10-25

    The CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis is involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC. Interaction between CRC cells and endothelium is a key event in tumor progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SDF-1 on the adhesion of CRC cells. Human CRC DLD-1 cells were used to study the effect of SDF-1 on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and cell adhesion to endothelium. SDF-1 treatment induced adhesion of DLD-1 cells to the endothelium and increased the expression level of the ICAM-1. Inhibition of ICAM-1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and neutralizing antibody inhibited SDF-1-induced cell adhesion. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrated that the activation of ERK, JNK and p38 pathways is critical for SDF-1-induced ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion. Promoter activity and transcription factor ELISA assays showed that SDF-1 increased Sp1-, C/EBP-β- and NF-κB-DNA binding activities in DLD-1 cells. Inhibition of Sp1, C/EBP-β and NF-κB activations by specific siRNA blocked the SDF-1-induced ICAM-1 promoter activity and expression. The effect of SDF-1 on cell adhesion was mediated by the CXCR4. Our findings support the hypothesis that ICAM-1 up-regulation stimulated by SDF-1 may play an active role in CRC cell adhesion.

  20. Small Molecule Agonists of Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Mimic L1 Functions In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Hardeep; Lutz, David; Chaudhary, Harshita; Schachner, Melitta; Loers, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery after injury, leading to severe disabilities in motor functions and pain. Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, particularly in cases where nerve gaps are large and chronic nerve injury ensues. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration after acute injury. We screened libraries of known drugs for small molecule agonists of L1 and evaluated the effect of hit compounds in cell-based assays in vitro and in mice after femoral nerve and spinal cord injuries in vivo. We identified eight small molecule L1 agonists and showed in cell-based assays that they stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth and enhance Schwann cell proliferation and migration and myelination of neurons in an L1-dependent manner. In a femoral nerve injury mouse model, enhanced functional regeneration and remyelination after application of the L1 agonists were observed. In a spinal cord injury mouse model, L1 agonists improved recovery of motor functions, being paralleled by enhanced remyelination, neuronal survival, and monoaminergic innervation, reduced astrogliosis, and activation of microglia. Together, these findings suggest that application of small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate the beneficial homophilic L1 functions may prove to be a valuable addition to treatments of nervous system injuries.

  1. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and the regulation of adhesion molecules in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noto, R; Lo Pardo, C; Schiavone, E M; Ferrara, F; Manzo, C; Vacca, C; Del Vecchio, L

    1996-04-01

    A review of recent information on the expression and the ATRA-driven modulation of cell surface adhesion molecules of acute myelogenous leukemia blast cells is presented. Cytofluorometric studies on fresh blast cells have demonstrated that CD11a, CD11b CD11c, CD15, CD45RO and CD54 expression is significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than is acute myeloid leukemia of other subtypes (AML). In vitro treatment with ATRA dramatically modifies the adhesion phenotype of APL blast cells, promoting a consistently striking up-regulation of CD11b, CD11c, CD15, CD65, CD54, and CD38. Which is in general, poorly demonstrable in AML. The behaviour of CD15s is variable and fully independent from CD15 and CD65 in induction experiments, suggesting a differential enzyme regulation within the selectin ligand system. ATRA is capable, in both APL and AML, of producing a switch from the high- (RA) to the low- (RO) molecular weight isoform of CD54, Moreover, treatment with this retinoid exerts a negative regulation of the membrane expression of CD49e, CD58 and CD11a in APL as well as in AML. Of particular interest is the fact that the negative effect on CD1 1a expression generates an asynchronous phenotype in APL (CD11a-, CD11b+, CD15+), undetectable on normal maturing myeloid cells. In the last part of this review the possible implications of adhesion molecule modulation in the pathogenesis of ATRA syndrome are discussed.

  2. The effect of adhesion molecule blockade on pulmonary reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adrian J; Parkes, Karen; Rooney, Stephen J; Bonser, Robert S

    2002-04-01

    Selectins are the molecules involved in the initial adhesion of the activated neutrophil on pulmonary endothelium. We investigated the efficacy of selectin blockade in a selective (monoclonal antibody RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) manner in pulmonary reperfusion injury. Groups of six rat lungs were flushed with University of Wisconsin solution then stored at 4 degrees C for 4 hours. They then underwent sanguinous reperfusion for 30 minutes during which functional measures (gas exchange, pulmonary artery pressure, and airway pressure) of lung performance were made. After reperfusion we estimated their capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc units g/cm water/minute/g wet lung tissue) using a gravimetric technique. Four groups were studied: group I had no reperfusion, group II had 30 minutes of reperfusion, group III had infusion of 20 mg/kg Fucoidin before reperfusion, and group IV had infusion of 20 microg/mL RMP-1 before reperfusion. Reperfusion injury was found between groups I and II by an increase in capillary filtration coefficient (1.048 +/- 0.316 to 3.063 +/- 0.466, p Kfc than group II (0.967 +/- 0.134 and 1.205 +/- 0.164, respectively, p < 0.01). There was no significant functional difference between groups II, III, and IV. Reperfusion-induced hyperpermeability was ameliorated by selective (RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) selectin blockade.

  3. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule Are Induced by Ionizing Radiation on Lymphatic Endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, María E., E-mail: mrruiz@unav.es [Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Radiation Oncology, University Clinic, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Garasa, Saray; Rodriguez, Inmaculada [Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Solorzano, Jose Luis; Barbes, Benigno [Radiation Oncology, University Clinic, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Yanguas, Alba [Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Teijeira, Alvaro; Etxeberria, Iñaki [Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Aristu, José Javier [Radiation Oncology, University Clinic, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Halin, Cornelia [Pharmaceutical Immunology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Melero, Ignacio [Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Radiation Oncology, University Clinic, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Rouzaut, Ana [Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on the expression of the integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM that control leucocyte transit by lymphatic endothelial cells. Materials/Methods: Confluent monolayers of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) were irradiated with single dose of 2, 5, 10 or 20 Gy, with 6 MeV-x-rays using a Linear-Accelerator. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was determined by flow cytometry. Human tissue specimens received a single dose of 20 Gy with 15 MeV-x-rays. MC38, B16-OVA or B16-VEGF-C tumors grown in C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with single dose of 20Gy using a Linear-Accelerator fitted with a 10mm Radiosurgery collimator. Clinical samples were obtained from patients previous and 4 weeks after complete standard radiotherapy. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was detected in all tissue specimens by confocal microscopy. To understand the role of TGFβ in this process anti-TGFβ blocking mAb were injected i.p. 30min before radiotherapy. Cell adhesion to irradiated LEC was analyzed in adhesion experiments performed in the presence or in the absence of anti- TGFβ and /or anti-ICAM1 blocking mAb. Results: We demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells in tumor samples experience induction of surface ICAM-1 and VCAM when exposed to ionizing radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects can be recapitulated in cultured LEC, and are in part mediated by TGFβ. These data are consistent with increases in ICAM-1 and VCAM expression on LYVE-1+ endothelial cells in freshly explanted human tumor tissue and in mouse transplanted tumors after radiotherapy. Finally, ICAM-1 and VCAM expression accounts for enhanced adherence of human T lymphocytes to irradiated LEC. Conclusion: Our results show induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM on LVs in irradiated lesions and offer a starting point for elucidating the biological and therapeutic implications of targeting leukocyte traffic in combination to

  4. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule Are Induced by Ionizing Radiation on Lymphatic Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, María E; Garasa, Saray; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Solorzano, Jose Luis; Barbes, Benigno; Yanguas, Alba; Teijeira, Alvaro; Etxeberria, Iñaki; Aristu, José Javier; Halin, Cornelia; Melero, Ignacio; Rouzaut, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on the expression of the integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM that control leucocyte transit by lymphatic endothelial cells. Confluent monolayers of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) were irradiated with single dose of 2, 5, 10 or 20 Gy, with 6 MeV-x-rays using a Linear-Accelerator. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was determined by flow cytometry. Human tissue specimens received a single dose of 20 Gy with 15 MeV-x-rays. MC38, B16-OVA or B16-VEGF-C tumors grown in C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with single dose of 20Gy using a Linear-Accelerator fitted with a 10mm Radiosurgery collimator. Clinical samples were obtained from patients previous and 4 weeks after complete standard radiotherapy. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was detected in all tissue specimens by confocal microscopy. To understand the role of TGFβ in this process anti-TGFβ blocking mAb were injected i.p. 30min before radiotherapy. Cell adhesion to irradiated LEC was analyzed in adhesion experiments performed in the presence or in the absence of anti- TGFβ and /or anti-ICAM1 blocking mAb. We demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells in tumor samples experience induction of surface ICAM-1 and VCAM when exposed to ionizing radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects can be recapitulated in cultured LEC, and are in part mediated by TGFβ. These data are consistent with increases in ICAM-1 and VCAM expression on LYVE-1+ endothelial cells in freshly explanted human tumor tissue and in mouse transplanted tumors after radiotherapy. Finally, ICAM-1 and VCAM expression accounts for enhanced adherence of human T lymphocytes to irradiated LEC. Our results show induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM on LVs in irradiated lesions and offer a starting point for elucidating the biological and therapeutic implications of targeting leukocyte traffic in combination to immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydroxycarbamide Decreases Sickle Reticulocyte Adhesion to Resting Endothelium by Inhibiting Endothelial Lutheran/Basal Cell Adhesion Molecule (Lu/BCAM) through Phosphodiesterase 4A Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Vicky; Laurance, Sandrine; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Cochet, Sylvie; De Grandis, Maria; Colin, Yves; Elion, Jacques; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Vaso-occlusive crises are the main acute complication in sickle cell disease. They are initiated by abnormal adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium of the microcirculation. Several interactions involving an intricate network of adhesion molecules have been described between sickle red blood cells and the endothelial vascular wall. We have shown previously that young sickle reticulocytes adhere to resting endothelial cells through the interaction of α4β1 integrin with endothelial Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM). In the present work, we investigated the functional impact of endothelial exposure to hydroxycarbamide (HC) on this interaction using transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells and primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Adhesion of sickle reticulocytes to HC-treated endothelial cells was decreased despite the HC-derived increase of Lu/BCAM expression. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Lu/BCAM and up-regulation of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4A expression. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for HC in endothelial cells where it could modulate the function of membrane proteins through the regulation of phosphodiesterase expression and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:24616094

  6. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Wyss

    Full Text Available The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/- mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/- mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/- mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd ventricle in JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  7. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Lena; Schäfer, Julia; Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H; Imhof, Beat A; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/-) mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/-) mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/-) mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd) ventricle in JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  8. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that tumors arising from tissues such as kidney, pancreas, liver and stomach are particularly refractory to treatment. Searching for new anticancer drugs using cells in culture has yielded some effective therapies, but these refractory tumors remain intractable. Studies that comp......It is well known that tumors arising from tissues such as kidney, pancreas, liver and stomach are particularly refractory to treatment. Searching for new anticancer drugs using cells in culture has yielded some effective therapies, but these refractory tumors remain intractable. Studies...... that compare cells grown in suspension to similar cells grown attached to one another as aggregates have suggested that it is adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the basal membrane that confers resistance to apoptosis and, hence, resistance to cytotoxins. The genes whose expression correlates with poor...... survival might, therefore, act through such a matrix-to-cell suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, correlative mining of gene expression and patient survival databases suggests that poor survival in patients with metastatic cancer correlates highly with tumor expression of a common theme: the genes involved...

  9. Regulation of VCAM-1 expression and involvement in cell adhesion to murine microvascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, J; Bereta, M; Cohen, S; Cohen, M C

    1993-04-01

    The present studies were undertaken to examine the regulation of murine VCAM-1 expression and the involvement of this molecule in adhesive processes occurring on the surface of microvascular endothelium. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that murine microvascular endothelium (MME) in culture constitutively expresses VCAM-1 and that stimulation of MME by TNF, IL-1, or LPS, but not by PMA or staurosporine, strongly increased the surface expression of this cell adhesion molecule. Stimulation of VCAM-1 expression by TNF may be diminished by ionomycin as well as by inhibitors of protein kinases (H-7 and sangivamycin). However, TGF-beta, which strongly inhibited the adhesiveness of endothelium, had little effect on the expression of VCAM-1. A newly developed adhesion assay, based on the rosette technique, allowed us to distinguish between the adhesive properties of an individual endothelial cell and those of endothelial cell monolayers and demonstrated that inhibition of binding by TGF-beta resulted primarily from its influence on the adhesive properties of individual cells. Studies on the inhibition of cell binding by monoclonal antibodies against mouse VCAM-1 and mouse VLA-4 indicated that VCAM-1 plays a dominant role in mediating the adherence of a variety of cell types, including murine splenocytes and thymocytes, P815 mastocytoma cells, PT 18 mast/basophil cells, human Molt-4 cells, and human eosinophils, to cytokine-activated MME.

  10. Association of cell adhesion molecule gene polymorphisms with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Asem; Karasneh, Jumana; Abbadi, Hebah; Hassan, Ahmad; Thornhill, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral ulcerative condition. At ulcer sites vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are strongly expressed on blood vessels, and ICAM-1 is expressed on keratinocytes. Expression of these molecules would promote leukocyte accumulation and invasion of the epithelium. Thus, polymorphisms in these candidate genes might contribute to RAS susceptibility. We investigated whether the inheritance of specific selectin, ICAM and VCAM gene polymorphisms is associated with RAS susceptibility. Ninety-six RAS cases and 153 controls were recruited from a Jordanian population. Blood was collected for hematological investigations and genotyping. Six SNPs were genotyped: E-selectin rs5361 and rs1805193, L-selectin, rs2205849, ICAM-1 rs5498, ICAM-5 rs885743 and VCAM-1 rs1800821. Association was determined using chi-square and binary logistic regression analysis after correcting for confounding factors. Linkage disequilibrium was determined using the EH program, and the Phase 2.1 program was used to construct and compare haplotypes between cases and controls. There was a significant association of the A allele (Pcorr  = 0.027), AA and AC genotypes (OR = 10.9 and 9.0, respectively) of the E-selectin rs5361 gene polymorphism and TAA haplotype (rs2205849, rs5361, and rs1805193, respectively; P = 0.03) with RAS. None of the other SNPs showed a significant association. This is the first report to link inheritance of the A allele, AA and AC genotypes of the E-selectin rs5361 polymorphism with increased risk of RAS. Further studies in different patient cohorts are needed to confirm the association, and functional analyses might clarify the biological significance of the association. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The role of Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule in human bladder carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Yi; Chang, Hsin-Mei; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Chaing, Chang-Yao; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Cheng, Hong-Lin; Raghavaraju, Giri; Chow, Nan-Haw; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2017-08-26

    Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) is a membrane bound glycoprotein. This study was performed to investigate the role and downstream signaling pathway of Lu/BCAM in human bladder tumorigenesis. Five human bladder cancer (E6, RT4, TSGH8301, TCCSUP and J82), one stable mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH-Lu) expressing Lu/BCAM transgene and sixty human uroepithelial carcinoma specimens were analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IFA) staining, Western blotting and promoter luciferase assay for Lu/BCAM, respectively. The tumorigenicity of Lu/BCAM was demonstrated by focus formation, colony-forming ability, tumour formation, cell adhesion and migration. H-ras V12 was revealed to up-regulate Lu/BCAM at both transcriptional and translation levels. Lu/BCAM expression was detected on the membrane of primary human bladder cancer cells. Over-expression of Lu/BCAM in NIH-Lu stable cells increased focus number, colony formation and cell adhesion accompanied with F-actin rearrangement and decreased cell migration compared with parental NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In the presence of laminin ligand, Lu/BCAM overexpression further suppressed cell migration accompanied with increased cell adhesion. We further revealed that laminin-Lu/BCAM-induced cell adhesion and F-actin rearrangement were through increased Erk phosphorylation with an increase of RhoA and a decrease of Rac1 activity. Similarly, high Lu/BCAM expression was detected in the tumors of human renal pelvis, ureter and bladder, and was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p = 0.02). Patients with high Lu/BCAM expression showed a trend toward larger tumor size (p = 0.07) and lower disease-specific survival (p = 0.08), although not reaching statistical significance. This is the first report showing that Lu/BCAM, in the presence of its ligand laminin, is oncogenic in human urothelial cancers and may have potential as a novel therapeutic target.

  12. Functional role of endothelial adhesion molecules in the early stages of brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Serres, Sébastien; Anthony, Daniel C; Sibson, Nicola R

    2014-04-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of disease in peripheral tissues cannot be extrapolated to the brain. Here, we have established the spatiotemporal expression of 12 key CAMs in the initial phases of tumor seeding in 2 different models of brain metastasis. BALB/c or SCID mice were injected intracardially (10(5) cells/100 μL phosphate-buffered saline with either 4T1-GFP or MDA231BR-GFP cells, respectively (n = 4-6/group), and expression of the CAMs was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence colocalisation. Endothelial expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ALCAM, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and β4 integrin was markedly increased early in tumor seeding. At the same time, the natural ligands to these adhesion molecules were highly expressed on the metastatic tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Two of these ligands showed particularly high tumor cell expression (ALCAM and VLA-4), and consequently their functional role in tumor seeding was determined. Antibody neutralization of either ALCAM or VLA-4 significantly reduced tumor seeding within the brain (>60% decrease in tumor number/mm(2) brain; P seeding in the brain. Moreover, this work identifies a specific subset of ligand-receptor interactions that may yield new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for brain metastasis.

  13. [Adhesion molecules and mononuclear cell subpopulations in the coronary and pulmonary arteries of patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, P V; Ivanova, A G; Belokon, E V; Akchurin, R S

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactor disease, in which dysfunction of the endothelium leads to the emergence of its adhesion molecules. to investigate the expression of the endothelial adhesion molecules PECAM (CD31), ICAM, and VCAM, as well as adherent endothelial T cells and monocytes. The material examined was en face pulmonary and coronary artery samples taken during autopsies (10 men), and en face specimens obtained from the coronary artery fragments taken from coronary heart disease patients during endarterectomy (37 men). This investigation used antibodies to the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PECAM and those to CD3, CD4, CD8 T-cells and CD68 monocytes. The endothelial cells in the atherosclerotically intact coronary arteries had an elongated shape and were aligned along the blood flow. Those located above atheromas and fibroatheromas changed their shape from elongated to polygonal. Above the fatty streaks and atheromas, the reaction with antibodies to CD31 antigens became weaker at the edge of endothelial cells and disappeared in places. While the atherosclerotic process progressed, the reaction with the CD31 antigen at the edge of endothelial cells was similar in intensity to that on the surface of the endothelium. Adhesion of T cells and monocytes to the endothelium of coronary arteries increased as the atherosclerotic vascular process progressed. T cells and monocytes more often adhered to the endothelium at the sites where the endothelial cells contacted each other. Heterogeneity was found in the endothelial cells: their shape, the expression of adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of lymphocytes and monocytes to them changed during the progression of the atherosclerotic process.

  14. Tauopathy differentially affects cell adhesion molecules in mouse brain: early down-regulation of nectin-3 in stratum lacunosum moleculare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Maurin

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules are important structural substrates, required for synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis. CAMs differ widely in their expression throughout different brain regions and their specific structural and functional roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated selected cell adhesion molecules for alterations in expression levels and neuronal localization in validated mouse models for Alzheimer's disease that mimic the age-related progression of amyloid accumulation and tauopathy. Among the cell adhesion molecules analyzed, Nectin-3 expression was affected most and specifically in all mouse models with tauopathy. In particular was Nectin-3 depleted from the specific region of the hippocampus, known as the stratum lacunosum and moleculare, in mice that express wild-type or mutant human protein Tau, either chronically or sub-acutely. Tauopathy progresses from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus by unknown mechanisms that could involve transport by the myelinated axons of the temporoammonic and perforant pathways. The decreased expression of Nectin-3 in the stratum lacunosum moleculare is an early marker of impaired transport, and eventual synaptic problems, caused by beginning tauopathy.

  15. A novel function of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C in mediating melanoma cell metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Harald F.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Xie, Changping; Kaul, Sunil; Schneider, Darius; Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Choi, Eun Young; Dutoit, Vanessa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Nawroth, Peter P.; Baretton, Gustavo; Santoso, Sentot; Hwang, Sam T.; Arnold, Bernd; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2011-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination of melanoma is a life-threatening complication of this malignant tumor. Here, we identified Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) as a novel player in melanoma metastasis to the lung. JAM-C expression was identified in human and murine melanoma cell lines, in human malignant melanoma, as well as in metastatic melanoma including melanoma lung metastasis. JAM-C expressed on both murine B16 melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells, promoted the transendothelial migration of the melanoma cells. We generated mice with inactivation of JAM-C. JAM-C−/− mice as well as endothelial-specific JAM-C-deficient mice displayed significantly decreased B16 melanoma cell metastasis to the lung, whereas treatment of mice with soluble JAM-C prevented melanoma lung metastasis. Together, JAM-C represents a novel therapeutic target for melanoma metastasis. PMID:21593193

  16. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 regulates human embryonic stem cell adhesion, stemness, and survival via control of epithelial cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Seo Choi, Hong; Min Lee, Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2014-10-01

    B-Cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) regulates the export of secreted membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the downstream secretory pathway. Previously, we generated a monoclonal antibody 297-D4 against the surface molecule on undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we found that 297-D4 antigen was localized to pluripotent hESCs and downregulated during early differentiation of hESCs and identified that the antigen target of 297-D4 was BAP31 on the hESC-surface. To investigate the functional role of BAP31 in hESCs, BAP31 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA. BAP31 depletion impaired hESC self-renewal and pluripotency and drove hESC differentiation into multicell lineages. BAP31 depletion hindered hESC proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and inducing caspase-independent cell death. Interestingly, BAP31 depletion reduced hESC adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM). Analysis of cell surface molecules showed decreased expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in BAP31-depleted hESCs, while ectopic expression of BAP31 elevated the expression of EpCAM. EpCAM depletion also reduced hESC adhesion to ECM, arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induced cell death, producing similar effects to those of BAP31 depletion. BAP31 and EpCAM were physically associated and colocalized at the ER and cell surface. Both BAP31 and EpCAM depletion decreased cyclin D1 and E expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting that BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. These findings provide, for the first time, mechanistic insights into how BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  17. [Effect of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 on Adherence Between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Xia, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Hou, Ji-Xue; Chen, Xue-Ling; Wu, Xiang-Wei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) on the adherence between mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). MSC and EPC were isolated, cultured and expanded from the 6-8 weeks aged C57BL/6 murine bone marrow by in vitro. Immuno-fluorescence was used to detect the expression of ICAM-1 in MSC group, EPC group and co-cultured MSC and EPC group. The mRNA and protein levels of ICAM-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively, then, the ICAM-1 adherence between MSC and EPC was observed by adding different concentration of neutralizing antibody. The expression of ICAM-1 on surface of MSC and EPC could be detected by cell immunofluorescence method. According to results of the semiquantitative fluorescene detection, the fluorescence strength of MSC+EPC co-cultured group (89.02 ± 24.52) was higher than that of MSC group (31.25 ± 2.95) and EPC group (34.32 ± 5.02), and there was statistical difference between them (P 0.05). RT-PCR detection showed that the expression levels of ICAM-1 in MSC+EPC co-cultured group were higher than that in MSC group and that in EPC group (P adhesion capability of MSC and EPC was gradually decreasing. The ICAM-1 can mediate the adherence process between MSC and EPC.

