Basse, P; Herberman, R B; Nannmark, U
was seen after i.v. injection, significant infiltration of liver metastases was seen only after intraportal injection of the A-LAK cells indicating impaired traffic of intravenous injected A-LAK cells through the lung capillaries. These results present direct evidence that A-LAK cells, upon a proper route......While close contact between lymphokine-activated killer (LAK)/adherent, lymphokine-activated killer (A-LAK) cells and tumor cells is believed to be a prerequisite for initiating the events leading to tumor cell lysis, clear evidence for the ability of these effector cells to infiltrate tumors...... carcinoma lines. Thus, 5- to 10-fold higher numbers of A-LAK cells were found in the malignant lesions compared to the surrounding normal tissue. The infiltration seemed very heterogeneous after intravenous injection of moderate numbers of A-LAK cells (15 x 10(6)). However, after adoptive transfer of 45...
Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Dast, P. K.; van den Berg, F.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.
Knowledge about lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell infiltration and LAK cell cytotoxicity is essential to improve the effectiveness of LAK cell therapy against gliomas. In the present study, organotypic multicellular spheroids (OMS) of glioma tissue were used as a culture model to study the
Morimoto, K; Takeshita, T; Inoue-Sakurai, C; Maruyama, S
We investigated the association of lifestyle and mental health status with natural killer (NK) cell and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activities in healthy males. NK cell activity was determined in 105 male workers and LAK cell activity was determined in 54 male workers. Peripheral blood was obtained from each subject and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood. These PBMC were used as effector cells. LAK cells were generated by incubation of PBMC with interleukin-2 for 72 h. NK cell activity against NK-sensitive K562 cells and LAK cell activity against NK-resistant Raji cells were examined by 51Cr release assay. Overall lifestyles were evaluated according to the answers on a questionnaire regarding eight health practices (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, eating breakfast, hours of sleep, hours of work, physical exercise, nutritional balance, mental stress). Subjects with a good overall lifestyle showed significantly higher NK cell (P mental status had significantly lower NK cell activity than those who reported stable mental status. When subjects were divided into four groups by lifestyle and mental health status, subjects who had poor or moderate lifestyle and reported unstable mental status showed the lowest NK cell activity and subjects who had good lifestyle and reported stable mental status showed the highest NK cell activity among four groups.
Owen-Schaub, L B; Hemstreet, G P; Hemingway, L L; Abraham, S R; DeBault, L E
The proliferation kinetics and population renewal of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced murine lymphokine activated killers (LAK) arising from splenic precursors was studied. Extensive proliferation has been shown to accompany the de novo generation of LAK cytotoxicity. In this report, a thymidine 'hot pulse' suicide technique was employed to examine the sensitivity of LAK progenitors during various time periods following culture initiation. Hot pulse during the first 24 hr of culture resulted in a 30-35% reduction in lytic activity when assayed on day 5. Pulse periods between days 1 and 4 resulted in almost complete inhibition (90-95%) of lytic function when assayed on day 5. Proliferation of LAK progenitors was documented by limiting dilution analysis comparison of splenic precursors and functionally mature LAK cultures. These studies showed a 75- to 80-fold enrichment of LAK progenitors after 3 days culture in rIL-2. By flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, we demonstrated that the number of cells in the S/G2/M phase increased with the length of rIL-2 culture and represented approximately 40% of the cells by day 4. Finally, we used the rate of decay of lytic activity following irradiation as a factor to define the mean life span of a cytotoxic effector in the absence of cellular input. An exponential decrease to approximately 50% of controls was observed within 8-9 hr after irradiation. Taken together, these results suggest that the LAK system is highly dynamic and requires continuous cellular proliferation for its maintenance.
García-Muñoz, Ricardo; López-Díaz-de-Cerio, Ascensión; Feliu, Jesus; Panizo, Angel; Giraldo, Pilar; Rodríguez-Calvillo, Mercedes; Grande, Carlos; Pena, Esther; Olave, Mayte; Panizo, Carlos; Inogés, Susana
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a disease of paradoxes-incurable but with a long natural history. We hypothesized that a combination of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and monoclonal antibodies might provide a robust synergistic treatment and tested this hypothesis in a phase II clinical trial (NCT01329354). In this trial, in addition to R-CHOP, we alternated the administration of only rituximab with rituximab and autologous LAK cells that were expanded ex vivo. Our objective was to determine the in vitro capability of LAK cells generated from FL patients to produce cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and to determine rituximab- and obinutuzumab-induced cytotoxicity via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. We analyzed the LAK cell-induced cytotoxicity and rituximab (R)- and obinutuzumab (GA101)-induced ADCC activity. We show that LAK cells generated from FL patients induce cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines. R and GA101 enhance cytolysis through ADCC activity of LAK cells. Impaired LAK cell cytotoxicity and ADCC activity were detected in 50 % of patients. Percentage of NK cells in LAK infusions were correlated with the R- and GA101-induced ADCC. Our results indicate that the combination of R or GA101 and LAK cells should be an option as frontline maintenance therapy in patients with FL.
Ettinghausen, S.E.; Rosenberg, S.A.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) at high doses or at low doses in concert with lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can produce regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases from a variety of tumors in mice. IL-2 appears to mediate its antitumor effect through the generation of LAK cells in vivo from endogenous lymphocytes and by the stimulation of host and transferred LAK cell proliferation in tissues. In this paper we have investigated different strategies for IL-2 administration to determine which regimen produced maximal in vivo proliferation and optimal immunotherapeutic efficacy of LAK cells. Tissue expansion of lymphoid cells was assessed using an assay of in vivo labeling of dividing cells by the thymidine analogue, 5-[ 125 I]iododeoxyuridine. The therapeutic effect of the different IL-2 administration protocols was determined by evaluating their efficacy in the treatment of established, 3-day pulmonary metastases from sarcomas in mice. The selection of IL-2 injection regimens for evaluation was based upon pharmacokinetic studies of IL-2 in mice. A single i.v. or i.p. dose yielded high peak IL-2 levels that could be measured for only a few hours after injection, while IL-2 given i.p. thrice daily produced titers that were detectable throughout the study periods (greater than or equal to 6 units/ml of serum after 100,000 units of IL-2 i.p. thrice daily). Using the proliferation and therapy models, we tested the same cumulative daily doses of IL-2 administered by i.v. or i.p. once daily, or i.p. thrice daily regimens. The i.p. thrice daily protocol stimulated greater lymphoid cell proliferation in the lungs, for example, than did the other regimens
Yang, L; Wang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, J; Liang, G
In this paper, the authors reported the method of treating ocular malignant tumors with lymphokine-activated killing cells which were induced by rIL-2 in vitro. Among the sixteen cases of ocular tumors, 4 cases of 5 base cell carcinoma (1 case of which was partially extinctive), 4 cases of tarsal gland carcinoma, 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and respectively 1 case of retinoblastoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, intraorbital hemangiopericytoma, intraorbital fibrous histiocytomas and hidradenocarcinoma were completely extinctive. The result shows that the immunotherapy method is effective.
Kleinman, R; De Boer, K P; Teodorescu, M
Human lymphocyte subpopulations (B, T1, T2, T3, and T4 our denomination) have been identified previously by bacterial adherence and differences between them in mitogen responses and specific cytotoxic activity have been found. In this study another aspect has been investigated in order to find functions associated with these subpopulations, namely the spontaneous killing (SK) ability. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were separated into adherent and non-adherent cells following centrifugation against various bact:rial monolayers. The PBL and the resulting subpopulations of PBL were tested alone or in combination as effector cells in a 4 hr cytotoxicity assay against human lymphoblastoid cel- lines of B or T cell origin. The T3 + T4 cells or T4 cells alone showed a significantly higher SK activity against both B and T target cell lines when compared with unseparated PBL, T1 + T2, or T3 cells alone. Whe Fc portion of IgG, contain the lymphocytes responsible for SK activity and that SK cells can be purified by negative selection using bacterial adherence. PMID:7389207
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are innate lymphocytes that are capable of eliminating tumor cells and are therefore used for cancer therapy. Although many early investigators used autologous NK cells, including lymphokine-activated killer cells, the clinical efficacies were not satisfactory. Meanwhile, human leukocyte antigen (HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation revealed the anti-tumor effect of allogeneic NK cells, and HLA-haploidentical, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR ligand-mismatched allogeneic NK cells are currently used for many protocols requiring NK cells. Moreover, allogeneic NK cells from non-HLA-related healthy donors have been recently used in cancer therapy. The use of allogeneic NK cells from non-HLA-related healthy donors allows the selection of donor NK cells with higher flexibility and to prepare expanded, cryopreserved NK cells for instant administration without delay for ex vivo expansion. In cancer therapy with allogeneic NK cells, optimal matching of donors and recipients is important to maximize the efficacy of the therapy. In this review, we summarize the present state of allogeneic NK cell therapy and its future directions.
Adherence to HeLa cells, typing by killer toxins and susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida dubliniensis strains Adesão a células HeLa, tipagem pelas toxinas "killer" e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida dubliniensis
Gismari Miranda da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777 was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035. No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia. O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padr��o produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777 de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035. Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.
Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Alphonce, Carl; Decker, Adrienne
Giving students an appreciation of the benefits of using design patterns and an ability to use them effectively in developing code presents several interesting pedagogical challenges. This paper discusses pedagogical lessons learned at the "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns and Objects First...... series of workshops held at the Object Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA) conference over the past four years. It also showcases three "killer examples" which can be used to support the teaching of design patterns....
Lester, David; White, John
In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.
Devassy, V.P.; Bhat, S.R.
Toxic red tide is a disastrous phenomenon causEd. by sudden blooming of certain killer microorganisms often encountered in the seas. Certain killer red tides have caused wide-spread losses to human life and to the fishing industry at several places...
At the close of Sherman Alexie's "Indian Killer," in a final chapter titled "Creation Story," a killer carries a backpack containing, among other things, "dozens of owl feathers, a scrapbook, and two bloody scalps in a plastic bag." Readers schooled in the psychopathologies of real and fictional serial killers will be familiar with the detail:…
"Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…
Vermijlen, David; Luo, Dianzhong; Froelich, Christopher J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kummer, Jean Alain; Willems, Erik; Braet, Filip; Wisse, Eddie
Hepatic natural killer (NK) cells are located in the liver sinusoids adherent to the endothelium. Human and rat hepatic NK cells induce cytolysis in tumor cells that are resistant to splenic or blood NK cells. To investigate the mechanism of cell death, we examined the capacity of isolated, pure
Yan, Libo; Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Jinyan; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Terakawa, Susumu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality in which a photosensitizing dye is administered and exposed to light to kill tumor cells via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A fundamental obstacle for PDT is the low specificity for staining solid tumors with dyes. Recently, a tumor targeting system guided by anaerobic bacteria was proposed for tumor imaging and treatment. Here, we explore the feasibility of the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed, which is expressed in Escherichia coli, to treat tumors. Using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), we detected a lengthy ROS diffusion from the bodies of KillerRed-expressing bacteria in vitro, which demonstrated the feasibility of using bacteria to eradicate cells in their surroundings. In nude mice, Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing KillerRed (KR-E. coli) were subcutaneously injected into xenografts comprising CNE2 cells, a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, and HeLa cells, a human cervical carcinoma cell line. KR-E. coli seemed to proliferate rapidly in the tumors as observed under an imaging system. When the intensity of fluorescence increased and the fluorescent area became as large as the tumor one day after KR-E. coli injection, the KR-E. coli-bearing tumor was irradiated with an orange light (λ = 540-580 nm). In all cases, the tumors became necrotic the next day and were completely eliminated in a few days. No necrosis was observed after the irradiation of tumors injected with a vehicle solution or a vehicle carrying the E. coli without KillerRed. In successfully treated mice, no tumor recurrence was observed for more than two months. E. coli genetically engineered for KillerRed expression are highly promising for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors when the use of bacteria in patients is cleared for infection safety.
Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a cancer treatment modality in which a photosensitizing dye is administered and exposed to light to kill tumor cells via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. A fundamental obstacle for PDT is the low specificity for staining solid tumors with dyes. Recently, a tumor targeting system guided by anaerobic bacteria was proposed for tumor imaging and treatment. Here, we explore the feasibility of the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed, which is expressed in Escherichia coli, to treat tumors. Using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT, we detected a lengthy ROS diffusion from the bodies of KillerRed-expressing bacteria in vitro, which demonstrated the feasibility of using bacteria to eradicate cells in their surroundings. In nude mice, Escherichia coli (E. coli expressing KillerRed (KR-E. coli were subcutaneously injected into xenografts comprising CNE2 cells, a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, and HeLa cells, a human cervical carcinoma cell line. KR-E. coli seemed to proliferate rapidly in the tumors as observed under an imaging system. When the intensity of fluorescence increased and the fluorescent area became as large as the tumor one day after KR-E. coli injection, the KR-E. coli-bearing tumor was irradiated with an orange light (λ = 540-580 nm. In all cases, the tumors became necrotic the next day and were completely eliminated in a few days. No necrosis was observed after the irradiation of tumors injected with a vehicle solution or a vehicle carrying the E. coli without KillerRed. In successfully treated mice, no tumor recurrence was observed for more than two months. E. coli genetically engineered for KillerRed expression are highly promising for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors when the use of bacteria in patients is cleared for infection safety.
Tobin, A M
Psoriasis is one of the most common immune-mediated disorders. There is evidence that it is mediated by Th1 and, more recently, Th17 cells. The cytokine pattern, particularly the dominance of TNF-alpha, implicates the innate immune system in psoriasis pathogenesis. Of the many components of the innate immune system known to be involved in psoriatic lesions, natural killer and natural killer T cells appear to have a unique role. We review the evidence supporting a role for natural killer cells in psoriasis.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this project, we are using genetic variation to infer mating patterns in the southern killer whale community. In Canada, this population was listed as threatened...
Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prey selectivity by southern resident killer whales is being determined by analyses of fish scales and tissue from predation events and feces. Information on killer...
Kuijpers, Taco W.; Vendelbosch, Sanne; van den Berg, Merlijn; Baeten, Dominique L. P.
We focus on the role of killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) interactions with the human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-B27 ligand and the potential contribution of KIR-expressing natural killer and T cells in spondyloarthritis, more specifically in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In AS strong
Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?
Alanen, A.; Lassila, O.
Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour /sup 51/Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder.
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer Past Issues / ... Color changes in skin, paleness, or blueness Lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg ...
Whitehead, Hal; Reeves, Randall
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) frequently scavenged from the carcasses produced by whalers. This practice became especially prominent with large-scale mechanical whaling in the twentieth century, which provided temporally and spatially clustered floating carcasses associated with loud acoustic signals. The carcasses were often of species of large whale preferred by killer whales but that normally sink beyond their diving range. In the middle years of the twentieth century floating whaled carcasses were much more abundant than those resulting from natural mortality of whales, and we propose that scavenging killer whales multiplied through diet shifts and reproduction. During the 1970s the numbers of available carcasses fell dramatically with the cessation of most whaling (in contrast to a reasonably stable abundance of living whales), and the scavenging killer whales needed an alternative source of nutrition. Diet shifts may have triggered declines in other prey species, potentially affecting ecosystems, as well as increasing direct predation on living whales.
Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT gains wide attention as a useful therapeutic method for cancer. It is mediated by the oxygen and photosensitizer under the specific light irradiation to produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce cellular toxicity and regulate the redox potential in tumor cells. Nowadays, genetic photosensitizers of low toxicity and easy production are required to be developed. KillerRed, a unique red fluorescent protein exhibiting excellent phototoxic properties, has the potential to act as a photosensitizer in the application of tumor PDT. Meantime, the course of tumor redox metabolism during this treatment was rarely investigated so far. Thus here, we investigated the effects of KillerRed-based PDT on tumor growth in vivo and examined the subsequent tumor metabolic states including the changes of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH and flavoprotein (Fp, two important metabolic coenzymes of tumor cells. Results showed the tumor growth had been significantly inhibited by KillerRed-based PDT treatment compared to control groups. A home-made cryo-imaging redox scanner was used to measure intrinsic fluorescence and exogenous KillerRed fluorescence signals in tumors. The Fp signal was elevated by nearly 4.5-fold, while the NADH signal decreased by 66% after light irradiation, indicating that Fp and NADH were oxidized in the course of KillerRed-based PDT. Furthermore, we also observed correlation between the fluorescence distribution of KillerRed and NADH. It suggests that the KillerRed protein based PDT might provide a new approach for tumor therapy accompanied by altering tumor metabolism.
E.T.T.L. Tjwa (Eric)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in anti-viral immunity as first line defense and regulation of virus-specific T cell responses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate phenotype and function of NK cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and
Uhlig, R; Highfield, R
A chance fluctuation of the 'vacuum universe' could disintegrate all atoms, according to CERN associate, Dr Allanach. Alternatively, so-called killer strangelets could "eat up the universe from the inside out". Should either of these scenarios occur, the most likely starting point is the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in Long Island, New York state (1 page).
Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.
Ceccato-Antonini Sandra Regina
Full Text Available The number of killer, neutral and sensitive yeasts was determined from strains isolated from substrates related to alcoholic fermentations. From 113 isolates, 24 showed killer activity against NCYC 1006 (standard sensitive strain, while 30 were sensitive to NCYC 738 (standard killer strain, and 59 had no reaction in assays at 25-27°C. Two wild yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of Candida colliculosa were tested against 10 standard killer strains and one standard sensitive strain in a cell x cell and well-test assays at four different pHs. None of the isolates displayed strong killer activity or were sensitive to the standard strains. All belonged to the neutral type. It was concluded that although the number of killer strains was high, this character cannot be used to protect ethanol fermentation processes against yeast contaminants like those which form cell clusters.
Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C
Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.
Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K
Several observations indicate that non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity, mediated for example by natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, may serve as an important antimicrobial defense mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate...
Carreiro, S.C.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Bacci Jr., M.; Bueno, O.C.; Hebling, M.J.A.; Middelhoven, W.J.
Killer activity was screened in 99 yeast strains isolated from the nests of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens against 6 standard sensitive strains, as well as against each other. Among this yeast community killer activity was widespread since 77 strains (78 %) were able to kill or inhibit the growth
Background. The number of peripheral blood and endometrial natural killer cells varies greatly during implantation and the first trimester of pregnancy and is thought to play a role in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy. However, the role of endometrial CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells as an immunological mechanism in ...
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) were studied using data obtained on an opportunistic basis between 1973 and 1996 at Marion Island (46°54'S, 37°45'E) in the Southern Indian Ocean. A clear seasonal pattern of occurrence with the main peak between October and December was evident. Most killer whales were observed ...
Killer whales Orcinus orca occur worldwide in a number of morphotypes that differ in size, pigmentation, acoustic behaviour, food type and genetics – some may indeed warrant subspecific or even specific status. Until recently, all killer whales in South African waters were referred to a single morphotype, Type A, but three ...
Sep 11, 2015 ... is carried out to treat cancer . 3. Role of Natural killer cells. Natural killer (NK) cells were first discovered in humans and mice in 1975 and are large granular population of leukocytes, that can directly kill the virus infected or tumor cells . NK cells of the immune system specially lyse the tumor cells and.
Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng
Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.
Foote, Andrew David; Morin, Phillip A.; Durban, John W.
Mitochondria produce up to 95 per cent of the eukaryotic cell's energy. The coding genes of the mitochondrial DNA may therefore evolve under selection owing to metabolic requirements. The killer whale, Orcinus orca, is polymorphic, has a global distribution and occupies a range of ecological niches....... It is therefore a suitable organism for testing this hypothesis. We compared a global dataset of the complete mitochondrial genomes of 139 individuals for amino acid changes that were associated with radical physico-chemical property changes and were influenced by positive selection. Two such selected non...
Nair, Shiny; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells. Finally, we discuss future perspectives to better harness the potential of NKT cells for cancer therapy. PMID:29018445
... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...
... Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan AGENCY...: NMFS announces the availability of a Draft False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan developed by the False Killer Whale Take Reduction Team. This proposed rule would implement the proposed False Killer...
Kuijpers, Taco W; Vendelbosch, Sanne; Berg, Merlijn van den; Baeten, Dominique L P
We focus on the role of killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) interactions with the human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-B27 ligand and the potential contribution of KIR-expressing natural killer and T cells in spondyloarthritis, more specifically in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In AS strong epidemiological evidence of significant genetic associations with the major histocompatibility complex was convincingly identified. HLA-B27-positive first-degree relatives of AS cases are 5-16 times more likely to develop disease than HLA-B27-positive carriers in the general community. The GWAS era has enabled rapid progress in identifying non-major histocompatibility complex associations of AS. These findings show a number of important pathways in AS pathogenesis, including the IL-23-IL-17 pathway, aminopeptidases, peptide presentation, and KIR-HLA-B27 interactions. Studies using genetic markers, including KIRs may be used for a risk assessment about whom may benefit most from the various treatment protocols in spondyloarthritis, now that alternative therapeutic options have become feasible.
Full Text Available Apple, cranberry, chokeberry and Lithuanian red grape wine yeast populations were used for the determination of killer yeast occurrence. According to the tests of the killer characteristics and immunity the isolated strains were divided into seven groups. In this work the activity of killer toxins purified from some typical strains was evaluated. The analysed strains produced different amounts of active killer toxin and some of them possessed new industrially significant killer properties. Total dsRNA extractions in 11 killer strains of yeast isolated from spontaneous fermentations revealed that the molecular basis of the killer phenomenon was not only dsRNAs, but also unidentified genetic determinants.
Matkin, Craig O.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Yurk, Harald; Ellifrit, David; Trites, Andrew W.
From 2001 to 2004 in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, killer whales (Orcinus orca) were encountered 250 times during 421 days of surveys that covered a total of 22,491 miles. Three killer whale groups (resident, transient, and offshore) were identified acoustically and genetically. Resident killer whales were found 12 times more frequently than transient killer whales, and offshore killer whales were encountered only once. A minimum of 901 photographically identified resident wh...
Ni, Ming; Chen, Bao-An
With the popularity of flow cytometry, the classification of leukemia become more detailed. Myeloid/natural killer cell precursor acute leukemia and myeloid/natural killer cell acute leukemias are generally recognized as two kinds of rare leukemias and have poor prognosis. The cells expressed both myeloid and lymphatic antigens in these two leukemia and can not be diagnosed by morphology. The only basis to make a definite diagnosis is their unique Immunophenotyping. The role of CD7 and CD56 in these two leukemia are compelling, in the other hand, as the progress of cell differentiation research, there are many new awareness of NK cell differentiation. In this article, the biological origin, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and the role of CD7 and CD56 in these two leukemia are briefly summarized.
Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.
Full Text Available Background: Until now, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells were assumed to be part of the type I natural killer T (NKT cell population, but it was not yet investigated if this is correct. Methods: For analysis, CIK cells were generated by various culture conditions. Human type I NKT cells express a T cell receptor (TCR composed of an invariant Vα24-JαQ chain combined with one of several Vβ chains. The Vα24 is a reliable marker for the presence of these TCRs. Results: While comparing cultures stimulated with different substances, we observed the lack of any Vα24 on the surface of CIK culture cells. Conclusion: We conclude that CIK cells do not belong to the type I NKT cells.
Rydyznski, Carolyn E.; Waggoner, Stephen N.
Coordination of the innate and adaptive immune systems is paramount to the development of protective humoral and cellular immunity following vaccination. Natural killer (NK) cells are front-line soldiers of the innate immune system, and recent studies have revealed functions for NK cells in long-lived immune memory and the regulation of adaptive immune responses. These findings suggest that NK cells may play important roles in the development of efficacious vaccines, as well as, in some contexts, failed immunizations. Here we review the current understanding of the immunomodulatory and memory differentiation capabilities of NK cells. We examine the context-dependency of the mechanisms and the nature NK cell-mediated modulation of the immune response, and discuss how these insights may impact immunization strategies and the development of next-generation vaccines. PMID:26272882
Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J
Natural killer (NK) cells are potent antitumor effector cells of the innate immune system. Based on their ability to eradicate tumors in vitro and in animal models, significant enthusiasm surrounds the prospect of leveraging human NK cells as vehicles for cancer immunotherapy. While interest in manipulating the effector functions of NK cells has existed for over 30 years, there is renewed optimism for this approach today. Although T cells receive much of the clinical and preclinical attention when it comes to cancer immunotherapy, new strategies are utilizing adoptive NK-cell immunotherapy and monoclonal antibodies and engineered molecules which have been developed to specifically activate NK cells against tumors. Despite the numerous challenges associated with the preclinical and clinical development of NK cell-based therapies for cancer, NK cells possess many unique immunological properties and hold the potential to provide an effective means for cancer immunotherapy.
chemicals used in wood protection (preservation) within Makurdi metropolis. A purposive, non-random sampling was undertaken in Makurdi metropolis to identify wood protection chemicals/tree-killers available in agrochemical stores, ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on killer whales occupying the northern Gulf of Mexico have been collected in association with large vessel surveys since 1991. Photographs...
"European Organization for Nuclear Research is reporting that results from a three year study of antiprotons for neoplasm irrdiation showed a better cellular killer with a smaller lethal dose." (1,5 page)
Ridgway, Sam H
Inquiries were made of the six major oceanaria in North America that maintain killer whales to determine sex, date of capture or acquisition, length and weight at acquisition, date of death, length...
Full Text Available The strong phototoxicity of the red fluorescent protein KillerRed allows it to be considered as a potential genetically encoded photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer. The advantages of KillerRed over chemical photosensitizers are its expression in tumor cells transduced with the appropriate gene and direct killing of cells through precise damage to any desired cell compartment. The ability of KillerRed to affect cell division and to induce cell death has already been demonstrated in cancer cell lines in vitro and HeLa tumor xenografts in vivo. However, the further development of this approach for PDT requires optimization of the method of treatment. In this study we tested the continuous wave (593 nm and pulsed laser (584 nm, 10 Hz, 18 ns modes to achieve an antitumor effect. The research was implemented on CT26 subcutaneous mouse tumors expressing KillerRed in fusion with histone H2B. The results showed that the pulsed mode provided a higher rate of photobleaching of KillerRed without any temperature increase on the tumor surface. PDT with the continuous wave laser was ineffective against CT26 tumors in mice, whereas the pulsed laser induced pronounced histopathological changes and inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, we selected an effective regimen for PDT when using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed and pulsed laser irradiation.
to macro- and microeconomic costs.' What soon became evident, however, was the vital importance of patient adherence with prescribed medication in order to garner the benefits that were so rapidly becoming available. As a result, much attention has recently been paid to this aspect of management. Both clinicians and ...
Parijs, Sofie M. van; Leyssen, Teo; Similä, Tiu
Journal home page: http://scitation.aip.org/jasa/ To date very little is still known about the acoustic behavior of Norwegian killer whales, in particular that of individual whales. In this study a unique opportunity was presented to document the sounds produced by five captured killer whales in the Vestfjord area, northern Norway. Individuals produced 14 discrete and 7 compound calls. Two call types were used both by individuals 16178 and 23365 suggesting that they may belong to the same ...
Getz, Godfrey S; VanderLaan, Paul A; Reardon, Catherine A
Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system participate in the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries. Natural killer T (NKT) cells express surface markers characteristic of natural killer cells and conventional T cells and bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. The development and activation of NKT cells is dependent upon CD1d, a MHC-class I-type molecule that presents lipids, especially glycolipids to the TCR on NKT cells...
Emily A Hornett
Full Text Available Male-killing bacteria are widespread in arthropods, and can profoundly alter the reproductive biology of their host species. Here we detail the first case of complete suppression of a male killer. The nymphalid butterfly Hypolimnas bolina is infected with a strain of the bacterium Wolbachia, wBol1, which kills male host embryos in Polynesian populations, but does not do so in many areas of Southeast Asia, where both males and female adults are naturally infected, and wBol1-infected females produce a 1:1 sex ratio. We demonstrate that absence of male killing by wBol1 is associated with dominant zygotic suppression of the action of the male killer. Simulations demonstrate host suppressors of male-killer action can spread very rapidly, and historical data indicating the presence of male killing in Southeast Asia in the very recent past suggests suppressor spread has been a very recent occurrence. Thus, male killer/host interactions are much more dynamic than previously recognised, with rapid and dramatic loss of the phenotype. Our results also indicate that suppression can render male killers completely quiescent, leading to the conclusion that some species that do not currently express a male killer may have done so in the past, and thus that more species have had their biology affected by these parasites than previously believed.
Kaur, Gurman; Trowsdale, John; Fugger, Lars
The immune system has crucial roles in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. While the adaptive immune cell subsets, T and B cells, have been the main focus of immunological research in multiple sclerosis, it is now important to realize that the innate immune system also has a key involvement in regulating autoimmune responses in the central nervous system. Natural killer cells are innate lymphocytes that play vital roles in a diverse range of infections. There is evidence that they influence a number of autoimmune conditions. Recent studies in multiple sclerosis and its murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are starting to provide some understanding of the role of natural killer cells in regulating inflammation in the central nervous system. Natural killer cells express a diverse range of polymorphic cell surface receptors, which interact with polymorphic ligands; this interaction controls the function and the activation status of the natural killer cell. In this review, we discuss evidence for the role of natural killer cells in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We consider how a change in the balance of signals received by the natural killer cell influences its involvement in the ensuing immune response, in relation to multiple sclerosis.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transient killers whales inhabit the West Coast of the United States. Their range and movement patterns are difficult to ascertain, but are vital to understanding...