  18. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and prognosis in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedbakken, Linda; Jensen, Jesper K; Hallén, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers predicting mortality and functional outcome in stroke may be clinically helpful in identification of patients likely to benefit from intervention. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during neuroinflammation; we investigated whether ALCAM concentrations ar...

  19. Targeting cellular adhesion molecules, chemokines and chemokine receptors in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringman, Jasper J.; Oostendorp, Roos L.; Tak, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    The development of specific targeted therapies, such as anti-TNF-alpha treatment, for chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, has significantly improved treatment, although not all patients respond. Targeting cellular adhesion molecules and chemokines/chemokine receptors as

  20. Expression and Function of the Homeostatic Molecule Del-1 in Endothelial Cells and the Periodontal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1 is an endothelial cell-secreted protein that limits the recruitment of neutrophils by antagonizing the interaction between the LFA-1 integrin on neutrophils and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 on endothelial cells. Mice with genetic or age-associated Del-1 deficiency exhibit increased neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium resulting in inflammatory bone loss. Here we investigated additional novel mechanisms whereby Del-1 could interfere with neutrophil recruitment and inflammation. Treatment of human endothelial cells with Del-1 did not affect the expression of endothelial molecules involved in the leukocyte adhesion cascade (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Moreover, genetic or age-associated Del-1 deficiency did not significantly alter the expression of these adhesion molecules in the murine periodontium, further ruling out altered adhesion molecule expression as a mechanism whereby Del-1 regulates leukocyte recruitment. Strikingly, Del-1 inhibited ICAM-1-dependent chemokine release (CXCL2, CCL3 by neutrophils. Therefore, Del-1 could potentially suppress the amplification of inflammatory cell recruitment mediated through chemokine release by infiltrating neutrophils. Interestingly, Del-1 was itself regulated by inflammatory stimuli, which generally exerted opposite effects on adhesion molecule expression. The reciprocal regulation between Del-1 and inflammation may contribute to optimally balance the protective and the potentially harmful effects of inflammatory cell recruitment.

  1. MCAM: A Database to Accelerate the Identification of Functional Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-genomic era, computational identification of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs becomes important in defining new targets for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases including cancer. Lack of a comprehensive CAM-specific database restricts our ability to identify and characterize novel CAMs. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive mammalian cell adhesion molecule (MCAM database. The current version is an interactive Web-based database, which provides the resources needed to search mouse, human and rat-specific CAMs and their sequence information and characteristics such as gene functions and virtual gene expression patterns in normal and tumor tissues as well as cell lines. Moreover, the MCAM database can be used for various bioinformatics and biological analyses including identifying CAMs involved in cell-cell interactions and homing of lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and malignant cells to specific organs using data from high-throughput experiments. Furthermore, the database can also be used for training and testing existing transmembrane (TM topology prediction methods specifically for CAM sequences. The database is freely available online at http://app1.unmc.edu/mcam.

  2. Uric acid promotes chemokine and adhesion molecule production in vascular endothelium via nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W Y; Zhu, X Y; Zhang, J W; Feng, X R; Wang, Y C; Liu, M L

    2015-02-01

    Hyperuricemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the potential mechanisms are not well understood. Migration and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells play key roles in initiation and development of atherosclerosis. We investigated monocyte-endothelial cell interactions and potential signaling pathways under uric acid (UA)-stimulated conditions. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and exposed to different concentrations of UA for various periods. Experimental hyperuricemia rat models were established. Expression of chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated. Monocyte-endothelial cell interactions were elucidated by chemotaxis and adhesion assays, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway was studied using fluorescent microscopy and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results showed that high concentration of UA stimulated generation of chemokines and adhesion molecules in ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Migration and adhesion of human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells to HUVECs were promoted and activated NF-κB was significantly increased. UA-induced responses were ameliorated by organic anion transporter inhibitor probenecid and NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082. It was also observed that human endothelial cells expressed urate transporter-1, which was not regulated by UA. High concentration of UA exerts unfavorable effects directly on vascular endothelium via the NF-κB signaling pathway, the process of which requires intracellular uptake of UA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell Adhesion Molecule CD166/ALCAM Functions Within the Crypt to Orchestrate Murine Intestinal Stem Cell HomeostasisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Smith

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by active-cycling and slow-cycling stem cells confined within an instructive crypt-based niche. Exquisite regulating of these stem cell populations along the proliferation-to-differentiation axis maintains a homeostatic balance to prevent hyperproliferation and cancer. Although recent studies focus on how secreted ligands from mesenchymal and epithelial populations regulate intestinal stem cells (ISCs, it remains unclear what role cell adhesion plays in shaping the regulatory niche. Previously we have shown that the cell adhesion molecule and cancer stem cell marker, CD166/ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, is highly expressed by both active-cycling Lgr5+ ISCs and adjacent Paneth cells within the crypt base, supporting the hypothesis that CD166 functions to mediate ISC maintenance and signal coordination. Methods: Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing a CD166–/– mouse combined with immunohistochemical, flow cytometry, gene expression, and enteroid culture. Results: We found that animals lacking CD166 expression harbored fewer active-cycling Lgr5+ ISCs. Homeostasis was maintained by expansion of the transit-amplifying compartment and not by slow-cycling Bmi1+ ISC stimulation. Loss of active-cycling ISCs was coupled with deregulated Paneth cell homeostasis, manifested as increased numbers of immature Paneth progenitors due to decreased terminal differentiation, linked to defective Wnt signaling. CD166–/– Paneth cells expressed reduced Wnt3 ligand expression and depleted nuclear β-catenin. Conclusions: These data support a function for CD166 as an important cell adhesion molecule that shapes the signaling microenvironment by mediating ISC–niche cell interactions. Furthermore, loss of CD166 expression results in decreased ISC and Paneth cell homeostasis and an altered Wnt microenvironment. Keywords: Intestinal Stem Cell, Homeostasis

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibition of monocyte binding by vascular endothelium is associated with sialylation of neural cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatola, Anna-Maria; Huang, Kui; Naftolin, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium is necessary for atheroma formation. This adhesion requires binding of endothelial neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to monocyte NCAM. NCAM:NCAM binding is blocked by sialylation of NCAM (polysialylated NCAM; PSA-NCAM). Since estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced PSA-NCAM and decreased monocyte adhesion, in consideration of possible clinical applications we tested whether their prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has similar effects. (1) DHEA was administered to cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) from men and women. Monocyte binding was assessed using fluorescence-labeled monocytes. (2) HCEACs were incubated with E2, DHT, DHEA alone, or with trilostane, fulvestrant or flutamide. Expression of PSA-NCAM was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited monocyte adhesion to HCAECs by ≥50% (P DHEA's inhibition of monocyte binding appeared to be gender dependent. The DHEA-induced expression of PSA-NCAM was completely blocked by trilostane. In these preliminary in vitro studies, DHEA increased PSA-NCAM expression and inhibited monocyte binding in an estrogen- and androgen receptor-dependent manner. Dehydroepiandrosteroneappears to act via its end metabolites, E2 and DHT. Dehydroepiandrosterone could furnish clinical prevention against atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis.

  5. Composition of extracellular matrix and distribution of cell adhesion molecules in renal cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, D; Patey, N; Paraf, F; Chrétien, Y; Gogusev, J

    1994-11-01

    Cell to cell and cell to matrix interactions play a major role in tumor growth and invasion. Therefore, we studied the composition of extracellular matrices and the distribution of cell adhesion molecules in 50 renal cell tumors of various types and various grades of malignancy as compared with nontumoral kidney. In the present study, we used immunolabeling with specific antibodies directed against the alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3 chains of collagen type IV; laminin; heparan sulfate proteoglycan; fibronectin; collagen I; collagen III; the alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 5, alpha 6, alpha v, beta 1, and beta 3 subunits of integrins; and ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and ELAM-1 molecules. In clear cell type carcinomas (24 cases) the basal laminae surrounding the tumor islets contained the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of collagen type IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in all cases, and laminin in 96% of the cases. The alpha 3 chain of collagen IV was present in only one case, whereas fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen III were detected in nearly 50% of the cases. The tumor cells expressed alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 1 integrin subunits in all cases, alpha 5 in 25%, alpha v beta 3 in 54%, and alpha 2 in none. ICAM-1 was detected in all cases, and VCAM-1 in 58%. The expression of the alpha 6 subunit was weak in 2 tumors of high grade, whereas the alpha v subunit was expressed in 7 of 14 low grade and in 7 of 10 intermediate and high grade tumors. In tubulopapillary carcinomas with chromophilic cells (12 cases), the most prominent findings were the presence of the alpha 3 chain of collagen IV in tumor basal laminae in 66% and the expression of the alpha 2 integrin subunit by the tumor cells in 58% of the cases, both features characterizing distal renal tubules. In chromophobic carcinomas (4 cases), the tumor basement membranes were tenuous and contained no fibronectin or interstitial collagens. The tumor cells expressed the alpha 6, alpha 2, alpha 3, beta 1, and alpha nu beta 3

  6. Interleukin-19 decreases leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions by reduction in endothelial cell adhesion molecule mRNA stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Ross N.; Preston, Kyle J.; Scalia, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) inflammation is a key event in the pathogenesis of multiple vascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that interleukin-19 (IL-19), an anti-inflammatory Th2 interleukin, could have a direct anti-inflammatory effect on ECs to decrease inflammation. IL-19 can significantly decrease tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-driven intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 mRNA and protein abundance in cultured human coronary artery ECs (P adhesion to EC monolayers (P adhesion in wild-type mice as assayed by intravital microscopy (P cell adhesion and the first to propose reduction in HuR-mediated mRNA stability of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as a mechanism. Expression of IL-19 by ECs may represent a protective mechanism to promote resolution of the vascular response to inflammation. Function of IL-19 outside of the immune system is a novel concept, suggesting that resident vascular cells can adopt a Th2 phenotype, and has important ramifications for numerous inflammatory diseases. PMID:23596173

  7. The relation between oxidative stress and adhesion molecules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antioxidant potential decreases while plasma lipid peroxidation products increase in type1 diabetes mellitus. The vascular endothelium is a major target of oxidative stress (OS). Reactive oxygen species signal events leading to impairment of endothelial function and promotion of leukocyte adhesion to the ...

  8. The junctional adhesion molecule JAM-C regulates polarized transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfin, Abigail; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Beyrau, Martina; Colom, Bartomeu; Caille, Dorothée; Diapouli, Frantzeska-Maria; Nash, Gerard B; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Albelda, Steven M; Rainger, G Ed; Meda, Paolo; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2011-06-26

    The migration of neutrophils into inflamed tissues is a fundamental component of innate immunity. A decisive step in this process is the polarized migration of blood neutrophils through endothelial cells (ECs) lining the venular lumen (transendothelial migration (TEM)) in a luminal-to-abluminal direction. By real-time confocal imaging, we found that neutrophils had disrupted polarized TEM ('hesitant' and 'reverse') in vivo. We noted these events in inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion injury, characterized by lower expression of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) at EC junctions, and they were enhanced by blockade or genetic deletion of JAM-C in ECs. Our results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarized neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM of neutrophils can contribute to the dissemination of systemic inflammation.

  9. A role for adhesion molecules in contact-dependent T help for B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1991-01-01

    The role of cell contact in T-dependent B cell activation was examined. Small resting B cells from C57BL/6 mice were cultured with CBA-derived, non-alloreactive cloned T helper cells in anti-T cell receptor V beta 8-coated microwells. This induced polyclonal B cell activation to enter cell cycle......, although proliferative responses were only inhibited to about 50%. Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies did not significantly affect lipopolysaccharide-induced responses. T cell activation to interleukin (IL) 3 secretion, nor did they inhibit the formation of multicellular clusters containing T and B cells....... There was no correlation between the level of expression of adhesion molecules by T cells and their ability to induce B cell responses. Anti-LFA-1 abrogated T-dependent responses to IL2 which were inducible after 2 days in culture, but did not inhibit the induction of this IL2 responsiveness. These results suggest...

  10. Regulation of leukocyte migration by activation of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, O; Kansas, G S; Munro, J M; Griffin, J D; Tedder, T F

    1991-02-21

    A central feature of host defence is the ability of leukocytes to enter tissues in response to immune or inflammatory stimuli. The leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) regulates the migration of human leukocytes by mediating the binding both of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and of neutrophils to endothelium at inflammatory sites. As lymphocytes and neutrophils express the same LAM-1 protein, it is not clear how lineage-specific differences in leukocyte migration are controlled. We now report that the affinity of LAM-1 for a carbohydrate-based ligand, PPME, is dramatically increased following lymphocyte and neutrophil activation by lineage-specific stimuli. In addition, activation of lymphocytes by physiological stimuli enhanced LAM-1-dependent binding to high endothelial venules. Thus, transient changes in LAM-1 affinity after leukocyte stimulation probably directly influence leukocyte migration.

  11. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) as a morphoregulatory molecule is a tool in surgical pathology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Litvinov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Cell adhesion receptors (CAMs) are actively involved in regulating various cell processes, including growth, differentiation, and cell death. Therefore, CAMs represent a large group of morphoregulating molecules, mediating cross-talk between cells and of cells with their environment. From this

  12. Immunohistochemical Investigation of HER/AKT/mTOR Pathway and Cellular Adhesion Molecules in Urothelial Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Koletsas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several investigators have suggested the possibility that the expression of both EGFR and HER2 could be utilized for molecularly targeted therapy in urinary bladder cancer. We tried to evaluate the expression of HER2 and EGFR and activation of the AKT/PTEN/mTOR pathway in urothelial carcinomas and if there is any association between them and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one paraffin-embedded urothelial cancer tissue blocks were collected. Immunostains for HER2, EGFR, MIB1, phospho-AKT, PTEN, phospho-mTOR, e-cadherin, p-cadherin, and b-catenin were performed on tissue microarrays sections. The immunohistochemical results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Results. The overexpression of HER2 was found in 19.6% of the cases and it was associated with high grade tumors with a high mitotic index and phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR. Muscle-invasive tumors presented both cytoplasmic and nuclear losses of PTEN expression. There was no association between HER/AKT/mTOR pathway activation and CAM expression. Although cadherins were often coexpressed, only p-cadherin immunoreactivity was associated with tumor grade and high proliferative index. Conclusions. HER2 overexpression is found in a respective proportion of urothelial carcinomas. P-cadherin expression is associated with high grade UCs but it is not affected by HER2 overexpression or by activation of HER/AKT/mTOR pathway.

  13. Prediction of residual valvular lesions in rheumatic heart disease: role of adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mona; Yahia, Sohier; Eldars, Waleed; Eldegla, Heba; Matter, Mohamed; Attia, Gehan; Hawas, Samia

    2013-03-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic condition characterized by fibrosis and scarring of the cardiac valves and damage to the heart muscle, leading to congestive heart failure and death. This prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the possible relation between the levels of serum adhesion molecules and acute rheumatic fever (ARF) carditis, valvular insult severity, and residual valvular lesion after improvement of rheumatic activity. Serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for 50 children with ARF carditis during activity and after improvement and for 50 healthy children as control subjects. After the acute attack, patients were followed up regularly to detect residual valvular lesion. The serum levels of these adhesion molecules were significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (p valvular lesion (ICAM-1, >1,032.3 μg/ml; VCAM-1, >3,662.3 μg/ml; E-selectin, >104.8 μg/ml). Finally, by combining the three adhesion molecules in a single prediction model, the highest area under the curve (AUC) ± standard error (SE) was obtained (0.869 ± 0.052), and the positive likelihood ratio for having a residual valvular lesion was increased (17.33). Levels of serum adhesion molecules could predict residual valvular lesions in RHD patients. The authors recommend that the serum level of adhesion molecules be measured in all cases of ARF carditis.

  14. The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in lung cancer: implications for disease progression and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, Elias A; Boulas, Panagiotis; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Tsagkouli, Sofia; Tsoukalas, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-01

    The intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane molecule and a distinguished member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that participates in many important processes, including leukocyte endothelial transmigration, cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, cell polarity and tissue stability. ICAM-1and its soluble part are highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies. In the present article we present the implications of ICAM-1 in the progression and prognosis of one of the major global killers of our era: lung cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted DNA Methylation by a DNA Methyltransferase Coupled to a Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide To Down-Regulate the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, Bernardina T. F.; Maluszynska-Hoffman, Maria; Kiss, Antal; Arendzen, Alice J.; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; Weinhold, Elmar; Rots, Marianne G.

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a marker of cancer-initiating cells. EpCAM is highly expressed on most carcinomas, and transient silencing of EpCAM expression leads to reduced oncogenic potential. To silence (he EpCAM gene in a

  16. JAK/STAT pathway interacts with intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) while prostate cancer stem cells form tumor spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzagac, Fahriye; Inan, Sevinc; Ela Simsek, Fatma; Acikgoz, Eda; Guven, Ummu; Khan, Shafiq A; Rouhrazi, Hadi; Oltulu, Fatih; Aktug, Huseyin; Erol, Ayse; Oktem, Gulperi

    2015-01-01

    JAK/STAT is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and very important for second messenger system. This pathway is important in malignant transformation and accumulated evidence indicates that this pathway is involved in tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers. It was possible to assume that activation of JAK/STAT pathway is associated with increase in the expressions of ICAM/1 and VCAM-1. In this study we hypothesized that when cells were maintained as spheroids or monolayers, the structure of cancer stem cells (CSCs) could show differentiation when compared with non-CSCs. DU-145 human prostate cancer cells were cultured using the Ege University molecular embryology laboratory medium supplemented wıth 10% fetal bovine serum. Clusters of differentiation 133 (CD133)(+high)/CD44(+high) prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 cell line by using BD FACSAria. CD133//CD44+ CSCs were cultured until confluent with 3% noble agar. The expression of these proteins in CSCs and non-CSCs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Different expression profiles were observed in the conventional two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) experimental model system when CSCs and non-CSCs were compared. Human prostate CSCs exhibited intense ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 immunoreaction when compared with non-CSCs. These findings were supported by the fact that VCAM-1 on the surface of cancer cells binds to its counterreceptor, the α4β1 integrin (also known as very-late antigen, VLA-4), on metastasis-associated macrophages, triggering VCAM-1-mediated activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase growth and survival pathway in cancer cells. The results of this study showed that changes in JAK/STAT pathway are related with adhesion molecules and could affect cancer progression.

  17. Tenomodulin expression in the periodontal ligament enhances cellular adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuske Komiyama

    Full Text Available Tenomodulin (Tnmd is a type II transmembrane protein characteristically expressed in dense connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments. Its expression in the periodontal ligament (PDL has also been demonstrated, though the timing and function remain unclear. We investigated the expression of Tnmd during murine tooth eruption and explored its biological functions in vitro. Tnmd expression was related to the time of eruption when occlusal force was transferred to the teeth and surrounding tissues. Tnmd overexpression enhanced cell adhesion in NIH3T3 and human PDL cells. In addition, Tnmd-knockout fibroblasts showed decreased cell adhesion. In the extracellular portions of Tnmd, the BRICHOS domain or CS region was found to be responsible for Tnmd-mediated enhancement of cell adhesion. These results suggest that Tnmd acts on the maturation or maintenance of the PDL by positively regulating cell adhesion via its BRICHOS domain.

  18. Adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo-proteinases response after albendazole and albendazole plus steroid therapy in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Aloukick K; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Singh, Amrita; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) varies with location, number and stage of the Taenia solium cysticerci (cysts). Albendazole (ABZ) effectively kills cysticerci, and subsequently induces neuro-inflammation facilitated by leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesize that immune response varies around drug responder (degenerating/dying) and non-responder (viable) cysts after ABZ and ABZ plus steroid (ABZS) therapy, which may determine the disease pathogenesis. Twenty cysticercotic swine were treated with ABZ (n = 10; group1) and ABZS (n = 10; group2). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) was measured by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed to detect the activity of MMP-2 and -9. In group1, ABZ therapy induced higher expressions of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), Eotaxin-1, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), MMP-2 and MMP-9 around ABZ responder (AR) cysts. Three pigs with cyst burdens ≥10 died following ABZ therapy. However, in group2, moderate expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, RANTES and MMP-9 were associated with ABZS responder (ASR), whereas low expressions of these molecules were associated with ABZS non-responder (ASNR) cysts. In conclusion, ABZ alone therapy is not safe since it causes death of pigs due to higher inflammatory immune response around dying cysts. However, combination therapy is an effective treatment regimen even with the high cyst burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SC1, an immunoglobulin-superfamily cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the brain metastatic activity of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yuka; Kirimura, Naoki; Shiba, Hatsuki; Adachi, Kazuhide; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    SC1 is a cell adhesion molecule that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily; this molecule was initially purified from the chick embryonic nervous system and was reported to exhibit homophilic adhesion activity. SC1 is transiently expressed in various organs during development and has been identified in numerous neoplastic tissues, including lung cancer and colorectal carcinomas. The present study focused on the encephalic metastasis of lung cancer cells with respect to the potential function of SC1, as this molecule is known to be consistently expressed in the central nervous system as well as lung cancers. SC1 complementary DNA was introduced into A549 cells, a human lung cancer-derived cell line. The stable overexpression of the SC1 protein in A549 cells was demonstrated to enhance the self-aggregation of the cells. In addition, the SC1 transfectants enhanced the metastatic and invasive potential to the encephalic parenchyma following implantation into nude mice. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that cell adhesion due interactions between SC1 on brain tissue and SC1 on lung cancer cells was involved in the malignant aspects of lung cancer, including invasion and metastasis to the brain.

  20. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression and functional role of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) was investigated. Tissue specimens were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=56) or chronic pancreatitis (CP; n=10), who underwent pancreatic resection, and from normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=10). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the localization and expression of ALCAM in pancreatic tissues. Subsequently, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to assess the expression of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc‑1 and T3M4 cells, as well as in PSCs. An enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure ALCAM levels in cell culture medium stimulated by hypoxia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and transforming growth factor‑β. Silencing of ALCAM was performed using ALCAM small interfering (si)RNA and immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the inhibition efficiency. An invasion assay and a cell interaction assay were performed to assess the invasive ability and co‑cultured adhesive potential of Panc‑1 and T3M4 cells, as well as PSCs. Histologically, ALCAM expression was generally weak or absent in pancreatic cancer cells, but was markedly upregulated in PSCs in pancreatic cancer tissues. ALCAM was highly expressed in PSCs from CP tissues and PSCs surrounding pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as in pancreatic cancer cells. ALCAM mRNA was highly expressed in PSCs, with a low to moderate expression in T3M4 and Panc‑1 cells. Similar to the mRNA expression, immunoblotting demonstrated that ALCAM protein levels were high in PSCs and T3M4 cells, but low in Panc‑1 cells. The expression of TNF‑α increased, while hypoxia decreased the secretion of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc

  1. Single-molecule manipulation experiments to explore friction and adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, R.; Kawai, S.; Meier, T.; Glatzel, T.; Baratoff, A.; Meyer, E.

    2017-03-01

    Friction forces, which arise when two bodies that are in contact are moved with respect to one another, are ubiquitous phenomena. Although various measurement tools have been developed to study these phenomena at all length scales, such investigations are highly challenging when tackling the scale of single molecules in motion on a surface. This work reviews the recent advances in single-molecule manipulation experiments performed at low temperature with the aim of understanding the fundamental frictional response of single molecules. Following the advent of ‘nanotribology’ in the field based on the atomic force microscopy technique, we will show the technical requirements to direct those studies at the single-molecule level. We will also discuss the experimental prerequisites needed to obtain and interpret the phenomena, such as the implementation of single-molecule manipulation techniques, the processing of the experimental data or their comparison with appropriate numerical models. Finally, we will report examples of the controlled vertical and lateral manipulation of long polymeric chains, graphene nanoribbons or single porphyrin molecules that systematically reveal friction-like characteristics while sliding over atomically clean surfaces.

  2. Serum concentration of soluble adhesive molecules in patients with different forms of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular cell adhesive molecules-1 (ICAM- 1 play an important role in developing and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of the paper was to compare concentrations of soluble forms of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in patients with different clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD and patients without CAD. Methods. Blood samples were taken from 25 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, 25 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP, 25 with stable angina pectoris (SAP and from 15 control patients without CAD, and concentrations of solubile adhesive molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1 were determined. Results. Obesity was more prominent in the NAP than in the SAP and the control patients (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in gender distribution, age, duration of the CAD and body mass index between the groups. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 were more frequent in the CAD patients than in the controls (p < 0.01. Family history of the CAD was more frequent in the AMI and the UAP group than in the controls (p < 0.05. Serum concentrations of VCAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (955.9 ± 117.8 ng/mL, UAP (952.4 ± 139.1 ng/mL and SAP (931 ± 169.8 ng/mL, and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (823.4 ± 97.6; p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively. Serum concentration of ICAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (699.2±125.6 ng/mL, UAP (727.6±171.8 ng/mL and SAP (697.5±165.6 ng/mL, and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (583.4 ± 86.6; p < 0.1, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively. Conclusion. Increased concentrations of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, as markers of inflammation, showed the importance of inflammatory processes in development of atherosclerosis and clinical expression of CAD. Measurement of soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations is a useful indicator of atherosclerosis

  3. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  4. Correlation of body mass index with Th1/Th2 balance, adhesion molecules and insulin signal transduction in infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of body mass index with Th1/Th2 balance, adhesion molecules and insulin signal transduction in infertile patients. Methods: A total of 132 patients who received diagnostic curettage due to infertility in Tangshan Maternal and Child Health Hospital between June 2015 and March 2016 were selected as the research subjects and divided into the normal group with BMI 30 kg/m 2 according to BMI, and the levels of Th1/ Th2 cytokines in serum as well as the expression of Th1/Th2 transcription factors, adhesion molecules and insulin signal pathway molecules in endometrial tissue were detected. Results: IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum of obesity group and overweight group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum as well as CD44V6, N-cadherin, FAK, ICAM-1, GLUT-4, IRS-1, PI3K and AKT mRNA expression in endometrial tissue were significantly lower than those of control group; IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum of obesity group were significantly higher than those of overweight group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum as well as CD44V6, N-cadherin, FAK, ICAM-1, GLUT-4, IRS-1, PI3K and AKT mRNA expression in endometrial tissue were significantly lower than those of overweight group. Conclusion: Weight gain can aggravate the Th1/Th2 disorder, reduce the adhesion molecule expression and hinder the insulin signal transduction in infertile patients.

  5. Soluble adhesion molecules as markers for sepsis and the potential pathophysiological discrepancy in neonates, children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe and life-threatening systemic inflammatory response to infection that affects all populations and age groups. The pathophysiology of sepsis is associated with aberrant interaction between leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. As inflammation progresses, the adhesion molecules that mediate these interactions become shed from cell surfaces and accumulate in the blood as soluble isoforms that are being explored as potential prognostic disease biomarkers. We critically review the studies that have tested the predictive value of soluble adhesion molecules in sepsis pathophysiology with emphasis on age, as well as the underlying mechanisms and potential roles for inflammatory shedding. Five soluble adhesion molecules are associated with sepsis, specifically, E-selectin, L-selectin and P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. While increased levels of these soluble adhesion molecules generally correlate well with the presence of sepsis, their degree of elevation is still poorly predictive of sepsis severity scores, outcome and mortality. Separate analyses of neonates, children and adults demonstrate significant age-dependent discrepancies in both basal and septic levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules. Additionally, a range of both clinical and experimental studies suggests protective roles for adhesion molecule shedding that raise important questions about whether these should positively or negatively correlate with mortality. In conclusion, while predictive properties of soluble adhesion molecules have been researched intensively, their levels are still poorly predictive of sepsis outcome and mortality. We propose two novel directions for improving clinical utility of soluble adhesion molecules: the combined simultaneous analysis of levels of adhesion molecules and their sheddases; and taking age-related discrepancies into account. Further attention to these issues may provide better

  6. The Role of Immunoglobulin Superfamily Cell Adhesion Molecules in Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wai Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical problem and results in a poor prognosis for most cancers. The metastatic pathway describes the process by which cancer cells give rise to a metastatic lesion in a new tissue or organ. It consists of interconnecting steps all of which must be successfully completed to result in a metastasis. Cell-cell adhesion is a key aspect of many of these steps. Adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (Ig-SF commonly play a central role in cell-cell adhesion, and a number of these molecules have been associated with cancer progression and a metastatic phenotype. Surprisingly, the contribution of Ig-SF members to metastasis has not received the attention afforded other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs such as the integrins. Here we examine the steps in the metastatic pathway focusing on how the Ig-SF members, melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, L1CAM, neural CAM (NCAM, leukocyte CAM (ALCAM, intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1 and platelet endothelial CAM-1 (PECAM-1 could play a role. Although much remains to be understood, this review aims to raise the profile of Ig-SF members in metastasis formation and prompt further research that could lead to useful clinical outcomes.

  7. EZH2 modulates the DNA methylome and controls T cell adhesion through junctional adhesion molecule-A in lupus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Pei-Suen; Coit, Patrick; Kilian, Nathan C; Sawalha, Amr H

    2017-10-03

    EZH2 is an epigenetic regulator that mediates H3K27 trimethylation and modulates DNA methylation. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of EZH2 in CD4+ T cells upon lupus pathogenesis. EZH2 expression levels were determined in CD4+ T cells isolated from lupus patients and healthy controls. The epigenetic effects of EZH2 overexpression in CD4+ T cells were evaluated using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach. Gene expression and miRNAs were assessed by qPCR while protein expression was examined by Western blotting. A cell adhesion assay was used to assess adhesion of CD4+ T cells to human microvascular endothelial cells. EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels were increased in CD4+ T cells in lupus compared to healthy controls. MiR-26a and miR-101 downregulated EZH2, and were reduced in lupus CD4+ T cells. Overexpressing EZH2 in CD4+ T cells resulted in significant DNA methylation changes. Genes involved in leukocyte adhesion and migration, including F11R encoding JAM-A, become hypomethylated in CD4+ T cells when EZH2 is overexpressed. Overexpression of EZH2 resulted in increased JAM-A expression and CD4+ T cell adhesion. Pre-incubation of EZH2-transfected CD4+ T cells with neutralizing antibodies against JAM-A significantly blunted cell adhesion. Similarly, CD4+ T cells from lupus patients overexpressed JAM-A and adhered significantly more to endothelial cells compared to T cells from healthy controls. Blocking JAM-A or EZH2 significantly reduced endothelial cell adhesion of lupus CD4+ T cells. We identified a novel role for EZH2 in T cell adhesion mediated by epigenetic remodeling and upregulation of JAM-A. Blocking EZH2 or JAM-A might have a therapeutic potential in lupus by reducing T cell adhesion, migration, and extravasation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian is necessary for maintenance of sensory axon advance in the Drosophila embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Veronica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell adhesion molecules have long been implicated in the regulation of axon growth, but the precise cellular roles played by individual cell adhesion molecules and the molecular basis for their action are still not well understood. We have used the sensory system of the Drosophila embryo to shed light on the mechanism by which the L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian regulates axon growth. Results We have found a highly penetrant sensory axon stalling phenotype in neuroglian mutant embryos. Axons stalled at a variety of positions along their normal trajectory, but most commonly in the periphery some distance along the peripheral nerve. All lateral and dorsal cluster sensory neurons examined, except for the dorsal cluster neuron dbd, showed stalling. Sensory axons were never seen to project along inappropriate pathways in neuroglian mutants and stalled axons showed normal patterns of fasciculation within nerves. The growth cones of stalled axons possessed a simple morphology, similar to their appearance in wild-type embryos when advancing along nerves. Driving expression of the wild-type form of Neuroglian in sensory neurons alone rescued the neuroglian mutant phenotype of both pioneering and follower neurons. A partial rescue was achieved by expressing the Neuroglian extracellular domain. Over/mis-expression of Neuroglian in all neurons, oenocytes or trachea had no apparent effect on sensory axon growth. Conclusion We conclude that Neuroglian is necessary to maintain axon advance along axonal substrates, but is not required for initiation of axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation or recognition of correct growth substrates. Expression of Neuroglian in sensory neurons alone is sufficient to promote axon advance and the intracellular region of the molecule is largely dispensable for this function. It is unlikely, therefore, that Nrg acts as a molecular 'clutch' to couple adhesion of F-actin within the growth cone to the

  9. Role Of Adhesion Molecules Vcam-1 And Ve-Cadherin In Endothelium Dysfunction Development At Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Baygildina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine the changes in concentration of both sVCAM-1 and VE-cadherin in blood serum of patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. 87 patients aged 15-65 were examined. Concentrations of both sVCAM-1 and VE- cadherin in blood serum by means of "Bender MedSystems" (Austria ELISA test were determined. It was shown that in both medium severe and severe forms of HFRS statistically the significant rise of sVCAM-1 concentration in blood with high indices in oliguric period took place. Complicated form was characterized by high indices of sVCAM-1 level in fever period, extremely decreasing in concentration in oliguric period and tendency to normalizing in clinical convalescence period. VE-cadherin level in blood was predominantly lower than control in all the observed groups with the exception of fever period in group with medium severe disease form. Negative correlation of normal intensity between adhesion molecules levels in blood was revealed. In conclusion it is necessary to point out that high VCAM-1 expression by endotheliocytes evidences the development of an adhesion form of endothelial dysfunction, low VE-cadherin production in a base for development of angiogenic form of endothelial dysfunction and changes in expression of these adhesion molecules that have adaptive metabolic response to macroorganism of HFRS pathogenic action

  10. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. J.; Shon, C. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S.; Kim, G. C.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin α2, integrin α4 and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  11. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Shon, C H [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y S; Kim, S [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G C [Department of Oral Anatomy, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, M G [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ki9100m@pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: m.g.kong@lboro.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin {alpha}{sub 2}, integrin {alpha}{sub 4} and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  12. Targeted Gene Deletion Demonstrates that Cell Adhesion MoleculeICAM-4 is Critical for Erythroblastic Island Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gloria; Lo, Annie; Short, Sarah A.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Spring, Frances; Parsons, Stephen F.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-02-15

    Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), animmunoglobulin superfamily member, participates in island formation. Earlier, we identified alpha V integrins as ICAM-4 counter receptors. Since macrophages express alpha V, ICAM-4 potentially mediates island attachments. To test this, we generated ICAM-4 knockout mice and developed quantitative, live cell techniques for harvesting intact islands and for reforming islands in vitro. We observed a 47 percent decrease in islands reconstituted from ICAM-4 null marrow compared to wild type. We also found a striking decrease in islands formed in vivo in knockout mice. Further, peptides that block ICAM-4 alpha V adhesion produced a 53-57 percent decrease in reconstituted islands, strongly suggesting that ICAM-4 binding to macrophage alpha V functions in island integrity. Importantly, we documented that alpha V integrin is expressed in macrophages isolated from erythro blastic islands. Collectively, these data provide convincing evidence that ICAM-4 is critical in erythroblastic island formation via ICAM-4/alpha V adhesion and also demonstrate that the novel experimental strategies we developed will be valuable in exploring molecular mechanisms of erythroblastic island formation and their functional role in regulating erythropoiesis.

  13. Chronic Restraint Stress Induces an Isoform-Specific Regulation on the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarot, K.; Sandi, C.

    2002-01-01

    Existing evidence indicates that 21-days exposure of rats to restraint stress induces dendritic atrophy in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. This phenomenon has been related to altered performance in hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. Prior studies have shown that hippocampal expression of cell adhesion molecules is modified by such stress treatment, with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) decreasing and L1 increasing, their expression, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Given that NCAM comprises several isoforms, we investigated here whether chronic stress might differentially affect the expression of the three major isoforms (NCAM-120, NCAM-140, NCAM-180) in the hippocampus. In addition, as glucocorticoids have been implicated in the deleterious effects induced by chronic stress, we also evaluated plasma corticosterone levels and the hippocampal expression of the corticosteroid mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The results showed that the protein concentration of the NCAM-140 isoform decreased in the hippoampus of stressed rats. This effect was isoform-specific, because NCAM-120 and NCAM-180 levels were not significantly modified. In addition, whereas basal levels of plasma corticosterone tended to be increased, MR and GR concentrations were not significantly altered. Although possible changes in NCAM-120, NCAM-180 and corticosteroid receptors at earlier time points of the stress period cannot be ignored; this study suggests that a down-regulation of NCAM-140 might be implicated in the structural alterations consistently shown to be induced in the hippocampus by chronic stress exposure. As NCAM-140 is involved in cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth, these findings suggest that this molecule might be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the complex interactions among neurodegeneration-related events. PMID:12757368

  14. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: a target of chemoresistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Farmer, Russell W; Yang, Yingbin; Martin, Robert C G

    2016-03-16

    The low survival rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is partly attributable to its resistance to existing chemotherapeutic agents. Until now, there have been limited chemotherapeutic agents for liver cancer. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been found to be over-expressed during stages of carcinogenesis and has been associated with poor overall survival in many cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate EpCAM expression in HCC and evaluate the effects of EpCAM to established chemotherapy. Three human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines--HepG2, Hep3B and HuH-7--were pre- and post-treated with doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin. Cell viability and EpCAM protein expression were measured by MTT assay and Western Blotting respectively. EpCAM positive cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. To evaluate the effects of doxorubicin efficacy on EpCAM positive cells, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to EpCAM was transfected into the cells and treated with doxorubicin. EpCAM was significantly down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment in all three HCC cell lines (P cells, however the EpCAM expression was up-regulated by 5-FU and cisplatin in Hep3B cell line. EpCAM expression was down-regulated by 5-FU, and up-regulated by cisplatin in Huh-7 cell line. Flow cytometry assay showed doxorubicin exposure decreased EpCAM positive cell quantities in three HCC cell lines. EpCAM siRNA knock-down attenuated cell mortality after doxorubicin exposure. All of these findings demonstrate that EpCAM is one of targets of chemoresistence.

  15. Membrane-type 1-matrix metalloproteinase regulates intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated monocyte transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithu, Srinivas D; English, William R; Olson, Paul; Krubasik, Davia; Baker, Andrew H; Murphy, Gillian; D'Souza, Stanley E

    2007-08-24

    We examined the mechanism regulating intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent monocyte transendothelial migration. Monocyte migration through endothelial cells expressing ICAM-1 alone was comparable to that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-treated cells. Transmigration was reduced in ICAM-1 lacking the cytoplasmic tail and in tyrosine to alanine substitutions at Tyr-485 and Tyr-474. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) -2 and -3 blocked transmigration, whereas TIMP-1 was ineffective. This profile suggested a role for membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) in transmigration. Inhibitory antibodies and small interference RNA directed against MT1-MMP blocked transmigration, whereas overexpression of MT1-MMP in endothelial cells or monocytes promoted transmigration. MT1-MMP mediated the ectodomain cleavage of ICAM-1 that was blocked by TIMP-2 and -3. Overexpression of MT1-MMP rescued function in ICAM-1Y485A, and to a lesser extent in the cytoplasmic tail-deleted ICAM-1. In a binding assay, wild-type ICAM-1 bound to purified MT1-MMP while ICAM-1 mutants bound poorly. MT1-MMP co-localized with ICAM-1 at distinct structures in endothelial cells. MT1-MMP localization with cells expressing ICAM-1 mutations was reduced and diffused. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic tail of ICAM-1 regulates leukocyte transmigration through MT1-MMP interaction.

  16. Association study between the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) gene and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Defects of neurodevelopmental processes are suggested to underlie the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM), a member of neural immunoglobulin superfamily playing a diverse role for neural development, is mapped to chromosome 21q22, a linkage locus for bipolar disorder, and is, therefore, an interesting candidate for the disease. We performed a variation screening of the gene and association studies in 22 multiplex bipolar pedigrees of Caucasian descent and 119 Japanese patients with bipolar disorder and 140 controls. Expression levels of DSCAM were also examined in postmortem brains from the Stanley Medical Research Institute. We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms in DSCAM. Possible associations of SNP DC141 (IVS27-15A>G; P=0.042) and DC142 (IVS29+328C>A; P=0.036) were observed in pedigree samples, and G allele of DC141 was correlated with increased expression levels of DSCAM (P=0.038) in postmortem brains. Possible association of DC136 (4749C>T), which is in the same haplotype block with DC141 and DC142, was detected in Japanese populations (P=0.049). These results suggest the possible contribution of DSCAM gene in bipolar disorder, and warrant further investigations.

  17. Association of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1 with Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvest F Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are complex diseases affected by genetic and environmental factors. Identification of the susceptibility genes and investigation of their roles may provide useful information for better understanding of the pathogenesis and for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes in the immune system. The ICAM1 gene is located on chromosome 19p13 within the linkage region of diabetes. In the recent years, accumulating reports have implicated that genetic polymorphisms in the ICAM1 gene are associated with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Serum ICAM1 levels in diabetes patients and the icam1 gene expression in kidney tissues of diabetic animals are increased compared to the controls. Therefore, ICAM1 may play a role in the development of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we present genomic structure, variation and regulation of the ICAM1 gene, summarized genetic and biological studies of this gene in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy and discussed about the potential application using ICAM1 as a biomarker and target for prediction and treatment of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Simulated microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion to matrix and other molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, K.; Ishii, S.; Ford, R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-01-01

    Microgravity has advantages for the cultivation of tissues with high fidelity; however, tissue formation requires cellular recognition and adhesion. We tested the hypothesis that simulated microgravity does not affect cell adhesion. Human colorectal carcinoma cells were cultured in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) under low shear stress with randomization of the gravity vector that simulates microgravity. After 6 - 7 days, cells were assayed for binding to various substrates and compared to cells grown in standard tissue culture flasks and static suspension cultures. The RWV cultures bound as well to basement membrane proteins and to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), an intercellular adhesion molecule, as control cultures did. Thus, microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion and may be useful for tissue engineering.

  19. Attenuation of melanoma invasion by a secreted variant of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, J.W.J. van; Wilting, R.H.; Bergers, M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Schalkwijk, J.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Swart, G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166/MEMD), a marker of various cancers and mesenchymal stem cells, is involved in melanoma metastasis. We have exploited a secreted NH(2)-terminal fragment, sALCAM, to test the hypothesis that ALCAM coordinates tissue growth and cell migration.

  20. Cytokines and soluble adhesion molecules in children and adolescents with a tic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Veneman, Netty G.P.; Bijzet, Johan; Limburg, Pieter C.; Minderaa, Rudolf; Kallenberg, C.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in tic disorders. We screened for immune disturbances by investigating serum levels of cytokines and soluble adhesion molecules in patients with a tic disorder. Methods: Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, soluble IL-2

  1. Interleukin-6 but not soluble adhesion molecules has short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interleukin-6 but not soluble adhesion molecules has short-term prognostic value on mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. ... Abstract. Inflammatory responses represent an important element in all phases of the atherosclerotic process. This recognition has stimulated the evaluation of ...

  2. Neural cell adhesion molecule induces intracellular signaling via multiple mechanisms of Ca2+ homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiryushko, Darya; Korshunova, Irina; Berezin, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in the development of the nervous system, promoting neuronal differentiation via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) as well as heterophilic (NCAM-fibroblast growth factor receptor [FGFR]) interactions. NCAM-induced intracellular signaling has been...

  3. Triple Effect of Mimetic Peptides Interfering with Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Homophilic Cis Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, S. Z.; Kolkova, Kateryna; Rudenko, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is pivotal in neural development, regeneration, and learning. Here we characterize two peptides, termed P1-B and P2, derived from the homophilic binding sites in the first two N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) modules of NCAM, with regard to their effects...

  4. The neural cell adhesion molecule binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Lauridsen, Jes B; Berezin, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) can bind to and activate fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). However, there are four major FGFR isoforms (FGFR1-FGFR4), and it is not known whether NCAM also interacts directly with the other three FGFR isoforms. In this study, we show by surface...