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells belong to innate immunity and exhibit cytolytic activity against infectious pathogens and tumor cells. NK-cell function is finely tuned by receptors that transduce inhibitory or activating signals, such as killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR, NK Group 2 member D (NKG2D, NKG2A/CD94, NKp46 and others, and recognize both foreign and self-antigens expressed by NK-susceptible targets. Recent insights into NK-cell developmental intermediates have translated into a more accurate definition of culture conditions for the in vitro generation and propagation of human NK cells. In this respect, interleukin (IL-15 and IL-21 are instrumental in driving NK-cell differentiation and maturation, and hold great promise for the design of optimal NK-cell culture protocols.Cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells possess phenotypic and functional hallmarks of both T cells and NK cells. Similar to T cells, they express CD3 and are expandable in culture, while not requiring functional priming for in vivo activity, like NK cells. CIK cells may offer some advantages over other cell therapy products, including ease of in vitro propagation and no need for exogenous administration of IL-2 for in vivo priming.NK cells and CIK cells can be expanded using a variety of clinical-grade approaches, before their infusion into patients with cancer. Herein, we discuss GMP-compliant strategies to isolate and expand human NK and CIK cells for immunotherapy purposes, focusing on clinical trials of adoptive transfer to patients with hematological malignancies.
Hilda C P Morana
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo quanto à viabilidade de tratamento dessa clientela forense. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o transtorno de personalidade anti-social é um diagnóstico médico, pode-se entender o termo "psicopatia", pertencente à esfera psiquiátrico-forense, como um "diagnóstico legal". Não se pode falar ainda de tratamento eficaz para os chamados "serial killers". CONCLUSÃO: Os transtornos de personalidade, especialmente o tipo anti-social, representam ainda hoje um verdadeiro desafio para a psiquiatria forense. O local mais adequado e justo para seus portadores, bem como recomendação homogênea e padronizada de tratamento são questões ainda não respondidas.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. METHOD: A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. RESULTS: While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders
C. S. Rand
Full Text Available Although there are very few published studies on adherence to treatment regimens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the evidence that exists suggests that, as with asthma therapy, adherence is poor. Patient beliefs about COPD, as well as their motivation and expectations about the likelihood of success of medical interventions, can influence adherence rates. Other critical factors include the patient's understanding of their illness and therapy, and the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen. Incorrect inhaler technique is also a common failing. When prescribing in primary or specialist care, healthcare professionals should address adherence as a vital part of the patient consultation. Improved patient education may also increase adherence rates.
Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Duś, Danuta
Dendritic cells (DC) were initially considered as antigen presenting cells participating in the polarization of the immune response. Further understanding of their biology allowed determining their additional functions such as immunoregulatory and cytotoxicity. Until recently natural killer (NK) cells were known as a homogeneous population of lymphocytes capable of non-specific recognizing and eliminating target cells. Now it is widely accepted that NK cells, as a heterogeneous population, may also possess immunomodulatory functions. Moreover, the most recent analysis of the interactions between DC and NK cells revealed the exceptional functions of these cells. As a result of these studies the existence of bitypic cell population was postulated. The distinguishing features of these hybrid cells are: the expression of surface receptors typical for NK cells and DC, the cytotoxic activity, the production of interferons as well as their ability to present antigen after prior stimulation. Despite the lack of strong direct evidence that the same cell can be both cytotoxic and effectively present the antigen at the same time, there are experimental findings suggesting that generated ex vivo bitypic cells may be used in antitumor therapy.
Ferguson, F.G.; Botticelli, G.; Confer, F.L.; Pinto, A.J.
Since natural killer (NK) cells have a role in immune surveillance, they are important to consider in disease pathogenesis and resistance. We examined cell aspects responsible for NK cell mediated cytotoxicity in Yorkshire swine. Using cell separation procedures, peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for reactivity to a panel of tumor targets, kinetics of lysis, morphology, surface receptor characteristics and response to immunoregulators. YAC-1 lymphoma and K-562 myeloid leukemia cells were sensitive to swine NK cells; whereas, several other tumor lines were not. In kinetic studies, swine NK cells were slower in initiation of the lytic process than cells responsible for NK activity in other species; small agranular lymphocytes are responsible for this activity in swine. These cells were examined for the presence of a surface marker, asialo GM1, which is common to NK cells in several other species. Swine NK cells respond to an interferon inducer, poly I:C, with enhanced NK activity. Cells in Yorkshire swine have characteristics which are unique but also have characteristics common to NK cells in other species
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells acquire effector function through a licensing process and exert anti-leukemia/tumor effect. However, there is no means to promote a licensing effect of allogeneic NK cells other than cytomegalovirus reactivation-induced licensing in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in human. In mice, a licensing process is mediated by Ly49 receptors which recognize self-major histocompatibility complex class I. The distribution of four Ly49 receptors showed similar pattern in congenic mice, B10, B10.BR, and B10.D2, which have B10 background. Forty Gy-irradiated 2×106 B10.D2 cells including splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells in untreated mice, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treated mice were injected intraperitoneally into B10 mice. We found that murine NK cells were effectively licensed by intraperitoneal injection of donor neutrophils with its corresponding NK receptor ligand in B10 mice as a recipient and B10.D2 as a donor. Mechanistic studies revealed that NK cells showed the upregulation of intracellular interferon-γ and CD107a expression as markers of NK cell activation. Moreover, enriched neutrophils enhanced licensing effect of NK cells; meanwhile, licensing effect was diminished by depletion of neutrophils. Collectively, injection of neutrophils induced NK cell licensing (activation via NK receptor ligand interaction.
Sabrina Bianca Bennstein
Full Text Available Natural killer T-cells are a subset of innate-like T-cells with the ability to bridge innate and adaptive immunity. There is great interest in harnessing these cells to improve tumor therapy; however, greater understanding of invariant NKT (iNKT cell biology is needed. The first step is to learn more about NKT development within the thymus. Recent studies suggest lineage separation of murine iNKT cells into iNKT1, iNKT2, and iNKT17 cells instead of shared developmental stages. This review will focus on these new studies and will discuss the evidence for lineage separation in contrast to shared developmental stages. The author will also highlight the classifications of murine iNKT cells according to identified transcription factors and cytokine production, and will discuss transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations, and the role of mammalian target of rapamycin. Finally, the importance of these findings for human cancer therapy will be briefly discussed.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct Population...
Breed, Greg A.; Matthews, Cory J. D.; Marcoux, Marianne; Higdon, Jeff W.; LeBlanc, Bernard; Petersen, Stephen D.; Orr, Jack; Reinhart, Natalie R.; Ferguson, Steven H.
Predators are widely understood to impact the structure and stability of ecosystems. In the Arctic, summer sea ice is rapidly declining, degrading habitat for Arctic species, such as polar bears and ringed seals, but also providing more access to important predators, such as killer whales. Using data from concurrently tracked predator (killer whales) and prey (narwhal), we show that the presence of killer whales significantly changes the behavior and distribution of narwhal. Because killer wh...
Chiossone, Laura; Vacca, Paola; Orecchia, Paola; Croxatto, Daniele; Damonte, Patrizia; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Bottino, Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina
Decidual natural killer cells accumulate at the fetal-maternal interface and play a key role in a successful pregnancy. However, their origin is still unknown. Do they derive from peripheral natural killer cells recruited in decidua or do they represent a distinct population that originates in situ? Here, we identified natural killer precursors in decidua and uterus of pregnant mice. These precursors underwent rapid in situ differentiation and large proportions of proliferating immature natural killer cells were present in decidua and uterus as early as gestation day 4.5. Here, we investigated the origin of decidua- and uterus-natural killer cells by performing transfer experiments of peripheral mature natural killer cells or precursors from EGFP+ mice. Results showed that mature natural killer cells did not migrate into decidua and uterus, while precursors were recruited in these organs and differentiated towards natural killer cells. Moreover, decidua- and uterus-natural killer cells displayed unique phenotypic and functional features. They expressed high levels of the activating Ly49D receptor in spite of their immature phenotype. In addition, decidua- and uterus-natural killer cells were poorly cytolytic and produced low amounts of IFN-γ, while they released factors (GM-CSF, VEGF, IP-10) involved in neo-angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Our data reveal in situ generation of decidual natural killer cells and provide an important correlation between mouse and human decidual natural killer cells, allowing further studies to be carried out on their role in pregnancy-related diseases. PMID:24179150
Full Text Available Abstract Natural killer cells have been demonstrated to play a major role in mediating an anti-leukemia effect in patients given a T-cell depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-haploidentical family donor. In particular, donor-derived natural killer cells, which are alloreactive (i.e. KIR/HLA mismatched towards recipient cells, significantly contribute to the eradication of leukemia blasts escaping the preparative regimen to transplantation. A recent study on high-risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia refractory to chemotherapy further highlighted the importance of donors with alloreactive natural killer cells in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as it demonstrated that these cells can emerge starting from the fourth-fifth month after the allograft and persist for many months. This study represents a major breakthrough in the cure of otherwise fatal leukemias, providing information on the best criteria for choosing the optimal donor.
Gassmann, Martin; Henderson, E Elizabeth; Wiggins, Sean M; Roch, Marie A; Hildebrand, John A
To study delphinid near surface movements and behavior, two L-shaped hydrophone arrays and one vertical hydrophone line array were deployed at shallow depths (killer whales (Orcinus orca) using their emitted clicks. In addition, killer whale pulsed calls and high-frequency modulated (HFM) signals were localized using other standard techniques. Based on these tracks sound source levels for the killer whales were estimated. The peak to peak source levels for echolocation clicks vary between 170-205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m, for HFM calls between 185-193 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m, and for pulsed calls between 146-158 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m.
Farrell, H E; Degli-Esposti, M A; Davis-Poynter, N J
Natural killer (NK) cells are an important component of the innate cellular immune system. They are particularly important during the early immune responses following virus infection, prior to the induction of cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Unlike CTL, which recognize specific peptides displayed on the surface of cells by class I MHC, NK cells respond to aberrant expression of cell surface molecules, in particular class I MHC, in a non-specific manner. Thus, cells expressing low levels of surface class I MHC are susceptible to recognition by NK cells, with concomitant triggering of cytolytic and cytokine-mediated responses. Many viruses, including the cytomegaloviruses, downregulate cell surface MHC class I: this is likely to provide protection against CTL-mediated clearance of infected cells, but may also render infected cells sensitive to NK-cell attack. This review focuses upon cytomegalovirus-encoded proteins that are believed to promote evasion of NK-cell-mediated immunity. The class I MHC homologues, encoded by all cytomegaloviruses characterised to date, have been implicated as molecular 'decoys', which may mimic the ability of cellular MHC class I to inhibit NK-cell functions. Results from studies in vitro are not uniform, but in general they support the proposal that the class I homologues engage inhibitory receptors from NK cells and other cell types that normally interact with cellular class I. Consistent with this, in vivo studies of murine cytomegalovirus indicate that the class I homologue is required for efficient evasion of NK-cell-mediated clearance. Recently a second murine cytomegalovirus protein, a C-C chemokine homologue, has been implicated as promoting evasion of NK and T-cell-mediated clearance in vivo.
Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P
Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals.
Mehmet Emin Demirkol
Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93
Shneyderman, Yuliya; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Arheart, Kristopher L; Byrne, Margaret M; Kornfeld, Julie; Schwartz, Seth J
Effective screening tools are available for many of the top cancer killers in the USA. Searching for health information has previously been found to be associated with adhering to cancer screening guidelines, but Internet information seeking has not been examined separately. The current study examines the relationship between health and cancer Internet information seeking and adherence to cancer screening guidelines for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in a large nationally representative dataset. The current study was conducted using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey from 2003 and 2007. The study examined age-stratified models which correlated health and cancer information seeking with getting breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening on schedule, while controlling for several key variables. Internet health and cancer information seeking was positively associated with getting Pap screening on schedule, while information seeking from any sources was positively associated with getting colorectal screening on schedule. People who look for health or cancer information are more likely to get screened on schedule. Some groups of people, however, do not exhibit this relationship and, thus, may be more vulnerable to under-screening. These groups may benefit more from targeted interventions that attempt to engage people in their health care more actively.
Schipper, H.S.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Graaf, van de S.F.J.; Venken, K.; Koppen, A.; Stienstra, R.; Prop, S.; Meerding, J.; Hamers, N.; Besra, G.S.; Boon, den L.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Elewaut, D.; Prakken, B.; Kersten, A.H.; Boes, M.; Kalkhoven, E.
Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased
Introduction: Different subsets of natural killer (NK) cells were found to play a role in pathogenesis of allergy. We sought to investigate the expression of regulatory NK cells (CD56+CD16+CD158+) in atopic children with bronchial asthma in order to outline the value of these cells as biomarkers of disease severity and/or ...
W. E. McQuilkin
Chemical weed killers have been under test for 3 years as a possible means of preparing planting sites in the scrub oak barrens of Pennsylvania. Here the problem is to kill or set back the competing brush so planted trees can get started without costly release cuttings.
Richard, Gaëtan; Filatova, Olga A; Samarra, Filipa I P; Fedutin, Ivan D; Lammers, Marc; Miller, Patrick J
Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day. We compared the acoustic behaviour of killer whales between day and night, using an autonomous recorder deployed in Iceland during winter. Based upon acoustic detection of underwater tail slaps used to feed upon herring we found that killer whales fed both at night and day: they spent 50% of their time at night and 73% of daytime feeding. Interestingly, there was a significant diel variation in acoustic behaviour. Herding calls were significantly associated with underwater tail slap rate and were recorded significantly more often at night, suggesting that in low-light conditions killer whales rely more on acoustics to herd herring. Communicative sounds were also related to underwater tail slap rate and produced at different rates during day and night. The capability to adapt feeding behaviour to different light conditions may be particularly relevant for predator species occurring in high latitudes during winter, when light availability is limited.
Riesch, Rüdiger; Ford, John K B; Thomsen, Frank
Combining different stereotyped vocal signals into specific sequences increases the range of information that can be transferred between individuals. The temporal emission pattern and the behavioral context of vocal sequences have been described in detail for a variety of birds and mammals. Yet, in cetaceans, the study of vocal sequences is just in its infancy. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of sequences of stereotyped whistles in killer whales off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1140 whistle transitions in 192 whistle sequences recorded from resident killer whales were analyzed using common spectrographic analysis techniques. In addition to the stereotyped whistles described by Riesch et al., [(2006). "Stability and group specificity of stereotyped whistles in resident killer whales, Orcinus orca, off British Columbia," Anim. Behav. 71, 79-91.] We found a new and rare stereotyped whistle (W7) as well as two whistle elements, which are closely linked to whistle sequences: (1) stammers and (2) bridge elements. Furthermore, the frequency of occurrence of 12 different stereotyped whistle types within the sequences was not randomly distributed and the transition patterns between whistles were also nonrandom. Finally, whistle sequences were closely tied to close-range behavioral interactions (in particular among males). Hence, we conclude that whistle sequences in wild killer whales are complex signal series and propose that they are most likely emitted by single individuals.
Klarlund, K; Pedersen, B K; Theander, T G
Natural killer (NK) cell activity against K562 target cells was measured in patients within 24 h of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and regularly thereafter for 6 weeks. NK cell activity was suppressed on days 1, 3, and 7 (P less than 0.01), day 14 (P less than 0.05) and at 6 weeks (P = 0.05) w...
All the cells of the immune system cooperatively work against infectious agents and cancerous cells but Natural killer (NK) cells are playing an important role to respond to tumor by enhancing the expression of complementary domain (CD86) on dendritic cells (DCs) and production of IL-12. NK cells demolished tumor ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables result in critical losses of production in worldwide. The losses often are caused by fungi and nowadays, most fungal pathogens are controlled by several strategies such as the use of fungicides. However, most of the fungicides are chemical-based compounds and are dangerous to human health and the nature. Therefore, the discovery of healthy and reliable strategies is crucial to control of fungal pathogens. In the paper, it was aimed to evaluate and characterize yeast isolates previously isolated from dairy products for the production of killer toxin. A total of 18 yeasts have been found to produce antagonistic behavior against susceptible fungal species. All of the yeasts expressing killer character were characterized by using several molecular techniques, and isolates TEM8 and 17 identified as D. hansenii have showed the strongest antifungal activities. Improvement of killer toxin production by the yeasts also has been studied, and the highest production was found in YMB medium containing NaCl (6% and DMSO (1000 ppm at pH 4.0 and 20oC. The killer characters of these yeasts have indicated the potential use of the yeasts as antagonists for the control of postharvest diseases in agricultural industries.
Dishman, Rod K.
Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…
Petry, Nancy M; Alessi, Sheila M; Byrne, Shannon; White, William B
This pilot study evaluated a reinforcement intervention to improve adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Twenty-nine participants were randomized to standard care or standard care plus financial reinforcement for 12 weeks. Participants in the reinforcement group received a cell phone to self-record videos of adherence, for which they earned rewards. These participants sent videos demonstrating on-time adherence 97.8% of the time. Pill count adherence differed significantly between the groups during treatment, with 98.8%±1.5% of pills taken during treatment in the reinforcement condition vs 92.6%±9.2% in standard care (PBenefits persisted throughout a 3-month follow-up, with 93.8%±9.3% vs 78.0%±18.5% of pills taken (Pphone technology and financial reinforcement holds potential to improve adherence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.
Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm
Masuda, A.; Bennett, M.
Treatment of C3H/St mice with 100 microCi of 89Sr weakened their genetic resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. The criteria utilized to detect increased susceptibility were: (i) survival of mice; (ii) numbers of MCMV-infected cells in the spleens and liver; and (iii) serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels. The natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from mice treated with 89Sr is very low. However, the NK activities of spleen cells of both normal and 89Sr-treated mice were greatly augmented 3 days after infection with MCMV. These NK cells lysed a variety of tumor cells and shared several features with conventional NK cells, but were not lysed by anti-Nk-1.2 serum (specific for NK cells) plus complement. Splenic adherent cells did not lyse tumor cells themselves but were necessary for the stimulation of NK cells by MCMV. The paradox of high NK cell function and poor survival in 89Sr-treated mice infected with MCMV was a surprise. We conclude that these augmented NK cells, of themselves, cannot account for the genetic resistance of C3H/St mice to infection with MCMV
Daniel C. Williams
Full Text Available Inactivation of selected neurons in vivo can define their contribution to specific developmental outcomes, circuit functions, and behaviors. Here, we show that the optogenetic tool KillerRed selectively, rapidly, and permanently inactivates different classes of neurons in C. elegans in response to a single light stimulus, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Ablation scales from individual neurons in single animals to multiple neurons in populations and can be applied to freely behaving animals. Using spatially restricted illumination, we demonstrate that localized KillerRed activation in either the cell body or the axon triggers neuronal degeneration and death of the targeted cell. Finally, targeting KillerRed to mitochondria results in organelle fragmentation without killing the cell, in contrast to the cell death observed when KillerRed is targeted to the plasma membrane. We expect this genetic tool to have wide-ranging applications in studies of circuit function and subcellular responses to ROS.
Lucke, K.; Finneran, J.J.; Almunia, Javier; Houser, D.S.
An immature female killer whale (Orcinus orca) stranded in the Wadden Sea in 2010 and was later transferred to Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain, for rehabilitation. The killer whale, named “Morgan,” was suspected to have a hearing impairment. To test whether Morgan has a hearing deficit, auditory
Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.
Tønnesen, E; Mickley, H; Grunnet, N
Natural killer (NK) cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured against K-562 target cells in a 51Cr release assay in eight patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery. Eight consecutive blood samples were taken from each patient. A significant increase of NK cell...... activity was observed after premedication with diazepam per os. The activity increased further during a combined anaesthesia (thiopentone + N2O + O2 + buprenorphene + pancuronium) and remained increased during surgery. Postoperatively, NK cell activity fell and remained depressed for a period of at least 5...... days. The findings of this study indicate that premedication, anaesthesia and surgery cause a rapid and transient increase in NK cell activity, followed by a decline in activity postoperatively. The transient increase in activity may be explained by mobilization of natural killer cells from extravasal...
van Parijs, Sofie M.; Leyssen, Teo; Similä, Tiu
To date very little is still known about the acoustic behavior of Norwegian killer whales, in particular that of individual whales. In this study a unique opportunity was presented to document the sounds produced by five captured killer whales in the Vestfjord area, northern Norway. Individuals produced 14 discrete and 7 compound calls. Two call types were used both by individuals 16178 and 23365 suggesting that they may belong to the same pod. Comparisons with calls documented in Strager (1993) showed that none of the call types used by the captured individuals were present. The lack of these calls in the available literature suggests that call variability within individuals is likely to be large. This short note adds to our knowledge of the vocal repertoire of this population and demonstrates the need for further studies to provide behavioural context to these sounds.
Osteoporosis is a very common disease among women. It is frequently called a silent epidemic and, due to its impact on osteoporotic fractures with high morbidity and mortality, also a silent killer. There are a number of significant risk factors for osteoporosis, some of them very strongly related to the functioning of the reproductive system. These include menstrual irregularities, premature ovarian failure, early natural or surgical menopause, a high number of pregnancies, and long-term bre...
Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar
The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant base...
Lankford makes many useful points regarding the myths and shibboleths underlying our understanding of self-destructive killers and suicide bombers. He has collated an impressive data set on such offenders. However, his classification scheme is not built on sufficient evidence to support his proposed discrete categories of conventional, coerced, escapist, and indirect suicide terrorists. It would be straightforward to analyse the data, but it is unlikely that the resulting model would reflect that anticipated.
Pollak, S; Reiter, C
Some common types of "humane killers" are supplied with rubber bushings and recoil springs holding back the bolt, which afterwards is rebound into the barrel. Removal of the rubber bush and withdrawal spring before firing can cause the bolt to break and become a free projectile. A suicide case is reported, in which a livestock stunner discharged a steel bolt penetrating the forehead and getting stuck in the skull.
Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction.
Lester, David; White, John
In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michael C Horowitz
The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think o...
A mass stranding of false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens at Long Beach near the village of Kommetjie (34°8.18′ S, 18°9.77′ E) on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, in May 2009 is described. The estimated size of stranded group was 55 animals, which is close to the median size of P. crassidens groups that have ...
Full Text Available Killer yeasts are able to produce toxins that antagonize the growth of susceptible yeasts cells of the same species or the ones that are related to them. Killer strains are resistant to their own toxins but can be sensitive to killer proteins of other yeasts. The killer proteins of Pichia spp. are known for its broad spectrum of antifungal activity including pathogens such as Candida albicans. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of the partly purified killer toxins to inhibit the growth of selected yeast strains which can contribute to wine spoilage. Three Pichia killer yeast strains (CBS 1982, CBS 5759, CBS 7373 were used in the study. The killer protein secreted by Pichia anomala CBS 1982 was characterized by the highest antifungal activity. The most pronounced effect of the reduction of cell proliferation by killer toxin preparations was found after 2 and 20 h cultivation. Among the 13 tested strains, all Pichia killer toxin preparations inhibited the growth of Rhodotorula graminis Rg, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Rm and Schizosaccharomyces pombe DSM 70576. Killer toxins produced by Pichia anomala CBS 1982 (K8 and CBS 5759 (K4 limited the growth of Candida pulcherrima K5 and Hanseniaspora guillermondii DSM 3432 after 2, 20 and 168 h of incubation. A significant reduction of Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 3428 biomass was observed in medium with the addition of one toxin preparation (Pichia anomala CBS 1982. The growth limitation of Candida glabrata DSM 6425, Hanseniaspora uvarum DSM 2768, Metchnikowia pulcherrima DSM 70321 and Cryptococcus laurentii DSM 70766 was noticed only after 2 hours cultivation in presence of killer protein preparations. The killer toxins could be used in the food industry as selective tools to control infections during the fermentation of wine and improve the quality of the final product.
Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar
The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.
Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar
The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562
Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando
Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a 'do-as-other-does' paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator's performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal 'Do that' very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator's familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8-13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field.
Parra, S; Pinochet, R; Vargas, R; Sepúlveda, C; Miranda, D; Puente, J
Natural killer cytolytic activity, the basis of cancer immunotherapy that uses cytolytic cells, may be impaired in cancer. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the natural killer cytolytic activity and its response to the immunomodulators interleukin-2, interferon and phytohemagglutinin stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in a group of 9 patients with renal cell cancer and 6 with prostatic cancer. The results were compared with those of 20 normal volunteers. Twelve patients were operated and were studied twice 48 h and 14 days after surgery. Natural killer cytolytic activity was significantly lower in renal cell and prostatic cancer patients than controls (3.3 +/- 1.6, 4.9 +/- 2.2 and 20.6 +/- 3.7% of specific lysis respectively). This activity was not modified in cancer patients by interleukin-2 50 UI/ml or interferon 3000 UI/ml and did not differ in the two postoperative periods. Phytohemagglutinin stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also lower in cancer patients, compared to controls (stimulation index of 18 +/- 3 and 26.5 +/- 5 respectively). It is concluded that these patients have a low immunological level and that this study is the first step towards an immunological characterization of cancer patients that are candidate to adoptive immunotherapy.
Jentzen, J; Palermo, G; Johnson, L T; Ho, K C; Stormo, K A; Teggatz, J
We were involved as forensic experts in the case of the serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer. We discuss the scene and victim autopsy findings, with a brief consideration of the basic emotion of hostility. These findings support the thesis that at the basis of this serial killer's behavior were primary unconscious feelings of hate that he had channeled into a sadistic programmed destruction of 17 young men. The interview of the serial killer, the photographic scene documentation, and the autopsy findings stress the ambivalent homosexuality of the killer, his sexual sadism, his obsessive fetishism, and his possible cannibalism and necrophilia.
Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
-related hospitalizations could be attributed to poor adherence. Most studies have reported an increase in adherence following focused interventions, followed by an improvement in quality of life, symptoms, FEV1, and oral corticosteroid use. However, 2 studies found no difference in health-care utilization, one observed...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, care provider, whereas improved adherence was associated with being...... to improve adherence. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria: 9 focusing on the level of adherence, 6 focusing on effects of poor adherence, and 7 focusing on interventions to improve adherence. Three of the studies focused on more than one of these end points. The mean level of adherence to ICS...
Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.
Killer in our Midst: Part Two. An Analysis of Court Transcripts Pertaining to the Defence of Stewart Wilken in \\"Die Staat Teen Stewart Wilken\\". Andrea Hurst. Abstract. This article forms the second part of an analysis of documents pertaining to the defence of serial killer Stewart Wilken in Die Staat Teen Stewart Wilken.
The diet of killer whales Orcinus orca was investigated from 48 predation events observed during sightings at sub-Antarctic Marion Island between 2006 and 2009. From these events, there were 10 cases where prey could be identified. Killer whales fed on fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis, elephant seals Mirounga leonina ...
The Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) are a family of highly variable receptors which regulate cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and a subset of T-cells. The KIR genes, clustered on the genome in the KIR locus, are distributed unequally across the population due to variation in
Vendelbosch, Sanne; de Boer, Martin; Gouw, Remko A. T. W.; Ho, Cynthia K. Y.; Geissler, Judy; Swelsen, Wendy T. N.; Moorhouse, Michael J.; Lardy, Neubury M.; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in the regulation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Within the human genome seventeen KIR genes are present, which all contain a large number of allelic variants. The high level of homology among KIR genes has hampered KIR genotyping in
Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Barnett, Elizabeth; Lisha, Nadra; Sun, Ping
The leading substance of misuse among teens after tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana is the use of pain killers. Very few longitudinal studies on prediction of pain killer use have been conducted among teens. This study examined the 1-year prediction of self-reported last 30-day pain killer use controlling for baseline 30-day painkiller use among…
Croft, Darren P; Johnstone, Rufus A; Ellis, Samuel; Nattrass, Stuart; Franks, Daniel W; Brent, Lauren J N; Mazzi, Sonia; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Ford, John K B; Cant, Michael A
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9]). Using a unique long-term dataset on wild resident killer whales, where females can live decades after their final parturition, we provide the first test of this hypothesis in a non-human animal. First, we confirm previous theoretical predictions that local relatedness increases with female age up to the end of reproduction. Second, we construct a new evolutionary model and show that given these kinship dynamics, selection will favor younger females that invest more in competition, and thus have greater reproductive success, than older females (their mothers) when breeding at the same time. Third, we test this prediction using 43 years of individual-based demographic data in resident killer whales and show that when mothers and daughters co-breed, the mortality hazard of calves from older-generation females is 1.7 times that of calves from younger-generation females. Intergenerational conflict combined with the known benefits conveyed to kin by post-reproductive females can explain why killer whales have evolved the longest post-reproductive lifespan of all non-human animals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
stroke. Hypertension among Nigerians is often associated with cluster of other cardiovascular risk factors, which often increase the cardiovascular risk of .... 65.7 [12.5] vs. 62.7 [11.5] years, respectively). Those with low adherence were also more likely to be using more antihypertensive medications than those with ...
Full Text Available The killer whale is an opportunistic top-predator of ecosystems worldwide and its diet varies locally and seasonally, which is reflected in diverse feeding behaviours associated with its prey. We report the occurrence of killer whales presumably predating on southern sea lions associated with the jack mackerel fishing fleet in central Chile. The presence of killer whales was recorded during 4 fishing sets. All sightings consisted of 3-5 individual pods of females and calves. The number of sea lions was not significantly affected by the presence of killer whales, but their behaviour was, by reducing the number of behavioural displays, as they stopped feeding and resting activities and stayed close to the hull of the vessel after net retrieval ended. We propose that killer whales could be using the fishery as an indirect source of prey to benefit from the aggregation of sea lions around the vessel, far away from land.
Full Text Available The initial discovery of killer toxin-secreting brewery strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae in the mid-sixties of the last century marked the beginning of intensive research in the yeast virology field. So far, four different S. cerevisiae killer toxins (K28, K1, K2, and Klus, encoded by cytoplasmic inherited double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA of the Totiviridae family, have been identified. Among these, K28 represents the unique example of a yeast viral killer toxin that enters a sensitive cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis to reach its intracellular target(s. This review summarizes and discusses the most recent advances and current knowledge on yeast killer toxin K28, with special emphasis on its endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, pointing towards future directions and open questions in this still timely and fascinating field of killer yeast research.
Gildo Almeida da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of functional protein in yeast culture. The cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 1B (K+R+ killed a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 26B (K-R-in grape must and YEPD media. The lethal effect of toxin-containing supernatant and the effect of aeration upon functional killer production and the correlation between the products of anaerobic metabolism and the functional toxin formation were evaluated. The results showed that at low sugar concentration, the toxin of the killer strain of Sacch. cerevisiae was only produced under anaerobic conditions . The system of killer protein production showed to be regulated by Pasteur and Crabtree effects. As soon as the ethanol was formed, the functional killer toxin was produced. The synthesis of the active killer toxin seemed to be somewhat associated with the switch to fermentation process and with concomitant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH activity.
Heiberg, Ida Louise; Laura J., Pallett; Winther, Thilde Nordmann
Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit dysregulated effector function in adult chronic HBV infection (CHB), which may contribute to virus persistence. The role of NK cells in children infected perinatally with HBV is less studied. Access to a unique cohort enabled the cross-sectional evaluation of NK...... cell frequency, phenotype and function in HBV-infected children relative to uninfected children. We observed a selective defect in NK cell IFN-γ production, with conserved cytolytic function, mirroring the functional dichotomy observed in adult infection. Reduced expression of NKp30 on NK cells...
Chaney; Rafferty; Warhol
We employed immunoelectron microscopic techniques to localize natural killer cells (NK cells) in human lymph node and tonsil. These tissues were embedded in Lowicryl K4M. Thin sections were first reacted with anti-Leu-7 followed by anti-UCHL. Colloidal gold particles of different sizes were used as a label. NK cells were localized primarily in paracortical T-cell regions. The cells typed with these antisera include both large granular and agranular lymphocytes. No other cell types expressed the NK phenotype. These results illustrate the versatility of immunoelectron microscopy to solve problems beyond the resolution of the light microscope.
Full Text Available Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity. Here we reviewed and discussed the role of NKs in selected, different, and “distant” chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, periodontitis, and atherosclerosis, placing NK cells as crucial orchestrator of these pathologic conditions.
Staff Knowledge, Adherence to Infection Control Recommendations and Seroconversion Rates in Hemodialysis Centers in Khartoum. ... Adherence of staff members to infection control recommendations was evaluated by direct observation. Results: ... A structured training program for HD staff members is urgently required.
Georgopoulos, D.E.; Leibowitz, M.J.
The L/sub A/ and M double-stranded (ds) RNA segments of the cytoplasmically inherited killer virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are encapsidated in virions that contain a DNA-independent transcriptase activity. This enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of full-length (+) stranded copies of the genomic dsRNA segments, denoted l/sub A/ and m. The L/sub A/ dsRNA segment appears to encode the major capsid protein in which both dsRNA molecules are encapsidated, while M dsRNA encodes products responsible for the two killer phenotypes of toxin production and resistance to toxin. Proteins extracted from transcriptionally active virions fail to cross-react with antibody to yeast DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, suggesting that none of the subunits of the host cell polymerases are active in viral transcription. Sequence analysis of the in vitro transcripts reveals neither to be 3'-terminally polyadenylated, although m contains an apparent internal polyA-like tract. In the presence of any three ribonucleoside triphosphates (0.5 mM), the fourth ribonucleoside triphosphate shows an optimal rate of incorporation into transcript at a concentration of 20 μM. However, in a 3-hour reaction, the yield of a product RNA increases with the concentration of the limiting ribonucleotide up to 0.5 mM. Gel electrophoresis of the reaction products reveals that increasing the substrate concentration accelerates the appearance of radioactivity in full-length l/sub A/ and m transcripts
Caut, Stéphane; Laran, Sophie; Garcia-Hartmann, Emmanuel; Das, Krishna
There is currently a great deal of interest in using stable isotope methods to investigate diet, trophic level and migration in wild cetaceans. In order to correctly interpret the results stemming from these methods, it is crucial to understand how diet isotopic values are reflected in consumer tissues. In this study, we investigated patterns of isotopic discrimination between diet and blood constituents of two species of cetaceans (killer whale, Orcinus orca, and bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus) fed controlled diets over 308 and 312 days, respectively. Diet discrimination factors (Δ; mean ± s.d.) for plasma were estimated to Δ(13)C=2.3±0.6‰ and Δ(15)N=1.8±0.3‰, respectively, for both species and to Δ(13)C=2.7±0.3‰ and Δ(15)N=0.5±0.1‰ for red blood cells. Delipidation did not have a significant effect on carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of blood constituents, confirming that cetacean blood does not serve as a reservoir of lipids. In contrast, carbon isotopic values were higher in delipidated samples of blubber, liver and muscle from killer whales. The potential for conflict between fisheries and cetaceans has heightened the need for trophic information about these taxa. These results provide the first published stable isotope incorporation data for cetaceans, which are essential if conclusions are to be drawn on issues concerning trophic structures, carbon sources and diet reconstruction.
Full Text Available Many receptors on natural killer (NK cells recognize major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in order to monitor unhealthy tissues, such as cells infected with viruses, and some tumors. Genes encoding families of NK receptors and related sequences are organized into two main clusters in humans: the natural killer complex on Chromosome 12p13.1, which encodes C-type lectin molecules, and the leukocyte receptor complex on Chromosome 19q13.4, which encodes immunoglobulin superfamily molecules. The composition of these gene clusters differs markedly between closely related species, providing evidence for rapid, lineage-specific expansions or contractions of sets of loci. The choice of NK receptor genes is polarized in the two species most studied, mouse and human. In mouse, the C-type lectin-related Ly49 gene family predominates. Conversely, the single Ly49 sequence is a pseudogene in humans, and the immunoglobulin superfamily KIR gene family is extensive. These different gene sets encode proteins that are comparable in function and genetic diversity, even though they have undergone species-specific expansions. Understanding the biological significance of this curious situation may be aided by studying which NK receptor genes are used in other vertebrates, especially in relation to species-specific differences in genes for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.
Full Text Available The Natural killer (NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes comprising around 10% of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Due to their role in the innate response, NK cells provide a ‘first line of defense’ against infectious agents and cancer and are also thought to play a role in autoimmunity. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR are regulatory surface molecules, found on NK cells and on a subset of T lymphocytes. The genes for KIR are present on chromosome 19 in the leukocyte receptor complex and show a major difference for both the type and number of KIR genes present among different ethnic groups. They have been divided into two groups of 2D or 3D, depending on the number of external immunoglobulin domains. The presence of a long cytoplasmic tail with two immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM allows the transduction of inhibitory signals and characterizes the inhibitory KIRs (2DL and 3DL, whereas the presence of short cytoplasmic tails corresponds to the activating KIR receptors (2DS and 3DS.These polymorphic receptors interact with specific motifs on human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules, modulate NK cytolytic activity. Some KIRs are known to interact with HLA-C molecules of target cells, HLA-Bw4 molecules and HLA-A3/11. For some KIRs the corresponding ligands are still unknown.
Mehmet Emin Demirkol
Conclusion: Although medical treatments and drug industry develop day by day, there have been no changes in the treatment adherence ratios in the past years. To generate possible solutions, treatment adherence should be assessed in all clinical interviews and if patient is non-adherent this issue should be handled seriously. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 555-568
Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.
resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting...
Medication adherence is a complex behaviour with multiple determinants. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of adherence is invaluable for programme improvement, which assists the foundation of adherence intervention strategies. A qualitative study was conducted in six selected hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2008, ...
Treatment of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in declining morbidity and mortality rates from HIV-associated diseases, but concerns regarding access and adherence are growing. To determine the adherence level and the reasons for non-adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ...
Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali
Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females .The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses . It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries .In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses
Stevens, T. S.; Lawson, J. W.; Kenney, R.
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the northwest Atlantic have been observed feeding on a variety of prey types with >35 cases of confirmed consumption and >55 other interactions since 1866. They have been documented harassing, attacking, and eating minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), dolphins, porpoises, seals, tuna, birds, and other prey. However, it remains unknown whether killer whales are prey specialists in this region. It is likely that distribution, movement, and residency patterns of killer whales are linked to those of their prey. Some killer whales appear to remain year-round in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and have been sighted during the spring within pack ice, potentially feeding on breeding seals. Killer whales in southern areas, such as the Gulf of Maine, are sighted less frequently and have historically been in association with Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus). A majority of successful and confirmed attacks involve minke whales in NL during the summer months, suggesting that minke whales may be one of the most important prey for killer whales in this region. Killer whales are apex predators and so detailing their foraging behaviour in the northwest Atlantic is critical for assessing their influence in this marine ecosystem.
Wolkers, Hans; Corkeron, Peter J; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Similä, Tiu; Van Bavel, Bert
Blubber tissue of one subadult and eight male adult killer whales was sampled in Northern Norway in order to assess the degree and type of contaminant exposure and transfer in the herring-killer whale link of the marine food web. A comprehensive selection of contaminants was targeted, with special attention to toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In addition to assessing exposure and food chain transfer, selective accumulation and metabolism issues also were addressed. Average total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and pesticide levels were similar, approximately 25 microg/g lipid, and PBDEs were approximately 0.5 microg/g. This makes killer whales one of the most polluted arctic animals, with levels exceeding those in polar bears. Comparing the contamination of the killer whale's diet with the diet of high-arctic species such as white whales reveals six to more than 20 times higher levels in the killer whale diet. The difference in contaminant pattern between killer whales and their prey and the metabolic index calculated suggested that these cetaceans have a relatively high capacity to metabolize contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, and dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE) accumulate to some degree in killer whales, although toxaphenes and PBDEs might be partly broken down.
Samarra, Filipa I P; Deecke, Volker B; Miller, Patrick J O
Killer whale acoustic behavior has been extensively investigated; however, most studies have focused on pulsed calls and whistles. This study reports the production of low-frequency signals by killer whales at frequencies below 300 Hz. Recordings were made in Iceland and Norway when killer whales were observed feeding on herring and no other marine mammal species were nearby. Low-frequency sounds were identified in Iceland and ranged in duration between 0.14 and 2.77 s and in frequency between 50 and 270 Hz, well below the previously reported lower limit for killer whale tonal sounds of 500 Hz. Low-frequency sounds appeared to be produced close in time to tail slaps, which are indicative of feeding attempts, suggesting that these sounds may be related to a feeding context. However, their precise function is unknown, and they could be the by-product of a non-vocal behavior rather than a vocal signal deliberately produced by the whales. Although killer whales in Norway exhibit similar feeding behavior, this sound has not been detected in recordings from Norway to date. This study suggests that, like other delphinids, killer whales produce low-frequency sounds, but further studies will be required to understand whether similar sounds exist in other killer whale populations.
Sung Won Lee
Full Text Available Natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs possess potent anti-tumor activity, but the cellular effect of NKDC interactions with other innate immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of NKDCs and natural killer T (NKT cells is required for the anti-tumor immune responses that are elicited by α-galactosylceramide (α-GC in mice. The rapid and strong expression of interferon-γ by NKDCs after α-GC stimulation was dependent on NKT cells. Various NK and DC molecular markers and cytotoxic molecules were up-regulated following α-GC administration. This up-regulation could improve NKDC presentation of tumor antigens and increase cytotoxicity against tumor cells. NKDCs were required for the stimulation of DCs, NK cells, and NKT cells. The strong anti-tumor immune responses elicited by α-GC may be due to the down-regulation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NKDCs dampened the tumor clearance mediated by α-GC-stimulated NKT cells in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that complex interactions of innate immune cells might be required to achieve optimal anti-tumor immune responses during the early stages of tumorigenesis.
Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost
Lalić, Jelena; Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila; Mitić, Branka; Paunović, Goran; Cvetković, Tatjana
To assess the degree of immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients (KTPs) and to determine if there is a difference in the rate of adherence to tacrolimus (Tac), cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (Sir). From a total of 63 KTPs treated at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Centre Niš, Serbia, 60 participated in the study by responding to questionnaires. They were divided into the adherence group (n = 43) and the nonadherence group (n = 17) according to their degree of adherence which was measured using a validated survey form, the simplified medication adherence questionnaire. The KTP adherence to the different immunosuppressive regimens (Tac, CsA and Sir) was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Adherence was observed in 43 (71.7%) patients, and only 17 (28.3%) did not follow the prescribed therapy. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the nonadherence group (38.52 ± 18.22 ml/min) than in the adherence group (52.43 ± 16.91 ml/min, p adherers and the nonadherers (6.30 ± 2.06 vs. 5.0 ± 1.52 ng/ml, p adherence. Nonadherence was associated with worse graft function and a lower Tac level. Knowledge about the degree of adherence could help the early identification of nonadherent patients and the development of strategies to improve this. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
Velázquez Molinero, Rocío
Se analizan dos nuevos tipos de levaduras vínicas killer de amplio espectro antifúngico: Sacharomyces cerevisiae Klus y Torulaspora delbrueckii Kbarr. Ambas matan a todos los tipos de levaduras S. cerevisiae conocidos, killer y sensibles, además de muchas otras especies de levaduras no-Saccharomyces. El receptor de la pared celular de las levaduras sensibles a ambas toxinas parece ser el beta-glucano. El fenotipo killer de estas levaduras está codificado en virus de dsRNA de tamaño mediano, M...
Etcheverry Vera, Jaime Alberto
The goal of this research is to show an analysis of the psychological and forensic assessment carried out to a serial killer in the city of Medellin. In it, some historical aspects of the serial killer are made, including his characteristics and different types; as well as a description of the crimes, the killer's modus operandi and his assessment and personality profile. All of this is framed in the respect and the ethics, since this research does not attempt to judge the murder, but to anal...
Kohata, Erina; Kano, Rui; Akune, Yuichiro; Ohno, Yoshito; Soichi, Makoto; Yanai, Tokuma; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi
Systemic mycoses in killer whales (Orcinus orca) are rare diseases, but have been reported. Two killer whales died by fungal infections at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium in Japan. In this study, the fungal flora of the pool environment at the aquarium was characterized. Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp. (A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. versicolor), Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated from the air and the pool surroundings. The other isolates were identified as fungal species non-pathogenic for mammals. However, the species of fungi isolated from the environmental samples in this study were not the same as those isolated from the cases of disease in killer whales previously reported.
Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Veirs, Val; Emmons, Candice K; Veirs, Scott
This study investigated the effects of anthropogenic sound exposure on the vocal behavior of free-ranging killer whales. Endangered Southern Resident killer whales inhabit areas including the urban coastal waters of Puget Sound near Seattle, WA, where anthropogenic sounds are ubiquitous, particularly those from motorized vessels. A calibrated recording system was used to measure killer whale call source levels and background noise levels (1-40 kHz). Results show that whales increased their call amplitude by 1 dB for every 1 dB increase in background noise levels. Furthermore, nearby vessel counts were positively correlated with these observed background noise levels.
Samarra, Filipa I.P.; Deecke, Volker B.; Miller, Patrick J.O.
Killer whale acoustic behavior has been extensively investigated, however most studies have focused on pulsed calls and whistles. This study reports the production of low-frequency signals by killer whales at frequencies below 300 Hz. Recordings of killer whales were made in Iceland and Norway when whales were observed feeding on herring, and no other cetacean species were nearby. Low-frequency sounds were identified in Iceland and ranged in duration between 0.14 and 2.77 seconds and in frequ...
Gross, Emilie; Sunwoo, John B; Bui, Jack D
Cancer immunosurveillance eradicates certain neoplasms, but the selective pressure exerted by this active surveillance leads to the emergence of immune evasive tumor clones in a process called cancer immunoediting. Natural killer (NK) cells are potent effectors of cancer immunoediting and can destroy tumors directly via exocytosis of cytotoxic granules or indirectly by producing interferon γ to activate M1 and TH1 immune responses. This review gathers current knowledge of NK immunosurveillance of primary tumors induced in mice and highlights the importance of NK immunosurveillance for human cancers. Evidence of NK immunoediting, as revealed by studies using NK-deficient models, demonstrates how exposure to NK cells engenders modification of cancer immunogenicity to permit survival and progression of the tumor clone in an immunocompetent environment.
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a very common disease among women. It is frequently called a silent epidemic and, due to its impact on osteoporotic fractures with high morbidity and mortality, also a silent killer. There are a number of significant risk factors for osteoporosis, some of them very strongly related to the functioning of the reproductive system. These include menstrual irregularities, premature ovarian failure, early natural or surgical menopause, a high number of pregnancies, and long-term breast-feeding. Hence, there is every reason to include gynaecologists in the multidisciplinary team striving to cope with this dreadful disease. Calculation of the 10-year fracture risk, done by means of the FRAX calculator, and classification of women according to the level of risk could prove to be an effective method of limiting the negative effects of osteoporosis.
Jennifer A. Villwock
Full Text Available Midline destructive lesions of the face have multiple possible etiologies. The majority of these cases are found to be due to an extranodal lymphoma of natural killer/T-cell-type non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NKTL. Unfortunately, diagnosis is often delayed. With variable presenting complaints, including nonspecific issues like chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal congestion, initial treatments are aimed at these presumed diagnoses. Only as the lesion progresses do overt signs of destruction occur. As with our patient, who was initially treated for presumed infection and abscess, final diagnosis often does not occur until several months, and several antibiotic courses, from initial presentation. As such, it is important for this rare entity to remain in the clinician’s differential diagnosis for nasal lesion.
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are large granular lymphocytes that express a diverse array of germline encoded inhibitory and activating receptors for MHC Class I and Class I-like molecules, classical co-stimulatory ligands and cytokines. The ability of NK cells to be very rapidly activated by inflammatory cytokines, to secrete effector cytokines and to kill infected or stressed host cells, suggests that they may be among the very early responders during infection. Recent studies have also identified a small number of pathogen-derived ligands that can bind to NK cell surface receptors and directly induce their activation. Here we review recent studies that have begun to elucidate the various pathways by which viral, bacterial and parasite pathogens activate NK cells. We also consider two emerging themes of NK cell-pathogen interactions, namely their contribution to adaptive immune responses and their potential to take on regulatory and immunomodulatory functions.
Kumai, Takumi; Kobayashi, Hiroya; Harabuchi, Yasuaki
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTL) is a rare but highly aggressive Epstein-Barr virus-related malignancy, which mainly occurs in nasopharyngeal and nasal/paranasal areas. In addition to its high prevalence in Asian, Central American and South American populations, its incidence rate has been gradually increasing in Western countries. The current mainstay of treatment is a combination of multiple chemotherapies and irradiation. Although chemoradiotherapy can cure NKTL, it often causes severe and fatal adverse events. Because a growing body of evidence suggests that immunotherapy is effective against hematological malignancies, this treatment could provide an alternative to chemoradiotherapy for treatment of NKTL. In this review, we focus on how recent findings could be used to develop efficient immunotherapies against NKTL.
Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.
Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.
Full Text Available Type I natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo perspective.
Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian
Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective. PMID:29312339
Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent an innate-like lymphocyte population endowed with unique antigen recognition and tissue distribution features. Their abundance in the microvascular compartments of the liver allows NKT cells to immediately respond to lipid antigens and soluble factors circulating through the portal vein system by releasing tremendous amounts of different cytokines and chemokines. Subsequently, dependent on the nature of the lipid antigen encountered as well as the accessory signal(s) provided, NKT cells not only contribute to the maintenance of immune tolerance, but also direct adverse immune reactions locally and systemically. Focusing on their potent immunomodulatory features and their interactions with various innate and adaptive immune cells, the role of NKT cells in perpetuating the loss of liver-specific immune tolerance will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carl I. Odom
Full Text Available Human herpesviruses cause diseases of considerable morbidity and mortality, ranging from encephalitis to hematologic malignancies. As evidence emerges about the role of innate immunity and natural killer (NK cells in the control of herpesvirus infection, evidence of viral methods of innate immune evasion grows as well. These methods include interference with the ligands on infected cell surfaces that bind NK cell activating or inhibitory receptors. This paper summarizes the most extensively studied NK cell receptor/ligand pairs and then describes the methods of NK cell evasion used by all eight herpesviruses through these receptors and ligands. Although great strides have been made in elucidating their mechanisms, there is still a disparity between viruses in the amount of knowledge regarding innate immune evasion. Further research of herpesvirus innate immune evasion can provide insight for circumventing viral mechanisms in future therapies.
Odom, Carl I; Gaston, David C; Markert, James M; Cassady, Kevin A
Human herpesviruses cause diseases of considerable morbidity and mortality, ranging from encephalitis to hematologic malignancies. As evidence emerges about the role of innate immunity and natural killer (NK) cells in the control of herpesvirus infection, evidence of viral methods of innate immune evasion grows as well. These methods include interference with the ligands on infected cell surfaces that bind NK cell activating or inhibitory receptors. This paper summarizes the most extensively studied NK cell receptor/ligand pairs and then describes the methods of NK cell evasion used by all eight herpesviruses through these receptors and ligands. Although great strides have been made in elucidating their mechanisms, there is still a disparity between viruses in the amount of knowledge regarding innate immune evasion. Further research of herpesvirus innate immune evasion can provide insight for circumventing viral mechanisms in future therapies.
Matzner, Shari; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Deng, Zhiqun; Sun, Yannan; Carlson, Thomas J.
For the planned tidal turbine site in Puget Sound, WA, the main concern is to protect Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) due to their Endangered Species Act status. A passive acoustic monitoring system is proposed because the whales emit vocalizations that can be detected by a passive system. The algorithm for detection is implemented in two stages. The first stage is an energy detector designed to detect candidate signals. The second stage is a spectral classifier that is designed to reduce false alarms. The evaluation presented here of the detection algorithm incorporates behavioral models of the species of interest, environmental models of noise levels and potential false alarm sources to provide a realistic characterization of expected operational performance.
Al Omar, Suliman; Flanagan, Brian F; Almehmadi, Mazen; Christmas, Stephen E
These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of IL-17 upon the phenotype and function of human Natural Killer (NK) cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were cultured in the presence or absence of different combinations of IL-17s and changes in relative numbers and cell surface phenotype of NK cells and CD56+CD3+ cells measured by flow cytometry. Real time PCR was used to measure changes in expression of the cytotoxicity-related genes perforin A and granzymes A and B and IL-17 receptors. A chromium release assay was used to measure cytotoxic function against K562 tumour cells. IL-17D, IL-17A, IL-17F or the combination of both of the latter had little effect upon NK cell surface expression of Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors, although IL-17A modestly increased NK cell numbers. Slight but not significant increases in expression of perforin and granzymes were induced by IL-17A and/or IL-17F. Both IL-17A and D significantly increased cytotoxic function of NK cells at some E:T ratios. Similarly, numbers of NK cells induced to express CD107a after interaction with K562 cells were increased, but not significantly, by all combinations of IL-17s tested. IL-17RC was not found at the NK cell surface but was expressed at the message level and the protein detected intracellularly. NK cells are known to produce IL-17 but here we report that there is little response to this cytokine although some isoforms may moderately enhance cytotoxic function. There may therefore be some enhancement of NK cell function resulting from Th17 cell activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hegedüs, Anna; Kozel, Bernd
Non-adherence to medication is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Adherence therapy aims to improve medication adherence of these patients by applying techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy, psycho-education, and motivational interviewing. Even though adherence therapy is frequently discussed and researched, its effectiveness is still uncertain. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of adherence therapy on the medication adherence of patients with schizophrenia. To this end, six electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized, controlled trials on adherence therapy from January 2002 to March 2013. Four trials met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into the review. The findings suggest that adherence therapy does not improve patients' medication adherence in comparison to treatment as usual or a control intervention. However, all the studies reviewed showed high-adherence ratings at baseline. Thus, further well-designed studies that target adherence therapy to patients who are non-adherent to their medication are needed for a more profound understanding of its effectiveness. In addition, if adherence therapy is aimed not only at improving medication adherence, but also to reach an agreement whereby the patient's decision not to take his medication is accepted, the shared decision-making process needs to be assessed as well. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Sansone, Randy A; Bohinc, R Jordan; Wiederman, Michael W
The relationship between childhood bullying and healthcare adherence in adulthood has been rarely studied, but one published study suggests that being bullied in childhood is related to lower healthcare adherence among adolescents. This previous study examined few adherence variables and was limited to youths. In this study, we assessed five variables for childhood bullying as related to seven measures of healthcare adherence among a cohort of adult primary care outpatients. Using a cross-sectional, self-report survey methodology in a sample of 263 consecutive internal medicine outpatients, we examined five aspects of bullying and seven aspects of adherence with general healthcare. Being a victim of bullying, type of bullying (emotional, physical), number of years bullied and number of bullies each evidenced no statistical relationships with healthcare adherence. However, being a bully demonstrated several statistical relationships with healthcare adherence, indicating less adherence to instructions provided by healthcare professionals. Despite all of the deleterious psychological and physical effects of being bullied in childhood, there was no evidence that non-adherence with healthcare in adulthood is one of them. In contrast, bullies evidenced several areas of reduced healthcare adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Landis, Wayne G.
The factors maintaining the cytoplasmically inherited killer trait in populations of Paramecium tetraurelia and Paramecium biaurelia were examined using, in part, computer simulation. Frequency of the K and k alleles, infection and loss of the endosymbionts, recombination during conjugation and autogamy, cytoplasmic exchange and natural selection were incorporated in a model. Infection during cytoplasmic exchange at conjugation and natural selection were factors that would increase the proportion of killers in a population. Conversely, k alleles reduced the proportion of killers in a population, acting through conjugation and autogamy. Field studies indicate that the odd mating type is prevalent in P. tetraurelia isolated from nature. Conjugation and therefore transmission by cytoplasmic transfer would be rare. Competition studies indicate a strong selective disadvantage for sensitives at concentrations found in nature. Natural selection must therefore be the factor maintaining the killer trait in P. tetraurelia. PMID:3557112
Chen, Xiuxu; Gumperz, Jenny E
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are a unique subpopulation of T lymphocytes that have been shown to be able to promote potent anti-tumor responses in a number of different murine (mouse...
Priya M Jacob
Full Text Available Aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia is a rare aggressive form of natural killer-cell neoplasm. We report a case of a 40-year-old male who presented with jaundice, raised blood counts,generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. The diagnosis was established by flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow aspirate. The patient, however, succumbed to his illness within 2 weeks of starting chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case from India.
Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of
Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Moore, Brian
A major criterion for tidal power licensing in Washington’s Puget Sound is the management of the risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades. An active monitoring system is being proposed for killer whale detection, tracking, and alerting that links to and triggers temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision. Target strength (TS) modeling of the killer whale is critical to the design and application of any active monitoring system. A 1996 study performed a high-resolution measurement of acoustic reflectivity as a function of frequency of a female bottlenose dolphin (2.2 m length) at broadside aspect and TS as a function of incident angle at 67 kHz frequency. Assuming that killer whales share similar morphology structure with the bottlenose dolphin, we extrapolated the TS of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at 67 kHz frequency with -8 dB at broadside aspect and -28 dB at tail side. The backscattering data from three Southern Resident killer whales were analyzed to obtain the TS measurement. These data were collected at Lime Kiln State Park using a split-beam system deployed from a boat. The TS of the killer whale at higher frequency (200 kHz) was estimated based on a three-layer model for plane wave reflection from the lung of the whale. The TS data of killer whales were in good agreement with our model. In this paper, we also discuss and explain possible causes for measurement estimation error.
Full Text Available Pollen killer genes disable noncarrier pollens, and are responsible for male sterility and segregation distortion in hybrid populations of distantly related plant species. The genetic networks and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pollen killer system remain largely unknown. Two pollen killer genes, S24 and S35, have been found in an intersubspecific cross of Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. The effect of S24 is counteracted by an unlinked locus EFS. Additionally, S35 has been proposed to interact with S24 to induce pollen sterility. These genetic interactions are suggestive of a single S24-centric genetic pathway (EFS–S24–S35 for the pollen killer system. To examine this hypothetical genetic pathway, the S35 and the S24 regions were further characterized and genetically dissected in this study. Our results indicated that S35 causes pollen sterility independently of both the EFS and S24 genes, but is dependent on a novel gene close to the S24 locus, named incentive for killing pollen (INK. We confirmed the phenotypic effect of the INK gene separately from the S24 gene, and identified the INK locus within an interval of less than 0.6 Mb on rice chromosome 5. This study characterized the genetic effect of the two independent genetic pathways of INK–S35 and EFS–S24 in indica–japonica hybrid progeny. Our results provide clear evidence that hybrid male sterility in rice is caused by several pollen killer networks with multiple factors positively and negatively regulating pollen killer genes.
Parsons, Kim M; Durban, John W; Burdin, Alexander M; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Pitman, Robert L; Barlow, Jay; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; LeDuc, Richard G; Robertson, Kelly M; Matkin, Craig O; Wade, Paul R
The difficulties associated with detecting population boundaries have long constrained the conservation and management of highly mobile, wide-ranging marine species, such as killer whales (Orcinus orca). In this study, we use data from 26 nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA sequences (988bp) to test a priori hypotheses about population subdivisions generated from a decade of killer whale surveys across the northern North Pacific. A total of 462 remote skin biopsies were collected from wild killer whales primarily between 2001 and 2010 from the northern Gulf of Alaska to the Sea of Okhotsk, representing both the piscivorous "resident" and the mammal-eating "transient" (or Bigg's) killer whales. Divergence of the 2 ecotypes was supported by both mtDNA and microsatellites. Geographic patterns of genetic differentiation were supported by significant regions of genetic discontinuity, providing evidence of population structuring within both ecotypes and corroborating direct observations of restricted movements of individual whales. In the Aleutian Islands (Alaska), subpopulations, or groups with significantly different mtDNA and microsatellite allele frequencies, were largely delimited by major oceanographic boundaries for resident killer whales. Although Amchitka Pass represented a major subdivision for transient killer whales between the central and western Aleutian Islands, several smaller subpopulations were evident throughout the eastern Aleutians and Bering Sea. Support for seasonally sympatric transient subpopulations around Unimak Island suggests isolating mechanisms other than geographic distance within this highly mobile top predator.