  5. Biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule: characterization of polypeptide C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, O; Albrechtsen, M; Dahlin, J

    1985-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) was studied in primary cultures of rat cerebral glial cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and skeletal muscle cells. The three cell types produced different N-CAM polypeptide patterns. Glial cells synthesized a 135,000 Mr polypeptide B...

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Comparison of adhesion molecule levels before and after levothyroxine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgir, Ferda; Bilgir, Oktay; Calan, Mehmet; Calan, Ozlem; Isikyakar, Tolgay

    2014-06-01

    Adhesion molecules are involved in inflammation, atherosclerosis and malignancy. This study measured levels of adhesion molecules before and after levothyroxine therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHO). Levels of soluble (s) intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, s vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) VCAM-1 and sE-selectin were analysed in patients diagnosed with SHO, prior to administration of 50 µg/day levothyroxine orally for 3 months. Subsequently, levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin were reanalysed then compared with the pretreatment levels. In 30 patients with SHO, levels of sICAM-1 were found to be significantly higher than those in healthy controls, (P = 0.001). Post-treatment sICAM-1 levels were significantly lower than pretreatment levels (P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 or sE-selectin levels between healthy controls and patients with SHO before treatment, or between patients with SHO pre- and post-treatment. Patients with SHO had significantly higher levels of sICAM-1 compared with controls. Levels became normal after treatment with levothyroxine. These findings emphasize the need for levothyroxine therapy in cases of SHO to normalize sICAM-1 levels. Such treatment helps to prevent the future development of atherosclerosis or cancer. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Adhesion molecule increases in sleep apnea: beneficial effect of positive airway pressure and moderation by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, V M; Keenan, B T; Jackson, N; Grandner, M A; Maislin, G; Teff, K; Schwab, R J; Arnardottir, E S; Júlíusson, S; Benediktsdottir, B; Gislason, T; Pack, A I

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) may contribute to cardiovascular disease and are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity. The relationship between OSA and obesity in determining ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels, and the effect of treatment, is unclear. Our aim was to study whether positive airway pressure (PAP) usage resulted in changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 after 2 years within 309 OSA patients from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort, and determine how obesity affected such changes. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.4±5.1 kg m(-2); subjects had moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index=45.0±20.2) and 79% were male. There were 177 full PAP users (⩾4 h per night and ⩾20 of last 28 nights), 44 partial (adhesion molecules observed in nonusers after 2 years. For ICAM-1, the largest effect is in the most obese subjects. As OSA and obesity commonly coexist, the usage of PAP to limit increases in adhesion molecules may decrease the rate of progression of OSA-related cardiovascular disease.

  8. Transfection of glioma cells with the neural-cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Pedersen, P H; Bjerkvig, R

    1994-01-01

    The tumor growth and the invasive capacity of a rat glioma cell line (BT4Cn) were studied after transfection with the human transmembrane 140-kDa isoform of the neural-cell adhesion molecule, NCAM. After s.c. injection, the NCAM-transfected cells showed a slower growth rate than the parent cell...

  9. A gene pathway analysis highlights the role of cellular adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damotte, V; Guillot-Noel, L; Patsopoulos, N A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion molecule (CAMs) biological pathway using Cytoscape software. This network is a strong candidate, as it is involved in the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by the T cells, an early event in MS pathophysiology, and is used as an efficient therapeutic target. We drew up a list of 76 genes...

  10. Soy-Leaf Extract Exerts Atheroprotective Effects via Modulation of Krüppel-Like Factor 2 and Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy-leaf extracts exert their cardioprotective effects by inducing endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the arteries, and they favorably modulate the serum lipid profile. In this study, we investigated the atheroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of soy leaf (ESL in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and high-cholesterol diet (HCD-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR−/− mice. ESL induced the expression of Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2, an endothelial transcription factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, and suppressed the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 through moderate inflammatory signal activation, not only in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs but also in 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC-stimulated HUVECs. ESL supplementation reduced aortic lesion formation in Western diet-fed LDLR−/− mice by 46% (p < 0.01 compared to the HCD group. ESL also markedly decreased the aortic expression levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9, and fractalkine, while the expression of KLF2 was significantly increased. These results suggest that ESL supplementation has potential for preventing HCD-induced atherosclerosis effectively.

  11. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 promotes HIV-1 attachment but not fusion to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Kondo

    Full Text Available Incorporation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 into HIV-1 particles is known to markedly enhance the virus binding and infection of cells expressing lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1. At the same time, ICAM-1 has been reported to exert a less pronounced effect on HIV-1 fusion with lymphoid cells. Here we examined the role of ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions in productive HIV-1 entry into lymphoid cells using a direct virus-cell fusion assay. ICAM-1 promoted HIV-1 attachment to cells in a temperature-dependent manner. It exerted a marginal effect on virus binding in the cold, but enhanced binding up to 4-fold at physiological temperature. ICAM-1-independent attachment in the cold was readily reversible upon subsequent incubation at elevated temperature, whereas ICAM-1-bearing particles were largely retained by cells. The better virus retention resulted in a proportional increase in HIV-1 internalization and fusion, suggesting that ICAM-1 did not specifically accelerate endocytosis or fusion steps. We also measured the rates of CD4 engagement, productive endocytosis and HIV-endosome fusion using specific fusion inhibitors. These rates were virtually independent of the presence of ICAM-1 in viral particles. Importantly, irrespective of the presence of ICAM-1, HIV-1 escaped from the low temperature block, which stopped virus endocytosis and fusion, much later than from a membrane-impermeant fusion inhibitor targeting surface-accessible particles. This result, along with the complete inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a small molecule dynamin inhibitor, implies this virus enters lymphoid cells used in this study via endocytosis and that this pathway is not altered by the viral ICAM-1. Our data highlight the role of ICAM-1 in stabilizing the HIV-1 attachment to LFA-1 expressing cells, which leads to a proportional enhancement of the receptor-mediated uptake and fusion with endosomes.

  12. Increased levels of soluble forms of E-selectin and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules during human leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Loic; Giry, Claude; Thirapathi, Yoga; Reboux, Anne-Hélène; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Gasque, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a multisystemic zoonotic disease with infiltration of visceral organs by Leptospira. The capacity of the vascular endothelium to grant immune cell recruitment and activation in target organs during the disease course remains poorly characterized. We ascertained the levels of expression of several soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAM) notably expressed by endothelial cells in human leptospirosis. We prospectively enrolled 20 hospitalized patients and compared them to 10 healthy controls. Disease severity was defined by one or more organ failures, or death. Plasmatic concentrations of soluble CAM were assessed by multiplex bead assay at the time of patient presentation (M0) and 1 month after hospital discharge. The levels of soluble E-selectin (sCD62E) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1, sCD53) were significantly increased in patients compared to controls (pleptospirosis: E-selectin and s-ICAM1. These molecules may interfere with the process of immune cell recruitment to clear Leptospira at tissue levels.

  13. ADHESION MOLECULES IN INTESTINAL DESTRUCTIVE-INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN THE CHILDREN WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ashkinazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the content of serum soluble cell adhesion molecules in children with ulcerative colitis that mediate the initial and final stages of the migration of leukocytes to the focus of inflammation: sP-selectin (soluble platelet selectin and Specam-1 (soluble platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 as well some earlier unexplored factors associated with their level. Patients and methods: we examined 107 patients with ulcerative colitis aged from 6 up to 17 years. The diagnosis was set on the base of a comprehensive examination. The content of serum soluble adhesion molecules sP-selectin and sPECAM-1 as well cytokine status and neopterin were evaluated by ELISA. Respiratory metabolism was investigated by using chemiluminescent reactions. Results: it was shown that the content of sP-selectin and sPECAM-1 is significantly higher in patients than in the control group, which may influence on the migration of leukocytes into tissues for realization of their effector potential. It is confirmed by morphological analyses of the intestine biopsies, where it was observed the increasing of the number of leukocytes in vascular endothelium and epithelial layer. At the same time strengthening of the oxygen-dependent metabolism of neutrophils, the increase of the concentration of neopterin and tumor necrosis factor α were noted. Conclusions: the correlation of the studied adhesion molecules with a number of inflammatory markers (TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α, free radicals, neopterin was revealed, which indicates the diagnostic value of serum levels of the membrane antigens. The increase of the concentration of adhesion molecules sP-selectin and sPECAM-1 may be one of the links of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. 

  14. Cell-contact-dependent activation of CD4+ T cells by adhesion molecules on synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masato; Hashimoto, Motomu; Matsuo, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Jun; Ito, Yoshinaga; Akizuki, Shuji; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Ohmura, Koichiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2017-05-01

    To determine how cell-cell contact with synovial fibroblasts (SF) influence on the proliferation and cytokine production of CD4+ T cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells were cultured with SF from rheumatoid arthritis patients, stimulated by anti-CD3/28 antibody, and CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ/IL-17 production were analyzed. To study the role of adhesion molecules, cell contact was blocked by transwell plate or anti-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) antibody. To study the direct role of adhesion molecules for CD4+ T cells, CD161+ or CD161- naïve CD4+ T cells were stimulated on plastic plates coated by recombinant ICAM-1 or VCAM-1, and the source of IFN-γ/IL-17 were analyzed. SF enhanced naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ/IL-17 production in cell-contact and in part ICAM-1-/VCAM-1-dependent manner. Plate-coated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 enhanced naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, while VCAM-1 efficiently promoting IL-17 production. CD161+ naïve T cells upregulating LFA-1 and VLA-4 were the major source of IFN-γ/IL-17 upon interaction with ICAM-1/VCAM-1. CD4+ T cells rapidly expand and secrete IFN-γ/IL-17 upon cell-contact with SF via adhesion molecules. Interfering with ICAM-1-/VCAM-1 may be beneficial for inhibiting RA synovitis.

  15. Crystal structure of the Ig1 domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 displays domain swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the first immunoglobulin (Ig1) domain of neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM) is presented at a resolution of 2.7 A. NCAM2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs). In the structure, two Ig domains interact by domain...

  16. Signaling through intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in a B cell lymphoma line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, J; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (CD54) is an adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The interaction between ICAM-1 on B lymphocytes and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 on T cells plays a major role in several aspects of the immune response, including T-dependent B...... investigate the biochemical mechanism for the signaling role of ICAM-1. We show that cross-linking of ICAM-1 on the B lymphoma line A20 induces an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including the Src family kinase p53/p56(lyn). In vitro kinase assays showed that Lyn kinase...... to various ICAM-1-elicited cellular responses. These data confirm the important role of ICAM-1 as a signaling molecule in B cell activation....

  17. Impact of pneumococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules on colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S; Gámez, G; Hammerschmidt, S

    2012-08-01

    Microorganisms have evolved elaborate strategies to adhere to host cells and to evade the host complement and immune attack, ensuring survival in various host niches and dissemination into sterile parts of the human body. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is not only a commensal of the human respiratory tract but also the etiological agent of severe and life-threatening diseases. Pneumococcal attachment to mucosal surfaces is a highly dynamic process requiring the contact of pneumococcal surface-exposed proteins with soluble or immobilized host factors. These avid interactions may trigger proteolytic cascades or result in engagement of cell surface receptors and intracellularly associated signaling machineries for subsequent uptake of pneumococci into host cells. In the present review, the intimate communication of S. pneumoniae molecules recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) with their host counterparts and their individual role in pneumococcal colonization is discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Transmigrated neutrophils down-regulate the expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells and inhibit the adhesion of flowing lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Philip C W; Lally, Frank; Rahman, Mahbub; Smith, Emily; Buckley, Christopher D; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2005-01-01

    As the first leukocytes recruited during inflammation, neutrophils are ideally situated to regulate the subsequent recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes. Here, we found that human neutrophils recruited by endothelial cells (EC), which had been stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha for 4 h, inhibited the adhesion of flowing, mixed mononuclear cells or purified lymphocytes over the subsequent 20 h but did not affect the adhesion of a secondary bolus of neutrophils. The degree of inhibition of lymphocyte adhesion increased with the duration of neutrophil-EC contact and with the number of recruited neutrophils. Antibody-blocking studies showed that lymphocyte adhesion was mediated predominantly by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Recruited neutrophils reduced the EC expression of VCAM-1 but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) or E-selectin in a manner that mirrored the time- and number-dependent reduction in lymphocyte adhesion. VCAM-1 was not shed into the culture supernatant, and a panel of protease inhibitors was unable to reverse its down-regulation, indicating that it was not proteolytically degraded by neutrophils. In EC that had been in contact with neutrophils, the mRNA message for VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 was down-regulated, indicating that alterations in transcriptional activity were responsible for the reduction in VCAM-1. Thus, under some inflammatory milieu, neutrophils may delay the recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes by regulating the expression of EC adhesion receptors.

  19. Cell adhesion to agrin presented as a nanopatterned substrate is consistent with an interaction with the extracellular matrix and not transmembrane adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Tobias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular spacing is important for cell adhesion in a number of ways, ranging from the ordered arrangement of matrix polymers extracellularly, to steric hindrance of adhesion/signaling complexes intracellularly. This has been demonstrated using nanopatterned RGD peptides, a canonical extracellular matrix ligand for integrin interactions. Cell adhesion was greatly reduced when the RGD-coated nanoparticles were separated by more than 60 nm, indicating a sharp spacing-dependent threshold for this form of cell adhesion. Results Here we show a similar dependence of cell adhesion on the spacing of agrin, a protein that exists as both a secreted, matrix-bound form and a type-2 transmembrane form in vivo. Agrin was presented as a substrate for cell adhesion assays by anchoring recombinant protein to gold nanoparticles that were arrayed at tunable distances onto glass coverslips. Cells adhered well to nanopatterned agrin, and when presented as uniformly coated substrates, adhesion to agrin was comparable to other well-studied adhesion molecules, including N-Cadherin. Adhesion of both mouse primary cortical neurons and rat B35 neuroblastoma cells showed a spacing-dependent threshold, with a sharp drop in adhesion when the space between agrin-coated nanoparticles increased from 60 to 90 nm. In contrast, adhesion to N-Cadherin decreased gradually over the entire range of distances tested (uniform, 30, 60, 90, and 160 nm. The spacing of the agrin nanopattern also influenced cell motility, and peptide competition suggested adhesion was partially integrin dependent. Finally, differences in cell adhesion to C-terminal agrin fragments of different lengths were detected using nanopatterned substrates, and these differences were not evident using uniformly coated substrates. Conclusion These results suggest nanopatterned substrates may provide a physiological presentation of adhesive substrates, and are consistent with cells adhering to agrin

  20. Cross-talk between cell adhesion molecules regulates the migration velocity of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, G E; Buckley, C; Simmons, D L; Nash, G B

    1997-05-01

    Although the adhesive mechanisms underlying the capture and immobilization of circulating neutrophils in inflamed blood vessels have been well described, factors controlling the subsequent migration of neutrophils over and through the blood vessel endothelium are poorly understood. Directional rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton within the neutrophil, along with modulation of integrin-mediated adhesion, are necessary for neutrophil migration. Signals from chemotactic agents and from the adhesive substrate may regulate these processes, but little is known about their relative importance or their mode of integration. We examined the kinetics of neutrophil migration after formyl tripeptide or platelet-activating factor was perfused over neutrophils that were already rolling on the adhesion molecule P-selectin, which was presented either on the surface of immobilized platelets or in purified form coated on glass capillaries. Upon activation, neutrophils stopped rolling, spread and began to migrate; each of these processes was dependent on beta2 integrin (CD11b/CD18). The rate of migration increased over a period of about 8 minutes and was modulated directly by both the P-selectin and the CD31 surface receptors. Antibody blockade of either CD31 or P-selectin on platelets resulted in a reduction in the velocity of migration, and simultaneous blockade of both receptors reduced velocity further. Purified CD31 and P-selectin (but not a control adhesion molecule, ICAM-1) increased migration velocity in a concentration-dependent and additive manner that reconstituted the migratory behaviour observed on platelets. These studies show that binding of ligands to CD31 and/or P-selectin modifies the rate of integrin-supported neutrophil migration. This novel example of 'cross-talk' between surface receptors suggests that cell adhesion molecules might generally transduce accessory signals between adjacent cells to modify their migratory responses to chemotactic signals.

  1. Neural cell adhesion molecule is a cardioprotective factor up-regulated by metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kazuya; Ono, Koh; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Yodo; Kojima, Yoji; Horie, Takahiro; Nishi, Hitoo; Kinoshita, Minako; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Hasegawa, Koji; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2010-06-01

    Screening for cell surface proteins up-regulated under stress conditions may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. To search for genes whose expression was enhanced by treatment with oligomycin, a mitochondrial-F(0)F(1) ATP synthase inhibitor, signal sequence trapping was performed in H9C2 rat cardiac myoblasts. One of the genes identified was that for neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56), a major regulator of development, cell survival, migration, and neurite outgrowth in the nervous system. Immunohistochemical analyses in a mouse myocardial infarction model revealed that NCAM was strongly expressed in residual cardiac myocytes in the infarcted region. Increased expression of NCAM was also found during the remodeling period in a rat model of hypertension-induced heart failure. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of NCAM decreased the cell growth and survival following oligomycin treatment in H9C2 cells. In primary rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, NCAM was also found to be up-regulated and played a protective role following oligomycin treatment. Analyses of downstream signaling revealed that knockdown of NCAM significantly decreased the basal AKT phosphorylation level. In contrast, NCAM mimetic peptide P2d activated AKT and significantly reduced oligomycin-induced cardiomyocyte death, which was abolished by treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 as well as overexpression of the dominant-negative AKT mutant. These findings demonstrate that NCAM is a cardioprotective factor up-regulated under metabolic stress in cardiomyocytes and augmentation of this signal improved survival. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of the adhesion molecule F3/Contactin in synaptic plasticity and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulisano, Walter; Bizzoca, Antonella; Gennarini, Gianfranco; Palmeri, Agostino; Puzzo, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks. Here, we discuss our recent data suggesting that F3/Contactin exerts a role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in adult and aged mice. In particular, we have studied long-term potentiation (LTP), spatial and object recognition memory, and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-Responsive-Element Binding protein (CREB) in a transgenic mouse model of F3/Contactin overexpression. We also investigated whether F3/Contactin might influence neuronal apoptosis and the production of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), known to be one of the main pathogenetic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In conclusion, a further understanding of F3/Contactin role in synaptic plasticity and memory might have interesting clinical outcomes in cognitive disorders, such as aging and AD, offering innovative therapeutic opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel secreted isoform of adhesion molecule ICAM-4: Potential regulator of membrane-associated ICAM-4 interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gloria; Spring, Frances A.; Parons, Stephen F.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2003-02-18

    ICAM-4, a newly characterized adhesion molecule, is expressed early in human erythropoiesis and functions as a ligand for binding a4b1 and aV integrin-expressing cells. Within the bone marrow, erythroblasts surround central macrophages forming erythroblastic islands. Evidence suggests that these islands are highly specialized subcompartments where cell adhesion events, in concert with cytokines, play critical roles in regulating erythropoiesis and apoptosis. Since erythroblasts express a4b1 and ICAM-4 and macrophages exhibit aV, ICAM-4 is an attractive candidate for mediating cellular interactions within erythroblastic islands. To determine whether ICAM-4 binding properties are conserved across species, we first cloned and sequenced the murine homologue. The translated amino acid sequence showed 68 percent overall identity with human ICAM-4. Using recombinant murine ICAM-4 extracellular domains, we discovered that hematopoietic a4b1-expressing HEL cells and non-hematopoietic aV-expressing FLY cells adhered to mouse ICAM-4. Cell adhesion studies showed that FLY and HEL cells bound to mouse and human proteins with similar avidity. These data strongly suggest conservation of integrin-binding properties across species. Importantly, we characterized a novel second splice cDNA that would be predicted to encode an ICAM-4 isoform, lacking the membrane-spanning domain. Erythroblasts express both isoforms of ICAM-4. COS-7 cells transfected with GFP constructs of prototypic or novel ICAM-4 cDNA showed different cellular localization patterns. Moreover, analysis of tissue culture medium revealed that the novel ICAM-4 cDNA encodes a secreted protein. We postulate that secretion of this newly described isoform, ICAM-4S, may modulate binding of membrane-associated ICAM-4 and could thus play a critical regulatory role in erythroblast molecular attachments.

  4. Methotrexate inhibits integrin adhesion molecules in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of methotrexate (MTX upon leukocyte migration and expression of adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18 in the lung, 4 and 48 h after inflammation induction by carrageenan in mice. The results showed that MTX significantly decreased leukocyte influx and CD11a expression in the lung at 4 and 48 h of pleurisy (P O modelo experimental da pleurisia induzida pela carragenina, em camundongos é caracterizado pelo aumento da migração de leucócitos às custas de neutrófilos 4 h após a indução da inflamação pela carragenina na cavidade pleural de camundongos.. Após 48 h da indução da inflamação ocorre aumento de leucócitos do tipo mononucleares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do metotrexato (MTX sobre a migração de leucócitos, e a expressão de moléculas de adesão (CD11a/CD18, no pulmão 4 e 48 h após a inflamação induzida pela carragenina.Os resultados demonstraram que o MTX inibiu significativamente o influxo de leucócitos e a expressão de CD11a no pulmão 4 h e 48 h após a inflamação induzida pela carragenina (P < 0.01. O MTX inibiu a expressão de CD18 no pulmão 48 h após, mas não 4 h após esta resposta inflamatória (P < 0.01. Estes resultados demonstram que o MTX, nas doses estudadas, possui importante efeito antiinflamatório agindo principalmente sobre o influxo de leucócitos da cavidade pleural para os pulmões, via inibição da expressão de moléculas de adesão do tipo CD11a/CD18, no modelo da pleurisia induzida pela carragenina, em camundongos.

  5. Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on brain microvascular endothelial cells in rat ischemic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Siren, A L; Liu, Y; Yue, T L; Barone, F C; Feuerstein, G Z

    1994-10-01

    The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was studied in rat focal ischemic cortex. A significant increase in ICAM-1 mRNA expression in the ischemic cortex over levels in contralateral (nonischemic) site was observed by means of Northern blot analysis following either permanent or temporary occlusion with reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery (PMCAO or MCAO with reperfusion) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the ischemic cortex, levels of ICAM-1 mRNA increased significantly at 3 h (2.6-fold, n = 3, P hypertensive rats than in two normotensive rat strains. Immunostaining using anti-ICAM-1 antibodies indicated that upregulated ICAM-1 expression was localized to endothelial cells of intraparenchymal blood vessels in the ischemic but not contralateral cortex. The data suggest that an upregulation of ICAM-1 mRNA and protein on brain capillary endothelium may play an important role in leukocyte migration into ischemic brain tissue.