Sharpe, D. L.; Wade, P. R.; Castellote, M.; Cornick, L. A.
Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales (Orcinus orca; i.e. "transient" ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about group-specific killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, we sought to evaluate and refine Bigg's killer whale population structure by using acoustic recordings to examine the spatial distribution of call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 34 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010, then visually and aurally reviewed using the software Adobe Audition. High quality calls were identified and classified into discrete call types based on spectrographic characteristics and aural uniqueness. A comparative analysis of call types recorded throughout the study area revealed spatial segregation of call types, corresponding well with proposed genetic delineations. These results suggest that Bigg's killer whales exhibit regional vocal dialects, which can be used to help refine the putative sub-populations that have been genetically identified throughout western Alaska. Our findings support the proposal to restructure current stock designations.
Breed, Greg A; Matthews, Cory J D; Marcoux, Marianne; Higdon, Jeff W; LeBlanc, Bernard; Petersen, Stephen D; Orr, Jack; Reinhart, Natalie R; Ferguson, Steven H
Although predators influence behavior of prey, analyses of electronic tracking data in marine environments rarely consider how predators affect the behavior of tracked animals. We collected an unprecedented dataset by synchronously tracking predator (killer whales, [Formula: see text] = 1; representing a family group) and prey (narwhal, [Formula: see text] = 7) via satellite telemetry in Admiralty Inlet, a large fjord in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Analyzing the movement data with a switching-state space model and a series of mixed effects models, we show that the presence of killer whales strongly alters the behavior and distribution of narwhal. When killer whales were present (within about 100 km), narwhal moved closer to shore, where they were presumably less vulnerable. Under predation threat, narwhal movement patterns were more likely to be transiting, whereas in the absence of threat, more likely resident. Effects extended beyond discrete predatory events and persisted steadily for 10 d, the duration that killer whales remained in Admiralty Inlet. Our findings have two key consequences. First, given current reductions in sea ice and increases in Arctic killer whale sightings, killer whales have the potential to reshape Arctic marine mammal distributions and behavior. Second and of more general importance, predators have the potential to strongly affect movement behavior of tracked marine animals. Understanding predator effects may be as or more important than relating movement behavior to resource distribution or bottom-up drivers traditionally included in analyses of marine animal tracking data.
Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Neziri, Burim
Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Desi...
Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.
Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley
The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
antiviral antibody activity by up to three logs, and polymorphisms in NK killer immunoglobulin receptor ( KIR ) and FccRIIIa alleles appear to be...diminished the antiviral antibody activity by up to three logs, and polymorphisms in NK killer immunoglobulin receptor ( KIR ) and FccRIIIa alleles appear...killer immunoglobulin receptors ( KIR ), and Fc gamma receptors (FccR). Significant biologic associations with either permissivity or neutralization were
Deecke, Volker B.; Riesch, Rüdiger
Public signaling plays an important role in territorial and sexual displays in animals; however, in certain situations, it is advantageous to keep signaling private to prevent eavesdropping by unintended receivers. In the northeastern Pacific, two populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca), fish-eating “resident” killer whales and mammal-eating “transient” killer whales, share the same habitat. Previous studies have shown that residents use whistles as private signals during close-range comm...
Ferguson, Steven H; Higdon, Jeff W; Westdal, Kristin H
Background Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-direc...
Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine
Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.
Full Text Available Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp. on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.
Soares Giselle A.M.
Full Text Available The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for the killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also against the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713, K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388 and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435, K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500, K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575 and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.
Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L.
Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify “insults” and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The
Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra T; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L
Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify "insults" and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The immunologic
Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...
Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition with intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Medications are the cornerstone of treatment of IBD. However, patients often adhere to medication poorly. Adherence to medications is defined as the process by which patients take their medications as prescribed. Treatment non-adherence is a common problem among chronic diseases, averaging 50% in developed countries and is even poorer in developing countries. In this review, we will examine the adherence data in IBD which vary greatly depending on the study population, route of administration, and methods of adherence measurement used. We will also discuss the adverse clinical outcomes related to non-adherence to medical treatment including increased disease activity, flares, loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, and so forth. There are many methods to measure medication adherence namely direct and indirect methods, each with their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we will explore different intervention strategies to improve adherence to medications.
are effective in reducing high blood pressure and have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular illness. It is further thought that patient's benefits to antihypertensive medication can be reduced because of low adherence, whereas non-adherence can be unintentional. (such as forgetting) or can be ...
Kuznetsov, V.P.; Avdeev, G.I.; Vyadro, M.M.; Leikin, Yu.D.; Frolova, I.S.
For the purpose of a preliminary estimate of the therapeutic potential of domestic recombinant alpha 2 -component of human leukocytic interferon (rl) in vitro tests, the authors studied its ability to induce development of antiviral condition in diploid culture of human embryo fibroblasts and to activate the cytolytic effect of natural killers in relation to tumor cells, of the K-562 leukemia line and cells of lung adenocarcinoma. The authors used a medicinal form of rL which was derived by expression of a reconstructed gene in Escherichia coli cells. Part of the tests were conducted with an analogous preparation synthesized using another producer, Pseudomonas sp). The biological effect of both preparations was the same. For comparison, a natural preparation was used in all tests: human leukocytic interferon for injection, II(le). The authors studied activity of natural killers in a fraction of mononuclears isolated from blood of essentially healthy donors and from cancer patients. Cells were incubated for 2 h with various concentrations of interferons, then combined in a ratio of 25-50:1 with target cells labeled with 51 Cr. Cytotoxic reaction was conducted for 4 (4-CTR) or 18 h (18-CTR) at 37 0 C. Natural killers could thus be divided into two subpopulations: killer (4-CTR) and cytotoxic (18-CTR) cells. In preliminary tests, both preparations possessed the ability to active natural killers. The effective concentration for rL was within the limits of 1000-2000 IU/ml, and 50-200 Iu/ml for Le. The data on activation of natural killers in 16 oncological patients (primarily with lung cancer), the authors established that both rL and Le induced activation of natural killers in the overwhelming majority of cases in relation to K-562 target cells and adenocarcinomas of the lung
Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Myers, Joshua R.; Jones, Mark E.
Before final approval is given to the Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 for deploying the first tidal power devices in the United States in an open water environment, a system to manage the potential risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades must be demonstrated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with establishing the performance requirements for, constructing, and testing a prototype marine animal alert system for triggering temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision with a killer whale. To develop a system that relies on active sonar two critical areas must be investigated - the target strength of killer whales and the frequency content of commercially available active sonar units. PNNL studied three target strength models: a simple model, the Fourier matching model, and the Kirchoff-ray mode model. Using target strength measurements of bottlenose dolphins obtained by previous researchers and assuming killer whales share similar morphology and structure, PNNL extrapolated the target strength of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at a frequency of 67 kHz. To study the frequency content of a commercially available sonar unit, direct measurements of the signal transmitted by the sonar were obtained by using a hydrophone connected to a data acquisition system in both laboratory and field conditions. The measurements revealed that in addition to the primary frequency of 200 kHz, there is a secondary frequency component at 90 kHz, which is within the hearing range of killer whales. The amplitude of the 90-kHz frequency component is above the hearing threshold of killer whales but below the threshold for potential injuries.
Full Text Available Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed. The few discrepancies between viral variants were mostly located around the central poly(A region. A continuous sequence of the ScV-M2 genome was obtained for the first time. M1 virus was found for the first time in wine yeasts, coexisting with Mbarr-1 virus in T. delbrueckii. Extra 5′- and 3′-sequences were found in all M-genomes. The presence of repeated short sequences in the non-coding 3′-region of most M-genomes indicates that they have a common phylogenetic origin. High identity between amino acid sequences of killer toxins and some unclassified proteins of yeast, bacteria, and wine grapes suggests that killer viruses recruited some sequences from the genome of these organisms, or vice versa, during evolution.
Ramírez, Manuel; Velázquez, Rocío; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Naranjo, Belén; Roig, Francisco; Llorens, Carlos
Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii . All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed. The few discrepancies between viral variants were mostly located around the central poly(A) region. A continuous sequence of the ScV-M2 genome was obtained for the first time. M1 virus was found for the first time in wine yeasts, coexisting with Mbarr-1 virus in T. delbrueckii . Extra 5'- and 3'-sequences were found in all M-genomes. The presence of repeated short sequences in the non-coding 3'-region of most M-genomes indicates that they have a common phylogenetic origin. High identity between amino acid sequences of killer toxins and some unclassified proteins of yeast, bacteria, and wine grapes suggests that killer viruses recruited some sequences from the genome of these organisms, or vice versa, during evolution.
Chasens, Eileen R; Pack, Allan I; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F; Weaver, Terri E
This study evaluated the effect of claustrophobia, an abnormal dread or fear of closed spaces, on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. The design was a secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of participants (N = 153) that completed 3 months of CPAP therapy from seven sleep disorders centers in the United States and Canada. A 15-item subscale adapted from the Fear and Avoidance Scale measured claustrophobic tendencies pre-CPAP treatment and again after 3 months. An overt monitor attached to the CPAP machines recorded mask-on CPAP adherence. There was a statistically significant difference in claustrophobia scores by adherence group ( or = 5 hours) and time period (pre-CPAP and after 3 months CPAP). Poor CPAP adherence (claustrophobia score > or = 25. Identification of persons with increased claustrophobia tendencies and targeted interventions may increase adherence.
Varshney, Upkar; Vetter, Ron
Medication adherence has been studied for some time; however most research has focused on able-bodied patients or the elderly living independently. What has not been studied nearly as much is medication adherence for people with psychiatric or mental illnesses. In this paper, we present a framework that includes the specific challenges in medication adherence for patients with mental illness, algorithms and protocols for evaluating adherence, and some on-going work in developing effective solutions. The architectural framework and associated algorithms leverage the context-aware computing capabilities available on many mobile devices. The system is designed to be able to collect and offer situation-aware information on medication use and adherence for healthcare professionals and other designated persons.
Full Text Available Immune system (IS is comprised of molecules, cells, tissues and organs involved in host defense mechanism from infectious agents or tumor cells. On crossing the cell barriers by these infectious agents, the defense mechanism is alerted by the immune system to respond against these invading microbes. Innate immune response (IIR and acquired immune response (AIR are working in parallel to control these invading microbes. IIR is composed of various types of phagocytes and lymphocytes, while AIR is comprised of T and B lymphocytes. All the cells of the immune system cooperatively work against infectious agents and cancerous cells but Natural killer (NK cells are playing an important role to respond to tumor by enhancing the expression of complementary domain (CD86 on dendritic cells (DCs and production of IL-12. NK cells demolished tumor through perforin and granzyme, which are important for immune surveillance and death of tumor cells induced by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF, Fas ligand (CD178, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and IL-10. These cytokines have inhibited proliferation of tumor by inducing anti-angiogenic factors and maintaining cross talk with other immune cells. Natural products like transfer factor plus, immune modulator mix, ascorbic acid, Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus blazei teas, nitrogenated soy extract, Andrographis paniculata and several phytochemicals enhanced the efficiency of NK cells in controlling cancers. Further studies will unravel the impact of NK cells in cancer control and how NK efficiency can be further enhanced.
Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.
For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538
Patsouris Efstratios S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural killer (NK cells represent a first line of defence against a developing cancer; however, their exact role in colorectal cancer remains undetermined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CD16 and CD57 [immunohistochemical markers of natural NK cells] in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods Presence of NK cells was investigated in 82 colorectal adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed, using 2 monoclonal antibodies (anti-Fc Gamma Receptor II, CD16 and an equivalent to Leu-7, specific for CD-57. The number of immunopositive cells (% was evaluated by image analysis. The cases were characterized according to: patient gender and age, tumor location, size, grade, bowel wall invasion, lymph node metastases and Dukes' stage. Results NK cells were detected in 79/82 cases at the primary tumor site, 27/33 metastatic lymph nodes and 3/4 hepatic metastases; they were detected in levels similar to those reported in the literature, but their presence was not correlated to the clinical or pathological characteristics of the series, except for a negative association with the patients' age (p = 0.031. Conclusions Our data do not support an association of NK cell tissue presence with clinical or pathological variables of colorectal adenocarcinoma, except for a negative association with the patients' age; this might possibly be attributed to decreased adhesion molecule expression in older ages.
Michael C Horowitz
Full Text Available The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think of these systems? Existing research suggests widespread US public opposition, but focused on support for autonomous weapons in a vacuum. This paper uses two survey experiments to test the conditions in which public opposition rises and falls. The results demonstrate that public opposition to autonomous weapons is contextual. Fear of other countries or non-state actors developing these weapons makes the public significantly more supportive of developing them. The public also becomes much more willing to actually use autonomous weapons when their use would protect US forces. Beyond contributing to ongoing academic debates about casualty aversion, the microfoundations of foreign policy, and weapon systems, these results suggest the need for modesty when making claims about how the public views new, unknown technologies such as autonomous weapons.
Full Text Available During early viral infection, activation of natural killer (NK cells elicits the effector functions of target cell lysis and cytokine production. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to NK cell activation during viral infections are incompletely understood. In this study, using a model of acute viral infection, we investigated the mechanisms controlling cytotoxic activity and cytokine production in response to influenza (flu virus. Analysis of cytokine receptor deficient mice demonstrated that type I interferons (IFNs, but not IL-12 or IL-18, were critical for the NK cell expression of both IFN-γ and granzyme B in response to flu infection. Further, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that NK cell activation was mediated by type I IFNs acting directly on NK cells. Analysis of signal transduction molecules showed that during flu infection, STAT1 activation in NK cells was completely dependent on direct type I IFN signaling, whereas STAT4 activation was only partially dependent. In addition, granzyme B induction in NK cells was mediated by signaling primarily through STAT1, but not STAT4, while IFN-γ production was mediated by signaling through STAT4, but not STAT1. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the importance of direct action of type I IFNs on NK cells to mount effective NK cell responses in the context of flu infection and delineate NK cell signaling pathways responsible for controlling cytotoxic activity and cytokine production.
Full Text Available Few data are available regarding the recirculation of natural killer (NK cells among human organs. Earlier studies have been often impaired by the use of markers then proved to be either not sufficiently specific for NK cells (e.g. CD57, CD56 or expressed only by subsets of NK cells (e.g. CD16. At the present, available data confirmed that human NK cells populate blood, lymphoid organs, lung, liver, uterus (during pregnancy and gut. Several studies showed that NK cell homing appears to be subset-specific, as secondary lymphoid organs and probably several solid tissues are preferentially inhabited by CD56brightCD16neg/dull non-cytotoxic NK cells. Similar studies performed in the mouse model showed that lymph node and bone marrow are preferentially populated by CD11bdull NK cells while blood, spleen and lung by CD27dull NK cells. Therefore, an important topic to be addressed in the human system is the contribution of factors that regulate NK cell tissue homing and egress, such as chemotactic receptors or homeostatic mechanisms. Here, we review the current knowledge on NK cell distribution in peripheral tissues and, based on recent acquisitions, we propose our view regarding the recirculation of NK cells in the human body.
Head, J R
Large mononuclear cells with abundant prominent granules were described decades ago by morphologists studying implantation sites in pregnant rodents. These striking cells accumulated by midgestation in large numbers in a structure unique to rodent pregnancy that develops in the mesometrial region of the uterine musculature and was given the unfortunate name of metrial gland. Thus, the cells were originally termed granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells. Evidence provided over the last few years, especially in situ phenotyping and studies in mutant and transgenic mice, has reliably identified these cells as members of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage, and they are referred to here as granulated uterine NK (uNK) cells. Much of the evidence is reviewed here, along with a description of the spatial and temporal aspects of the differentiation of these cells. Especially highlighted are their life history and their likely importance early in pregnancy before development of the metrial gland proper. Their relation to other NK cell populations, especially activated cells, as well as their possible functions during pregnancy, are discussed. Because these cells develop in the unique microenvironment of the pregnant uterus and appear to differentiate along a specific pathway, hypotheses are proposed regarding the regulation of granulated uNK cell differentiation in this site.
Castro, Victor Labres da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: The primary nasal lymphoma is an uncommon extranodal tumor and represents 0.44% of all Extranodal lymphomas in this region. The primary nasal lymphoma derives from the T-lineage in nearly 75% of the cases. Objective: To describe a case of nasosinusal lymphoma of T Natural Killer cells, attended in the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás. Case Report: 48-year-old female patient with diffuse tumefaction in the left hemiface of firm-elastic consistency and painful upon digital compression. Face sinuses tomography identified a total maxillary veiling to the left and some posterior ethmoidal cells. With the diagnostic hypothesis of a tumor affection, we opted for the surgical removal via a transmaxillary approach and the material was sent for biopsy. The histopathological exam diagnosed a highly necrotic tumor of angiocentric pattern, polymorphic and atypical lymphoid population (T /NK Lymphoma; with the prognosis, the patient was submitted to chemical therapy with total regression of the facial edema. Final Comments: The otorhinolaryngologist must be attentive as regards the existence of lymphomas among the nasosinusal diseases, because the early diagnosis improves the survival as it prevents metastases, growth and local destruction.
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are traditionally regarded as first-line effectors of the innate immune response, but they also have a distinct role in chronic infection. Here, we review the role of NK cells against hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, two agents that cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. Interest in NK cells was initially sparked by genetic studies that demonstrated an association between NK cellârelated genes and the outcome of HCV infection. Viral hepatitis also provides a model to study the NK cell response to both endogenous and exogenous type I interferon (IFN. Levels of IFN-stimulated genes increase in both acute and chronic HCV infection and pegylated IFNÎ± has been the mainstay of HCV and HBV treatment for decades. In chronic viral hepatitis, NK cells display decreased production of antiviral cytokines. This phenotype is found in both HCV and HBV infection but is induced by different mechanisms. Potent antivirals now provide the opportunity to study the reversibility of the suppressed cytokine production of NK cells in comparison with the antigen-induced defect in IFNÎ³ and tumor necrosis factor-Î± production of virus-specific T cells. This has implications for immune reconstitution in other conditions of chronic inflammation andÂ immune exhaustion, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and cancer. Keywords: HBV, HCV, Infection, Interferon, T Cell
Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Hun Sik
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in early surveillance against virus infection and cellular transformation, and are also implicated in the control of inflammatory response through their effector functions of direct lysis of target cells and cytokine secretion. NK cell activation toward target cell is determined by the net balance of signals transmitted from diverse activating and inhibitory receptors. A distinct feature of NK cell activation is that stimulation of resting NK cells with single activating receptor on its own cannot mount natural cytotoxicity. Instead, specific pairs of co-activation receptors are required to unleash NK cell activation via synergy-dependent mechanism. Because each co-activation receptor uses distinct signaling modules, NK cell synergy relies on the integration of such disparate signals. This explains why the study of the mechanism underlying NK cell synergy is important and necessary. Recent studies revealed that NK cell synergy depends on the integration of complementary signals converged at a critical checkpoint element but not on simple amplification of the individual signaling to overcome intrinsic activation threshold. This review focuses on the signaling events during NK cells activation and recent advances in the study of NK cell synergy.
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially considered as antigen presenting cells participating in the polarization of the immune response. Further understanding of their biology allowed determining their additional functions such as immunoregulatory and cytotoxicity. Until recently natural killer (NK cells were known as a homogeneous population of lymphocytes capable of non-specific recognizing and eliminating target cells. Now it is widely accepted that NK cells, as a heterogeneous population, may also possess immunomodulatory functions. Moreover, the most recent analysis of the interactions between DC and NK cells revealed the exceptional functions of these cells. As a result of these studies the existence of bitypic cell population was postulated. The distinguishing features of these hybrid cells are: the expression of surface receptors typical for NK cells and DC, the cytotoxic activity, the production of interferons as well as their ability to present antigen after prior stimulation. Despite the lack of strong direct evidence that the same cell can be both cytotoxic and effectively present the antigen at the same time, there are experimental findings suggesting that generated ex vivo bitypic cells may be used in antitumor therapy.
Full Text Available Macrophages are key cellular components of the innate immunity, acting as the main player in the first-line defence against the pathogens and modulating homeostatic and inflammatory responses. Plasticity is a major feature of macrophages resulting in extreme heterogeneity both in normal and in pathological conditions. Macrophages are not homogenous, and they are generally categorized into two broad but distinct subsets as either classically activated (M1 or alternatively activated (M2. However, macrophages represent a continuum of highly plastic effector cells, resembling a spectrum of diverse phenotype states. Induction of specific macrophage functions is closely related to the surrounding environment that acts as a relevant orchestrator of macrophage functions. This phenomenon, termed polarization, results from cell/cell, cell/molecule interaction, governing macrophage functionality within the hosting tissues. Here, we summarized relevant cellular and molecular mechanisms driving macrophage polarization in “distant” pathological conditions, such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and periodontitis that share macrophage-driven inflammation as a key feature, playing their dual role as killers (M1-like and/or builders (M2-like. We also dissect the physio/pathological consequences related to macrophage polarization within selected chronic inflammatory diseases, placing polarized macrophages as a relevant hallmark, putative biomarkers, and possible target for prevention/therapy.
Full Text Available In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/ on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.
Shissler, Susannah C.; Bollino, Dominique R.; Tiper, Irina V.; Bates, Joshua; Derakhshandeh, Roshanak; Webb, Tonya J.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes that bridge the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells possess a classic αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) that is able to recognize self and foreign glycolipid antigens presented by the nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, CD1d. Type I NKT cells (referred to as invariant NKT cells) express a semi-invariant Vα14Jα18 TCR in mice and Vα24Jα18 TCR in humans. Type II NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that express a more diverse set of TCR α chains. The two types of NKT cells often exert opposing effects especially in tumor immunity, where Type II cells generally suppress tumor immunity while Type I NKT cells can enhance antitumor immune responses. In this review, we focus on the role of NKT cells in cancer. We discuss their effector and suppressive functions, as well as describe preclinical and clinical studies utilizing therapeutic strategies focused on harnessing their potent anti-tumor effector functions, and conclude with a discussion on potential next steps for the utilization of NKT cell targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27393665
Jennie B. Altman
Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like lymphocytes that were first described in the late 1980s. Since their initial description, numerous studies have collectively shed light on their development and effector function. These studies have highlighted the unique requirements for the activation of these lymphocytes and the functional responses that distinguish these cells from other effector lymphocyte populations such as conventional T cells and NK cells. This body of literature suggests that NKT cells play diverse nonredundant roles in a number of disease processes, including the initiation and propagation of airway hyperreactivity, protection against a variety of pathogens, development of autoimmunity, and mediation of allograft responses. In this review, however, we focus on the role of a specific lineage of NKT cells in antitumor immunity. Specifically, we describe the development of invariant NKT (iNKT cells and the factors that are critical for their acquisition of effector function. Next, we delineate the mechanisms by which iNKT cells influence and modulate the activity of other immune cells to directly or indirectly affect tumor growth. Finally, we review the successes and failures of clinical trials employing iNKT cell-based immunotherapies and explore the future prospects for the use of such strategies.
Full Text Available Despite extensive use of nonhuman primates as models for infectious diseases and reproductive biology, imprecise phenotypic and functional definitions exist for natural killer (NK cells. This deficit is particularly significant in the burgeoning use of small, less expensive New World primate species. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we identified peripheral blood NK cells as CD3-negative and expressing a cluster of cell surface molecules characteristic of NK cells (i.e., NKG2A, NKp46, NKp30 in three New World primate species - common marmosets, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys. We then assessed subset distribution using the classical NK markers, CD56 and CD16. In all species, similar to Old World primates, only a minor subset of NK cells was CD56+, and the dominant subset was CD56-CD16+. Interestingly, CD56+ NK cells were primarily cytokine-secreting cells, whereas CD56-CD16+ NK cells expressed significantly greater levels of intracellular perforin, suggesting these cells might have greater potential for cytotoxicity. New World primate species, like Old World primates, also had a minor CD56-CD16- NK cell subset that has no obvious counterpart in humans. Herein we present phenotypic profiles of New World primate NK cell subpopulations that are generally analogous to those found in humans. This conservation among species should support the further use of these species for biomedical research.
Brown, Judith C
Formulas for the spectra of pulsed vocalizations for both the continuous and discrete cases are rigorously derived from basic formulas for Fourier analysis, a topic discussed qualitatively in Watkins' classic paper on "the harmonic interval" ["The harmonic interval: Fact or artifact in spectral analysis of pulse trains," in Marine Bioacoustics 2, edited by W. N. Tavogla (Pergamon, New York, 1967), pp. 15-43]. These formulas are summarized in a table for easy reference, along with most of the corresponding graphs. The case of a "pulse tone" is shown to involve multiplication of two temporal wave forms, corresponding to convolution in the frequency domain. This operation is discussed in detail and shown to be equivalent to a simpler approach using a trigonometric formula giving sum and difference frequencies. The presence of a dc component in the temporal wave form, which implies physically that there is a net positive pressure at the source, is discussed, and examples of the corresponding spectra are calculated and shown graphically. These have application to biphonation (two source signals) observed for some killer whale calls and implications for a source mechanism. A MATLAB program for synthesis of a similar signal is discussed and made available online.
Brian L. Anderson
Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells are a subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1d protein. The initial discovery of immunostimulatory glycolipids from a marine sponge and the T cells that respond to the compounds has led to extensive research by chemists and immunologists to understand how glycolipids are recognized, possible responses by NKT cells, and the structural features of glycolipids necessary for stimulatory activity. The presence of this cell type in humans and most mammals suggests that it plays critical roles in antigen recognition and the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Both endogenous and exogenous natural antigens for NKT cells have been identified, and it is likely that glycolipid antigens remain to be discovered. Multiple series of structurally varied glycolipids have been synthesized and tested for stimulatory activity. The structural features of glycolipids necessary for NKT cell stimulation are moderately well understood, and designed compounds have proven to be much more potent antigens than their natural counterparts. Nevertheless, control over NKT cell responses by designed glycolipids has not been optimized, and further research will be required to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of this cell type.
Jonjić, Stipan; Babić, Marina; Polić, Bojan; Krmpotić, Astrid
Natural killer (NK) cells are important in the host resistance to viral infections. They are among the first cells to sense the release of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the downregulation of surface MHC class I molecules and molecules induced by viral invasion of cells. Various viral functions have evolved to counter NK cell responses illustrating the evolutionary struggles between viruses and NK cells. Ligands for NK cell receptors are primary targets for viral immunoevasion. In order to counteract NK cell activation via the 'missing self'-axis, viruses encode proteins which serve as ligands for inhibitory NK cell receptors. Viruses also downmodulate the ligands for the activating NK cell receptors and encode soluble ligands which block these receptors. In addition to viral immunoregulatory proteins, regulatory RNAs can also inhibit the expression of ligands for NK cell receptors. Improving our understanding of viral regulation of NK cell function could be essential for designing more efficient measures in the prophylaxis and treatment of virus-induced pathology.
Paula Cristina de Andrade Pires Olympio
Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Psychoneuroimmunology is one of the areas in charge of nurses, as it provides the implementation of an individualized and humanistic practice, perceiving the patient as a whole and aiming at physical and psychological aspects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of Natural Killer (NK cells in women with breast cancer when the relaxation technique was used in nursing interventions and assess the association between the activity of NK cells and the pattern of behavior for stress and coping. Method: This is an experimental study with a quantitative approach, carried out with mastectomized women submitted to chemotherapy. Results: It was observed that NK cell levels, at the 1st measurement, were not statistically different between the control and experimental groups, demonstrating that the control and experimental groups were initially homogeneous. However, the same groups showed significant differences at the 2nd measurement. Conclusion: The nursing intervention using the relaxation technique modified the activity of NK cells, as the women in the experimental group showed increased activity after learning and practicing relaxation techniques.
Regina Celia Cândido
Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.The authors studied the killer effect of nine standard strains of yeasts on 146 samples of Candida albicans isolated from the following clinical specimens: oral mucosa, feces, bronchial wash, sputum, vaginal secretion, urine, skin lesion, nail lesion and blood. Using this system it was possible to differentiate 23 biotypes of Candida albicans. The biotypes 211, 111 and 811 were most frequently isolated. Most of the samples of C. albicans (98.6% were sensitive to at least one or more of the nine killer strains. Using the killer system it was possible to show that two patients harbored the same killer biotypes, 111 and 211, respectively, in different clinical specimens and another patient harbored the same biotype (211 in blood cultures effected in different ocasions. The utilization of the killer system to differentiate types among species of pathogenic yeasts can be a useful method to stablish the eventual
Elnagdy, S; Majerus, M E N; Gardener, M; Lawson Handley, L-J
Male killing bacteria are common in insects and are thought to persist in host populations primarily by indirect fitness benefits to infected females, whereas direct fitness effects are generally assumed to be neutral or deleterious. Here, we estimated the effect of male killer infection on direct fitness (number of eggs laid, as a measure of fecundity, together with survival) and other life-history traits (development time and body size) in seven ladybird host/male killer combinations. Effects of male killers on fecundity ranged, as expected, from costly to neutral; however, we found evidence of reduced development time and increased survival and body size in infected strains. Greater body size in Spiroplasma-infected Harmonia axyridis corresponded to greater ovariole number and therefore higher potential fecundity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of direct benefits of male killer infection after explicitly controlling for indirect fitness effects. Neutral or deleterious fitness effects of male killer infection should not therefore be automatically assumed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Danilo Santana Alessio Franceschi
Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for many hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma, bone marrow aplasia and leukemia. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA compatibility is an important tool to prevent post-transplant complications such as graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease, but the high rates of relapse limit the survival of transplant patients. Natural Killer cells, a type of lymphocyte that is a key element in the defense against tumor cells, cells infected with viruses and intracellular microbes, have different receptors on their surfaces that regulate their cytotoxicity. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors are the most important, interacting consistently with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules present in other cells and thus controlling the activation of natural killer cells. Several studies have shown that certain combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens (in both donors and recipients can affect the chances of survival of transplant patients, particularly in relation to the graft-versusleukemia effect, which may be associated to decreased relapse rates in certain groups. This review aims to shed light on the mechanisms and effects of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors - human leukocyte antigen associations and their implications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to critically analyze the results obtained by the studies presented herein.