  6. NDRG2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma adhesion, migration and invasion by regulating CD24 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yurong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients is poor due to the high metastatic rate of the disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis is extremely urgent. The role of CD24 and NDRG2 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, has not yet been explored in HCC. Methods The mRNA and protein expression of CD24 and NDRG2 was analyzed in MHCC97H, Huh7 and L-02 cells. Changes in cell adhesion, migration and invasion were detected by up- or down-regulating NDRG2 by adenovirus or siRNA. The expression pattern of NDRG2 and CD24 in HCC tissues and the relationship between NDRG2 and HCC clinical features was analyzed by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Results NDRG2 expression was negatively correlated with malignancy in HCC. NDRG2 exerted anti-tumor activity by regulating CD24, a molecule that mediates cell-cell interaction, tumor proliferation and adhesion. NDRG2 up-regulation decreased CD24 expression and cell adhesion, migration and invasion. By contrast, NDRG2 down-regulation enhanced CD24 expression and cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of 50 human HCC clinical specimens showed a strong correlation between NDRG2 down-regulation and CD24 overexpression (P = 0.04. In addition, increased frequency of NDRG2 down-regulation was observed in patients with elevated AFP serum level (P = 0.006, late TNM stage (P = 0.009, poor differentiation grade (P = 0.002, tumor invasion (P = 0.004 and recurrence (P = 0.024. Conclusions Our findings indicate that NDRG2 and CD24 regulate HCC adhesion, migration and invasion. The expression level of NDRG2 is closely related to the clinical features of HCC. Thus, NDRG2 plays an important physiological role in HCC metastasis.

  7. Role of galectin-3 as an adhesion molecule for neutrophil extravasation during streptococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sachiko; Ouellet, Nathalie; Pelletier, Isabelle; Simard, Marie; Rancourt, Ann; Bergeron, Michel G

    2002-02-15

    Recruitment of neutrophils from blood vessels to sites of infection represents one of the most important elements of innate immunity. Movement of neutrophils across blood vessel walls to the site of infection first requires that the migrating cells firmly attach to the endothelial wall. Generally, neutrophil extravasation is mediated at least in part by two classes of adhesion molecules, beta(2) integrins and selectins. However, in the case of streptococcal pneumonia, recent studies have revealed that a significant proportion of neutrophil diapedesis is not mediated by the beta(2) integrin/selectin paradigm. Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in inflammatory responses as well as in cell adhesion. Using an in vivo streptococcal pneumonia mouse model, we found that accumulation of galectin-3 in the alveolar space of streptococcus-infected lungs correlates closely with the onset of neutrophil extravasation. Furthermore, immunohistological analysis of infected lung tissue revealed the presence of galectin-3 in the lung tissue areas composed of epithelial and endothelial cell layers as well as of interstitial spaces. In vitro, galectin-3 was able to promote neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. Promotion of neutrophil adhesion by galectin-3 appeared to result from direct cross-linking of neutrophils to the endothelium and was dependent on galectin-3 oligomerization. Together, these results suggest that galectin-3 acts as an adhesion molecule that can mediate neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. However, accumulation of galectin-3 in lung was not observed during neutrophil emigration into alveoli induced by Escherichia coli infection, where the majority of neutrophil emigration is known to be beta(2) integrin dependent. Thus, based on our results, we propose that galectin-3 plays a role in beta(2) integrin-independent neutrophil extravasation, which occurs during alveolar infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  8. Unfavorable cytokine and adhesion molecule profiles during and after pregnancy, in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Rodríguez, María Del Mar; López-Tinoco, Cristina; Fernández-Deudero, Álvaro; Murri, Mora; García-Palacios, María Victoria; García-Valero, María Del Amor; Tinahones, Francisco José; Aguilar-Diosdado, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. To assess the relationships between components of the metabolic syndrome and cytokine and adhesion molecule levels in women with GDM during pregnancy and after delivery. A prospective case-control study on a sample of 126 pregnant women (63 with and 63 without gestational diabetes mellitus). In an intra-subject analysis, 41 women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus and 21 controls were re-assessed in the postpartum period. Clinical data and levels of cytokines and adhesion molecules were recorded during weeks 24-29 of pregnancy and 12 months after delivery. In the postpartum period, there were significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in both cases and controls, and of adiponectin in controls. Cases showed higher leptin levels, with no significant differences during and after pregnancy. No significant differences were seen in adhesion molecules and interleukin-6 between cases and controls during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, but levels of both were higher in cases. During pregnancy and after delivery, adiponectin decreased in cases and increased in controls. Significant positive correlations were seen between adiponectin and fasting blood glucose levels and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and also between leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. The results suggest that increased inflammation and transient hyperglycemia during pregnancy would represent a latent form of metabolic syndrome, with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and future cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial Adhesion Molecules and Multiple Organ Failure in Patients With Severe Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalakuhan, Bravein; Habib, Sheila A.; Mangat, Mandeep; Reyes, Luis F.; Rodriguez, Alejandro H.; Hinojosa, Cecilia A.; Soni, Nilam J.; Gilley, Ryan P.; Bustamante, Carlos A.; Anzueto, Antonio; Levine, Stephanie M.; Peters, Jay I.; Aliberti, Stefano; Sibila, Oriol; Chalmers, James D.; Torres, Antoni; Waterer, Grant W.; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Bordon, Jose; Blanquer, Jose; Sanz, Francisco; Marcos, Pedro J.; Rello, Jordi; Ramirez, Julio; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Luna, Carlos M.; Feldman, Charles; Witzenrath, Martin; Wunderink, Richard G.; Stolz, Daiana; Wiemken, Tim L.; Shindo, Yuichiro; Dela Cruz, Charles S.; Orihuela, Carlos J.; Restrepo, Marcos I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if serum levels of endothelial adhesion molecules were associated with the development of multiple organ failure (MOF) and in-hospital mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis. Design This study was a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting Patients were admitted to two tertiary intensive care units in San Antonio, TX, between 2007 and 2012. Patients Patients with severe sepsis at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were consistent with previously published criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock in adults. Exclusion criteria included immunosuppressive medications or conditions. Interventions None. Measurements Baseline serum levels of the following endothelial cell adhesion molecules were measured within the first 72 hours of ICU admission: Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The primary and secondary outcomes were development of MOF (≥2 organ dysfunction) and in-hospital mortality, respectively. Main results Forty-eight patients were enrolled in this study, of which 29 (60%) developed MOF. Patients that developed MOF had higher levels of VCAM-1 (p=0.01) and ICAM-1 (p=0.01), but not VEGF (p=0.70) compared with patients without MOF (single organ failure only). The area under the curve (AUC) to predict MOF according to VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VEGF was 0.71, 0.73, and 0.54, respectively. Only increased VCAM-1 levels were associated with in-hospital mortality (p=0.03). These associations were maintained even after adjusting for APACHE and SOFA scores using logistic regression. Conclusions High levels of serum ICAM-1 was associated with the development of MOF. High levels of VCAM-1 was associated with both MOF and in-hospital mortality. PMID:27701021

  10. Adhesion of alumina surfaces through confined water layers containing various molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Hebert L; Bowen, James; Kendall, Kevin

    2012-03-13

    When two surfaces confine water layers between them at the nanoscale, the behavior of these confined water molecules can deviate significantly from the behavior of bulk water, and it could reflect on the adhesion of such surfaces. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the role of confined water layers on the adhesion of hydrophilic surfaces and how sensitive this adhesion is to the presence of contaminants. Our methodology used under water AFM force measurements with an alumina-sputtered sphere-tipped cantilever and a flat alumina single crystal and then added fractions of ethanol, dimethylformamide, formamide, trimethylamine, and trehalose to water as contaminants. Such solutions were designed to illuminate the influences of dielectric constant, molecular size, refractive index, and number of hydrogen bonds from donors and acceptors of solutes to water. Apart from very dilute solutions of dimethylformamide, all solutions decreased the ability of confined water to give adhesion of the alumina surfaces. The predicted theoretical contribution of van der Waals and electrostatic forces was not observed when the contaminants distorted the way water organizes itself in confinement. The conclusion was that adhesion was sensitive mostly to the hydrogen-bonding network within water layers confined by the hydrophilic alumina surfaces.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the role of the adhesion molecule CD177 in neutrophil interactions with platelets and endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliyev, Boris K; Menshikov, Mikhail

    2012-09-01

    Neutrophil-specific glycoprotein CD177 is expressed on a subset of human neutrophils and has been shown to be a counter-receptor for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31). Previous studies have demonstrated that the interaction of CD177 with endothelial PECAM-1 supports neutrophil transendothelial migration resulting in preferential transmigration of the CD177-expressing neutrophil subset. As PECAM-1 is also abundantly expressed on platelets, we addressed a follow-up suggestion that CD177/PECAM-1 adhesive interaction may mediate platelet-neutrophil interactions and CD177-positive neutrophils may have a competitive advantage over CD177-negative neutrophils in binding platelets. Here, we report that CD177-positive and CD177-negative neutrophils do not differ significantly in their capacity to form platelet-neutrophil conjugates as assayed in whole blood and in mixed preparations of isolated platelets and neutrophils. Under flow conditions, neither platelet nor neutrophil activation resulted in preferential binding of platelets to CD177-expressing neutrophils. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in the ability of both neutrophil subsets to adhere to and migrate across surface-adherent activated platelets, whereas predominantly CD177-positive neutrophils migrated across HUVEC monolayers. In addition, we demonstrated that S(536) N dimorphism of PECAM-1, which affects CD177/PECAM-1 interaction, did not influence the equal capacity of the two neutrophil subsets to interact with platelets but influenced significantly the transendothelial migration of CD177-expressing neutrophils. Thus, CD177/PECAM-1 adhesive interaction, while contributing to neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction in neutrophil transendothelial migration, does not contribute to or is redundant in platelet-neutrophil interactions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Biglycan and Decorin Expression and Distribution in Palatal Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I; Serrano, M J; Ruest, L B; Svoboda, K K H

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) on apical surfaces of palatal medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells were necessary for palatal adhesion. In this study, we identified 2 proteoglycans, biglycan and decorin, that were expressed in the palatal shelves prior to adhesion. In addition, we established that these proteoglycans were dependent on transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect selected palatal epithelial cells from embryonic mouse embryos at various palate development stages. The expression of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) for biglycan and decorin was determined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The TGFβrI kinase inhibitor (SB431542) was used in palatal organ cultures to determine if blocking TFGβ signaling changed biglycan and decorin distribution. Immunohistochemistry of both biglycan and decorin revealed expression on the apical and lateral surfaces of MEE cells. Biglycan protein and mRNA levels peaked as the palatal shelves adhered. Decorin was less abundant on the apical epithelial surface and also had reduced mRNA levels compared to biglycan. Their proteins were not expressed on MEE cells of palates treated with SB431542, an inhibitor of TGFβ signaling. The temporal expression of biglycan and decorin on the apical surface of MEE, combined with the evidence that these proteins were regulated through the TGFβ pathway, indicated that they may be important for adhesion.

  13. In vitro investigation of molecules involved in Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 adhesion to host intestinal tract components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T; Obuchi, S; Eguchi, K; Seto, Y

    2016-06-01

    The adhesion ability of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 was investigated in vitro by searching for its adhesion molecules. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 showed adherence to host components, including two commercially available mucins, Caco-2 epithelial-like cells and the extracellular matrix molecule fibronectin (Fn). Its adhesion rates to host components were generally higher than those of other Lactobacillus strains. We examined sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs) anchored by a sortase enzyme encoded by srtA1. The adhesion rates of an srtA1 disruptant were lower than those of Lact. gasseri SBT2055, and the relative adherences were as follows: two mucins, 43 and 40%; Caco-2, 66% and Fn, 28%. Seven additional gene disruptants were generated to determine the precise SDPs that contribute to adhesion to each component. The adhesion ability of Lact. gasseri SBT2055 was superior to those of other Lactobacillus strains. Additionally, four adhesion molecules were newly identified from candidate SDPs. Although the contribution of SDPs to adhesion has been reported using sortase gene disruptants, this is the first report to identify the precise SDPs that act as adhesion molecules. Our results will contribute to achieving better understanding of probiotic bacterial adherence. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Cell adhesion molecules and hyaluronic acid as markers of inflammation, fibrosis and response to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Granot

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cell adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and hyaluronic acid, markers of inflammation and fibrosis were monitored in hepatitis C patients to determine whether changes in plasma levels, during antiviral treatment, can predict long-term response to therapy.

  15. ShcA regulates neurite outgrowth stimulated by neural cell adhesion molecule but not by fibroblast growth factor 2: evidence for a distinct fibroblast growth factor receptor response to neural cell adhesion molecule activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsby, Anders M; Lundfald, Line; Ditlevsen, Dorte K

    2004-01-01

    Homophilic binding in trans of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mediates adhesion between cells and leads, via activation of intracellular signaling cascades, to neurite outgrowth in primary neurons as well as in the neuronal cell line PC12. NCAM mediates neurite extension in PC12 cells...

  16. Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Röpke, C; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes, we examined whether human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) expressed HLA-DP molecules. We present evidence that TEC obtained from short time culture express low but significant levels of HLA-DP molecules. The expression of HLA-DP molecules was comparable to or higher than the expression...... of HLA-DP allospecific primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) CD4 T cell lines. IFN-gamma treatment strongly upregulated the HLA-DP allospecific PLT responses whereas other PLT responses remained largely unchanged. In conclusion, these data indicate that human thymus epithelial cells express significant levels...

  17. Breast cancer cell migration is regulated through junctional adhesion molecule-A-mediated activation of Rap1 GTPase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McSherry, Elaine A

    2011-03-23

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and β1-integrin, we examined activation of the β1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we tested functional inhibitors of all three proteins separately or together in migration assays. Finally we performed immunoprecipitations in MCF7 cells and primary breast cells to determine the binding partners connecting JAM-A to Rap1 activation. RESULTS: JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breast cancer cells reduced adhesion to, and migration through, the β1-integrin substrate fibronectin. This was accompanied by reduced protein expression of β1-integrin and its binding partners αV- and α5-integrin. Rap1 activity was reduced in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 reduced MCF7 cell migration. No additive anti-migratory effect was observed in response to simultaneous inhibition of JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin, suggesting that they lie in a linear migratory pathway. Finally, in an attempt to elucidate the binding partners putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we have demonstrated the formation of a complex between JAM-A, AF

  18. Breast cancer cell migration is regulated through junctional adhesion molecule-A-mediated activation of Rap1 GTPase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McSherry, Elaine A

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and beta1-integrin, we examined activation of the beta1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and beta1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we tested functional inhibitors of all three proteins separately or together in migration assays. Finally we performed immunoprecipitations in MCF7 cells and primary breast cells to determine the binding partners connecting JAM-A to Rap1 activation. RESULTS: JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breast cancer cells reduced adhesion to, and migration through, the beta1-integrin substrate fibronectin. This was accompanied by reduced protein expression of beta1-integrin and its binding partners alphaV- and alpha5-integrin. Rap1 activity was reduced in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 reduced MCF7 cell migration. No additive anti-migratory effect was observed in response to simultaneous inhibition of JAM-A, Rap1 and beta1-integrin, suggesting that they lie in a linear migratory pathway. Finally, in an attempt to elucidate the binding partners putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we have demonstrated the formation of a complex between

  19. Breast cancer cell migration is regulated through junctional adhesion molecule-A-mediated activation of Rap1 GTPase

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McSherry, Elaine A

    2011-03-23

    Abstract Introduction The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. Methods MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and β1-integrin, we examined activation of the β1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we tested functional inhibitors of all three proteins separately or together in migration assays. Finally we performed immunoprecipitations in MCF7 cells and primary breast cells to determine the binding partners connecting JAM-A to Rap1 activation. Results JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breast cancer cells reduced adhesion to, and migration through, the β1-integrin substrate fibronectin. This was accompanied by reduced protein expression of β1-integrin and its binding partners αV- and α5-integrin. Rap1 activity was reduced in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 reduced MCF7 cell migration. No additive anti-migratory effect was observed in response to simultaneous inhibition of JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin, suggesting that they lie in a linear migratory pathway. Finally, in an attempt to elucidate the binding partners putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we have demonstrated the formation of a complex between JAM-A, AF-6

  20. Depletion of water molecules during ethanol wet-bonding with etch and rinse dental adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, Genevieve, E-mail: gregoire@cict.fr [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France); Sharrock, Patrick [Medical and Spatial Imaging Laboratory, University Toulouse III, Ave. Pompidou, 81104, Castres (France); Delannee, Mathieu [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France); Delisle, Marie-Bernadette [Faculty of Medicine, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of demineralized dentin with ethanol has been proposed as a way to improve hydrophobic monomer penetration into otherwise water saturated collagen fibrils. The ethanol rinse is expected to preserve the fibrils from collapsing while optimizing resin constituent infiltration for better long term adhesion. The physico-chemical investigations of demineralized dentin confirmed objectively these working hypotheses. Namely, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the melting point of water molecules pointed to the presence of free and bound water states. Unfreezable water was the main type of water remaining following a rinsing step with absolute ethanol. Two different liquid water phases were also observed by Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of ethanol treated specimens illustrated differences with the fully hydrated specimens concerning the polar carbonyl vibrations. Optical microscopy observations as well as scanning electron microscopy showed an improved dentin-adhesive interface with ethanol wet bonding. The results indicate that water can be confined to strongly bound structural molecules when excess water is removed with ethanol prior to adhesive application. This should preserve collagen from hydrolysis upon aging of the hybrid layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-freezable water exists in demineralized dentine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free water can be removed by ethanol rinse of the demineralized collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol wet bonding leads to a homogeneous hybrid layer free of defects.

  1. Adhesion of single polyelectrolyte molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-02-14

    In a recent study (Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 936), a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was used as a process aid to recover bitumen from oil sand ores. It was found that HPAM addition at the bitumen extraction step not only improved bitumen recovery but also enhanced fine solids settling in the tailings stream. To understand the role of HPAM, single-molecule force spectroscopy was employed for the first time to measure the desorption/adhesion forces of single HPAM molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Silicon wafers with an oxidized surface layer and newly cleaved mica were used, respectively, to represent sand grains and clays in oil sands. The force measurements were carried out in deionized water and in commercial plant process water under equilibrium conditions. The desorption/adhesion forces of HPAM obtained on mica, silica, and bitumen surfaces were approximately 200, 40, and 80 pN in deionized water and approximately 100, 50, and 40 pN in the plant process water, respectively. The measured adhesion forces together with the zeta potential values of these surfaces indicate that the polymer would preferentially adsorb onto clay surfaces rather than onto bitumen surfaces. It is the selective adsorption of HPAM that benefits both bitumen recovery and tailings settling when the polymer was added directly to the bitumen extraction process at an appropriate dosage.

  2. Diabetic impairment of C-kit bone marrow stem cells involves the disorders of inflammatory factors, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Sheng Li

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stem cells from diabetes mellitus patients exhibit functional impairment, but the relative molecular mechanisms responsible for this impairment are poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for diabetes-related functional impairment of bone marrow stem cells by extensively screening the expression levels of inflammatory factors, cell cycle regulating molecules, extracellular matrix molecules and adhesion molecules. Bone marrow cells were collected from type 2 diabetic (db/db and healthy control (db/m+ mice, and c-kit+ stem cells were purified (purity>85% for experiments. Compared with the healthy control mice, diabetic mice had significantly fewer c-kit+ stem cells, and these cells had a lower potency of endothelial differentiation; however, the production of the angiogenic growth factor VEGF did not differ between groups. A pathway-focused array showed that the c-kit+ stem cells from diabetic mice had up-regulated expression levels of many inflammatory factors, including Tlr4, Cxcl9, Il9, Tgfb1, Il4, and Tnfsf5, but no obvious change in the expression levels of cell cycle molecules. Interestingly, diabetes-related alterations of the extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules were varied; Pecam, Mmp10, Lamc1, Itgb7, Mmp9, and Timp4 were up-regulated, but Col11a1, Fn1, Admts2, and Itgav were down-regulated. Some of these changes were also confirmed at the protein level by flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, c-kit+ bone marrow stem cells from diabetic mice exhibited an extensive enhancement of inflammatory factors and disorders of the extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules. Further intervention studies are required to determine the precise role of each molecule in the diabetes-related functional impairment of c-kit+ bone marrow stem cells.

  3. Overexpression of L1 cell adhesion molecule correlates with aggressive tumor progression of patients with breast cancer and promotes motility of breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhen, Linlin; Han, Xuedong; Jiao, Feng; Tang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been observed to be aberrantly expressed and implicated in progression of several types of human cancers. However, its roles in breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of L1CAM in human breast cancer and to validate whether it participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of 100 breast cancer and matched non-cancerous ...

  4. Differential effects of unnatural sialic acids on the polysialylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule and neuronal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charter, Neil W; Mahal, Lara K; Koshland, Daniel E; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2002-03-15

    In this study we have examined how unnatural sialic acids can alter polysialic acid expression and influence the adhesive properties of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Unnatural sialic acids are generated by metabolic conversion of synthetic N-acyl mannosamines and are typically incorporated into cell-surface glycoconjugates. However, N-butanoylmannosamine and N-pentanoylmannosamine are effective inhibitors of polysialic acid (PSA) synthesis in stably transfected HeLa cells expressing NCAM and the polysialyltransferase STX. These cells were used as substrates to examine the effect of inhibiting PSA synthesis on the development of neurons derived from the chick dorsal root ganglion. N-butanoylmannosamine blocked polysialylation of NCAM and significantly reduced neurite outgrowth comparable with enzymatic removal of PSA by endoneuraminidases. As a result, neurite outgrowth was similar to that observed for non-polysialylated NCAM. In contrast, previous studies have shown that N-propanoyl sialic acid (SiaProp), generated from N-propanoylmannosamine, is readily accepted by polysialyltransferases and permits the extension of poly(SiaProp) on NCAM. Despite being immunologically distinct, poly(SiaProp) can promote neurite outgrowth similarly to natural polysialic acid. Thus, subtle structural differences in PSA resulting from the incorporation of SiaProp residues do not alter the antiadhesive properties of polysialylated NCAM.