Esteban, R; Verborgh, P; Gauffier, P; Alarcón, D; Salazar-Sierra, J M; Giménez, J; Foote, A D; de Stephanis, R
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna. In summer, the whales were observed in the shallow central waters of the Strait. A relatively new feeding strategy has been observed among two of the five pods. These two pods interact with an artisanal drop-line fishery. Pods depredating the fishery had access to larger tuna in comparison with pods that were actively hunting. The Strait of Gibraltar killer whales are socially and ecologically different from individuals in the Canary Islands. Molecular genetic research has indicated that there is little or no female-mediated gene migration between these areas. Conservation threats include small population size, prey depletion, vessel traffic, and contaminants. We propose the declaration of the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales as an endangered subpopulation. A conservation plan to protect the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales is urgently needed, and we recommend implementation of a seasonal management area where activities producing underwater noise are restricted, and the promotion of bluefin tuna conservation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G
Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires.
Brent G. Young
Full Text Available We identified individual killer whales (Orcinus orca using recent (2004–09 photographs to obtain a minimum count of whales that use eastern Canadian Arctic waters. Fifty-three individuals were identified from nine different sightings; 11 individuals from western Hudson Bay sightings and 42 from the areas around northern and eastern Baffin Island. One whale was re-sighted: an adult female or large juvenile photographed 17 days and 375 km apart at Churchill, Manitoba, and off-shore of Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, in August 2007. With only one individual re-sighted, the number of individuals that use this area is likely much larger. No re-sightings occurred between Arctic killer whales and individuals photographed off the coast of Newfoundland. Our results represent the minimum number of killer whales sighted in eastern Canadian Arctic waters and provide the foundation for further killer whale research. Little is known about Arctic killer whales and, as a top predator, it is unclear what effect they have on Arctic marine ecosystems.
Eskesen, Ida; Wahlberg, Magnus; Simon, Malene
The source characteristics of biosonar signals from sympatric killer whales and long-finned pilot whales in a Norwegian fjord were compared. A total of 137 pilot whale and more than 2000 killer whale echolocation clicks were recorded using a linear four-hydrophone array. Of these, 20 pilot whale...... clicks and 28 killer whale clicks were categorized as being recorded on-axis. The clicks of pilot whales had a mean apparent source level of 196 dB re 1 lPa pp and those of killer whales 203 dB re 1 lPa pp. The duration of pilot whale clicks was significantly shorter (23 ls, S.E.¼1.3) and the centroid...... frequency significantly higher (55 kHz, S.E.¼2.1) than killer whale clicks (duration: 41 ls, S.E.¼2.6; centroid frequency: 32 kHz, S.E.¼1.5). The rate of increase in the accumulated energy as a function of time also differed between clicks from the two species. The differences in duration, frequency...
Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.
Similä, Tiu; Holst, Jens Christian; Christensen, Ivar
Our objectives were to investigate the seasonal occurrence of photoidentified killer whale pods in relation to the distribution of Norwegian spring-spawning herring and whether or not pod-specific differences in the occurrence or diet of killer whales could be demonstrated. In a 4-year study, the killer whales occurred in different areas during the summer and the fall–winter, and these areas coincided with the distribution areas of herring. Killer whales were encountered most freq...
Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini
Full Text Available Twenty-four yeasts out of 342 isolated from the fermentative process showed killer activity and three of them were selected for the fermentative efficiency evaluation in batch system with cell recycle, flask and fermentor experiments. The selected three killer strains did not present similar results to those of pressed (baking yeast concerning ethanol (0.07-0.18; 0.12-0.20; 0.10-0.13; 0.22-0.25 g/g, respectively and biomass (0.19-0.26; 0.33-0.39; 0.13-0.27; 0.47-0.61 g/g, respectively yields and fermentative efficiency (12.3-36.3; 21.0-40.0; 19.3-26.3; 47.6-54.0 %, respectively in sugarcane juice, in flasks. In fermentor, similar behaviour was observed. However, the selected strains showed high cellular viability and killer activity (using cell-free filtrate along the fermentative cycles, in spite of the unfavourable conditions of the medium, like high pH variation of the medium (from 5.5-6.0 to 3.0-4.0, low aeration and higher temperature (30º C, which were not the ideal ones for the production/activity of killer toxins. A Pichia strain (CCA 510 showed the best results among the killer yeasts tested, exhibiting a killer activity against 92% of isolated fermentative yeasts of the process and against the pressed (baking ferment. It also demonstrated killer activity (using crude toxin preparation at higher temperatures (38ºC and low pH (4.0 after 72 hours of incubation, under proliferative and non-proliferative conditions. The results indicated that the killer activity should be a characteristic to be looked for in the strain selection for ethanolic fermentation, beside other important productivity-based characteristics, since it assure the permanence of the selected strain during the process.A atividade 'killer' poderia garantir às leveduras fermentativas uma vantagem competitiva sobre outras linhagens durante a fermentação etanólica, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre o papel do sistema 'killer' nesse tipo de fermentação alcoólica. A sele
Zhan, Jie-Min; Gong, Ye-Jun; Li, Tian-Zeng
The hydrodynamic performance of the locomotive near the water surface is impacted by its geometrical shape. For marine animals, their geometrical shape is naturally selective; thus, investigating gliding locomotion of marine animal under the water surface may be able to elucidate the influence of the geometrical shape. We investigate three marine animals with specific geometries: the killer whale is fusiform shaped; the manta ray is flat and broad-winged; and the swordfish is best streamlined. The numerical results are validated by the measured drag coefficients of the manta ray model in a towing tank. The friction drag of the three target models are very similar; the body shape affected form drag coefficient is order as swordfish killer whale killer whale and swordfish. These bio-inspired observations provide a new and in-depth understanding of the shape effects on the hydrodynamic performances near the free surface.
Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Lutz, Charles T
Psychosocial factors may influence aspects of immunological aging. The present study tested the hypothesis that psychosocial resources correlate with the expression of the cell surface maker CD57 on natural killer (NK) immune cells. CD57 is a marker of terminal maturation and senescence in this cell subset. The study further tested the relative contribution of specific resources in the social, psychological, financial, and status-skill domains, given the potential differential value of different resources for younger and older adults, and the contribution of relative versus absolute resources. Younger (n = 38) and older (n = 34) women completed measures of relative and absolute resources and had blood drawn. Examined both between groups and within the older women, older age and fewer total relative resources were associated with more CD57 expression on NK cells. One SD in resources was the equivalent of 5 years of aging among the older women. Among the specific resource types, a preponderance of financial resources, both relative and absolute, was associated with less CD57 expression on NK cells, and these relationships did not significantly vary between younger and older women. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms mediated the effects of resources on CD57 expression on NK cells. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that the sense that one has substantial resources, particularly with regard to finances and possessions, may retard age-associated aspects of the microenvironment in which NK cells develop and mature, independent of effects on distress, and this process may begin in younger adulthood. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available How the immune system attacks medulloblastoma (MB tumours effectively is unclear, although natural killer (NK cells play an important role in immune defence against tumour cells. Interactions between receptors on NK cells and ligands expressed by tumour cells are critical for tumour control by immunotherapy. In this study, we analysed tumour samples from 54 MB patients for expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chains A (MICA and UL16 binding protein (ULPB-2, which are ligands for the NK group 2 member D activatory receptor (NKG2D. The percentage of MICA and ULBP-2 positive cells was higher than 25% in 68% and 6% of MB patients, respectively. A moderate-high intensity of MICA cytoplasmic staining was observed in 46% MB patients and weak ULBP-2 staining was observed in 8% MB patients. No correlation between MICA/ULBP-2 expression and patient outcome was found. We observed that HTB-186, a medulloblastoma cell line, was moderately resistant to NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro. Blocking MICA/ULBP-2 on HTB-186, and NKG2D receptor on NK cells increased resistance to NK cell lysis in vitro. However, HLA class I blocking on HTB-186 and overnight incubation with IL-15 stimulated NK cells efficiently to kill tumour cells in vitro. We conclude that although NKG2D/MICA-ULBP-2 interactions have a role in NK cell cytotoxicity against MB, high expression of HLA class I can protect MB from NK cell cytotoxicity. Even so, our in vitro data indicate that if NK cells are appropriately stimulated, they may have the potential to target MB in vivo.
Lynch, Lydia A
With the emerging obesity pandemic, identifying those who appear to be protected from adverse consequences such as type 2 diabetes and certain malignancies will become important. We propose that the circulating immune system plays a role in the development of these comorbidities. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 52 patients with severe obesity attending a hospital weight-management clinic and 11 lean healthy controls. Patients were classified into metabolically "healthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 42.6 years, mean BMI 46.8 kg\\/m(2)) or "unhealthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 45 years, mean BMI 47.5 kg\\/m(2)) groups, based upon standard cutoff points for blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting glucose. Circulating lymphoid populations and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Obese patients had significantly less circulating natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) compared to lean controls. There were significantly higher levels of NK cells and CTLs in the healthy obese group compared to the unhealthy obese group (NK: 11.7% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.0001, CD8 13.4% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.04), independent of age and BMI and these NK cells were also less activated in the healthy compared to the unhealthy group (CD69, 4.1% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.03). This is the first time that quantitative differences in the circulating immune system of obese patients with similar BMI but different metabolic profiles have been described. The significantly higher levels of CTLs and NK cells, which express fewer inhibitory molecules, could protect against malignancy, infection, and metabolic disease seen in obesity.
Jamil, K M; Hydes, T J; Cheent, K S; Cassidy, S A; Traherne, J A; Jayaraman, J; Trowsdale, J; Alexander, G J; Little, A-M; McFarlane, H; Heneghan, M A; Purbhoo, M A; Khakoo, S I
Natural killer (NK) cells are important mediators of liver inflammation in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate why liver transplants (LTs) are not rejected by NK cells in the absence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, and to identify a tolerogenic NK cell phenotype. Phenotypic and functional analyses on NK cells from 54 LT recipients were performed, and comparisons made with healthy controls. Further investigation was performed using gene expression analysis and donor:recipient HLA typing. NK cells from non-HCV LT recipients were hypofunctional, with reduced expression of NKp46 (p<0.05) and NKp30 (p<0.001), reduced cytotoxicity (p<0.001) and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion (p<0.025). There was no segregation of this effect with HLA-C, and these functional changes were not observed in individuals with HCV. Microarray and RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated downregulation of STAT4 in NK cells from LT recipients (p<0.0001). Changes in the expression levels of the transcription factors Helios (p=0.06) and Hobit (p=0.07), which control NKp46 and IFNγ expression, respectively, were also detected. Hypofunctionality of NK cells was associated with impaired STAT4 phosphorylation and downregulation of the STAT4 target microRNA-155. Conversely in HCV-LT NK cell tolerance was reversed, consistent with the more aggressive outcome of LT for HCV. LT is associated with transcriptional and functional changes in NK cells, resulting in reduced activation. NK cell tolerance occurs upstream of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I mediated education, and is associated with deficient STAT4 phosphorylation. STAT4 therefore represents a potential therapeutic target to induce NK cell tolerance in liver disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kennedy, R. G.; Hughes, Eric; Roy, Kenneth I.; Fields, David E.
No study of coping with climate change is complete without considering geoengineering. A "Dyson Dot" is one or more large (area ~700 K km2, >200 megatonne) lightsail(s) in a radiation-levitated non-Keplerian orbit(s) just sunward of the Sun-Earth Lagrange-1 point. The purpose of this syncretic concept is twofold: (I) As a parasol, it would reduce insolation on Earth by at least one-quarter of a percent (-3.4 W m-2), same as what caused 1.5°C drop during the "Little Ice Age" (~1550-1850) and same as the IPCC Third Report's mid-range value for global warming by 2050. The parasol transforms the "solar constant" to a controlled solar variable. (II) Hosting a ~50K km2 photovoltaic power station on its sunny side and relaying beamed power via maser to rectennas on a circumpolar Dymaxion grid, the system could displace over 300 EJ/a (~100 trillion kWh/yr) of fossil-fired power (total global demand for electricity forecast by 2050), while providing USD trillions in revenue from cheap clean energy sales (@1-3¢/kWh) to amortize the scheme. Total system efficiency compares favorably to automobiles; total system power density is comparable to nuclear power. This approach -- self-funding, "pay-as-you-go", minimally intrusive, scalable, complementary with a portfolio of other measures and above all reversible is not precluded by international treaty. Indeed geoengineering may be the best "killer app" to bootstrap orbital industry and humanity ad astra, because the terawattscale product is comparable to the power required for interstellar travel. If Tellurian spacefaring civilization bootstraps its exponential growth with multi-terawatt maser beams from such lightsails, there might eventually be enough of them to have a detectable effect on Sol's apparent luminosity at certain wavelengths, as seen from far away, similar to the eponymous Dyson Sphere, hence the moniker.
Megan J Peterson
Full Text Available Killer whale (Orcinus orca depredation (whales stealing or damaging fish caught on fishing gear adversely impacts demersal longline fisheries for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria, Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis and Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands and Western Gulf of Alaska. These interactions increase direct costs and opportunity costs associated with catching fish and reduce the profitability of longline fishing in western Alaska. This study synthesizes National Marine Fisheries Service observer data, National Marine Fisheries Service sablefish longline survey and fishermen-collected depredation data to: 1 estimate the frequency of killer whale depredation on longline fisheries in Alaska; 2 estimate depredation-related catch per unit effort reductions; and 3 assess direct costs and opportunity costs incurred by longliners in western Alaska as a result of killer whale interactions. The percentage of commercial fishery sets affected by killer whales was highest in the Bering Sea fisheries for: sablefish (21.4%, Greenland turbot (9.9%, and Pacific halibut (6.9%. Average catch per unit effort reductions on depredated sets ranged from 35.1-69.3% for the observed longline fleet in all three management areas from 1998-2012 (p<0.001. To compensate for depredation, fishermen set additional gear to catch the same amount of fish, and this increased fuel costs by an additional 82% per depredated set (average $433 additional fuel per depredated set. In a separate analysis with six longline vessels in 2011 and 2012, killer whale depredation avoidance measures resulted in an average additional cost of $494 per depredated vessel-day for fuel and crew food. Opportunity costs of time lost by fishermen averaged $522 per additional vessel-day on the grounds. This assessment of killer whale depredation costs represents the most extensive economic evaluation of this issue in Alaska to date and will help
Lamere, Sarah A; St Leger, Judy A; Schrenzel, Mark D; Anthony, Simon J; Rideout, Bruce A; Salomon, Daniel R
There are currently no published data documenting the presence of retroviruses in cetaceans, though the occurrences of cancers and immunodeficiency states suggest the potential. We examined tissues from adult killer whales and detected a novel gammaretrovirus by degenerate PCR. Reverse transcription-PCR also demonstrated tissue and serum expression of retroviral mRNA. The full-length sequence of the provirus was obtained by PCR, and a TaqMan-based copy number assay did not demonstrate evidence of productive infection. PCR on blood samples from 11 healthy captive killer whales and tissues from 3 free-ranging animals detected the proviral DNA in all tissues examined from all animals. A survey of multiple cetacean species by PCR for gag, pol, and env sequences showed homologs of this virus in the DNA of eight species of delphinids, pygmy and dwarf sperm whales, and harbor porpoises, but not in beluga or fin whales. Analysis of the bottlenose dolphin genome revealed two full-length proviral sequences with 97.4% and 96.9% nucleotide identity to the killer whale gammaretrovirus. The results of single-cell PCR on killer whale sperm and Southern blotting are also consistent with the conclusion that the provirus is endogenous. We suggest that this gammaretrovirus entered the delphinoid ancestor's genome before the divergence of modern dolphins or that an exogenous variant existed following divergence that was ultimately endogenized. However, the transcriptional activity demonstrated in tissues and the nearly intact viral genome suggest a more recent integration into the killer whale genome, favoring the latter hypothesis. The proposed name for this retrovirus is killer whale endogenous retrovirus.
To review published literature to determine what is known about adherence to oral antineoplastic agents in children with cancer, to identify adherence-related challenges, and to examine the implications of these challenges for clinical practice. Published literature identified through the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Oral antineoplastic agents are frequently used in childhood cancer treatment; supportive care regimens for children with cancer also rely heavily on the administration of oral medications. Adherence in pediatric oncology is a complex process involving both parent and child, and requires knowledge and understanding of proper and safe home medication administration in the context of multiple developmental and behavioral concerns that may change over time. Nurses play an important role in adherence by providing patient and family education and psychosocial support targeted to the child's diagnosis, developmental stage, and specifics of the child's treatment regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beck, Suzanne; Kuningas, Sanna; Esteban, Ruth
The persistence and size of social groups can be plastic and governed by ecological selection or be under greater genetic control and constrained by phylogenetic inertia. Comparing sociality of phylogenetically divergent populations under the same ecolog- ical conditions or between groups within ......-eating ecotype than the more phylogenetically distant Pacific mammal-eating ecotype. Our study suggests that sociality in killer whales is to some extent plastic and can be adapted to the local ecological conditions. Key words: ecology, killer whale, orca, orcinus, sociality....
Pedersen, M. N.
In real political life "killer amendments" are very rare. William H. Riker was the first political scientist to draw systematic attention to this special "heresthetic" phenomenon, but he was himself only able to identify a handful of successful "killer amendments". Subsequent systematic empirical...... research has brought a few more to attention. In this article what may be the first successful example from outside the US context is described. It took place, when the Danish Constituent Assembly in 1849 discussed, if a proper judicial review procedure should be institutionalized in the Danish...
Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; Amorim, Thiago O S; Sucunza, Federico; de Castro, Franciele R; Maia, Ygor Geyer; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Bortolotto, Guilherme A; Dalla Rosa, Luciano
Acoustic parameters of killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles were described for the western South Atlantic Ocean and highlight the occurrence of high frequency whistles. Killer whale signals were recorded on December of 2012, when a pod of four individuals was observed harassing a group of sperm whales. The high frequency whistles were highly stereotyped and were modulated mostly at ultrasonic frequencies. Compared to other contour types, the high frequency whistles are characterized by higher bandwidths, shorter durations, fewer harmonics, and higher sweep rates. The results add to the knowledge of vocal behavior of this species.
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Backer, V; Soes-Petersen, U
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Adherence with controller therapy poses a major challenge to the effective management of persistent asthma. The aim of this study was to explore the patient-related aspects of adherence among adult asthmatics. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The participants (n = 509 adult asthmatics...... that controller therapy is effective (p controller therapy is common among adult asthmatics. The reasons for suboptimal adherence seem to be accessible through education of both...
Majerus Michael EN
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropods are infected by a wide diversity of maternally transmitted microbes. Some of these manipulate host reproduction to facilitate population invasion and persistence. Such parasites transmit vertically on an ecological timescale, but rare horizontal transmission events have permitted colonisation of new species. Here we report the first systematic investigation into the influence of the phylogenetic distance between arthropod species on the potential for reproductive parasite interspecific transfer. Results We employed a well characterised reproductive parasite, a coccinellid beetle male-killer, and artificially injected the bacterium into a series of novel species. Genetic distances between native and novel hosts were ascertained by sequencing sections of the 16S and 12S mitochondrial rDNA genes. The bacterium colonised host tissues and transmitted vertically in all cases tested. However, whilst transmission efficiency was perfect within the native genus, this was reduced following some transfers of greater phylogenetic distance. The bacterium's ability to distort offspring sex ratios in novel hosts was negatively correlated with the genetic distance of transfers. Male-killing occurred with full penetrance following within-genus transfers; but whilst sex ratio distortion generally occurred, it was incomplete in more distantly related species. Conclusion This study indicates that the natural interspecific transmission of reproductive parasites might be constrained by their ability to tolerate the physiology or genetics of novel hosts. Our data suggest that horizontal transfers are more likely between closely related species. Successful bacterial transfer across large phylogenetic distances may require rapid adaptive evolution in the new species. This finding has applied relevance regarding selection of suitable bacteria to manipulate insect pest and vector populations by symbiont gene-drive systems.
Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.
Dirk Michael Zajonc
Full Text Available T cells can recognize microbial antigens when presented by dedicated antigen-presenting molecules. While peptides are presented by classical members of the Major Histocompatibility (MHC family (MHC I and II, lipids, glycolipids and lipopeptides can be presented by the non-classical MHC member CD1. The best studied subset of lipid-reactive T cells are Type I Natural killer T (iNKT cells that recognize a variety of different antigens when presented by the non-classical MHCI homolog CD1d. iNKT cells have been shown to be important for the protection against various microbial pathogens, including B. burgdorferi the causative agents of Lyme disease and S. pneumoniae, which causes pneumococcal meningitis and community-acquired pneumonia. Both pathogens carry microbial glycolipids that can trigger the T cell antigen receptor (TCR, leading to iNKT cell activation. iNKT cells have an evolutionary conserved TCR alpha chain, yet retain the ability to recognize structurally diverse glycolipids. They do so using a conserved recognition mode, in which the TCR enforces a conserved binding orientation on CD1d. TCR binding is accompanied by structural changes within the TCR binding site of CD1d, as well as the glycolipid antigen itself. In addition to direct recognition of microbial antigens, iNKT cells can also be activated by a combination of cytokines (IL-12/IL-18 and TCR stimulation. Many microbes carry TLR antigens and microbial infections can lead to TLR activation. The subsequent cytokine response in turn lower the threshold of TCR mediated iNKT cell activation, especially when weak microbial or even self-antigens are presented during the cause of the infection. In summary, iNKT cells can be directly activated through TCR triggering of strong antigens, while cytokines produced by the innate immune response may be necessary for TCR triggering and iNKT cell activation in the presence of weak antigens. Here we will review the molecular basis of iNKT cell
Moradi Tuchayi S
Full Text Available Sara Moradi Tuchayi,1 Tiffany M Alexander,2 Anish Nadkarni,1 Steven R Feldman1,3,4 1Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, 4Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Background: Adherence to acne medication is poor and is a major reason why treatment plans are ineffective. Recognizing solutions to nonadherence is critical. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the hurdles associated with acne nonadherence and to provide mechanisms on how to ameliorate them. Methods: PubMed database was searched. Of the 419 search results, 29 articles were reviewed to identify hurdles to adherence and corresponding solutions. Results: Hurdles to primary nonadherence where the medication is not even started, include lack of knowledge, confusion about usage, weak physician–patient relationship, fear of adverse reactions, and cost. Secondary nonadherence hurdles where the medication is started but is not taken as directed include lack of results, complex regimens, side effects, busy lifestyle, forgetfulness, inconvenience, and psychiatric comorbidity. Solutions to these hurdles include treatment simplification, technology, and dynamic education. Limitations: Adherence is affected by numerous factors, but available literature analyzing acne adherence and interventions to improve adherence to treatment is limited. Conclusion: There are several hurdles in adhering to acne treatment. Recognition of these hurdles and finding appropriate solutions may be as important to treatment outcomes as choosing the right medication to prescribe. Keywords: acne vulgaris, adherence, pathogenesis, treatment, quality of life, prevalence, physician–patient relationship, lifestyle, clinic visit, disease severity
In the spirit of the work edited by Michel Foucault (1975) on Pierre Rivière, I propose to put philosophy to work by tackling a case study in which I shall analyse certain court transcripts that pertain to the defence of serial killer, Stewart Wilken, in Die Staat Teen Stewart Wilken. My analysis of these documents is intended to ...
plausible than colonization by closely related haplotypes. The Atlantic Ocean is not well represented in this study, but the genetic differentiation...loci reveal genetic differentiation between temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Mol. Ecol. 16: 4930...Schultz, Janet L. Thieleking and Daniel L. Webster EVIDENCE OF GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION FOR HAWAI I INSULAR FALSE KILLER WHALES ` (Pseudorca crassidens
Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F
hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper...
Schmitz, Peter MU
Full Text Available not normally found on a street map. The maps were used in court to show the geographical extend of the serial killer's activity space and to help the court understand the sequence of events as evidence was led. Historically, photographs of a wall map bedecked...
Schmitz, Peter MU
Full Text Available A desktop geographical information system (GIS) was used to pin-map the 86 cases associated with the Wemmerpan serial killer, representing crimes committed between 17 September 1995 and 19 December 1997 in central, western and southern Johannesburg...
Written by an internationally-acclaimed specialist in this field, Killer Web Content givesyou the strategies and practical techniques you need to get the verybest out of your Web content. Accessible, concise and practical, itwill make your website really work for you.
S. De Guise (Sylvain); P.S. Ross (Peter); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D. Martineau (Daniel); P. Beland; M. Fournier (Michel)
textabstractNatural killer (NK) activity, an important non-specific defense mechanism against viral infections and tumors, was demonstrated in beluga whales using two different methods: 51Cr release and flow cytometry. Using the 51Cr release assay, NK activity in belugas was shown to be higher
Funk, Brian K.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Watkins, Adam S.; McCubbin, Christopher B.; Marshall, Steven J.; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Newman, Andrew J.; Peterson, Cammy K.; DeSena, Jonathan T.; Dutrow, Daniel A.; Rodriguez, Pedro A.
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory deployed and demonstrated a prototype Cooperative Hunter Killer (CHK) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) capability and a prototype Upstream Data Fusion (UDF) capability as participants in the Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment 2010 in April 2010. The CHK capability was deployed at the Nevada Test and Training Range to prosecute a convoy protection operational thread. It used mission-level autonomy (MLA) software applied to a networked swarm of three Raven hunter UAS and a Procerus Miracle surrogate killer UAS, all equipped with full motion video (FMV). The MLA software provides the capability for the hunter-killer swarm to autonomously search an area or road network, divide the search area, deconflict flight paths, and maintain line of sight communications with mobile ground stations. It also provides an interface for an operator to designate a threat and initiate automatic engagement of the target by the killer UAS. The UDF prototype was deployed at the Maritime Operations Center at Commander Second Fleet, Naval Station Norfolk to provide intelligence analysts and the ISR commander with a common fused track picture from the available FMV sources. It consisted of a video exploitation component that automatically detected moving objects, a multiple hypothesis tracker that fused all of the detection data to produce a common track picture, and a display and user interface component that visualized the common track picture along with appropriate geospatial information such as maps and terrain as well as target coordinates and the source video.
Full Text Available This report presents a case of an exceptionallyrare primary Natural Killer/T cell (NK/T lymphomaof the right paranasal frontal and ethmoidsinuses in a patient treated previously for rightside chronic sinusitis. It highlighted the importanceof adequate tissue biopsy and patohistologicalexamination in patients with chronic sinusitisor orbital cellulitis that fail to respond totraditional management.
Spel, Lotte; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; van der Steen, Dirk M.; Blokland, Nina J. G.; van Noesel, Max M.; Molenaar, Jan J.; Heemskerk, Mirjam H. M.; Boes, Marianne; Nierkens, Stefan
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in children with an estimated 5-year progression free survival of 20-40% in stage 4 disease. Neuroblastoma actively avoids recognition by natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Although immunotherapy has gained traction for
Buengeler, C.; Klonek, F.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.; Morency, L.-P.; Poppe, R.
As part of the Lorentz workshop, “Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics,” held in Leiden, Netherlands, this article describes how Geeks and Groupies (computer and social scientists) may benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration toward the development of killer apps in team
Taherzadeh, Zhila; VanBavel, Ed; de Vos, Judith; Matlung, Hanke L.; van Montfrans, Gert; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Seghers, Leonard; Quax, Paul H. A.; Bakker, Erik N. T. P.
Taherzadeh Z, VanBavel E, de Vos J, Matlung HL, van Montfrans G, Brewster LM, Seghers L, Quax PH, Bakker EN. Strain-dependent susceptibility for hypertension in mice resides in the natural killer gene complex. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298: H1273-H1282, 2010. First published February 12, 2010;
Kuningas, S.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.
In this study, retrospective data on naval sonar activity and prey abundance were correlated with killer whale sightings within a fjord basin in northern Norway. In addition, passive acoustic and visual marine mammal surveys were conducted before, during, and after a specific navy exercise in 2006.
Chessa, Rossella; Landolfo, Sara; Ciani, Maurizio; Budroni, Marilena; Zara, Severino; Ustun, Murat; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Mannazzu, Ilaria
The use of natural antimicrobials from plants, animals and microorganisms to inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is becoming more frequent. This parallels the increased consumer interest towards consumption of minimally processed food and 'greener' food and beverage additives. Among the natural antimicrobials of microbial origin, the killer toxin produced by the yeast Tetrapisispora phaffii, known as Kpkt, appears to be a promising natural antimicrobial agent. Kpkt is a glycoprotein with β-1,3-glucanase and killer activity, which induces ultrastructural modifications to the cell wall of yeast of the genera Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces. Moreover, Kpkt maintains its killer activity in grape must for at least 14 days under winemaking conditions, thus suggesting its use against spoilage yeast in wine making and the sweet beverage industry. Here, the aim was to explore the possibility of high production of Kpkt for biotechnological exploitation. Molecular tools for heterologous production of Kpkt in Komagataella phaffii GS115 were developed, and two recombinant clones that produce up to 23 mg/L recombinant Kpkt (rKpkt) were obtained. Similar to native Kpkt, rKpkt has β-glucanase and killer activities. Moreover, it shows a wider spectrum of action with respect to native Kpkt. This includes effects on Dekkera bruxellensis, a spoilage yeast of interest not only in wine making, but also for the biofuel industry, thus widening the potential applications of this rKpkt.