  5. Increased DC trafficking to lymph nodes and contact hypersensitivity in junctional adhesion molecule-A–deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cera, Maria Rosaria; Del Prete, Annalisa; Vecchi, Annunciata; Corada, Monica; Martin-Padura, Ines; Motoike, Toshiyuki; Tonetti, Paolo; Bazzoni, Gianfranco; Vermi, William; Gentili, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Sato, Thomas N.; Mantovani, Alberto; Dejana, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane adhesive protein expressed at endothelial junctions and in leukocytes. In the present work, we found that DCs also express JAM-A. To evaluate the biological relevance of this observation, Jam-A–/– mice were generated and the functional behavior of DCs in vitro and in vivo was studied. In vitro, Jam-A–/– DCs showed a selective increase in random motility and in the capacity to transmigrate across lymphatic endothelial cells. In vivo, Jam-A–/– mice showed enhanced DC migration to lymph nodes, which was not observed in mice with endothelium-restricted deficiency of the protein. Furthermore, increased DC migration to lymph nodes was associated with enhanced contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Adoptive transfer experiments showed that JAM-A–deficient DCs elicited increased CHS in Jam-A+/+ mice, further supporting the concept of a DC-specific effect. Thus, we identified here a novel, non-redundant role of JAM-A in controlling DC motility, trafficking to lymph nodes, and activation of specific immunity. PMID:15343392

  6. [Value of adhesion molecules for evaluating the efficiency of therapy for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, A I; Boldyreva, O N; Ruchkina, I N; Knyazev, O V; Sagynbaeva, V E; Shcherbakov, P L; Khomeriki, S G; Lazebnik, L B; Konoplyannikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    To define the value of adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 integrin, P-selectin, E-selectin, and L-selectin) for the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of treatment in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. Twenty-six patients with UC and 14 patients with CD were examined. Of them, 16 patients took infliximab (INF) in a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight according to the standard scheme; 14 patients received cultured mesenchymal stem stromal cells (MSSCs) in a quantity of 150 x 10(8) cells, and 10 had azathioprine (AZA) 2 mg/kg and glucocorticosteroids (GCS) 1 mg/kg of body weight. Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the serum concentration of the adhesion molecules (L-selectin, E-selectin, P-selectin, and sVCAM-1 integrin) before and 2 months after treatment. The signs of bowel inflammatory disease activity and the elevated levels of adhesion molecules whose synthesis did not occur under normal conditions remained in the patients receiving GCS and AZA. INF treatment caused a decrease in P-selectin, E-selectin, and sVCAM-1 levels to 8.9 +/- 1.0, 5.5 +/- 1.7, and 9.5 +/- 4.4 ng/ml, respectively (p 0.1); that of L-selectin did not drop after MSSC administration and INF induction therapy. P-selectin, E-selectin, L-selectin, and sVCAM-1 integrin are current inflammatory markers and may be used to evaluate the efficiency of standard and biological therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases and to predict disease course.

  7. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and prealbumin in cerebrospinal fluid from depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Steen

    1988-01-01

    The size of the soluble form of the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM-sol, was by gel permeation chromatography estimated to 160-250 kDa. Within the CSF the concentration of NCAM-sol was found about 15-25% increased in lumbar fluid and 25% increased in ventricular...... 15.1% in depressed patients. The changes were partially normalized during recovery from the depression. The findings can be explained by hypothesizing that endogenous depression is associated with an increased choroid plexus activity and CSF production....

  8. The clinical spectrum of mutations in L1, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, E.; Vits, L.; Van Camp, G.; Willems, P.J. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    1996-07-12

    Mutations in the gene encoding the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 are responsible for several syndromes with clinical overlap, including X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH, HSAS), MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, adducted thumbs) syndrome, complicated X-linked spastic paraplegia (SP 1), X-linked mental retardation-clasped thumb (MR-CT) syndrome, and some forms of X-linked agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). We review 34 L1 mutations in patients with these phenotypes. 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Is Only Present in Mammals, and Belongs to a Family of Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Luca; Gatti, Elena; Zeni, Filippo; Antonelli, Antonella; Catucci, Alessandro; Koch, Michael; Pompilio, Giulio; Fritz, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The human receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and is involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Most importantly, RAGE is considered a receptor for HMGB1 and several S100 proteins, which are Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) released during tissue damage. In this study we show that the Ager gene coding for RAGE first appeared in mammals, and is closely related to other genes coding for cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as ALCAM, BCAM and MCAM that appeared earlier during metazoan evolution. RAGE is expressed at very low levels in most cells, but when expressed at high levels, it mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and to other cells through homophilic interactions. Our results suggest that RAGE evolved from a family of CAMs, and might still act as an adhesion molecule, in particular in the lung where it is highly expressed or under pathological conditions characterized by an increase of its protein levels. PMID:24475194

  10. Effect of methylprednisolone on the oxidative burst activity, adhesion molecules and clinical outcome following open heart surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Christiansen, K; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1997-01-01

    Following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), activated granulocytes may be involved with ischaemia/ reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether steroids could reduce the oxidative burst activity of granulocytes, the expression of adhesion molecules...... on granulocytes and improve clinical outcome. Sixteen patients undergoing open heart surgery participated in the study. Eight were randomized to receive methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg intravenously) at the start of anaesthesia while eight patients served as a control group. The oxidative burst was measured flow...... not improve the weaning from the ventilator or reduce the stay in the intensive-care unit. In conclusion, treatment with steroids prevented hyperthermia following open heart surgery with CPB and reduced capillary leak during ECC. Methylprednisolone, however, did not reduce the oxidative burst activity...

  11. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby (Texas-MED)

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  12. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C promotes the recovery of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Chul; Ko, Yoon Sook; Lee, Hee Young; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung; Cho, Won-Yong

    2017-11-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated the occurrence of neutrophil transendothelial migration in the reverse direction (reverse TEM) and that endothelial junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) is a negative regulator of reverse TEM. In this study, we tested the effects of a JAM-C blocking antibody on the resolution of kidney injuries and inflammation in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Cisplatin was administered via intraperitoneal injection. A JAM-C blocking antibody or a control immunoglobulin G was administered intraperitoneal at 1.5 mg/kg, with the injection being delayed until day 4 following cisplatin administration to restrict the effect of antibodies on recovery. After cisplatin injection, serum creatinine and histologic injuries peaked on day 4. Treatment with a JAM-C blocking antibody on days 4 and 5 promoted the functional and histologic recovery of cisplatin-induced AKI on days 5 and 6. Facilitating recovery with a JAM-C blocking antibody correlated with significantly increased circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1+ Tamm-Horsfall protein+ neutrophils and significantly decreased renal neutrophil infiltration, indicating that facilitating reverse the TEM of neutrophils from the kidney to the peripheral circulation partially mediated the resolution of inflammation and recovery. These results demonstrated that reverse TEM is involved in the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation in cisplatin-induced AKI and that JAM-C is an important regulator of this process.

  13. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, forming trans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft or cis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics. PMID:28255461

  14. Association of adipokines and adhesion molecules with indicators of obesity in women undergoing mammography screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoppo de Souza Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1 and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. Design Transversal study. Subjects One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. Results In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight.

  15. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  16. Effects of aminaftone 75 mg TID on soluble adhesion molecules: a 12-week, randomized, open-label pilot study in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Raffaella; Santaniello, Alessandro; Salazar, Giulia; Lenna, Stefania; Della Bella, Silvia; Antonioli, Rita; Toussoun, Karen; Beretta, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Vasculopathy is one of the hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc), characterized by endothelial activation and over expression of adhesion molecules. A preliminary in vitro study has suggested that aminaftone, a naphtohydrochinone used in the treatment of capillary disorders, may downregulate the expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. This study investigated the ex vivo effects of aminaftone on soluble adhesion molecule concentrations in patients with SSc. This randomized, open-label pilot study was conducted in patients with SSc. Patients received baseline treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon (eg, calcium channel blockers and IV cyclic iloprost) with (test) or without (control) aminaftone 75 mg or placebo TID for 12 weeks. Standard treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon was allowed as long as the dose was stable for >or=3 months prior to randomization. Concentrations of soluble E-selectin adhesion molecule 1 (sELAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks, and their variation was tested using the analysis of variance for repeated measures with statistical correction. Laboratory analyses were performed by experienced personnel blinded to treatment assignment. A total of 24 patients were enrolled (21 women, 3 men; mean age, 53.4 years; aminaftone, 12 patients; control, 12 patients). Decreases in mean (SD) sELAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were significantly greater in treated patients (sELAM-1, from 17.0 [7.8] to 11.9 [9.0] pg/mL; sVCAM-1, from 51.2 [12.9] to 40.8 [13.8] ng/mL) compared with controls (sELAM-1, from 20.3 [9.9] to 20.4 [10.5] pg/mL; sVCAM-1, from 56.8 [49.6] to 62.7 [40.6] ng/mL) (both, P < 0.05 [analysis of variance or repeated measures after Bonferroni correction]). No significant changes in sICAM-1 concentrations versus controls were observed. In this small pilot study in this select group of patients with SSc, aminaftone was

  17. High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Screening Reveals a Role for Junctional Adhesion Molecule A as a Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Lathia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside in niches that regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The identity of a stem cell is linked with the ability to interact with its niche through adhesion mechanisms. To identify targets that disrupt cancer stem cell (CSC adhesion, we performed a flow cytometry screen on patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM cells and identified junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A as a CSC adhesion mechanism essential for self-renewal and tumor growth. JAM-A was dispensable for normal neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC function, and JAM-A expression was reduced in normal brain versus GBM. Targeting JAM-A compromised the self-renewal of CSCs. JAM-A expression negatively correlated to GBM patient prognosis. Our results demonstrate that GBM-targeting strategies can be identified through screening adhesion receptors and JAM-A represents a mechanism for niche-driven CSC maintenance.

  18. Dennexin peptides modeled after the homophilic binding sites of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) promote neuronal survival, modify cell adhesion and impair spatial learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler, Lene B; Christensen, Claus; Rossetti, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-mediated cell adhesion results in activation of intracellular signaling cascades that lead to cellular responses such as neurite outgrowth, neuronal survival, and modulation of synaptic activity associated with cognitive processes. The crystal structure...... of the immunoglobulin (Ig) 1-2-3 fragment of the NCAM ectodomain has revealed novel mechanisms for NCAM homophilic adhesion. The present study addressed the biological significance of the so called dense zipper formation of NCAM. Two peptides, termed dennexinA and dennexinB, were modeled after the contact interfaces...... between Ig1 and Ig3 and between Ig2 and Ig2, respectively, observed in the crystal structure. Although the two dennexin peptides differed in amino acid sequence, they both modulated cell adhesion, reflected by inhibition of NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth. Both dennexins also promoted neuronal survival...

  19. Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  20. Neural cell adhesion molecule-180-mediated homophilic binding induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) down-regulation and uncouples the inhibitory function of EGFR in neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays important roles in neuronal development, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. NCAM homophilic binding mediates cell adhesion and induces intracellular signals, in which the fibroblast growth factor receptor plays a prominent role. Recent studies...

  1. Tissue organization by cadherin adhesion molecules: dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms of morphogenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Carien M.; Leckband, Deborah; Yap, Alpha S.

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cadherin-based tissue morphogenesis. Tissue physiology is profoundly influenced by the distinctive organizations of cells in organs and tissues. In metazoa, adhesion receptors of the classical cadherin family play important roles in establishing and maintaining such tissue organization. Indeed, it is apparent that cadherins participate in a range of morphogenetic events that range from support of tissue integrity to dynamic cellular rearrangements. A comprehensive understanding of cadherin-based morphogenesis must then define the molecular and cellular mechanisms that support these distinct cadherin biologies. Here we focus on four key mechanistic elements: the molecular basis for adhesion through cadherin ectodomains; the regulation of cadherin expression at the cell surface; cooperation between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulation by cell signaling. We discuss current progress and outline issues for further research in these fields. PMID:21527735

  2. Identification of Human Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 as a Functional Receptor for the Hom-1 Calicivirus on Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1, was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. Virus infection was markedly inhibited when CHO cells stably expressing hJAM were pretreated with anti-hJAM1 monoclonal antibodies. Cell lines of human origin were tested for growth of Hom-1, and efficient replication was observed in HepG2, HuH7, and SK-CO15 cells. The three cell lines (of hepatic or intestinal origin were confirmed to express hJAM1 on their surface, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated knockout of the hJAM1 gene in each line abolished Hom-1 propagation. Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor.

  3. OCAM: A new member of the neural cell adhesion molecule family related to zone-to-zone projection of olfactory and vomeronasal axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Y; Kawasaki, M; Tamada, A; Fujita, H; Hayashi, H; Kagamiyama, H; Mori, K

    1997-08-01

    Zone-to-zone projection of olfactory and vomeronasal sensory axons underlies the topographic and functional mapping of chemoreceptor expression zones of the sensory epithelia onto zonally arranged glomeruli in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. Here we identified OCAM (R4B12 antigen), an axonal surface glycoprotein expressed by subsets of both olfactory and vomeronasal axons in a zone-specific manner. OCAM is a novel homophilic adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily with striking structural homology to neural cell adhesion molecule. In both the main and accessory olfactory systems, OCAM mRNA is expressed by sensory neurons in restricted chemoreceptor expression zones, and OCAM protein-expressing axons project to the glomeruli in the corresponding zones of the main and accessory bulbs. OCAM protein is expressed on subsets of growing sensory axons in explant cultures even in the absence of the target bulb. These results demonstrate a precisely coordinated zonal expression of chemoreceptors and OCAM and suggest that OCAM may play important roles in selective fasciculation and zone-to-zone projection of the primary olfactory axons.

  4. Cellular adhesion gene SELP is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and displays differential allelic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jana; Blume, Mechthild; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth; Hugo Teixeira, Vitor; Steiner, Anke; Quente, Elfi; Wolfram, Grit; Scholz, Markus; Pierlot, Céline; Migliorini, Paola; Bombardieri, Stefano; Balsa, Alejandro; Westhovens, René; Barrera, Pilar; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Alves, Helena; Bardin, Thomas; Prum, Bernard; Emmrich, Frank; Cornelis, François; Ahnert, Peter; Kirsten, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a key event is infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into the synovial lining, possibly aggravated by dysregulation of cellular adhesion molecules. Therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms of 14 genes involved in cellular adhesion processes (CAST, ITGA4, ITGB1, ITGB2, PECAM1, PTEN, PTPN11, PTPRC, PXN, SELE, SELP, SRC, TYK2, and VCAM1) were analyzed for association with RA. Association analysis was performed consecutively in three European RA family sample groups (Nfamilies = 407). Additionally, we investigated differential allelic expression, a possible functional consequence of genetic variants. SELP (selectin P, CD62P) SNP-allele rs6136-T was associated with risk for RA in two RA family sample groups as well as in global analysis of all three groups (ptotal = 0.003). This allele was also expressed preferentially (p<10-6) with a two- fold average increase in regulated samples. Differential expression is supported by data from Genevar MuTHER (p1 = 0.004; p2 = 0.0177). Evidence for influence of rs6136 on transcription factor binding was also found in silico and in public datasets reporting in vitro data. In summary, we found SELP rs6136-T to be associated with RA and with increased expression of SELP mRNA. SELP is located on the surface of endothelial cells and crucial for recruitment, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells into the joint. Genetically determined increased SELP expression levels might thus be a novel additional risk factor for RA.

  5. Cellular adhesion gene SELP is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and displays differential allelic expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Burkhardt

    Full Text Available In rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a key event is infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into the synovial lining, possibly aggravated by dysregulation of cellular adhesion molecules. Therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms of 14 genes involved in cellular adhesion processes (CAST, ITGA4, ITGB1, ITGB2, PECAM1, PTEN, PTPN11, PTPRC, PXN, SELE, SELP, SRC, TYK2, and VCAM1 were analyzed for association with RA. Association analysis was performed consecutively in three European RA family sample groups (Nfamilies = 407. Additionally, we investigated differential allelic expression, a possible functional consequence of genetic variants. SELP (selectin P, CD62P SNP-allele rs6136-T was associated with risk for RA in two RA family sample groups as well as in global analysis of all three groups (ptotal = 0.003. This allele was also expressed preferentially (p<10-6 with a two- fold average increase in regulated samples. Differential expression is supported by data from Genevar MuTHER (p1 = 0.004; p2 = 0.0177. Evidence for influence of rs6136 on transcription factor binding was also found in silico and in public datasets reporting in vitro data. In summary, we found SELP rs6136-T to be associated with RA and with increased expression of SELP mRNA. SELP is located on the surface of endothelial cells and crucial for recruitment, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells into the joint. Genetically determined increased SELP expression levels might thus be a novel additional risk factor for RA.

  6. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is distinct from the N-CAM related group of surface antigens BSP-2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faissner, A; Kruse, J; Goridis, C

    1984-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and the group of N-CAM related molecules, BSP-2 and D2 antigen, are immunochemically distinct molecular species. The two groups of surface molecules are also functionally distinct entities, since inhibition of Ca2+-independent adhesion among early post-natal m...

  7. Proper migration and axon outgrowth of zebrafish cranial motoneuron subpopulations require the cell adhesion molecule MDGA2A.

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Ingold; Vom Berg-Maurer, Colette M; Burckhardt, Christoph J.; André Lehnherr; Philip Rieder; Philip J. Keller; Stelzer, Ernst H; Greber, Urs F.; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Matthias Gesemann

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of functional neuronal circuits relies on accurate migration and proper axonal outgrowth of neuronal precursors. On the route to their targets migrating cells and growing axons depend on both, directional information from neurotropic cues and adhesive interactions mediated via extracellular matrix molecules or neighbouring cells. The inactivation of guidance cues or the interference with cell adhesion can cause severe defects in neuronal migration and axon guidance. In ...

  8. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1, is associated with diabetic kidney disease in Asians with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Yeoh, Lee Ying; Sum, Chee Fang; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Ng, Xiao Wei; Liu, Sylvia; Lee, Simon B M; Tang, Wern Ee; Lim, Su Chi

    2015-07-01

    The association of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 with cardiovascular diseases has been well-studied. However, their roles in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are incompletely understood. We aim to study the association of plasma ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 with DKD in Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A total of 1950 Asians with T2DM were included in this cross-sectional study. Plasma ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were measured by immunoassays. Renal filtration function (eGFR) declined and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) levels increased progressively with the increase in plasma VCAM-1 levels. In contrast, no significant changes in eGFR and ACR were observed in subjects across different plasma ICAM-1 levels. Both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were correlated with ACR (rho = 0.153, p < 0.001 for VCAM-1 and ACR; rho = 0.053, p = 0.020 for ICAM-1 and ACR) in bivariate correlation analysis. However, only VCAM-1 was correlated with eGFR (rho = -0.228, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression models revealed that VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, was independently associated with eGFR and albuminuria. Backward linear regression suggested that plasma VCAM-1 variability was mainly determined by eGFR whereas plasma ICAM-1 level was mainly determined by C-reactive protein in patients with T2DM. Plasma VCAM-1 level, but not ICAM-1 level, was independently associated with prevalent DKD in Asians with T2DM. High level of ICAM-1 may be indicative of systemic inflammation and portends increase risk of incipient DKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Human Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 as a Functional Receptor for the Hom-1 Calicivirus on Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I; Tin, Christine M; Jones, Ronald W; Soden, Jo; Barnes, Donna; Freeth, Jim; Smith, Alvin W; Green, Kim Y

    2017-02-14

    The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Virus infection was markedly inhibited when CHO cells stably expressing hJAM were pretreated with anti-hJAM1 monoclonal antibodies. Cell lines of human origin were tested for growth of Hom-1, and efficient replication was observed in HepG2, HuH7, and SK-CO15 cells. The three cell lines (of hepatic or intestinal origin) were confirmed to express hJAM1 on their surface, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated knockout of the hJAM1 gene in each line abolished Hom-1 propagation. Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor.IMPORTANCE Vesiviruses, such as San Miguel sea lion virus and feline calicivirus, are typically associated with infection in animal hosts. Following the accidental infection of a laboratory worker with San Miguel sea lion virus, a related virus was isolated in cell culture and named Hom-1. In this study, we found that Hom-1 could be propagated in a number of human cell lines, making it the first calicivirus to replicate efficiently in cultured human cells. Screening of a library of human cell surface membrane proteins showed that the virus could utilize human junctional adhesion molecule 1 as a receptor to enter cells and initiate replication. The Hom-1 virus presents a new

  10. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (ECAM1) is required in the maintenance of corneal epithelial barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinzi; Jiang, Jian; Wang, Shuhong; Xia, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Corneal epithelial barrier integrity is critical in the maintenance of the corneal homeostasis. The corneal barrier dysfunction may be associated with the pathogenesis of a number of eye diseases. In this study, we assessed the expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (ECAM1) in human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The epithelial barrier function of the corneal epithelial monolayer was determined in Transwells. We found that the HCE cells expressed ECAM1. Knockdown of ECAM1 markedly compromised the HCE monolayer barrier function. A complex of ECAM1, claudin1, and occludin was detected in the HCE monolayers, which was not detected in the ECAM1-null HCE monolayers. Exposure to the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-13, inhibited the expression of ECAM1 in HCE cells and compromised the barrier function, which was prevented in the HCE monolayer with the ECAM1 overexpression. In conclusion, ECAM1 is required in the formation of the tight junction complex and maintaining the corneal epithelial barrier function. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachner Melitta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171 is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Results Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p p Conclusion These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy.

  12. New serum markers for small-cell lung cancer. II. The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A; Drivsholm, L; Andersen, E

    1994-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was recently suggested as a marker for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the NCAM in 78% of SCLC patients and in 25% of patients with other cancer forms. NCAM was proposed to be the most sensitive marker...... for SCLC, and it may also be an important prognostic marker for SCLC. We used a competitive ELISA to analyze the concentrations of NCAM in sera from 96 SCLC patients, 16 patients with non-SCLC, 4 patients with other cancer forms, and 16 healthy controls. All sera were collected at the time of diagnosis...... serum marker, FucGM1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  13. Pneumococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules targeting of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gavin K; Orihuela, Carlos J

    2010-07-01

    The attachment of bacteria to host cells and tissues, and their subsequent invasion and dissemination are key processes during pathogenesis. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Jensch and co-workers provide further molecular insight into these events during infection with the Gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their characterization of pneumococcal adherence and virulence factor B (PavB), a bacterial surface protein with orthologues in other streptococci, show that it binds to the extracellar matrix components fibronection and plasminogen by virtue of repetitive sequences-designated streptococcal surface repeats. In mice, a pavB mutant showed reduced nasopharyngeal colonization and was attenuated in a lung infection model. As discussed here in the context of the pneumococcus, the study of PavB highlights the central role during microbal pathogenesis of targetting the extracellular matrix by so-called microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs).