Spits, H.; Blom, B.; Jaleco, A. C.; Weijer, K.; Verschuren, M. C.; van Dongen, J. J.; Heemskerk, M. H.; Res, P. C.
T-cell development is initiated when CD34+ pluripotent stem cells or their immediate progeny leave the bone marrow to migrate to the thymus. Upon arrival in the thymus the stem cell progeny is not yet committed to the T-cell lineage as it has the capability to develop into T, natural killer (NK) and
The distribution, seasonality and schooling behaviour of killer whalesOrcinus orca in South African waters have been investigated from 785 records compiled between 1963 and 2009, and their size, morphometrics, growth, reproduction, food and feeding behaviour described from the examination of 54 individuals, 36 of ...
Galactosylceramide (a-GalCer) is a marine sponge -derived glycolipid Ag (1) that binds CD1d, a MHCclass I-like molecule, expressed by APCs to specifi- cally...Y. Kinjo, and M. Kronenberg. 2007. The unique role of natural killer T cells in the response to microorganisms . Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5: 405– 417. 45
Dr. Piet Bakker
New electronic tablet devices are often referred to as either saviours of newspapers or killers of traditional print media. These crude statements are based on a naive concept of media substitution and an overestimation of the actual use of new media for news consumption. It is much more likely that
Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Heidrich, Daiane; Sorrentino, Julia Medeiros; Vieira, Fabiane Jamono; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia
The Sporothrix schenckii complex is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis, a subacute or chronic mycosis which can affect humans and animals. Killer yeasts have been used in the medical field for development of novel antimycotics and biotyping of pathogenic fungi. The action of 18 killer yeasts on the growth of 88 characterized S. schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Sporothrix mexicana clinical and environmental isolates was evaluated. Killer studies were performed on Petri dishes containing cheese black starch agar. The yeasts Candida catenulata (QU26, QU31, QU127, LV102); Trichosporon faecale (QU100); Trichosporon japonicum (QU139); Kluyveromyces lactis (QU30, QU99, QU73); Kazachstania unispora (QU49), Trichosporon insectorum (QU89), and Kluyveromyces marxianus (QU103) showed activity against all strains of the S. schenckii complex tested. Observation by optical microscopy of S. brasiliensis 61 within the inhibition haloes around the colonies of the killer yeasts QU100, QU139, and LV102 showed that there was no conidiation, but there was hyphal proliferation. The toxins were fungistatic against S. brasiliensis 61. There was no difference in susceptibility to the toxins among the S. schenckii species complex. Further investigations are necessary to clearly establish the mechanism of action of the toxins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Foote, Andrew D; Newton, Jason; Piertney, Stuart B
promoting divergence. Here we use morphological traits, nitrogen stable isotope ratios and tooth wear to characterize two disparate types of North Atlantic killer whale. We find a highly specialist type, which reaches up to 8.5 m in length and a generalist type which reaches up to 6.6 m in length...
Jourdain, Eve; Vongraven, Dag; Bisther, Anna; Karoliussen, Richard
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been documented preying on either fish or marine mammals in several regions, suggesting that this odontocete species has the ability to specialize on different types of prey. Off Norway, killer whales have been shown to rely on the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as a main prey resource. Infrequent observations have revealed seals as an additional component of their diet, yet the extent of predation on marine mammals has remained largely unknown. Here, we present the findings of 29 years of photographic and observational data on seal-feeding killer whale groups identified in Norwegian coastal waters. Four groups have been observed preying and feeding on seals over several years, taking both harbor (Phoca vitulina) and grey (Halichoerus grypus) seals. These stable groups are shown to adopt small group sizes, were typically observed in near-shore areas and were not encountered on herring wintering grounds. Behavioral and social traits adopted by these groups are similar to those of pinniped-feeding killer whales from other regions. The potential ecological reasons and the extent of such prey specializations are discussed.
Examines how the aquarium has attempted to move from a transfer view of knowledge to a constructivist approach in its most popular general public program--the killer whale presentation. The process of change that staff underwent is similar to conceptual change processes among learners of science. Describes constructivist strategies of conceptual…
Roozemond, R. C.; Halperin, M.; Das, P. K.
Several studies have demonstrated an augmentation of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity by various adjuvants including BCG. Inhibitory effects of BCG have also been reported, particularly for relatively high doses. Because the cell wall of Mycobacterium bovis BCG contains a high
Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Cebecauer, M.; Horváth, Ondřej; Fišerová, Anna; Havlíček, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel
Roč. 5, - (2005), s. 113-122 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/98/K034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : activation receptor * mebrane microdomains * natural killer cells Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.088, year: 2005
Full Text Available This is the story of the serial killer, Mrs. Gesina Gottfried from Bremen, Germany. She was executed in 1831, being charged and convicted for having murdered at least 16 people, partly from her own family, with arsenic trioxide.
'They call us killers': An exploration of herbal, spiritual and western medical practices in Mombasa, Kenya. ZO Enumah, Mohamed Y. Rafiq, Wossen Ayele. Abstract. Background: This paper attempts to describe the multi-dimensional perceptions of mganga/waganga (Kiswahili: traditional healers) by members of their ...
Vliet, van der HJ; Molling, J.W.; Blomberg - van der Flier, von B.M.E.; Nishi, N.; Kolgen, W; Eertwegh, van den A.J.M.; Pinedo, H.M.; Giaccone, G.; Scheper, R.J.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells constitute a T cell subpopulation that shares several characteristics with NK cells. NKT cells are characterized by a narrow T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire, recognize glycolipid antigen in the context of the monomorphic CD1d antigen-presenting molecule, and
Jiang, Sen; Gao, Hua; Luo, Qin; Wang, Pengfei; Yang, Xinling
The correlation between immunity and Parkinson's disease was presented in many papers, which also discussed lymphocyte and natural killer cell. But these studies have yielded inconsistent results. To systematically review the relationship between the lymphocyte subsets/natural killer cell and the risk of Parkinson's disease, we electronically searched the SpringerLink, Web of Science, Ebsco-medline with full text, Pubmed, Elsevier-ScienceDirect, Ovid-lww-oup, Wanfang Data for case-control trials on comparing the number of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cell in Parkinson's patients and healthy controls. According to the Cochrane methods, the reviewers selected literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2. Finally, 21 case-control trials including 943 cases of Parkinson's disease were fit into our data analysis. Meta-analysis showed that the decreased numbers of CD3+, CD4+ lymphocyte subsets and the increased number of natural killer cell were found in Parkinson's disease patients. In the intermediate and late stage of PD, CD8+ lymphocyte subsets had a significant decrement. However, the number of B lymphocyte subsets had no significant association with Parkinson's disease. The lymphocyte subsets and NK cell may be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease.
Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan
The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the
Despite having a worldwide distribution in tropical waters, knowledge on pygmy killer whales Feresa attenuata, including diet, is poor, with only a few studies carried out to date. The presence of otoliths and beaks in stomachs that have been examined indicate that the diet of F. attenuata includes squid, octopus and fish.
Cure, C.; Antunes, R.; Samarra, F.; Alves, A.C.; Visser, F.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Miller, P.J.O.
In cetaceans’ communities, interactions between individuals of different species are often observed in the wild. Yet, due to methodological and technical challenges very little is known about the mediation of these interactions and their effect on cetaceans’ behavior. Killer whales (Orcinus orca)
Full Text Available Killer whales (Orcinus orca have been documented preying on either fish or marine mammals in several regions, suggesting that this odontocete species has the ability to specialize on different types of prey. Off Norway, killer whales have been shown to rely on the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as a main prey resource. Infrequent observations have revealed seals as an additional component of their diet, yet the extent of predation on marine mammals has remained largely unknown. Here, we present the findings of 29 years of photographic and observational data on seal-feeding killer whale groups identified in Norwegian coastal waters. Four groups have been observed preying and feeding on seals over several years, taking both harbor (Phoca vitulina and grey (Halichoerus grypus seals. These stable groups are shown to adopt small group sizes, were typically observed in near-shore areas and were not encountered on herring wintering grounds. Behavioral and social traits adopted by these groups are similar to those of pinniped-feeding killer whales from other regions. The potential ecological reasons and the extent of such prey specializations are discussed.
Kvadsheim, P.; Benders, F.P.A.; Miller, P.; Doksµter, L.; Knudsen, F.; Tyack, P.; Kleivane, L.; God°, O.R.; Norlund, N.; Lam, F-P.A.; Samarra, F.
This report summarises the outcome of an international research cruise in Norwegian waters (Vestfjorden) in November 2006. The objectives of the trial were to study impacts of military low frequency - (LFAS 1-2 kHz) and mid frequency - (MFAS 6-7 kHz) active sonars on killer whales and herring. In
Ramsey, Rachelle R; Ryan, Jamie L; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W; Aylward, Brandon S; Hommel, Kevin A
To review and critically evaluate the extant research literature pertaining to adherence in youth and adults with headache and to provide recommendations for future research. This article provides the first systematic review of pediatric headache adherence and updates a previous review of treatment adherence in adults with headache. Systematic review of empirical literature. A literature search with no date restriction was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Adherence rates in adults with headache range considerably from 25% to 94% across treatment, assessment method, and definition of adherence utilized. Methods to assess adherence included retrospective prescription claims data, paper or electronic diaries, follow-up appointment attendance, written and verbal self-report of general adherence, verbal self-report of adherence over a specific amount of time via in person interview or telephone, validated adherence measures, adherence questionnaires without validation, and counselor ratings of homework. Each methodology and assessment tool demonstrated strengths and weaknesses. No studies have systematically examined medication adherence in children with headache, and the few available studies examining adherence to behavioral treatment have documented adherence rates ranging from 52% to 86%. Adherence research in adults with headache is growing, but studies demonstrate a number of methodological shortcomings. Adherence research in children with headache, and adherence intervention research in both adults and children, is scant. Future research should use objective measures of adherence, consider over-the-counter medications and medication overuse, examine demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of adherence, assess adherence to botulinum toxin type A, and examine the efficacy of adherence interventions in individuals with headache. © 2014 American Headache Society.
Feldman, S.R.; Vrijens, B.; Gieler, U.; Piaserico, S.; Puig, L.; Kerkhof, P. van de
Adequate adherence to prescribed treatment regimens can help to break the cycle of treatment failure, disease progression and subsequent treatment escalation. Unfortunately, adherence in the treatment of skin disorders such as acne, atopic dermatitis/eczema and psoriasis is often inadequate. A
Gau, Susan S F; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Miao-Churn; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Churn-Shiouh
The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style, parent- child relationship, and perceived family support. The sample consisted of 307 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (271 boys and 36 girls), 6-17 years of age, who had been treated with IR MPH for the past 6 months. The measures included the Chinese Health Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family APGAR, and Home Behaviors of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents. Reasons for poor adherence (n = 79; 25.7%) included forgetting medication (72.7%), the medication having no effect (20.0%), and refusing medication (12.7%). Increased age and three-times-daily administration were the major predictors for poor adherence to IR MPH. Poor adherence was associated with increased degree of maternal psychological distress, indifferent parenting, maternal overprotection/control, poor family support, decreased interaction with parents, and increased problems at home. Findings indicate that multiple daily dosing of MPH increases the likelihood of poor adherence, particularly in adolescents, and that poor adherence is associated with impaired maternal/family process. Once-daily administration of MPH is necessary to improve adherence and to decrease the possible exacerbation of tense parent-child relationships caused by poor drug adherence.
Ahmed, Imran; Ahmad, Niall Safir; Ali, Shahnaz; Ali, Shair; George, Anju; Saleem Danish, Hiba; Uppal, Encarl; Soo, James; Mobasheri, Mohammad H; King, Dominic; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara
Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps. In April 2015, relevant medication adherence apps were identified by searching the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store using a combination of relevant search terms. Data extracted included app store source, app price, documentation of health care professional (HCP) involvement during app development, and evidence base for each respective app. Free apps were downloaded to explore the strategies used to promote medication adherence. Testing involved a standardized medication regimen of three reminders over a 4-hour period. Nonadherence features designed to enhance user experience were also documented. The app repository search identified a total of 5881 apps. Of these, 805 fulfilled the inclusion criteria initially and were tested. Furthermore, 681 apps were further analyzed for data extraction. Of these, 420 apps were free for testing, 58 were inaccessible and 203 required payment. Of the 420 free apps, 57 apps were developed with HCP involvement and an evidence base was identified in only 4 apps. Of the paid apps, 9 apps had HCP involvement, 1 app had a documented evidence base, and 1 app had both. In addition, 18 inaccessible apps were produced with HCP involvement, whereas 2 apps had a documented evidence base. The 420 free apps were
Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro
Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ormiston, Mark L; Chang, Chiwen; Long, Lu L; Soon, Elaine; Jones, Des; Machado, Rajiv; Treacy, Carmen; Toshner, Mark R; Campbell, Kate; Riding, Alex; Southwood, Mark; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Exley, Andrew; Trembath, Richard C; Colucci, Francesco; Wills, Mark; Trowsdale, John; Morrell, Nicholas W
Beyond their role as innate immune effectors, natural killer (NK) cells are emerging as important regulators of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and has long been associated with immune dysfunction. Despite this association, a role for NK cells in disease pathology has not yet been described. Analysis of whole blood lymphocytes and isolated NK cells from PAH patients revealed an expansion of the functionally defective CD56(-)/CD16(+) NK subset that was not observed in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. NK cells from PAH patients also displayed decreased levels of the activating receptor NKp46 and the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors 2DL1/S1 and 3DL1, reduced secretion of the cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and a significant impairment in cytolytic function associated with decreased killer immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1 expression. Genotyping patients (n=222) and controls (n=191) for killer immunoglobulin-like receptor gene polymorphisms did not explain these observations. Rather, we show that NK cells from PAH patients exhibit increased responsiveness to transforming growth factor-β, which specifically downregulates disease-associated killer immunoglobulin-like receptors. NK cell number and cytotoxicity were similarly decreased in the monocrotaline rat and chronic hypoxia mouse models of PAH, accompanied by reduced production of interferon-γ in NK cells from hypoxic mice. NK cells from PAH patients also produced elevated quantities of matrix metalloproteinase 9, consistent with a capacity to influence vascular remodeling. Our work is the first to identify an impairment of NK cells in PAH and suggests a novel and substantive role for innate immunity in the pathobiology of this disease.
Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle
To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.
Full Text Available To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.
Peterson, Megan J; Mueter, Franz; Criddle, Keith; Haynie, Alan C
Killer whale (Orcinus orca) depredation (whales stealing or damaging fish caught on fishing gear) adversely impacts demersal longline fisheries for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands and Western Gulf of Alaska. These interactions increase direct costs and opportunity costs associated with catching fish and reduce the profitability of longline fishing in western Alaska. This study synthesizes National Marine Fisheries Service observer data, National Marine Fisheries Service sablefish longline survey and fishermen-collected depredation data to: 1) estimate the frequency of killer whale depredation on longline fisheries in Alaska; 2) estimate depredation-related catch per unit effort reductions; and 3) assess direct costs and opportunity costs incurred by longliners in western Alaska as a result of killer whale interactions. The percentage of commercial fishery sets affected by killer whales was highest in the Bering Sea fisheries for: sablefish (21.4%), Greenland turbot (9.9%), and Pacific halibut (6.9%). Average catch per unit effort reductions on depredated sets ranged from 35.1-69.3% for the observed longline fleet in all three management areas from 1998-2012 (pwhale depredation avoidance measures resulted in an average additional cost of $494 per depredated vessel-day for fuel and crew food. Opportunity costs of time lost by fishermen averaged $522 per additional vessel-day on the grounds. This assessment of killer whale depredation costs represents the most extensive economic evaluation of this issue in Alaska to date and will help longline fishermen and managers consider the costs and benefits of depredation avoidance and alternative policy solutions.
Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve...... medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review...... for persistence, blood pressure or hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting led to a sustained improvement in medication adherence for patients with hypertension. The intervention had no significant impact on blood pressure and secondary clinical outcomes....
Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert
BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...... = 39), and ustekinumab (n = 95). MPR calculation was calculated monthly based on the hospital records documenting the dispensing of biologics to the patients. Clinical data [Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), presence of psoriatic arthritis, concomitant...
Alexandra Lelia Dima
Full Text Available Adherence to medications is an important indicator of the quality of medication management and impacts on health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of healthcare delivery. Electronic healthcare data (EHD are increasingly used to estimate adherence in research and clinical practice, yet standardization and transparency of data processing are still a concern. Comprehensive and flexible open-source algorithms can facilitate the development of high-quality, consistent, and reproducible evidence in this field. Some EHD-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS include visualization of medication histories, but this is rarely integrated in adherence analyses and not easily accessible for data exploration or implementation in new clinical settings. We introduce AdhereR, a package for the widely used open-source statistical environment R, designed to support researchers in computing EHD-based adherence estimates and in visualizing individual medication histories and adherence patterns. AdhereR implements a set of functions that are consistent with current adherence guidelines, definitions and operationalizations. We illustrate the use of AdhereR with an example dataset of 2-year records of 100 patients and describe the various analysis choices possible and how they can be adapted to different health conditions and types of medications. The package is freely available for use and its implementation facilitates the integration of medication history visualizations in open-source CDSS platforms.
Liliane A. Scheid
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to report the ability of killer toxins, previously used as biotyping techniques, as a new tool to differentiate C. albicans from C. dubliniensis. The susceptibility of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis to killer toxins ranged from 33.9 to 93.3% and from 6.67 to 93.3%, respectively.Avaliou-se a capacidade das toxinas killer, previamente utilizadas na biotipagem de C. albicans, como método para diferenciar C. albicans de C. dubliniensis. A susceptibilidade de C. albicans e C. dubliniensis às toxinas killer variou de 33,9% a 93,3% para C. albicans e de 6,67% a 93,3% para C. dubliniensis.
Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists
Bardeguez, Arlene D.; Lindsey, Jane C.; Shannon, Maureen; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Smith, Elizabeth; Stek, Alice; Buschur, Shelly; Cotter, Amanda; Bettica, Linda; Read, Jennifer S.
Background Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are recommended for maternal health and to reduce HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission, but suboptimal adherence can counteract its benefits. Objectives To describe antepartum and postpartum adherence to ARV regimens and factors associated with adherence. Methods We assessed adherence rates among subjects enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 1025 from August 2002 to July 2005 on tablet formulations with at least one self-report adherence assessment. Perfectly adherent subjects reported no missed doses 4 days before their study visit. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare antepartum with postpartum adherence rates and to identify factors associated with perfect adherence. Results Of 519 eligible subjects, 334/445 (75%) reported perfect adherence during pregnancy. This rate significantly decreased 6, 24, and 48 weeks postpartum [185/284 (65%), 76/118 (64%), and 42/64 (66%), respectively (P pregnancy (P pregnancy are needed. PMID:18614923
Gur, Chamutal; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Rosenberg, Shilo; Yamin, Rachel; Enk, Jonatan; Glasner, Ariella; Bar-On, Yotam; Fleissig, Omer; Naor, Ronit; Abed, Jawad; Mevorach, Dror; Granot, Zvi; Bachrach, Gilad; Mandelboim, Ofer
SUMMARY Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. While the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immune protection against tumors and viral infections is well documented, their role in defense against bacterial infections is still emerging, and their involvement in UPEC-mediated UTI is practically unknown. Using a systematic mutagenesis approach, we found that UPEC adheres to NK cells primarily via its type I fimbriae and employs its hemolysinA toxin to kill NK cells. In the absence of hemolysinA, NK cells directly respond to the bacteria and secrete the cytokine TNF-α, which results in decreased bacterial numbers in vitro and reduction of bacterial burden in the infected bladders. Thus, NK cells control UPEC via TNF-α production, which UPEC counteracts by hemolysinA-mediated killing of NK cells, representing a previously unrecognized host defense and microbial counterattack mechanism in the context of UTI. PMID:24331464
Oslin, David W; Pettinati, Helen; Volpicelli, Joseph R
Adherence to treatment has been demonstrated to be an important factor for remission from alcohol dependence. The authors compared therapy and medication adherence for treatment of alcohol dependence in older adults with adherence in younger adults. All subjects were participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence. All subjects received a medically-based psychosocial intervention focused on motivating patients to change and on adherence to treatment. The therapy is nonconfrontational and is delivered by a nurse-practitioner. Compared with younger adults, older adults had greater attendance at therapy sessions and greater adherence to the medication. Age-group was the only pretreatment factor associated with adherence. The greater adherence in older adults translated to less relapse than in younger adults. Treatment for alcohol dependence can be effective for older adults. Older adults appear to respond well to a medically-oriented program that is supportive and individualized. In fact, findings from this study suggest that older adults can be treated in mixed-age treatment settings when psychotherapeutic strategies are used that are age-appropriate and delivered on an individual basis.
Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Gobas, Frank A P C
Resident killer whale populations in the NE Pacific Ocean are at risk due to the accumulation of pollutants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To assess the impact of PBDEs in water and sediments in killer whale critical habitat, we developed a food web bioaccumulation model. The model was designed to estimate PBDE concentrations in killer whales based on PBDE concentrations in sediments and the water column throughout a lifetime of exposure. Calculated and observed PBDE concentrations exceeded the only toxicity reference value available for PBDEs in marine mammals (1500 μg/kg lipid) in southern resident killer whales but not in northern resident killer whales. Temporal trends (1993-2006) for PBDEs observed in southern resident killer whales showed a doubling time of ≈5 years. If current sediment quality guidelines available in Canada for polychlorinated biphenyls are applied to PBDEs, it can be expected that PBDE concentrations in killer whales will exceed available toxicity reference values by a large margin. Model calculations suggest that a PBDE concentration in sediments of approximately 1.0 μg/kg dw produces PBDE concentrations in resident killer whales that are below the current toxicity reference value for 95 % of the population, with this value serving as a precautionary benchmark for a management-based approach to reducing PBDE health risks to killer whales. The food web bioaccumulation model may be a useful risk management tool in support of regulatory protection for killer whales.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this study, vocal compensation is being investigated in Southern Resident killer whale (SRKW) calls to determine the degree to which whales can adjust to...
Palu, Tiit, 1970-
Vanemuises esietenduvad 19. mail Arthur Milleri 'Sööst kuristikku' (lavastaja Andrus Allikvee) ja 20. mail Tracy Lettsi 'Killer Joe' (lavastaja Tiit Palu). Postimehe küsitlus lavastajatele (vastavad samadele küsimustele)
van der Wees, Philip J; Hendriks, Erik JM; Jansen, Mariette J; van Beers, Hans; de Bie, Rob A; Dekker, Joost
Background Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. In physiotherapy, insight in adherence to guidelines is limited. Knowledge of adherence is important to identify barriers and to enhance implementation. Purpose of this study is to investigate the ability to adherence to recommendations of the guideline Acute ankle injury, and to identify patient characteristics that determine adherence to the guideline. Methods Twenty-two physiotherapists collected data of 174 patients in a prospective cohort study, in which the course of treatment was systematically registered. Indicators were used to investigate adherence to recommendations. Patient characteristics were used to identify prognostic factors that may determine adherence to the guideline. Correlation between patient characteristics and adherence to outcome-indicators (treatment sessions, functioning of patient, accomplished goals) was calculated using univariate logistic regression. To calculate explained variance of combined patient characteristics, multivariate analysis was performed. Results Adherence to individual recommendations varied from 71% to 100%. In 99 patients (57%) the physiotherapists showed adherence to all indicators. Adherence to preset maximum of six treatment sessions for patients with severe ankle injury was 81% (132 patients). The odds to receive more than six sessions were statistically significant for three patient characteristics: females (OR:3.89; 95%CI: 1.41–10.72), recurrent sprain (OR: 6.90; 95%CI: 2.34 – 20.37), co-morbidity (OR: 25.92; 95% CI: 6.79 – 98.93). All factors together explained 40% of the variance. Inclusion of physiotherapist characteristics in the regression model showed that work-experience reduced the odds to receive more than six sessions (OR: 0.2; 95%CI: 0.06 – 0.77), and increased explained variance to 45%. Conclusion Adherence to the clinical guideline Acute ankle sprain showed that the guideline is
van Beers Hans
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. In physiotherapy, insight in adherence to guidelines is limited. Knowledge of adherence is important to identify barriers and to enhance implementation. Purpose of this study is to investigate the ability to adherence to recommendations of the guideline Acute ankle injury, and to identify patient characteristics that determine adherence to the guideline. Methods Twenty-two physiotherapists collected data of 174 patients in a prospective cohort study, in which the course of treatment was systematically registered. Indicators were used to investigate adherence to recommendations. Patient characteristics were used to identify prognostic factors that may determine adherence to the guideline. Correlation between patient characteristics and adherence to outcome-indicators (treatment sessions, functioning of patient, accomplished goals was calculated using univariate logistic regression. To calculate explained variance of combined patient characteristics, multivariate analysis was performed. Results Adherence to individual recommendations varied from 71% to 100%. In 99 patients (57% the physiotherapists showed adherence to all indicators. Adherence to preset maximum of six treatment sessions for patients with severe ankle injury was 81% (132 patients. The odds to receive more than six sessions were statistically significant for three patient characteristics: females (OR:3.89; 95%CI: 1.41–10.72, recurrent sprain (OR: 6.90; 95%CI: 2.34 – 20.37, co-morbidity (OR: 25.92; 95% CI: 6.79 – 98.93. All factors together explained 40% of the variance. Inclusion of physiotherapist characteristics in the regression model showed that work-experience reduced the odds to receive more than six sessions (OR: 0.2; 95%CI: 0.06 – 0.77, and increased explained variance to 45%. Conclusion Adherence to the clinical guideline Acute ankle sprain showed that the
McRobbie, H.; Fiset, J.-Y.
Due to the importance of procedures and procedural adherence in reducing the risk of human error, assessing procedural adherence is a component of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's regulatory compliance program. This paper presents a model used during regulatory inspections of processes supporting procedural adherence. A checklist used to collect information during work observations is also described. Lessons learned during procedural adherence inspections are discussed. The procedural adherence review framework presented in this paper may also be useful for nuclear facilities as they carry out internal reviews of procedures and procedural adherence. (author)
Lange, Peter; Toettenborg, Sandra; Topp, Marie
describe results of previous studies on prevalence of adherence to inhaled medicine in COPD, and define characteristics of the patients and treatment associated with degree of adherence. We conclude that health professionals should always consider non-adherence, strive to simplify regiments......Medicine adherence in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has not been studied in Denmark. Studies from other countries, however, unequivocally report low prevalence of patients who follow their doctor's advice and have sufficient adherence to inhaled medicine. In this review we......, and that there is an urgent need of studies aiming at improving adherence in patients with COPD....
Grebner, Dawn M.
The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04
Heather M. Hill
Full Text Available The welfare of killer whales (Orcinus orca has received worldwide attention recently. The purpose of this study was to sample the peer-reviewed scientific research on killer whales with a complementary comparison to Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus to ascertain the primary topics of research conducted with these two cetaceans. A second objective of the study was to assess the relationship between the research topic and the setting in which the research was conducted. From a database-driven search of peer-reviewed academic journal articles, 759 unique articles involving killer whales, 2,022 unique articles involving Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, and 38 additional articles that included both species were retained for analysis. Coders categorized each article by topic (Anthropogenic Response, Cognition, Distribution, Echolocation, Foraging/Predation, Health/Physiology, Interactions with Humans, Sociality, and Vocalization and research setting (Natural Habitat, Captivity, or Both. Most studies of killer whales involved animals in their natural habitat (90% and the majority of killer whale studies, regardless of setting, concentrated on health and physiology, such as contaminants and genetic variability (31%, foraging and predation behaviors (26%, and geographic distribution (20%. The majority of the studies (68% involving bottlenose dolphins were also conducted in their natural habitat, but there was significantly more research comparatively with captive animals and with greater diversity. The results suggested that research with killer whales has been dominated by a limited range of topics with relatively little research conducted on topics that directly address issues of welfare. Similar to killer whales, research with Atlantic bottlenose dolphins has been dominated by health and physiology (48.5% and distribution (17.6%. In contrast to killer whales, topics such as sociality (9.5% and cognition (5% were more prominent in research
Similä, Tiu; Christensen, Ivar
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been pohotoidentified around Lofoten and Vesterålen islands northern Norway during fall-winter (October-February) and summer (June-August) in 1990 and 1991. Some background data exists from 1983-1989. To date 302 killer whale individuals belonging to 44 different groups have been identified. The yearly distribution and abundance of whales is closely related to the distribution of springspawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the area. Since...
Nøttestad, Leif; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Krafft, Bjørn A.; Langård, Lise; Anthonypillai, Valantine; Bernasconi, Matteo; Langøy, Herdis; Fernö, Anders
The traditional perception of prey species preference of killer whales Orcinus orca L. in the Northeast Atlantic has, to a large extent, been linked to herring Clupea harengus L. Few studies have investigated the feeding ecology of killer whales from the offshore parts of this ecosystem. We conducted 2 summer-season ecosystem-based surveys in the Norwegian Sea, when it is most crucial for these animals to build up their energy reserves, using observational, acoustic, oceanographic, plankton n...
Ferguson, Steven H; Higdon, Jeff W; Westdal, Kristin H
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-directed interviews conducted in 11 eastern Nunavut communities (Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk regions) from 2007-2010. Results detail local knowledge of killer whale prey items, hunting behaviour, prey responses, distribution of predation events, and prey capture techniques. Inuit TEK and published literature agree that killer whales at times eat only certain parts of prey, particularly of large whales, that attacks on large whales entail relatively small groups of killer whales, and that they hunt cooperatively. Inuit observations suggest that there is little prey specialization beyond marine mammals and there are no definitive observations of fish in the diet. Inuit hunters and elders also documented the use of sea ice and shallow water as prey refugia. By combining TEK and scientific approaches we provide a more holistic view of killer whale predation in the eastern Canadian Arctic relevant to management and policy. Continuing the long-term relationship between scientists and hunters will provide for successful knowledge integration and has resulted in considerable improvement in understanding of killer whale ecology relevant to management of prey species. Combining scientists and Inuit knowledge will assist in northerners adapting to the restructuring of the Arctic marine ecosystem associated with warming and loss of sea ice.
Background Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-directed interviews conducted in 11 eastern Nunavut communities (Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk regions) from 2007-2010. Results Results detail local knowledge of killer whale prey items, hunting behaviour, prey responses, distribution of predation events, and prey capture techniques. Inuit TEK and published literature agree that killer whales at times eat only certain parts of prey, particularly of large whales, that attacks on large whales entail relatively small groups of killer whales, and that they hunt cooperatively. Inuit observations suggest that there is little prey specialization beyond marine mammals and there are no definitive observations of fish in the diet. Inuit hunters and elders also documented the use of sea ice and shallow water as prey refugia. Conclusions By combining TEK and scientific approaches we provide a more holistic view of killer whale predation in the eastern Canadian Arctic relevant to management and policy. Continuing the long-term relationship between scientists and hunters will provide for successful knowledge integration and has resulted in considerable improvement in understanding of killer whale ecology relevant to management of prey species. Combining scientists and Inuit knowledge will assist in northerners adapting to the restructuring of the Arctic marine ecosystem associated with warming and loss of sea ice. PMID:22520955
M.R. Moosa. MB ChB, FCP, MD. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients attending public sector hospitals in the Western Cape. The global population of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
Full Text Available Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB. To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188. Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker’s commitments need to be addressed for improvement.
Sociodemographic factors influencing adherence to antenatal iron supplementation recommendations among pregnant women in Malawi: Analysis of data from ... Focusing on education interventions that target populations with low rates of iron supplement intake, including campaigns to increase the number of women who ...
Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf
Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...
Objective There has been considerable debate about the extent to which social cognitive models of health behaviour apply in developing countries. The purpose of this paper was to determine the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in predicting dietary and fluid adherence among a sample of ...
Background: Hypertension remains a healthcare problem in South Africa. When prescribing evidence-based, cost-effective anti-hypertensive treatment, guideline adherence is essential. The Joint National Committee's Sixth Report (JNC VI) built its evidence-based review on the outcome of clinical trials. The objective of this ...
who perceived high susceptibility, severity, benefit had better adherence compared to moderate and low susceptibility, severity, and ... are effective in reducing high blood pressure and have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of ... status, lifestyle factors (meal habits, smoking, salt intake >5 g, oil consumption of <500 ...
Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona
Setting The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188). Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker's commitments need to be addressed for improvement. PMID:29230326
Thais Marques Lima
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.
Methods: 237 adult patients aged 18 and above with previous diagnosis of essential hypertension receiving out patient care in the University Teaching Hospital ... Multivariable analysis showed that; participants were more likely to be non-adherent by self-report if they had attained a primary level of education, had missed ...
Twenty six (26) (39.0%) of patients used “preventer” medication, that is medication that prevents asthmatic attack on those who frequently suffer from asthma, and 5 (7%) never used it. Participants offered a number of reasons explaining their non-adherence, the most common 24 (58.5%) were those who forgot to take ...
Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...
This study assessed agricultural cooperatives' level of adherence to cooperative guiding principles in Oyo ... structured questionnaire and analysed using chi square at 5% level of significance. The mean year of ..... The implication of this is that there would be an ineffective leadership which will have a negative impact on ...
Jun 2, 2017 ... SUMMARY. Objectives: To evaluate available and desired sources and types of social-support among hypertensive and type-2- diabetes (T2D) patients. Associations of medication adherence and clinical outcome with access to most available social-support and medicine affordability were subsequently ...
(39.0%) of patients used “preventer” medication, that is medication that prevents asthmatic attack on those who frequently suffer from asthma, and 5 ..... terminology, incidence and conceptualisation. Facilitating treatment adherence. New York: Plenum Pr.pp. 19–39. Pain MCF. (2003) Delivering inhaled asthma therapy. Aust.
Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin
Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis...
Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional study was conducted in a rural area of the Ardabil city in 2013. This study was ... Respondents with regular physical activity and nonsmokers were more adherent to hypertension medication when compared to respondents with sedentary lifestyle and smoking (P < 0.01). Based on ...
Oct 14, 2008 ... affecting adherence to PEP in the aftermath of rape. A number of different approaches were attempted to recruit rape survivors. Letters explaining the study purpose and requesting assistance with recruiting victims were sent to organisations that provide counselling to rape survivors. One PEP site in the ...
Mar 5, 2018 ... factors associated with antipsychotic medication non-adherence among schizophrenia patients .... treatment. Results. Socio-demographic characteristics of schizophrenia patients. Out of the total 423 recruited patients, 412 filled in the questionnaire ... involving chewing parts of the fresh green leaves.
Abstract CustOITlS traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been docUITlented. An exploratory investiga- tion of the extent to which some of these tradi- tional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian. ITlothers living in ...
Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Meir, Hadar; Zolotaryova, Lydia; Ilan, Yaron; Shteyer, Eyal
It has been shown that the proportion of natural killer T cells is markedly elevated during liver regeneration and their activation under different conditions can modulate this process. As natural killer T cells and liver injury are central in liver regeneration, elucidating their role is important. The aim of the current study is to explore the role of natural killer T cells in impaired liver regeneration. Concanvalin A was injected 4 days before partial hepatectomy to natural killer T cells- deficient mice or to anti CD1d1-treated mice. Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were used to measure hepatocytes proliferation. Expression of hepatic cyclin B1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were evaluated by Western Blot and liver injury was assessed by ALT and histology. Natural killer T cells- deficient or mice injected with anti CD1d antibodies exhibited reduced liver regeneration. These mice were considerably resistant to ConA-induced liver injury. In the absence of NKT cells hepatic proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin B1 decreased in mice injected with Concanvalin A before partial hepatectomy. This was accompanied with reduced serum interleukin-6 levels. Natural killer T cells play an important role in liver regeneration, which is associated with cyclin B1 and interleukin-6.
Robeck, Todd R; Nollens, Hendrik H
Gestation and lactation result in metabolic alterations of the dam because of varying demands of the fetus and offspring during the different stages of development. Despite killer whales (Orcinus orca) having one of the longest gestations and highest birth weights of all mammals in human care, these metabolic alterations, and their impact on the physiology of the dam have not been measured. The objectives of this analysis were to determine if physiologic demands on the killer whale during pregnancy and lactation have measurable effects on hematology and biochemical analytes and if detectable, to compare these changes to those which are observed in other mammalian species. Forty hematologic and biochemical analytes from seven female killer whales (22 pregnancies, 1,507 samples) were compared between the following stages: (1) non-pregnant or lactating (control); (2) gestation; and (3) the first 12 months of lactation. Decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell counts were indicative of plasma volume expansion during mid and late gestation. The killer whales exhibited a progressively increasing physiologic inflammatory state leading up to parturition. Gestation and lactation caused significant shifts in the serum lipid profiles. Gestation and lactation cause significant physiologic changes in the killer whale dam. The last 12 months of gestation had greater physiological impact than lactation, but changes associated with and immediately following parturition were the most dramatic. During this period, killer whales may experience increased susceptibility to illness, and anthropogenic and environmental disturbances. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Higdon, Jeff W; Ferguson, Steven H
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are major predators that may reshape marine ecosystems via top-down forcing. Climate change models predict major reductions in sea ice with the subsequent expectation for readjustments of species' distribution and abundance. Here, we measure changes in killer whale distribution in the Hudson Bay region with decreasing sea ice as an example of global readjustments occurring with climate change. We summarize records of killer whales in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin in the eastern Canadian Arctic and relate them to an historical sea ice data set while accounting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the data. We find evidence for "choke points," where sea ice inhibits killer whale movement, thereby creating restrictions to their Arctic distribution. We hypothesize that a threshold exists in seasonal sea ice concentration within these choke points that results in pulses in advancements in distribution of an ice-avoiding predator. Hudson Strait appears to have been a significant sea ice choke point that opened up .approximately 50 years ago allowing for an initial punctuated appearance of killer whales followed by a gradual advancing distribution within the entire Hudson Bay region. Killer whale sightings have increased exponentially and are now reported in the Hudson Bay region every summer. We predict that other choke points will soon open up with continued sea ice melt producing punctuated predator-prey trophic cascades across the Arctic.
Krahn, Margaret M; Herman, David P; Matkin, Craig O; Durban, John W; Barrett-Lennard, Lance; Burrows, Douglas G; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Black, Nancy; LeDuc, Richard G; Wade, Paul R
Top predators in the marine environment integrate chemical signals acquired from their prey that reflect both the species consumed and the regions from which the prey were taken. These chemical tracers-stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen; persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, patterns and ratios; and fatty acid profiles-were measured in blubber biopsy samples from North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca) (n=84) and were used to provide further insight into their diet, particularly for the offshore group, about which little dietary information is available. The offshore killer whales were shown to consume prey species that were distinctly different from those of sympatric resident and transient killer whales. In addition, it was confirmed that the offshores forage as far south as California. Thus, these results provide evidence that the offshores belong to a third killer whale ecotype. Resident killer whale populations showed a gradient in stable isotope profiles from west (central Aleutians) to east (Gulf of Alaska) that, in part, can be attributed to a shift from off-shelf to continental shelf-based prey. Finally, stable isotope ratio results, supported by field observations, showed that the diet in spring and summer of eastern Aleutian Island transient killer whales is apparently not composed exclusively of Steller sea lions.
Sharpe, Deborah Lynn
Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales ( Orcinus orca; i.e. 'transient' ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, I sought to evaluate Bigg's killer whale population structure by examining the spatial distribution of group-specific call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 33 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010. Recorded calls were perceptually classified into discrete types and then quantitatively described using 12 structural and time-frequency measures. Resulting call categories were objectively validated using a random forest approach. A total of 36 call types and subtypes were identified across the entire study area, and regional patterns of call type usage revealed three distinct dialects, each of which corresponding to proposed genetic delineations. I suggest that at least three acoustically and genetically distinct subpopulations are present in western Alaska, and put forth an initial catalog for this area describing the regional vocal repertoires of Bigg's killer whale call types.
Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Suk; Seo, Wha Sook
This article is a report of the development and testing of the hypothetical model that illustrates relationships between treatment adherence and its psychosocial influencing factors and to elucidate the direct and indirect (mediating) effects of factors on treatment adherence. Poor adherence has been consistently reported in haemodialysis patients. Much research has showed various influencing factors of adherence, but these studies have failed to identify consistent influencing factors. This study was performed using a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 150 end-stage renal failure patients on haemodialysis at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data were collected over 10 months (June 2010-April 2011). The hypothetical model provided a good fit with data. Haemodialysis-related knowledge, perceived barrier to adherence, self-efficacy on adherence, and healthcare provider support had significant effects on adherence. Self-efficacy was found to mediate barrier-adherence and family support-adherence relationships. Self-efficacy in combination with barrier, family support, and healthcare provider support was found to mediate the depression-adherence relationship. Strategies aimed at the development of successful adherence interventions should focus on reducing perceived barriers and enhancing self-efficacy and knowledge. It can be suggested that efforts to improve the healthcare provider-patient relationship would enhance adherence. In depressive patients, strategies that promote self-efficacy and the support of family or healthcare providers could diminish the negative impact of depression on adherence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Behçet's Disease is a complex inflammatory disease, of unknown aetiology. While disease pathogenesis remains unclear, a strong relationship between Behçet’s Disease and HLA-B*51 has been established over the last 30 years. A number of theories exist regarding the cause of Behçet's Disease, however few are able to account for the increased rates of HLA-B*51 positive individuals, particularly around the Mediterranean basin and Middle East where the prevalence is highest. This review outlines current immunogenetic data on Behçet’s disease and the immunoregulatory role natural killer cells may play. It also describes the interaction of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor - KIR3DL1 with its ligand Bw4, which is found on HLA-B51. Finally, CD94/NKG2D, MICA and ERAP are outlined with regard to their potential roles in Behçet’s disease.
Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M
The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer (CIK cell therapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and methods Randomized phase II and III trials on CIK cell-based therapy were identified by electronic searches using a combination of "hepatocellular carcinoma" and "cytokine-induced killer cells". Results The analysis showed significant survival benefit (one-year survival, p p p p p p +, CD4+, CD4+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells significantly increased in the CIK group, compared with the non-CIK group (p Conclusions CIK cell therapy demonstrated a significant superiority in prolonging the median overall survival, PFS, DCR, ORR and QoL of HCC patients. These results support further larger scale randomized controlled trials for HCC patients with or without the combination of other therapeutic methods.
Gao, Xingchun; Mi, Yajing; Guo, Na; Xu, Hao; Xu, Lixian; Gou, Xingchun; Jin, Weilin
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of effector CD3+CD56+ natural killer T cells, which can be easily expanded in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CIK cells work as pharmacological tools for cancer immunotherapy as they exhibit MHC-unrestricted, safe, and effective antitumor activity. Much effort has been made to improve CIK cells cytotoxicity and treatments of CIK cells combined with other antitumor therapies are applied. This review summarizes some strategies, including the combination of CIK with additional cytokines, dendritic cells, check point inhibitors, antibodies, chemotherapeutic agents, nanomedicines, and engineering CIK cells with a chimeric antigen receptor. Furthermore, we briefly sum up the clinical trials on CIK cells and compare the effect of clinical CIK therapy with other immunotherapies. Finally, further research is needed to clarify the pharmacological mechanism of CIK and provide evidence to formulate uniform culturing criteria for CIK expansion. PMID:28729866
Béziat, Vivien; Traherne, James A; Liu, Lisa L; Jayaraman, Jyothi; Enqvist, Monika; Larsson, Stella; Trowsdale, John; Malmberg, Karl-Johan
Natural killer (NK) cells are functionally tuned by education via killer cell immunoglobulin receptors (KIRs) interacting with HLA class I molecules. We examined the effect of KIR gene copy number variation on the education of human NK cells. The frequency of NK cells expressing a given KIR correlated with the copy number of that gene. However, coexpression of multiple copies from a single locus, or duplicated loci, was infrequent, which is in line with independent transcriptional regulation of each allele or copy. Intriguingly, coexpression of 2 KIR alleles, resulting in higher surface expression, did not lead to enhanced functional responses in vitro or to selective advantages during in vivo responses to cytomegalovirus infection, suggesting that receptor density does not influence NK education at the single cell level. However, individuals with multiple KIR gene copies had higher frequencies of responding cells, consistent with heightened overall responsiveness.
Kloepper, Laura N; Nachtigall, Paul E; Donahue, Megan J; Breese, Marlee
The odontocete sound production system is highly complex and produces intense, directional signals that are thought to be focused by the melon and the air sacs. Because odontocete echolocation signals are variable and the emitted click frequency greatly affects the echolocation beam shape, investigations of beam focusing must account for frequency-related beam changes. In this study we tested whether the echolocation beam of a false killer whale changed depending on target difficulty and distance while also accounting for frequency-related changes in the echolocation beam. The data indicate that the false killer whale changes its beam size according to target distance and difficulty, which may be a strategy of maximizing the energy of the target echo. We propose that the animal is using a strategy of changing the focal region according to target distance and that this strategy is under active control.
Full Text Available Cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells are a heterogeneous population of effector CD3+CD56+ natural killer T cells, which can be easily expanded in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CIK cells work as pharmacological tools for cancer immunotherapy as they exhibit MHC-unrestricted, safe, and effective antitumor activity. Much effort has been made to improve CIK cells cytotoxicity and treatments of CIK cells combined with other antitumor therapies are applied. This review summarizes some strategies, including the combination of CIK with additional cytokines, dendritic cells, check point inhibitors, antibodies, chemotherapeutic agents, nanomedicines, and engineering CIK cells with a chimeric antigen receptor. Furthermore, we briefly sum up the clinical trials on CIK cells and compare the effect of clinical CIK therapy with other immunotherapies. Finally, further research is needed to clarify the pharmacological mechanism of CIK and provide evidence to formulate uniform culturing criteria for CIK expansion.
Full Text Available Natural killer cells participate in the early immune response against melanoma and also contribute to the development of an adequate adaptive immune response by their crosstalk with dendritic cells and cytokine secretion. Melanoma resistance to conventional therapies together with its high immunogenicity justifies the development of novel therapies aimed to stimulate effective immune responses against melanoma. However, melanoma cells frequently escape to CD8 T cell recognition by the down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this scenario, Natural killer cells emerge as potential candidates for melanoma immunotherapy due to their capacity to recognize and destroy melanoma cells expressing low levels of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In addition, the possibility to combine immune checkpoint blockade with other NK cell potentiating strategies (e.g. cytokine induction of activating receptors has opened new perspectives in the potential use of adoptive NK cell-based immunotherapy in melanoma.
Shirley A. Wells
Full Text Available This study explores perceptions that affect adherence behaviors among Mexican Americans living with dialysis. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD living on dialysis, 15 family members, and 6 health care personnel who provided care to them. Four themes emerged: (a positive influences to adherence, (b obstacles to adherence, (c daily activity losses, and (d fears about living with dialysis. From the findings, the perceptions given for non-adherence with the dialysis regimen ranged from denial of the condition, lack of pre-education, to cultural factors. Those given for adherence included prolonged life, family, and hope of getting a transplant. Health care providers were the reminder to adhere. Several cultural factors influenced their adherence perceptions. Strategies to enhance adherence behaviors should focus on knowledge about dialysis, use of the collective efficacy of the family, and the inclusion of cultural values.
Alam, I; Stainbrook, T; Cecil, B; Kistler, K D
Poor adherence to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is an important cause of treatment failure. Traditional ribavirin 200 mg (RBV) treatment is associated with a significant daily pill burden. RibaPak (RBP), available as 400 mg and 600 mg ribavirin tablets, offers simplified dosing at two pills daily. To examine whether improved adherence was associated with RBP vs. RBV. Accurate Dosing in Hepatitis C: Examining the RibaPak Experience (ADHERE) was a U.S., multi-centre, prospective registry capturing data on adherence with RBP vs. RBV in adults with HCV. Adherence was measured by the proportion of subjects remaining on treatment at weeks 4, 12 and 24; by pill counts; and by the proportion of subjects who took > or = 80% of their prescribed dose. A total of 503 patients (RBP = 346, RBV = 157) from 33 sites were included. A greater proportion of RBV vs. RBP subjects prematurely discontinued treatment. At 12 and 24 weeks, a greater proportion of RBP vs. RBV subjects took > or = 80% of their prescribed doses (P < 0.05). For patients who remained on treatment, the mean milligrams missed per day was significantly greater for RBV vs. RBP at 24 weeks. First line treatment with RBP may offer the best prospect for less discontinuation and improved treatment adherence.
Gray, Wendy N; Denson, Lee A; Baldassano, Robert N; Hommel, Kevin A
Knowledge of factors impacting adolescents' ability to adhere to their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) regimen is limited. The current study examines the collective impact of barriers to adherence and anxiety/depressive symptoms on adolescent adherence to the IBD regimen. Adolescents (n = 79) completed measures of barriers to adherence, adherence, and anxiety/depressive symptoms at one of two specialty pediatric IBD clinics. Most adolescents reported barriers to adherence and 1 in 8 reported borderline or clinically elevated levels of anxiety/depressive symptoms. Anxiety/depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between barriers to adherence and adherence. Post hoc probing revealed a significant, additive effect of higher anxiety/depressive symptoms in the barriers-adherence relationship, with adherence significantly lower among adolescents with higher barriers and higher anxiety/depressive symptoms. In order to optimize adherence in adolescents, interventions should target not only barriers to adherence but also any anxiety/depressive symptoms that may negatively impact efforts to adhere to recommended treatment.
Holz, Lisa Maria
Murine models of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) induced myocarditis (with host specific outcomes), represent different outcome of myocarditis, ranging from virus elimination and complete recovery in resistant C57BL/6J mice to virus persistence and chronic myocarditis in susceptible A.BY/SnJ mice. In previous experiments, we found that Natural Killer cells (NK cells) positively influence the outcome of CVB3 myocarditis in mice. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are potent inhibitors of the inn...
Pampena, María Betina; Levy, Estrella Mariel
Vaccine-based cancer immunotherapy has generated highly variable clinical results due to differing methods of vaccine preparation and variation in patient populations among other lesser factors. Moreover, these clinical responses do not necessarily correspond with the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes. Here, we review the participation of natural killer (NK) cells as alternative immune components that could cooperate in successful vaccination treatment. NK cells have been desc...
Foote, Andrew D.; Newton, Jason; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Samaniego, Jose A.; Post, Klaas; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
Niche variation owing to individual differences in ecology has been hypothesized to be an early stage of sympatric speciation. Yet to date, no study has tracked niche width over more than a few generations. In this study, we show the presence of isotopic niche variation over millennial timescales and investigate the evolutionary outcomes. Isotopic ratios were measured from tissue samples of sympatric killer whale Orcinus orca lineages from the North Sea, spanning over 10 000 years. Isotopic r...
The comics form has not remained untouched by true crime’s massive surge in status across popular culture, especially in America. Comics as a form is uniquely positioned to represent violent and graphic narratives in such a way as to maximise reader affect and create a chronicle of crime that is both entertaining and captivating, guiding and being guided by the reader. Two comics have received massive critical acclaim for their portrayals of ‘famous’ American serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer in...
Gong, Han; Chen, Yilu; Xu, Jingjie; Xie, Xingxing; Yu, Dainan; Yang, Bei; Kuang, Haibin
Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are short-lived, terminally differentiated and the most abundant lymphocytes in the uterus which play a crucial role in the spiral arteriole modification and establishment of successful pregnancy. Dysregulation of uNK cells has been linked to gestational implications such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth retardation. There is evidence showing that progesterone and estrogen can regulate the recruitment, proliferation, differentiation...
Dinges, D F; Douglas, S D; Zaugg, L; Campbell, D E; McMann, J M; Whitehouse, W G; Orne, E C; Kapoor, S C; Icaza, E; Orne, M T
The hypothesis that sleep deprivation depresses immune function was tested in 20 adults, selected on the basis of their normal blood chemistry, monitored in a laboratory for 7 d, and kept awake for 64 h. At 2200 h each day measurements were taken of total leukocytes (WBC), monocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes (RBC), B and T lymphocyte subsets, activated T cells, and natural killer (NK) subpopulations (CD56/CD8 dual-positive cells, CD16-positive cells, CD57-positive ...
Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O
The killer whale is one of the few animal species with vocal dialects that arise from socially learned group-specific call repertoires. We describe a new agent-based model of killer whale populations and test a set of vocal-learning rules to assess which mechanisms may lead to the formation of dialect groupings observed in the wild. We tested a null model with genetic transmission and no learning, and ten models with learning rules that differ by template source (mother or matriline), variation type (random errors or innovations) and type of call change (no divergence from kin vs. divergence from kin). The null model without vocal learning did not produce the pattern of group-specific call repertoires we observe in nature. Learning from either mother alone or the entire matriline with calls changing by random errors produced a graded distribution of the call phenotype, without the discrete call types observed in nature. Introducing occasional innovation or random error proportional to matriline variance yielded more or less discrete and stable call types. A tendency to diverge from the calls of related matrilines provided fast divergence of loose call clusters. A pattern resembling the dialect diversity observed in the wild arose only when rules were applied in combinations and similar outputs could arise from different learning rules and their combinations. Our results emphasize the lack of information on quantitative features of wild killer whale dialects and reveal a set of testable questions that can draw insights into the cultural evolution of killer whale dialects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brent, Lauren J N; Franks, Daniel W; Foster, Emma A; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Cant, Michael A; Croft, Darren P
Classic life-history theory predicts that menopause should not occur because there should be no selection for survival after the cessation of reproduction . Yet, human females routinely live 30 years after they have stopped reproducing . Only two other species-killer whales (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) [3, 4]-have comparable postreproductive lifespans. In theory, menopause can evolve via inclusive fitness benefits [5, 6], but the mechanisms by which postreproductive females help their kin remain enigmatic. One hypothesis is that postreproductive females act as repositories of ecological knowledge and thereby buffer kin against environmental hardships [7, 8]. We provide the first test of this hypothesis using a unique long-term dataset on wild resident killer whales. We show three key results. First, postreproductively aged females lead groups during collective movement in salmon foraging grounds. Second, leadership by postreproductively aged females is especially prominent in difficult years when salmon abundance is low. This finding is critical because salmon abundance drives both mortality and reproductive success in resident killer whales [9, 10]. Third, females are more likely to lead their sons than they are to lead their daughters, supporting predictions of recent models  of the evolution of menopause based on kinship dynamics. Our results show that postreproductive females may boost the fitness of kin through the transfer of ecological knowledge. The value gained from the wisdom of elders can help explain why female resident killer whales and humans continue to live long after they have stopped reproducing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kay, Alexander W; Strauss-Albee, Dara M; Blish, Catherine A
Mass cytometry is a novel platform for high-dimensional phenotypic and functional analysis of single cells. This system uses elemental metal isotopes conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to evaluate up to 42 parameters simultaneously on individual cells with minimal overlap between channels. The platform can be customized for analysis of both phenotypic and functional markers. Here, we will describe methods to stain, collect, and analyze intracellular functional markers and surface phenotypic markers on natural killer cells.
Baguso, Glenda N.; Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.
Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the U.S. report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transg...
Vonbank, Alexander; Agewall, Stefan; Kjeldsen, Keld Per
There is compelling evidence that statin therapy improves cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, statin adherence is far from optimal regarding initiation, execution and persistence of treatment over time.26 Poor adherence to statin therapy is associated with a significantly...... increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Evidence-based steps to improve adherence are available and should be taken in order to improve patient outcomes. Reinforcing statin adherence appears to have at least as strong beneficial effects as introducing a new drug....
Park, E-Jin; Lee, Je-Hoon; Jeong, Dea-Chul; Han, Sang-Ick; Jeon, Yang-Whan
An association between depression and altered immunity has been suggested by many studies, although the findings are not fully consistent. The present investigation examined the effects of escitalopram on cellular immunity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fifty-one patients with MDD were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. The patients were grouped into responders (n=32) and non-responders (n=19). Adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, CD4, CD8, CD19, and natural killer cells were measured at baseline and after a 4 week treatment with escitalopram. Plasma hormones and immune parameters were compared between groups. Responders showed increased activity, but not number, of natural killer cells after a 4 week treatment with escitalopram. There were no differences in plasma hormones and other immune parameters between groups, even though cortisol was decreased and CD19 was increased across both groups compared to baseline. The results suggest that natural killer cells play an important role in improving the symptoms of depressive patients responding to selective serotonin inhibitors. To deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, interactions between serotonin and the immune system should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.
Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.
Full Text Available L Michael Thomas Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA Abstract: Natural killer (NK cells are regulated through the coordinated functions of activating and inhibitory receptors. These receptors can act during the initial engagement of an NK cell with a target cell, or in subsequent NK cell engagements to maintain tolerance. Notably, each individual possesses a sizable minority-population of NK cells that are devoid of inhibitory receptors that recognize the surrounding MHC class I (ie, self-MHC. Since these NK cells cannot perform conventional inhibition, they are rendered less responsive through the process of NK cell education (also known as licensing in order to reduce the likelihood of auto-reactivity. This review will delineate current views on NK cell education, clarify various misconceptions about NK cell education, and, lastly, discuss the relevance of NK cell education in anti-cancer therapies. Keywords: natural killer cell education, natural killer cell inhibitory receptors, immunotherapy, cancer
Curé, Charlotte; Antunes, Ricardo; Samarra, Filipa; Alves, Ana Catarina; Visser, Fleur; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Miller, Patrick J O
In cetaceans' communities, interactions between individuals of different species are often observed in the wild. Yet, due to methodological and technical challenges very little is known about the mediation of these interactions and their effect on cetaceans' behavior. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are a highly vocal species and can be both food competitors and potential predators of many other cetaceans. Thus, the interception of their vocalizations by unintended cetacean receivers may be particularly important in mediating interspecific interactions. To address this hypothesis, we conducted playbacks of killer whale vocalizations recorded during herring-feeding activity to free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Using a multi-sensor tag, we were able to track the whales and to monitor changes of their movements and social behavior in response to the playbacks. We demonstrated that the playback of killer whale sounds to pilot whales induced a clear increase in group size and a strong attraction of the animals towards the sound source. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that the interception of heterospecific vocalizations can mediate interactions between different cetacean species in previously unrecognized ways.