  14. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region of the mo......We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...

  15. Assessment of the potential utility of different regions of Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) for mastitis subunit vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Melina Soledad; Veaute, Carolina; Renna, María Sol; Pujato, Nazarena; Calvinho, Luis; Marcipar, Iván; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus uberis is one of the most prevalent pathogens causing clinical and subclinical mastitis worldwide. Among bacterial factors involved in intramammary infections caused by this organism, S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) is one of the main virulence factors identified. This molecule is involved in S. uberis internalization to mammary epithelial cells through lactoferrin (Lf) binding. The objective of this study was to evaluate SUAM properties as a potential subunit vaccine component for prevention of S. uberis mastitis. B epitope prediction analysis of SUAM sequence was used to identify potentially immunogenic regions. Since these regions were detected all along the gene, this criterion did not allow selecting a specific region as a potential immunogen. Hence, four fractions of SUAM (-1fr, 2fr, 3fr and 4fr), comprising most of the protein, were cloned and expressed. Every fraction elicited a humoral immune response in mice as predicted by bioinformatics analysis. SUAM-1fr generated antibodies with the highest recognition ability towards SUAM native protein. Moreover, antibodies against SUAM-1fr produced the highest proportion of internalization inhibition of S. uberis to mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, SUAM immunogenic and functionally relevant regions were identified and allowed to propose SUAM-1fr as a potential candidate for a subunit vaccine for S. uberis mastitis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating Cellular Adhesion Molecules and Cognitive Function: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Cynthia Yursun; Steffen, Lyn M; Gross, Myron D; Launer, Lenore J; Odegaard, Andrew; Reiner, Alexander; Sanchez, Otto; Yaffe, Kristine; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs, David R

    2017-01-01

    Higher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance. Within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992-1993, ages 25-37) and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000-2001, ages 33-45). We included subjects with levels of circulating soluble CAMs measured in year 7 or 15 and cognitive function testing in year 25 (2010-2011, ages 43-55). Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the association between CAMs and year 25 cognitive test scores: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, memory), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, speed of processing), and the Stroop Test (executive function). All CAM concentrations were greater in year 15 vs. year 7. Adjusting for age, race, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, participants in the fourth vs. the first quartile of CARDIA year 7 of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) scored worse on RAVLT, DSST, and Stroop Test (p ≤ 0.05) in CARDIA year 25. Other CAMs showed little association with cognitive test scores. Findings were similar for ICAM-1 assessed at year 15. Adjustment for possibly mediating physical factors attenuated the findings. Higher circulating ICAM-1 at average ages 32 and 40 was associated with lower cognitive skills at average age 50. The study is consistent with the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction is associated with worse short-term memory, speed of processing, and executive function.

  17. Circulating Cellular Adhesion Molecules and Cognitive Function: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Yursun Yoon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveHigher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance.MethodWithin the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992–1993, ages 25–37 and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000–2001, ages 33–45. We included subjects with levels of circulating soluble CAMs measured in year 7 or 15 and cognitive function testing in year 25 (2010–2011, ages 43–55. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the association between CAMs and year 25 cognitive test scores: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, memory, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, speed of processing, and the Stroop Test (executive function.ResultAll CAM concentrations were greater in year 15 vs. year 7. Adjusting for age, race, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, participants in the fourth vs. the first quartile of CARDIA year 7 of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 scored worse on RAVLT, DSST, and Stroop Test (p ≤ 0.05 in CARDIA year 25. Other CAMs showed little association with cognitive test scores. Findings were similar for ICAM-1 assessed at year 15. Adjustment for possibly mediating physical factors attenuated the findings.ConclusionHigher circulating ICAM-1 at average ages 32 and 40 was associated with lower cognitive skills at average age 50. The study is consistent with the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction is associated with worse short-term memory, speed of processing, and executive function.

  18. Effect of profound normovolemic hypotension and moderate hypothermia on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Bogatzki, S; Syben, R; Bechrakis, N E; Dopjans, D; Spies, C; Welte, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1999-11-01

    Hypotension caused by hypovolemic, hemorrhagic shock induces disturbances in the immune system that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to sepsis. The effect of chemically induced hypotension on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been investigated yet. In 21 patients scheduled for resection of malignant choroidal melanoma of the eye the perioperative serum levels of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and the adhesion molecules sE-Selectin and sICAM-1 were investigated. Moderate hypothermia of 32 degrees C was induced in all patients. In 14 patients profound hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 35-40 mmHg, hypotension group) was induced by enalapril and nitroglycerin for a mean duration of 71 min. In 7 patients the tumor was not resectable, and hypotension was not induced (controls). We did not detect significant differences in serum levels of cytokines or sE-Selectin perioperatively in patients with profound hypotension compared with controls. In both groups IL-6 serum levels increased significantly and reached a maximum after rewarming (17 +/- 6 and 16 +/- 5 pg/dL, respectively, P < 0.001). IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha did not change perioperatively in both groups. On the first postoperative day sICAM-1 serum levels were significantly increased in both groups (mean increase of 96 and 54 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). We conclude from this study that profound normovolemic arterial hypotension does not seem to have effects on serum levels of circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and sE-Selectin. Perioperative moderate hypothermia may be the reason for the postoperative increase in sICAM-1 levels independent of the blood pressure.

  19. Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV: A Predictor of Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Aldámiz-Echevarría

    Full Text Available Higher serum levels of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 are associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. We assessed the relationship between serum levels of adhesion molecules and liver-related events (LRE or death, in coinfected patients.We studied clinical characteristics and outcomes of 182 coinfected patients with a baseline liver biopsy (58 with advanced fibrosis and simultaneous plasma samples who were followed for median of 9 years. We used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves to calculate optimized cutoff values (OCV of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, defined as the values with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity for LRE. We used multivariate regression analysis to test the association between OCVs of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and outcomes. The variables for adjustment were age, HIV transmission category, liver fibrosis, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts, antiretroviral therapy, and sustained virologic response (SVR.During the study period 51 patients had SVR, 19 had LRE, and 16 died. The OCVs for LRE were 5.68 Log pg/mL for sICAM-1 and 6.25 Log pg/mL for sVCAM-1, respectively. The adjusted subhazard ratio (aSHR (95% confidence interval [CI] of death or LRE, whichever occurred first, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 > OCV were 3.98 ([1.14; 13.89], P = 0.030 and 2.81 ([1.10; 7.19], respectively (P = 0.030.Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 can serve as markers of outcome in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Therapies targeting necroinflammatory damage and fibrogenesis may have a role in the management chronic hepatitis C.

  20. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p< 0.001), ICAM-1 (p=0.028) and E-selectin (p=0.016) were significantly higher in the patients, but only VCAM-1 levels significantly reflected the severity of dementia (p< 0.001). In addition, only VCAM-1 levels showed an association with macro- and micro- white matter changes especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (p< 0.001), posterior thalamic radiation (p=0.002), stria terminalis (p=0.002) and corpus callosum (p=0.009), and were independent of, age and cortical volume. These tracts show significant association with MMSE, short term memory and visuospatial function. Meanwhile, while VCAM-1 level correlated significantly with short-term memory (p=0.026) and drawing (p=0.025) scores in the AD patients after adjusting for age and education, the significance disappeared after adjusting for global FA. Endothelial activation, especially VCAM-1, was of clinical significance in AD that reflects macro- and micro-structural changes and poor short term memory and visuospatial function.

  1. Sorafenib enriches epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive tumor initiating cells and exacerbates a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma through TSC2-AKT cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dong-Xian; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Jiang-Sha; Long, Ling-Yun; Chen, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Er-Bin; Feng, Yuan-Yuan; Bao, Wen-Dai; Deng, Yue-Zhen; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Koeffler, H Phillip; Cheng, Shu-qun; Li, Jing-Jing; Xie, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Sorafenib is a specific adenosine triphosphate-competitive RAF inhibitor used as a first-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the responses are variable, reflecting heterogeneity of the disease, while the resistance mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that sorafenib treatment can exacerbate disease progression in both patient-derived xenografts and cell line-derived xenografts and that the therapeutic effect of the drug inversely covaries to the ratio of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells, which may be tumor initiating cells in HCC. The TSC2-AKT cascade mediates this sorafenib resistance. In response to sorafenib treatment, formation of the TSC1/2 complex is enhanced, causing increased phosphorylation of AKT, which contributes to up-regulation of "stemness"-related genes in epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells and enhancement of tumorigenicity. The expression of TSC2 negatively correlated with prognosis in clinical sorafenib therapy. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid decreased AKT activity, reduced the epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cell population enriched by sorafenib, and potentiated the therapeutic effect of sorafenib in the patient-derived xenograft model. Our findings suggest that a subtype of HCC is not suitable for sorafenib therapy; this resistance to sorafenib can be predicted by the status of TSC2, and agents inducing differentiation of tumor initiating cells (e.g., all-trans retinoic acid) should improve the prognosis of this subtype of HCC. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Cellular Adhesion Gene SELP Is Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Displays Differential Allelic Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhardt, J.; Blume, M.; Petit-Teixeira, E.; Teixeira, V.H.; Steiner, A.; Quente, E.; Wolfram, G.; Scholz, M.; Pierlot, C.; Migliorini, P.; Bombardieri, S.; Balsa, A.; Westhovens, R.; Barrera, P.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Alves, H.; Bardin, T.; Prum, B.; Emmrich, F.; Cornelis, F.; Ahnert, P.; Kirsten, H.

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a key event is infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into the synovial lining, possibly aggravated by dysregulation of cellular adhesion molecules. Therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms of 14 genes involved in cellular adhesion processes (CAST, ITGA4, ITGB1,

  3. Perforin down-regulation and adhesion molecules activation in pulmonary sarcoidosis: an induced sputum and BAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Katerina M; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Kyriakou, Despina; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Siafakas, Nikolaos M; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2006-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is thought to be a T-helper type 1 cytokine-mediated disorder. Sputum induction has been proposed as a useful noninvasive method mainly for the assessment of airway diseases. However, it is unknown whether the balance of T-cytotoxic (Tc1) type 1 and Tc2 cells is altered in sarcoidosis. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from sarcoidosis patients, and to compare these subpopulations to those found in BAL fluid (BALF) from sarcoidosis patients. To further investigate the mechanism of the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ lymphocytes, we measured their perforin expression. Additionally, two adhesion molecules (CD62 and CD71), which are expressed on CD8+ T cells and may serve as novel immunologic markers, were detected. Department of Thoracic Medicine, University of Crete, and Department of Pneumonology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece. We prospectively studied 22 patients with sarcoidosis (median age, 48 years; age range, 25 to 65 years) and 10 healthy subjects (5 female and 5 male; median age, 39 years; age range, 26 to 60 years). The stimulation of lymphocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was followed by the use of double immunocytochemical methods to identify CD8+ interferon (IFN)-gamma producing cells (ie, Tc1) and CD8+ interleukin-4 producing cells (ie, Tc2). We found a significant decrease in the prestimulation percentage of IFN-gamma-positive CD8+ T cells in the BALF (p = 0.001) and induced sputum (p = 0.001) of sarcoidosis patients compared to the number in samples from healthy control subjects. However, no significant difference was documented between lymphocyte subsets poststimulation. Decreased levels of perforin expression were found in BALF (p = 0.001) and induced sputum (p < 0.001) of sarcoidosis patients compared to those in control subjects. The adhesion molecules were significantly increased in both the BALF and induced sputum of the sarcoid

  4. Breast cancer cells compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for intercellular adhesion molecule 1-mediated binding to the bone marrow microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Abhishek; Friedrichs, Jens; Bonin, Malte von; Bejestani, Elham Peshali; Werner, Carsten; Wobus, Manja; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Adhesion-based cellular interactions involved in breast cancer metastasis to the bone marrow remain elusive. We identified that breast cancer cells directly compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for retention in the bone marrow microenvironment. To this end, we established two models of competitive cell adhesion-simultaneous and sequential-to study a potential competition for homing to the niche and displacement of the endogenous HSPCs upon invasion by tumor cells. In both models, breast cancer cells but not non-tumorigenic cells competitively reduced adhesion of HSPCs to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a tumor cell number-dependent manner. Higher adhesive force between breast cancer cells and MSCs, as compared with HSPCs, assessed by quantitative atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy could partially account for tumor cell mediated reduction in HSPC adhesion to MSCs. Genetic inactivation and blockade studies revealed that homophilic interactions between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expressed on tumor cells and MSCs, respectively, regulate the competition between tumor cells and HSPCs for binding to MSCs. Moreover, tumor cell-secreted soluble ICAM-1(sICAM-1) also impaired HSPC adhesion via blocking CD18-ICAM-1 binding between HSPCs and MSCs. Xenotransplantation studies in NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice revealed reduction of human HSPCs in the bone marrow via metastatic breast cancer cells. These findings point to a direct competitive interaction between disseminated breast cancer cells and HSPCs within the bone marrow micro environment. This interaction might also have implications on niche-based tumor support. Therefore, targeting this cross talk may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Polysialic acid modification of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Sebastian; Buettner, Falk F R; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the progenitors of myelinating oligodendrocytes in brain development and repair. Successful myelination depends on the control of adhesiveness during OPC migration and axon contact formation. The decoration of cell surface proteins with the glycan polysialic acid (polySia) is a key regulatory element of OPC interactions during development and under pathological conditions. By far the major protein carrier of polySia is the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, but recently, polysialylation of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 has been detected in the developing mouse brain. In mice, polySia-SynCAM 1 is associated with cells expressing NG2, a marker of a heterogeneous precursor cell population, which is the primary source for oligodendrocytes in development and myelin repair but can also give rise to astrocytes and possibly neurons. It is not yet clear if polySia-SynCAM 1 is expressed by OPCs and its occurrence in humans is elusive. By generating uniform human embryonic stem cell-derived OPC cultures, we demonstrate that polySia is present on human OPCs but down-regulated during differentiation into myelin basic protein-positive oligodendrocytes. PolySia on NCAM resides on the isoforms NCAM-180 and NCAM-140, and SynCAM 1 is identified as a novel polySia acceptor in human OPCs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ablation of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells exacerbates Japanese encephalitis by regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and altering tight junction/adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John-Hwa; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs. Transient ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to JE progression along with highly increased neuro-invasion of JEV. In addition, exacerbated JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was closely associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2) in the brain. Moreover, our results revealed that the exacerbation of JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was correlated with enhanced BBB permeability and reduced expression of tight junction and adhesion molecules (claudin-5, ZO-1, occluding, JAMs). Ultimately, our data conclude that the ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs provided a subsidiary impact on BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules, thereby leading to exacerbated JE progression. These findings provide insight into the secondary role of CD11c(hi) DCs in JE progression through regulation of BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of nerve cells and adhesion molecules on nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joo-Ryun; Choi, Jong-Won; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Hwang, Kyung-Gyun; Park, Chang-Joo

    2017-09-01

    For peripheral nerve regeneration, recent attentions have been paid to the nerve conduits made by tissue-engineering technique. Three major elements of tissue-engineering are cells, molecules, and scaffolds. In this study, the attachments of nerve cells, including Schwann cells, on the nerve conduit and the effects of both growth factor and adhesion molecule on these attachments were investigated. The attachment of rapidly-proliferating cells, C6 cells and HS683 cells, on nerve conduit was better than that of slowly-proliferating cells, PC12 cells and Schwann cells, however, the treatment of nerve growth factor improved the attachment of slowly-proliferating cells. In addition, the attachment of Schwann cells on nerve conduit coated with fibronectin was as good as that of Schwann cells treated with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Growth factor changes nerve cell morphology and affects cell cycle time. And nerve growth factor or fibronectin treatment is indispensable for Schwann cell to be used for implantation in artificial nerve conduits.

  8. Pharmacological approach for targeting dysfunctional brain plasticity: Focus on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Jaako, Külli; Jürgenson, Monika; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Brain plasticity refers to the ability of the brain to undergo functionally relevant adaptations in response to external and internal stimuli. Alterations in brain plasticity have been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, and current theories suggest that dysfunctions in neuronal circuits and synaptogenesis have a major impact in the development of these diseases. Among the molecules that regulate brain plasticity, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form PSA-NCAM have been of particular interest for years because alterations in NCAM and PSA-NCAM levels have been associated with memory impairment, depression, autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss the roles of NCAM and PSA-NCAM in the regulation of brain plasticity and, in particular, their roles in the mechanisms of depression. We also demonstrate that the NCAM-mimetic peptides FGL and Enreptin are able to restore disrupted neuronal plasticity. FGL peptide has also been demonstrated to ameliorate the symptoms of depressive-like behavior in NCAM-deficient mice and therefore, may be considered a new drug candidate for the treatment of depression as well as other neuropsychiatric disorders with disrupted neuroplasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of a distinct population of circulating human non-adherent endothelial forming cells and their recruitment via intercellular adhesion molecule-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Appleby

    Full Text Available Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133(+ population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38 together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31. These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8 or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14 which distinguishes them from 'early' endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs. Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis.

  10. Characterization of a Distinct Population of Circulating Human Non-Adherent Endothelial Forming Cells and Their Recruitment via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Emma J.; Barrett, Jeffrey M.; Tooley, Katie; Sen, Shaundeep; Sun, Wai Yan; Grose, Randall; Nicholson, Ian; Levina, Vitalina; Cooke, Ira; Talbo, Gert; Lopez, Angel F.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133+ population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs) which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38) together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31). These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8) or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14) which distinguishes them from ‘early’ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i) bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii) demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii) increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv) in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs). Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis. PMID:23144795

  11. Disrupted compartmental organization of axons and dendrites within olfactory glomeruli of mice deficient in the olfactory cell adhesion molecule, OCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Andreas; Mombaerts, Peter; Greer, Charles A; Treloar, Helen B

    2006-01-01

    There is an overall topographic connectivity in the axonal projections of olfactory sensory neurons from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). The molecular determinants of this overall topographic OE-OB connectivity are not known. For 20 years, the intriguing expression pattern of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) has made it the leading candidate as determinant of overall topographic OE-OB connectivity. Here, we have generated a strain of OCAM knockout mice by gene targeting. There were no obvious alterations in the distribution of olfactory sensory neurons within the OE or in the coalescence of axons into specific glomeruli. However, the compartmental organization of dendrites and axons within the glomeruli was disrupted. Surprisingly, the mutant mice exhibited an increase in olfactory acuity; they appeared to have a better sense of smell. Thus, despite its striking expression pattern, OCAM is not essential for overall topographic OE-OB connectivity. Instead, OCAM is required for establishing or maintaining the compartmental organization and the segregation of axodendritic and dendrodendritic synapses within glomeruli.

  12. Self-assembled monolayer of designed and synthesized triazinedithiolsilane molecule as interfacial adhesion enhancer for integrated circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-assembled monolayer (SAM with tunable surface chemistry and smooth surface provides an approach to adhesion improvement and suppressing deleterious chemical interactions. Here, we demonstrate the SAM comprising of designed and synthesized 6-(3-triethoxysilylpropylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol molecule, which can enhance interfacial adhesion to inhibit copper diffusion used in device metallization. The formation of the triazinedithiolsilane SAM is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adhesion strength between SAM-coated substrate and electroless deposition copper film was up to 13.8 MPa. The design strategy of triazinedithiolsilane molecule is expected to open up the possibilities for replacing traditional organosilane to be applied in microelectronic industry.

  13. Biosynthesis of the D2-cell adhesion molecule: post-translational modifications, intracellular transport, and developmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Linnemann, D; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications and intracellular transport of the D2-cell adhesion molecule (D2-CAM) were examined in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells. Developmental changes in biosynthesis were studied in rat forebrain explant cultures. Two D2-CAM polypeptides with Mr of 187,000-210,000 (A...

  14. The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Derived Peptide FGL Facilitates Long-Term Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallerac, Glenn; Zerwas, Meike; Novikova, Tatiana; Callu, Delphine; Leblanc-Veyrac, Pascale; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir; Rampon, Claire; Doyere, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is known to play a role in developmental and structural processes but also in synaptic plasticity and memory of the adult animal. Recently, FGL, a NCAM mimetic peptide that binds to the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR-1), has been shown to have a beneficial impact on normal memory functioning, as…

  15. Neurite outgrowth induced by a synthetic peptide ligand of neural cell adhesion molecule requires fibroblast growth factor receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, L C; Doherty, P; Holm, A

    2000-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is involved in axonal outgrowth and target recognition in the developing nervous system. In vitro, NCAM-NCAM binding has been shown to induce neurite outgrowth, presumably through an activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). We have recently...

  16. A neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide reduces neuropathological signs and cognitive impairment induced by Abeta25-35

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Novitskaya, V

    2007-01-01

    death and brain atrophy in response to Abeta25-35. Finally, the Abeta25-35-administration led to a reduced short-term memory as determined by the social recognition test. A synthetic peptide termed FGL derived from the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was able to prevent or, if already manifest...

  17. Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mice with a Conditional Ablation of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaz, Reto; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Genoux, David; Sandi, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the mechanisms involved in neural plasticity support cognition, and aging has a considerable effect on some of these processes. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) of the immunoglobulin superfamily plays a pivotal role in structural and functional plasticity and is required to modulate cognitive and emotional behaviors. However,…

  18. Identification of neural cell adhesion molecule L1-derived neuritogenic ligands of the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Kiselyov, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays an important role in axon growth, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. We recently demonstrated that the L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR). Sequence alignment...

  19. Markers of inflammation and cellular adhesion molecules in relation to insulin resistance in nondiabetic elderly: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); J. Meijer (John); A.J. Kiliaan (Amanda); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractInsulin resistance, which is highly prevalent in the elderly, is suggested to be accompanied by an increased acute phase response. Until now, it is unclear whether cellular adhesion molecules are involved in the clustering of insulin resistance. In the present study, we

  20. The atypical Rho GTPase, RhoU, regulates cell-adhesion molecules during cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickover, Michael; Hegarty, Jeffrey M; Ly, Kim; Lopez, Diana; Yang, Hongbo; Zhang, Ruilin; Tedeschi, Neil; Hsiai, Tzung K; Chi, Neil C

    2014-05-15

    The vertebrate heart undergoes early complex morphologic events in order to develop key cardiac structures that regulate its overall function (Fahed et al., 2013). Although many genetic factors that participate in patterning the heart have been elucidated (Tu and Chi, 2012), the cellular events that drive cardiac morphogenesis have been less clear. From a chemical genetic screen to identify cellular pathways that control cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish, we observed that inhibition of the Rho signaling pathways resulted in failure to form the atrioventricular canal and loop the linear heart tube. To identify specific Rho proteins that may regulate this process, we analyzed cardiac expression profiling data and discovered that RhoU was expressed at the atrioventricular canal during the time when it forms. Loss of RhoU function recapitulated the atrioventricular canal and cardiac looping defects observed in the ROCK inhibitor treated zebrafish. Similar to its family member RhoV/Chp (Tay et al., 2010), we discovered that RhoU regulates the cell junctions between cardiomyocytes through the Arhgef7b/Pak kinase pathway in order to guide atrioventricular canal development and cardiac looping. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in similar underlying cardiac defects and conversely, overexpression of a PAK kinase was able to rescue the loss of RhoU cardiac defect. Finally, we found that Wnt signaling, which has been implicated in atrioventricular canal development (Verhoeven et al., 2011), may regulate the expression of RhoU at the atrioventricular canal. Overall, these findings reveal a cardiac developmental pathway involving RhoU/Arhgef7b/Pak signaling, which helps coordinate cell junction formation between atrioventricular cardiomyocytes to promote cell adhesiveness and cell shapes during cardiac morphogenesis. Failure to properly form these cell adhesions during cardiac development may lead to structural heart defects and mechanistically account for the cellular

  1. Overexpression of the cell adhesion molecules DDR1, Claudin 3, and Ep-CAM in metaplastic ovarian epithelium and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Gardiner-Garden, Margaret; Henshall, Susan M; Scurry, James; Scolyer, Richard A; Davies, Michael J; Heinzelmann, Matthias; Kalish, Larry H; Bali, Anish; Kench, James G; Edwards, Lyndal S; Vanden Bergh, Patricia M; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2004-07-01

    A better understanding of the molecular pathways underlying the development of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is critical to identify ovarian tumor markers for use in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. The aims of this study were to integrate the results from 14 transcript profiling studies of EOC to identify novel biomarkers and to examine their expression in early and late stages of the disease. A database incorporating genes identified as being highly up-regulated in each study was constructed. Candidate tumor markers were selected from genes that overlapped between studies and by evidence of surface membrane or secreted expression. The expression patterns of three integral membrane proteins, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), claudin 3 (CLDN3), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule, all of which are involved in cell adhesion, were evaluated in a cohort of 158 primary EOC using immunohistochemistry. We confirmed that these genes are highly overexpressed in all histological subtypes of EOC compared with normal ovarian surface epithelium, identifying DDR1 and CLDN3 as new biomarkers of EOC. Furthermore, we determined that these genes are also expressed in ovarian epithelial inclusion cysts, a site of metaplastic changes within the normal ovary, in borderline tumors and in low-grade and stage cancer. A trend toward an association between low CLDN3 expression and poor patient outcome was also observed. These results suggest that up-regulation of DDR1, CLDN3, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule are early events in the development of EOC and have potential application in the early detection of disease.

  2. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Alterations of epithelial adhesion molecules and basement membrane components in lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Miklós D; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Kruse, Friedrich E; Seitz, Berthold

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural correlate of delayed epithelial healing in eyes with lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD). Corneal buttons from 4 patients with LCD (two with subepithelial, two with stromal amyloid deposits) and 2 control corneas were examined. Cell-matrix adhesion molecules and basement membrane components of the corneal epithelium were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hemidesmosomes between epithelium and stroma were quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By TEM well-developed hemidesmosomes anchored the basal epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane in all normal and LCD corneas. Hemidesmosome density was not significantly different in subepithelial (224.7 +/- 34.1/100 microm) and stromal (234.3 +/- 36.3/100 microm) LCD compared to controls (241.3 +/- 26.8/100 microm). The basement membrane was interrupted in subepithelial, but continuous in stromal LCD. Integrin alpha6 and beta4 staining formed a continuous line along the basal surface of the corneal epithelium in control corneas, whereas it appeared discontinuous and patchy both in subepithelial and stromal forms of LCD. Staining for alphaV integrin showed irregular staining patterns, i.e. enhanced labelling intensity in subepithelial and interrupted pattern in stromal LCD, respectively. Integrins alpha3, beta1, beta2, and beta5, dystroglycan, and plectin were not markedly different in dystrophic corneas. Type VII collagen showed a discontinuous staining in subepithelial forms of LCD. In stromal forms of LCD, type VII collagen staining occurred in additional patches underneath the epithelial basement membrane zone. Type XVII collagen staining was reduced in subepithelial LCD. Laminin-1, laminin-5 and laminin gamma2 showed variable irregular staining patterns in dystrophic corneas with focal interruptions, focal thickenings, and reduplications of basement membrane. Some irregularities in corneas with subepithelial

  4. Variations in host genes encoding adhesion molecules and susceptibility to falciparum malaria in India

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    Tyagi Prajesh K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host adhesion molecules play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and changes in their structure or levels in individuals can influence the outcome of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs of three adhesion molecule genes, ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36, with severity of falciparum malaria in a malaria-endemic and a non-endemic region of India. Methods The frequency distribution of seven selected SNPs of ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 was determined in 552 individuals drawn from 24 populations across India. SNP-disease association was analysed in a case-control study format. Genotyping of the population panel was performed by Sequenom mass spectroscopy and patient/control samples were genotyped by SNaPshot method. Haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD plots were generated using PHASE and Haploview, respectively. Odds-ratio (OR for risk assessment was estimated using EpiInfo™ version 3.4. Results Association of the ICAM1 rs5498 (exon 6 G allele and the CD36 exon 1a A allele with increased risk of severe malaria was observed (severe versus control, OR = 1.91 and 2.66, P = 0.02 and 0.0012, respectively. The CD36 rs1334512 (-53 T allele as well as the TT genotype associated with protection from severe disease (severe versus control, TT versus GG, OR = 0.37, P = 0.004. Interestingly, a SNP of the PECAM1 gene (rs668, exon 3, C/G with low minor allele frequency in populations of the endemic region compared to the non-endemic region exhibited differential association with disease in these regions; the G allele was a risk factor for malaria in the endemic region, but exhibited significant association with protection from disease in the non-endemic region. Conclusion The data highlights the significance of variations in the ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 genes in the manifestation of falciparum malaria in India. The PECAM1 exon 3 SNP exhibits altered association with disease in the

  5. Carbohydrate-binding agents efficiently prevent dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-directed HIV-1 transmission to T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Balzarini, Jan; Van Herrewege, Yven; Vermeire, Kurt; Vanham, Guido; Schols, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of HIV-1 to dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-expressing B-lymphoblast Raji cells (Raji/DC-SIGN) but not to wild-type Raji/0 cells results in the capture of HIV-1 particles to the cells as measured by the quantification of cell-associated p24 antigen. Cocultivation of HIV-1-captured Raji/DC-SIGN cells with uninfected CD4+ T lymphocyte C8166 cells results in abundant formation of syncytia within 36 h after cocultivation. Short pre...

  6. MicroRNA-29a suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Sook; Son, Seung-Myoung; Yun, Jieun; Jo, Yeong Nang; Lee, Ok-Jun

    2014-10-16

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is an important regulator of cell adhesion, invasion, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional roles of CEACAM6 in lung adenocarcinoma and to identify miRNAs that inhibit the growth, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting CEACAM6. CEACAM6 expression is associated with poor prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and CEACAM6 has important functional roles in controlling the growth, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-29a can suppress the growth, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting CEACAM6. Therefore, miR-29a/CEACAM6 axis represents a potential therapeutic target for treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    The signal transduction pathways associated with neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-induced neuritogenesis are only partially characterized. We here demonstrate that NCAM-induced neurite outgrowth depends on activation of p59(fyn), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma......), protein kinase C (PKC), and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. This was done using a coculture system consisting of PC12-E2 cells grown on fibroblasts, with or without NCAM expression, allowing NCAM-NCAM interactions resulting in neurite outgrowth. PC12-E2 cells were transiently...... propose a model of NCAM signaling involving two pathways: NCAM-Ras-MAP kinase and NCAM-FGF receptor-PLCgamma-PKC, and we propose that PKC serves as the link between the two pathways activating Raf and thereby creating the sustained activity of the MAP kinases necessary for neuronal differentiation....

  8. Molecular architecture of a complex between an adhesion protein from the malaria parasite and intracellular adhesion molecule 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria...

  9. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell-cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar- or Vrp1-WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation.

  10. Regulation of the epithelial adhesion molecule CEACAM1 is important for palate formation.

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    Junko Mima

    Full Text Available Cleft palate results from a mixture of genetic and environmental factors and occurs when the bilateral palatal shelves fail to fuse. The objective of this study was to search for new genes involved in mouse palate formation. Gene expression of murine embryonic palatal tissue was analyzed at various developmental stages before, during, and after palate fusion using GeneChip® microarrays. Ceacam1 was one of the highly up-regulated genes during palate formation, and this was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CEACAM1 was present in prefusion palatal epithelium and was degraded during fusion. To investigate the developmental role of CEACAM1, function-blocking antibody was added to embryonic mouse palate in organ culture. Palatal fusion was inhibited by this function-blocking antibody. To investigate the subsequent developmental role of CEACAM1, we characterized Ceacam1-deficient (Ceacam1(-/- mice. Epithelial cells persisted abnormally at the midline of the embryonic palate even on day E16.0, and palatal fusion was delayed in Ceacam1(-/- mice. TGFβ3 expression, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in palatal epithelium were not affected in the palate of Ceacam1(-/-mice. However, CEACAM1 expression was retained in the remaining MEE of TGFβ-deficient mice. These results suggest that CEACAM1 has roles in the initiation of palatal fusion via epithelial cell adhesion.

  11. Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein, Endothelin-1, Adhesion Molecule(s, and Lipids as Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala El-Mesallamy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared lipids, the product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA, the acute phase reactant high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, endothelin-1 (ET-1, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 between healthy controls, subjects with ischemic heart disease (IHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM subjects who did not perform coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery as well as type 2 DM subjects who performed CABG. HbA1c, lipids, MDA, hsCRP, ET-1, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the diabetic groups than in either healthy controls or IHD subjects. In the diabetic groups, there was a negative association among hsCRP and HDL-C. ET-1, ICAM-1 levels and TAG were positively correlated, as do the association between P-selectin, VCAM-1 and HbA1c%. Also a positive relation was found among hsCRP levels and ICAM-1, as well as MDA and ET-1. P-selectin and ICAM-1 were significantly positively correlated. This study indicates that increased level of oxidative stress marker, proinflammatory markers and their downstream effectors adhesion molecules occurs in type 2 DM.

  12. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: a Novel Biomarker for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasingam, Vathany; Zheng, Yingye; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Leon, Antonette E.; Gion, Massimo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2013-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Our goal was to examine the levels of ALCAM, in addition to the classical breast cancer tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in serum by quantitative ELISA for diagnosis in breast cancer patients. The three proteins were measured in serum of 100 healthy women, 50 healthy men and 150 breast carcinoma patients. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated and the association of serum marker concentrations with various clinicopathologic variables was examined using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the biomarkers. ALCAM, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 [95% CI: 0.73, 0.84] outperformed CA15-3 (AUC= 0.70 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.76]) and CEA (AUC= 0.63 [95% CI: 0.56, 0.70]). The incremental values of AUC for ALCAM over that for CA15-3 were statistically significant (Delong test, p breast cancer and may have value for disease diagnosis. PMID:19322904

  13. Nanosheet Au/Co3O4-based ultrasensitive nonenzymatic immunosensor for melanoma adhesion molecule antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Ma, Hongmin; Li, He; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2014-08-15

    Highly sensitive and enzyme-free detection of melanoma adhesion molecule antigen (CD146) remains a challenge in clinical diagnosis. The prepared immunosensor, based on amination graphene (GS-NH2) and mesoporous nano-Co3O4 sheet combined with gold nanoparticles (Au/Co3O4), exhibited significantly increased electron transfer, high sensitivity and stability to CD146. Au/Co3O4 can increase the contact surface between the antibody and Au nanoparticles attached on Co3O4 than mesoporous Co3O4 only. And the mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheet can capture more biomolecules to enhance the sensitivity due to the large effective specific area. Amperometric i-t curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the recognition of CD146. This novel immunosensor, works well over a broad linear range of 0.01-15ng/mL, with a low detection limit of 3.4pg/mL (S/N=3). The immunosensor was evaluated for the determination of human serum sample, and received a satisfactory result. The developed immunosensor provides a promising approach for clinical research and diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CHLORHEXIDINE INHIBITS L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE MEDIATED NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstone, Aaron M.; Bamford, Penny; Aucott, Susan W.; Tang, Ningfeng; White, Kimberly R.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine is a skin disinfectant that reduces skin and mucous membrane bacterial colonization and inhibits organism growth. Despite numerous studies assessing chlorhexidine safety in term infants, residual concerns have limited its use in hospitalized neonates, especially low birth weight preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess the potential neurotoxicity of chlorhexidine on the developing central nervous system using a well-established in vitro model of neurite outgrowth that includes laminin and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1) as neurite outgrowth promoting substrates. Methods Cerebellar granule neurons are plated on either poly L-lysine, L1 or laminin. Chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene or their excipients are added to the media. Neurons are grown for 24 h, then fixed and neurite length measured. Results Chlorhexidine significantly reduced the length of neurites grown on L1 but not laminin. Chlorhexidine concentrations as low as 125 ng/ml statistically significantly reduced neurite length on L1. Hexachlorophene did not affect neurite length. Conclusion Chlorhexidine at concentrations detected in the blood following topical applications in preterm infants specifically inhibited L1 mediated neurite outgrowth of cerebellar granule neurons. It is now vital to determine whether the blood brain barrier is permeable to chlorhexidine in preterm infants. PMID:24126818

  15. Loss of olfactory cell adhesion molecule reduces the synchrony of mitral cell activity in olfactory glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovska, Maria; McGinley, Matthew J; Bensen, AeSoon; Westbrook, Gary L

    2011-04-15

    Odours generate activity in olfactory receptor neurons, whose axons contact the dendritic tufts of mitral cells within olfactory bulb glomeruli. These axodendritic synapses are anatomically separated from dendrodendritic synapses within each glomerulus. Mitral cells within a glomerulus show highly synchronized activity as assessed with whole-cell recording from pairs of mitral cells. We examined glomerular activity in mice lacking the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM). Glomeruli in mice lacking OCAM show a redistribution of synaptic subcompartments, but the total area occupied by axonal inputs was similar to wild-type mice. Stimulation of olfactory nerve bundles showed that excitatory synaptic input to mitral cells as well as dendrodendritic inhibition was unaffected in the knockout. However, correlated spiking in mitral cells was significantly reduced, as was electrical coupling between apical dendrites. To analyse slow network dynamics we induced slow oscillations with a glutamate uptake blocker. Evoked and spontaneous slow oscillations in mitral cells and external tufted cells were broader and had multiple peaks in OCAM knockout mice, indicating that synchrony of slow glomerular activity was also reduced. To assess the degree of shared activity between mitral cells under physiological conditions, we analysed spontaneous sub-threshold voltage oscillations using coherence analysis. Coherent activity was markedly reduced in cells from OCAM knockout mice across a broad range of frequencies consistent with a decrease in tightly time-locked activity. We suggest that synchronous activity within each glomerulus is dependent on segregation of synaptic subcompartments.

  16. Structural model and trans-interaction of the entire ectodomain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Kim K; Olsen, Lars; Rydberg, Patrik; Vestergaard, Bente; Kastrup, Jette S; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Walmod, Peter S; Gajhede, Michael

    2011-02-09

    The ectodomain of olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM/NCAM2/RNCAM) consists of five immunoglobulin (Ig) domains (IgI-V), followed by two fibronectin-type 3 (Fn3) domains (Fn3I-II). A complete structural model of the entire ectodomain of human OCAM has been assembled from crystal structures of six recombinant proteins corresponding to different regions of the ectodomain. The model is the longest experimentally based composite structural model of an entire IgCAM ectodomain. It displays an essentially linear arrangement of IgI-V, followed by bends between IgV and Fn3I and between Fn3I and Fn3II. Proteins containing IgI-IgII domains formed stable homodimers in solution and in crystals. Dimerization could be disrupted in vitro by mutations in the dimer interface region. In conjunction with the bent ectodomain conformation, which can position IgI-V parallel with the cell surface, the IgI-IgII dimerization enables OCAM-mediated trans-interactions with an intercellular distance of about 20 nm, which is consistent with that observed in synapses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of microRNAs specific for epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Junfang; Zheng, Xin; Forgues, Marshonna; Yamashita, Taro; Wauthier, Eliane L; Reid, Lola M; Wen, Xinyu; Song, Young; Wei, Jun S; Khan, Javed; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Wang, Xin Wei

    2015-09-01

    Therapies that target cancer stem cells (CSCs) hold promise in eliminating cancer burden. However, normal stem cells are likely to be targeted owing to their similarities to CSCs. It is established that epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a biomarker for normal hepatic stem cells (HpSCs), and EpCAM(+) AFP(+) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells have enriched hepatic CSCs. We sought to determine whether specific microRNAs (miRNAs) exist in hepatic CSCs that are not expressed in normal HpSCs. We performed a pair-wise comparison of the miRNA transcriptome of EpCAM(+) and corresponding EpCAM(-) cells isolated from two primary HCC specimens, as well as from two fetal livers and three healthy adult liver donors by small RNA deep sequencing. We found that miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223 were preferentially highly expressed in EpCAM(+) HCC cells, which was further validated. Their gene surrogates, identified using miRNA and messenger RNA profiling in a cohort of 292 HCC patients, were associated with patient prognosis. We further demonstrated that miR-155 was highly expressed in EpCAM(+) HCC cells, compared to corresponding EpCAM(-) HCC cells, fetal livers with enriched normal hepatic progenitors, and normal adult livers with enriched mature hepatocytes. Suppressing miR-155 resulted in a decreased EpCAM(+) fraction in HCC cells and reduced HCC cell colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro. The reduced levels of identified miR-155 targets predicted the shortened overall survival and time to recurrence of HCC patients. miR-155 is highly elevated in EpCAM(+) HCC cells and might serve as a molecular target to eradicate the EpCAM(+) CSC population in human HCCs. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Sialidase NEU4 hydrolyzes polysialic acids of neural cell adhesion molecules and negatively regulates neurite formation by hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohta; Mitoma, Junya; Hosono, Masahiro; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sato, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kitajima, Ken; Higashi, Hideyoshi; Nitta, Kazuo; Shima, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Taeko

    2012-04-27

    Modulation of levels of polysialic acid (polySia), a sialic acid polymer, predominantly associated with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), influences neural functions, including synaptic plasticity, neurite growth, and cell migration. Biosynthesis of polySia depends on two polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV in vertebrate. However, the enzyme involved in degradation of polySia in its physiological turnover remains uncertain. In the present study, we identified and characterized a murine sialidase NEU4 that catalytically degrades polySia. Murine NEU4, dominantly expressed in the brain, was found to efficiently hydrolyze oligoSia and polySia chains as substrates in sialidase in vitro assays, and also NCAM-Fc chimera as well as endogenous NCAM in tissue homogenates of postnatal mouse brain as assessed by immunoblotting with anti-polySia antibodies. Degradation of polySia by NEU4 was also evident in neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells that were co-transfected with Neu4 and ST8SiaIV genes. Furthermore, in mouse embryonic hippocampal primary neurons, the endogenously expressed NEU4 was found to decrease during the neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, GFP- or FLAG-tagged NEU4 was partially co-localized with polySia in neurites and significantly suppressed their outgrowth, whereas silencing of NEU4 showed the acceleration together with an increase in polySia expression. These results suggest that NEU4 is involved in regulation of neuronal function by polySia degradation in mammals.

  19. Blockade but not overexpression of the junctional adhesion molecule C influences virus-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Christen

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Recruitment of inflammatory cells is prerequisite to beta-cell-injury. The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM family proteins JAM-B and JAM-C are involved in polarized leukocyte transendothelial migration and are expressed by vascular endothelial cells of peripheral tissue and high endothelial venules in lympoid organs. Blocking of JAM-C efficiently attenuated cerulean-induced pancreatitis, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammation induced by ischemia and reperfusion in mice. In order to investigate the influence of JAM-C on trafficking and transmigration of antigen-specific, autoaggressive T-cells, we used transgenic mice that express a protein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV as a target autoantigen in the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans under the rat insulin promoter (RIP. Such RIP-LCMV mice turn diabetic after infection with LCMV. We found that upon LCMV-infection JAM-C protein was upregulated around the islets in RIP-LCMV mice. JAM-C expression correlated with islet infiltration and functional beta-cell impairment. Blockade with a neutralizing anti-JAM-C antibody reduced the T1D incidence. However, JAM-C overexpression on endothelial cells did not accelerate diabetes in the RIP-LCMV model. In summary, our data suggest that JAM-C might be involved in the final steps of trafficking and transmigration of antigen-specific autoaggressive T-cells to the islets of Langerhans.

  20. Blockade but not overexpression of the junctional adhesion molecule C influences virus-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Selina; Coppieters, Ken; Rose, Kerstin; Holdener, Martin; Bayer, Monika; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Hintermann, Edith; von Herrath, Matthias G; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Imhof, Beat A; Christen, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Recruitment of inflammatory cells is prerequisite to beta-cell-injury. The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family proteins JAM-B and JAM-C are involved in polarized leukocyte transendothelial migration and are expressed by vascular endothelial cells of peripheral tissue and high endothelial venules in lympoid organs. Blocking of JAM-C efficiently attenuated cerulean-induced pancreatitis, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammation induced by ischemia and reperfusion in mice. In order to investigate the influence of JAM-C on trafficking and transmigration of antigen-specific, autoaggressive T-cells, we used transgenic mice that express a protein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) as a target autoantigen in the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans under the rat insulin promoter (RIP). Such RIP-LCMV mice turn diabetic after infection with LCMV. We found that upon LCMV-infection JAM-C protein was upregulated around the islets in RIP-LCMV mice. JAM-C expression correlated with islet infiltration and functional beta-cell impairment. Blockade with a neutralizing anti-JAM-C antibody reduced the T1D incidence. However, JAM-C overexpression on endothelial cells did not accelerate diabetes in the RIP-LCMV model. In summary, our data suggest that JAM-C might be involved in the final steps of trafficking and transmigration of antigen-specific autoaggressive T-cells to the islets of Langerhans.