Martien, Karen K; Chivers, Susan J; Baird, Robin W; Archer, Frederick I; Gorgone, Antoinette M; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L; Mattila, David; McSweeney, Daniel J; Oleson, Erin M; Palmer, Carol; Pease, Victoria L; Robertson, Kelly M; Schorr, Gregory S; Schultz, Mark B; Webster, Daniel L; Taylor, Barbara L
False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are large delphinids typically found in deep water far offshore. However, in the Hawaiian Archipelago, there are 2 resident island-associated populations of false killer whales, one in the waters around the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and one in the waters around the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). We use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences and genotypes from 16 nuclear DNA (nucDNA) microsatellite loci from 206 individuals to examine levels of differentiation among the 2 island-associated populations and offshore animals from the central and eastern North Pacific. Both mtDNA and nucDNA exhibit highly significant differentiation between populations, confirming limited gene flow in both sexes. The mtDNA haplotypes exhibit a strong pattern of phylogeographic concordance, with island-associated populations sharing 3 closely related haplotypes not found elsewhere in the Pacific. However, nucDNA data suggest that NWHI animals are at least as differentiated from MHI animals as they are from offshore animals. The patterns of differentiation revealed by the 2 marker types suggest that the island-associated false killer whale populations likely share a common colonization history, but have limited contemporary gene flow. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Genetic Association 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
The study of cetacean vocalizations is usually based on spectrogram analysis. The feature extraction is obtained from 2D methods like the edge detection algorithm. Difficulties appear when signal-to-noise ratios are weak or when more than one vocalization is simultaneously emitted. This is the case for acoustic observations in a natural environment and especially for the killer whales which swim in groups. To resolve this problem, we propose the use of the Hilbert-Huang transform. First, we illustrate how few modes (5) are satisfactory for the analysis of these calls. Then, we detail our approach which consists of combining the modes for extracting the time-varying frequencies of the vocalizations. This combination takes advantage of one of the empirical mode decomposition properties which is that the successive IMFs represent the original data broken down into frequency components from highest to lowest frequency. To evaluate the performance, our method is first applied on the simulated chirp signals. This approach allows us to link one chirp to one mode. Then we apply it on real signals emitted by killer whales. The results confirm that this method is a favorable alternative for the automatic extraction of killer whale vocalizations.
Morin, Phillip A; Archer, Frederick I; Foote, Andrew D; Vilstrup, Julia; Allen, Eric E; Wade, Paul; Durban, John; Parsons, Kim; Pitman, Robert; Li, Lewyn; Bouffard, Pascal; Abel Nielsen, Sandra C; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Harkins, Timothy
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) currently comprise a single, cosmopolitan species with a diverse diet. However, studies over the last 30 yr have revealed populations of sympatric "ecotypes" with discrete prey preferences, morphology, and behaviors. Although these ecotypes avoid social interactions and are not known to interbreed, genetic studies to date have found extremely low levels of diversity in the mitochondrial control region, and few clear phylogeographic patterns worldwide. This low level of diversity is likely due to low mitochondrial mutation rates that are common to cetaceans. Using killer whales as a case study, we have developed a method to readily sequence, assemble, and analyze complete mitochondrial genomes from large numbers of samples to more accurately assess phylogeography and estimate divergence times. This represents an important tool for wildlife management, not only for killer whales but for many marine taxa. We used high-throughput sequencing to survey whole mitochondrial genome variation of 139 samples from the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and southern oceans. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that each of the known ecotypes represents a strongly supported clade with divergence times ranging from approximately 150,000 to 700,000 yr ago. We recommend that three named ecotypes be elevated to full species, and that the remaining types be recognized as subspecies pending additional data. Establishing appropriate taxonomic designations will greatly aid in understanding the ecological impacts and conservation needs of these important marine predators. We predict that phylogeographic mitogenomics will become an important tool for improved statistical phylogeography and more precise estimates of divergence times.
Fraker, Mark A.
During 1985–1990, two groups of killer whales in Prince William Sound, Alaska, experienced unusually high rates of mortality, while seven others did not. Those affected were AB pod, part of the southern Alaska population of resident (fish-eating) killer whales, and the AT1 transient (marine mammal–eating) group, a very small, reproductively isolated population that last reproduced in 1984. In 1985–1986, several AB pod members were shot by fishermen defending their catch from depredation, which explains some of the deaths. Understanding the other deaths is complicated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (March 1989) and uncertainties about the causes and times of the deaths. For AB pod, possible factors involved in the post-spill mortalities are delayed effects of bullet wounds, continued shooting, oil exposure, and consequences of being orphaned. For the AT1 group, possible factors are oil exposure, small population size, old age, and high-contaminant burdens. An analysis of possible effects of inhalation of volatile organic compounds, contact with the oil slick, and ingestion of oil with water or prey did not reveal route(s) of exposure that could explain the mortalities. The cause(s) of the killer whale deaths recorded following the oil spill remain uncertain. PMID:23335844
Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K
Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.
Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A; Durban, John W; Foote, Andrew D
Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or 'excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.
Full Text Available The study of cetacean vocalizations is usually based on spectrogram analysis. The feature extraction is obtained from 2D methods like the edge detection algorithm. Difficulties appear when signal-to-noise ratios are weak or when more than one vocalization is simultaneously emitted. This is the case for acoustic observations in a natural environment and especially for the killer whales which swim in groups. To resolve this problem, we propose the use of the Hilbert-Huang transform. First, we illustrate how few modes (5 are satisfactory for the analysis of these calls. Then, we detail our approach which consists of combining the modes for extracting the time-varying frequencies of the vocalizations. This combination takes advantage of one of the empirical mode decomposition properties which is that the successive IMFs represent the original data broken down into frequency components from highest to lowest frequency. To evaluate the performance, our method is first applied on the simulated chirp signals. This approach allows us to link one chirp to one mode. Then we apply it on real signals emitted by killer whales. The results confirm that this method is a favorable alternative for the automatic extraction of killer whale vocalizations.
Full Text Available In cetaceans' communities, interactions between individuals of different species are often observed in the wild. Yet, due to methodological and technical challenges very little is known about the mediation of these interactions and their effect on cetaceans' behavior. Killer whales (Orcinus orca are a highly vocal species and can be both food competitors and potential predators of many other cetaceans. Thus, the interception of their vocalizations by unintended cetacean receivers may be particularly important in mediating interspecific interactions. To address this hypothesis, we conducted playbacks of killer whale vocalizations recorded during herring-feeding activity to free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas. Using a multi-sensor tag, we were able to track the whales and to monitor changes of their movements and social behavior in response to the playbacks. We demonstrated that the playback of killer whale sounds to pilot whales induced a clear increase in group size and a strong attraction of the animals towards the sound source. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that the interception of heterospecific vocalizations can mediate interactions between different cetacean species in previously unrecognized ways.
Walter, Lutz; Petersen, Beatrix
The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) as well as their MHC class I ligands display enormous genetic diversity and polymorphism in macaque species. Signals resulting from interaction between KIR or CD94/NKG2 receptors and their cognate MHC class I proteins essentially regulate the activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Macaque and human KIR share many features, such as clonal expression patterns, gene copy number variations, specificity for particular MHC class I allotypes, or epistasis between KIR and MHC class I genes that influence susceptibility and resistance to immunodeficiency virus infection. In this review article we also annotated publicly available rhesus macaque BAC clone sequences and provide the first description of the CD94-NKG2 genomic region. Besides the presence of genes that are orthologous to human NKG2A and NKG2F, this region contains three NKG2C paralogues. Hence, the genome of rhesus macaques contains moderately expanded and diversified NKG2 genes in addition to highly diversified KIR genes. The presence of two diversified NK cell receptor families in one species has not been described before and is expected to require a complex MHC-dependent regulation of NK cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wessel, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Maitra, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Slomp, A. M.; Busscher, H. J.; van der Mei, H. C.
The oral microbiome consists of a planktonic microbiome residing in saliva and an adhering microbiome (the biofilm adhering to oral hard and soft tissues). Here we hypothesized that possible differences in microbial composition of the planktonic and adhering oral microbiome on teeth can be related
Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...
Factors associated with non adherence to regulations on sale of alcohol by alcohol outlets operators in Thika Municipality, Kiambu County. ... initiated to ensure members are informed and adhere to the policy. Setting up of an independent unit that will be mandated to enforcement and adherence of the 2010 alcoholic act.
HAART. Adherence was measured using an adapted adult AIDS clinical trial group (AACTG) with optimal adherence set at ≥95%. Clinical stage, anthropometry, CD4, total lymphocyte and haemoglobin were used to monitor clinical, immunological and haematological outcome of adherence. Result: The mean (SD) age of ...
The study aimed to establish the common reasons for non-adherence to drug treatment among breast cancer patients at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a ten-year period (Jan 1993 - Dec 2002). Patients\\' adherence and reasons for non-adherence to chemotherapy were ...
Patterns of disclosure and antiretroviral treatment adherence in a South African mining workplace programme and implications for HIV prevention. ... their treatment, while the group who were non-adherent presented with lower levels of adherence motivation and self-efficacy, difficulties in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and ...
Polinski, J. M.; Kesselheim, A. S.; Frolkis, J. P.; Wescott, P.; Allen-Coleman, C.; Fischer, M. A.
Primary medication adherence occurs when a patient properly fills the first prescription for a new medication. Primary adherence only occurs about three-quarters of the time for antihypertensive medications. We assessed patients' barriers to primary adherence and attributes of patient-provider discussions that might improve primary adherence…
... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence AGENCY: Department of Health... potential solutions associated with the public health problem of prescription medication non-adherence in..., health care providers, and industry and private organizations in efforts to improve medication adherence...
Data concerning adherence to drugs was assessed using measure treatment adherence scale (MTA). Results: a total of 372 (55.59 % males and 44.41% females) patients with type-2 diabetes fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included in the study. Among the participants, 26.1% were found to have good adherence, 47.9% ...
53% non-adherence among diabetics in Malaysia; similar studies in ..... Associations between study participant drug adherence and other variables at LAUTECH. Teaching Hospital diabetes clinic. Adherence level. X2 df p-value. Monthly Income. 5.25. 2. 0..51. Sex .... sible use of their information for tax-related or other of-.
Purpose: To determine medication adherence and predictors of suboptimal adherence in patients with diabetes type 2, and to address the factors that are associated with treatment non-adherence in Northern Region of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 200 type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Objective: Adherence to treatment is important and relevant in HIV treatment. Previous studies in sub Sahara Africa and south western Nigeria reported that psychiatric morbidity influence treatment adherence. The present study was to examine treatment adherence among the male and the female patients with HIV infection ...
This study investigated factors of adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment (ART), factors or variables that can discriminate between adherent and non-adherent patients on ART were selected. Simple structured questionnaire was employed. The study sample consisted of 145 HIV patients who received ART in the Shashemene ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise
Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Paulsen, Maja S; Christensen, Palle M
statin treatment as important, how they managed non-adherence and whether non-adherence annoyed them. The Jackson Personality Inventory-revised was used to measure risk attitude. The GPs' responses were linked to register data on their patients' redeemed statin prescriptions. Mixed effect logistic......: To estimate associations between GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence and their patients' adherence, and to identify subgroups of GPs with poor patient adherence. METHODS: All Danish GPs were invited to participate in an online survey. We asked whether they regarded.......77-0.96]. No other associations were found between patients' adherence and GPs' attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that GPs' attitudes to risk, statin therapy or management of non-adherence are not significantly associated with their patients' adherence....
van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien
Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Metho...
Maresso, Karen Colbert; Hawk, Ernest
To review the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and reductions in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and overall mortality. Current cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the American Institute for Cancer Research, journal articles published between 2004 and 2016, and internet resources. Evidence from a number of large observational studies indicates that following current cancer prevention recommendations in a comprehensive manner results in significant reductions in both cancer risk and cancer mortality, as well as in cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality. Nurses can take the lead in familiarizing patients and families with established cancer prevention recommendations and resources that may assist patients in implementing them comprehensively in their daily lives, as well as in discussing the substantial health benefits of adhering to the recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research
Richard H Chapman
Full Text Available Richard H Chapman1, Elise M Pelletier1, Paula J Smith1, Craig S Roberts21US Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Global Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAObjective: To compare adherence with statin therapy in patients switching to single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium with patients adding a separate statin to their amlodipine regimen.Methods: We identified hypertensive patients prescribed amlodipine who switched to amlodipine/atorvastatin (switch or added a statin to their amlodipine regimen (add-on from July 2004 to June 2007. Propensity score matching (1 switch:3 add-on was applied based on ‘nearest neighbor’ approach. The primary adherence measure was patients with proportion of days covered (PDC ≥0.80 at 180 days; secondary measures included mean PDC and persistence. A sensitivity analysis was performed, accounting for total statin/amlodipine exposure.Results: Among 4556 matched patients (n = 1139 switch; n = 3417 add-on, mean age was 53.9 years and 52.1% were male. After 180 days, adherence with statin therapy was higher for the switch vs add-on cohort (50.8% vs 44.3%; P < 0.001. After adjusting for pre-index amlodipine adherence, the switch cohort was more likely to be adherent than the add-on cohort (odds ratio: 1.64 [95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 1.89]. Persistence was higher in the switch than the add-on cohort (127.6 vs 117 days; P < 0.001.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients taking amlodipine who initiated statin therapy via single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin were more likely to remain adherent to their statin than patients adding a separate statin to their antihypertensive regimen.Keywords: adherence, amlodipine, atorvastatin, cardiovascular disease, persistence, single-pill
Munoz-Moreno, J.A.; Fumaz, C.R.; Ferrer, M.J.; Tuldra, A.; Rovira, T.; Viladrich, C.; Bayes, R.; Burger, D.M.; Negredo, E.; Clotet, B.
The relationship between adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and RNA-HIV viral load outcomes has been extensively shown. Although there are different procedures for assessing treatment adherence, there is no ideal method. We present the SERAD (Self-Reported Adherence)
Schmitt, M J; Neuhausen, F
Killer toxin-secreting strains of the yeasts Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were shown to contain linear double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that persist within the cytoplasm of the infected host cell as encapsidated virus-like particles. In both yeasts, L- and M-dsRNAs were associated with 85-kDa major capsid protein, whereas the additional Z-dsRNA (2.8 kb), present only in the wild-type Z. bailii killer strain, was capsid protein, whereas the additional Z-dsRNA (2.8 kb), present only in the wild-type Z. bailii killer strain, was shown to be encapsidated by a 35-kDa coat protein. Although Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations indicated that L-dsRNA from Z. bailii is a LA species, additional peptide maps of the purified 85-kDa capsid from Z. bailii and the 88- and 80-kDa major coat proteins from K1 and K28 killer viruses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed distinctly different patterns of peptides. Electron microscopy of purified Z. bailii viruses (ZbV) identified icosahedral particles 40 nm in diameter which were undistinguishable from the S. cerevisiae killer viruses. We demonstrated that purified ZbVs are sufficient to confer the Z. bailii killer phenotype on transfected spheroplasts of a S. cerevisiae nonkiller strain and that the resulting transfectants secreted even more killer toxin that the original ZbV donor strain did. Curing experiments with ZbV-transfected S. cerevisiae strains indicated that the M-dsRNA satellite from Z. bailii contains the genetic information for toxin production, whereas expression of toxin immunity might be dependent on Z-dsRNA, which resembles a new dsRNA replicon in yeasts that is not dependent on an LA helper virus to be stably maintained and replicated within the cell. Images PMID:8107238
Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.
Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers. Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all. Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts. In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts. The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques. Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad. The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.
Trachtenberg, Felicia; Vichinsky, Elliott; Haines, Dru; Pakbaz, Zahra; Mednick, Lauren; Sobota, Amy; Kwiatkowski, Janet; Thompson, Alexis A.; Porter, John; Coates, Thomas; Giardina, Patricia J.; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert; Neufeld, Ellis J.
The Thalassemia Clinical Research Network collected adherence information from 79 patients on deferoxamine and 186 on deferasirox from 2007 to 2009. Chelation adherence was defined as percent of doses administered in the last 4 weeks (patient report) out of those prescribed (chart review). Chelation history since 2002 was available for 97 patients currently on deferoxamine and 217 on deferasirox, with crude estimates of adherence from chart review. Self-reported adherence to both deferoxamine and deferasirox were quite high, with slightly higher adherence to the oral chelator (97 vs. 92%). Ninety percent of patients on deferasirox reported at least 90% adherence, compared with 75% of patients on deferoxamine. Adherence to both chelators was highest in children, followed by adolescents and older adults. Predictors of lower deferoxamine adherence were smoking in the past year, problems sticking themselves (adults only), problems wearing their pump, and fewer transfusions in the past year. Predictors of lower deferasirox adherence were bodily pain and depression. Switching chelators resulted in increased adherence, regardless of the direction of the switch, although switching from deferoxamine to deferasirox was far more common. As adherence to deferoxamine is higher than previously reported, it appears beneficial for patients to have a choice in chelators. PMID:21523808
Wu, Yelena P; Rohan, Jennifer M; Martin, Staci; Hommel, Kevin; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Loiselle, Kristin; Ambrosino, Jodie; Fredericks, Emily M
To document current clinical practices for medical regimen adherence assessment and intervention in the field of pediatric psychology. 113 members of the Society of Pediatric Psychology completed an anonymous online survey that assessed use of adherence assessments and interventions in clinical practice, barriers and facilitators to their use, and preferred resources for obtaining information on adherence assessments and interventions. Respondents reported using a range of adherence assessment and intervention strategies, some of which are evidence-based. Barriers to implementing these clinical strategies included time constraints and lack of familiarity with available clinical tools. Respondents reported that education about effective clinical tools would facilitate their use of adherence assessments and interventions. Future research and clinical efforts in adherence should consider developing practical tools for clinical practice, making accessible resources to promote dissemination of these tools, and increase understanding of clinician implementation of adherence assessments and interventions.
Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez, María L; Ramírez, Manuel
The quality of traditional sparkling-wine depends on the aging process in the presence of dead yeast cells. These cells undergo a slow autolysis process thereby releasing some compounds, mostly colloidal polymers such as polysaccharides and mannoproteins, which influence the wine's foam properties and mouthfeel. Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer yeasts were tested to increase cell death and autolysis during mixed-yeast-inoculated second fermentation and aging. These yeasts killed sensitive strains in killer plate assays done under conditions of low pH and temperature similar to those used in sparkling-wine making, although some strains showed a different killer behaviour during the second fermentation. The fast killer effect improved the foam quality and mouthfeel of the mixed-inoculated wines, while the slow killer effect gave small improvements over single-inoculated wines. The effect was faster under high-pressure than under low-pressure conditions. Wine quality improvement did not correlate with the polysaccharide, protein, mannan, or aromatic compound concentrations, suggesting that the mouthfeel and foaming quality of sparkling wine are very complex properties influenced by other wine compounds and their interactions, as well as probably by the specific chemical composition of a given wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self HLA class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during a developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation. NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR binding self HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR-HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to observe changes in HBcAg-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, natural killer (NK and natural killer T (NKT cells from peripheral blood and to relate such changes on viral clearance and liver injury in patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB. Methods Dynamic profiles on the frequency of HLA-A0201-restricted HBcAg18-27 pentamer complex (MHC-Pentamer-specific CTLs and lymphocyte subsets in AHB patients were analyzed in addition to liver function tests, HBV serological markers, and HBV DNA levels. ELISPOT was used to detect interferon-gamma (INF-γ secretion in specific CTLs stimulated with known T cell epitope peptides associated with HBV surface protein, polymerase, and core protein. Results HBV-specific CTL frequencies in AHB patients were much higher than in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB (p +CD8+ T cell numbers in AHB patients was more than observed in the healthy control group from the first to the fourth week after admission (p = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively; the number of CD3+CD8+ T cells and frequency of HBcAg18-27-specific CTLs in AHB patients reached peak levels at the second week after admission. NK and NKT cell numbers were negatively correlated with the frequency of HBcAg-specific CTLs (r = -0.266, p = 0.05. Conclusions Patients with AHB possess a higher frequency of HBcAg-specific CTLs than CHB patients. The frequency of specific CTLs in AHB patients is correlated with HBeAg clearance indicating that HBV-specific CTLs play an important role in viral clearance and the self-limited process of the disease. Furthermore, NK and NKT cells are likely involved in the early, non-specific immune response to clear the virus.
Ingerski, Lisa; Perrazo, Lauren; Goebel, Jens; Pai, Ahna L H
Although nonadherence is well documented and strategies for adherence have been shown to be critical to overcoming barriers and improving overall adherence rates, it is unknown how family strategy use is related to adherence in the pediatric renal transplant population. The aims of this study were to assess (a) the strategies used by adolescents with kidney transplants and their caregivers to adhere to the posttransplant oral medication regimen and (b) the relationship of these strategies to objective adherence rates. Semistructured interviews to assess self-management were administered to 17 adolescents (14-18 years) and 17 caregivers. Adherence to oral immunosuppressant medication, measured via electronic monitors, was determined also for a subset of 13 dyads. Common strategies endorsed by families included the following: making it part of the routine (88.2%), verbal reminders by caregiver (82.4%), caregiver verifying medication was taken (76.5%), placing medication in a convenient location (76.5%), and using a pillbox (70.6%). A greater number of family-endorsed strategies were correlated with higher levels of adherence. Of those strategies spontaneously endorsed, only caregiver reminders to take medication and caregiver verification that medications were taken were related significantly to higher adherence rates. The findings highlight the importance of identification and use of specific strategies to improve adherence rates of pediatric renal transplant recipients and emphasize the need for continued caregiver involvement in the promotion of adherence to the treatment regimen.
Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H
Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is known about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1 ± 1.5; range = 13-19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, P bariatric surgery, high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Stewart, Michael; Matthews, Bryan
Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design specifications. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying 4D radar track data onto RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed frequencies of aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions. Full-lateral adherence was always greater than Full-lateral/ full- vertical, as it is a subset, but the difference between the rates was not consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0% in KDEN (Denver) to 21% in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0% to nearly 100% for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1,000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.
Omosun, Yusuf O.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Gatei, Wangeci; Hightower, Allen; van Eijk, Anne Maria; Ayisi, John; Otieno, Juliana; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard; Nahlen, Bernard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping
Pregnant women have abundant natural killer (NK) cells in their placenta, and NK cell function is regulated by polymorphisms of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Previous studies report different roles of NK cells in the immune responses to placental malaria (PM) and human
Full Text Available Renu Joshi, Disha Joshi, Pramil Cheriyath Department of Endocrinology, Pinnacle Health Hospitals, Harrisburg, PA, USA Objective: Nonadherence in diabetes is a problem leading to wasted resources and preventable deaths each year. Remedies for diminishing nonadherence are many but marginally effective, and outcomes remain suboptimal. Aim: The aim of this study was to test a new iOS “app”, PatientPartner. Derived from complexity theory, this novel technology has been extensively used in other fields; this is the first trial in a patient population. Methods: Physicians referred patients who were “severely non-adherent” with HbA1c levels >8. After consent and random assignment (n=107, subjects in the intervention group were immersed in the 12-min PatientPartner game, which assesses and trains subjects on parameters of thinking that are critical for good decision making in health care: information management, stress coping, and health strategies. The control group did not play PatientPartner. All subjects were called each week for 3 weeks and self-reported on their medication adherence, diet, and exercise. Baseline and 3-month post-intervention HbA1c levels were recorded for the intervention group.Results: Although the control group showed no difference on any measures at 3 weeks, the intervention group reported significant mean percentage improvements on all measures: medication adherence (57%, standard deviation [SD] 18%–96%, SD 9, diet (50%, SD 33%–75%, SD 28, and exercise (29%, SD 31%–43%, SD 33. At 3 months, the mean HbA1c levels in the intervention group were significantly lower (9.6 than baseline (10.7. Conclusion: Many programs to improve adherence have been proved to be expensive and marginally effective. Therefore, improvements from the single use of a 12-min-long “app” are noteworthy. This is the first ever randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that an “app” can impact the gold standard biological marker, HbA1c
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy
Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...... artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs...
Bisphosphonates are standard medicine for treatment of osteoporosis, and have been inovated to overcome complicated rules for their appropriate administration or their poor intestinal absorption. Not only weekly but also monthly oral bisphosphonates have been available. Furthermore, we are now allowed to choose intravenous administration of bisphosphonates for osteorporosis. Good persistance and adherence is another critical and essential issue to be solved to achive the aim of osteoprosis treatment with bisphosphonates. Variable formulations of bisphosphonate are now able to bring patients closer to a goal of reduction in fragile fracture due to osteoporosis.
Simon, Malene Juul; McGregor, Peter K.; Ugarte, Fernando
We describe the acoustic behaviour of piscivorous killer whales in Norwegian and Icelandic waters. Whales were assigned to one of three activities (feeding, travelling or other), and sound recordings were made in their proximity with a single hydrophone and a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder....... A quantitative analysis of the production of pulsed calls, whistles and echolocation clicks in the three activities revealed that there was a significant effect of activity on the production of these sound types. Both killer whales in Icelandic and Norwegian waters produced high rates of clicks and calls during...... feeding and low rates of click, calls and whistles during travelling. The differences can be used as acoustical markers and provides new possibilities for acoustic monitoring of killer whales in these areas. Based on the similarity between their prey choice, hunting strategies, phenotype and acoustic...
In 1931 an unknown murderer of little girls (Peter Lorre) is terrorizing the city of Berlin. We see him entice a new victim, the little Elsie Beckmann, who is coming home from school: whistling a tune by Grieg, he buys her a balloon from a blind beggar. When her corpse is discovered, the police undertake a major mobilization aimed at seeking the serial killer in the criminal underworld; meanwhile, the ever more terrified population starts to see the dangerous murderer in everyone. Since the roundups and incursions into the seediest parts of town disturb the gangsters' activities, the leaders of organized crime, headed by Schränker (Gustav Gründgens), take it upon themselves also to hunt down the solitary child-killer, engaging the community of beggars. Every corner of the city is catalogued and sifted by the dual activity of the police and the gangsters. The 'monster', a former psychiatric patient, mild and harmless in manner, is finally tracked down via two parallel routes: the clue of a cigarette packet enables Inspector Lohmann (Otto Wernicke) to track down the serial killer's address, while the blind beggar recognizes the whistled tune. The murderer is identified by a 'slap' from a young criminal which leaves an M marked in chalk on a shoulder of the man's overcoat. Thus he is caught and undergoes a kind of trial at the hands of the gangsters who tie him up in order to lynch him, but they are interrupted by the arrival of the forces of law and order. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Cata, Juan P; Ramirez, Maria F; Velasquez, Jose F; Di, A I; Popat, Keyuri U; Gottumukkala, Vijaya; Black, Dahlia M; Lewis, Valerae O; Vauthey, Jean N
One of the functions of natural killer (NK) cells is to eliminate cancer cells. The cytolytic activity of NK cells is tightly regulated by inhibitory and activation receptors located in the surface membrane. Lidocaine stimulates the function of NK cells at clinically relevant concentrations. It remains unknown whether this effect of lidocaine has an impact on the expression of surface receptors of NK cells, can uniformly stimulate across different cancer cell lines, and enhances the function of cells obtained during oncological surgery. NK cells from healthy donors and 43 patients who had undergone surgery for cancer were isolated. The function of NK cells was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. NK cells were incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of lidocaine. By flow cytometry, we determined the impact of lidocaine on the expression of galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein3-beta-glucuronosytranferase 1, marker of cell maturation (CD57), killer cell lectin like receptor A, inhibitory (NKG2A) receptors and killer cell lectin like receptor D, activation (NKG2D) receptors of NK cells. Differences in expression at pLidocaine increased the expression of NKG2D receptors and stimulated the function of NK cells against ovarian, pancreatic and ovarian cancer cell lines. Lidocaine also increased the cytolytic activity of NK cells from patients who underwent oncological surgery, except for those who had orthopedic procedures. Lidocaine showed an important stimulatory activity on NK cells. Our findings suggest that lidocaine might be used perioperatively to minimize the impact of surgery on NK cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Deecke, Volker B.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Spong, Paul; Ford, John K. B.
A few species of mammals produce group-specific vocalisations that are passed on by learning, but the function of learned vocal variation remains poorly understood. Resident killer whales live in stable matrilineal groups with repertoires of seven to 17 stereotyped call types. Some types are shared among matrilines, but their structure typically shows matriline-specific differences. Our objective was to analyse calls of nine killer whale matrilines in British Columbia to test whether call similarity primarily reflects social or genetic relationships. Recordings were made in 1985-1995 in the presence of focal matrilines that were either alone or with groups with non-overlapping repertoires. We used neural network discrimination performance to measure the similarity of call types produced by different matrilines and determined matriline association rates from 757 encounters with one or more focal matrilines. Relatedness was measured by comparing variation at 11 microsatellite loci for the oldest female in each group. Call similarity was positively correlated with association rates for two of the three call types analysed. Similarity of the N4 call type was also correlated with matriarch relatedness. No relationship between relatedness and association frequency was detected. These results show that call structure reflects relatedness and social affiliation, but not because related groups spend more time together. Instead, call structure appears to play a role in kin recognition and shapes the association behaviour of killer whale groups. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that increasing social complexity plays a role in the evolution of learned vocalisations in some mammalian species.
Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence
Dowling, Jonathan P
The race is on to construct the first quantum code breaker, as the winner will hold the key to the entire Internet. From international, multibillion-dollar financial transactions to top-secret government communications, all would be vulnerable to the secret-code-breaking ability of the quantum computer. Written by a renowned quantum physicist closely involved in the U.S. government's development of quantum information science, Schrodinger's Killer App: Race to Build the World's First Quantum Computer presents an inside look at the government's quest to build a quantum computer capable of solvi
Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Svenson, M
that of the controls remained unchanged. We conclude that the augmentation of baseline NK cell activity, as well as interferon- and interleukin-2-enhanced NK cell activity seen in the patients, is not a direct effect of DEC, but is related to the reaction to DEC in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.......Two patients, one with Bancroftian filariasis and the other with onchocerciasis, and two healthy controls were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). The natural killer (NK) cell activity of the two patients increased during DEC treatment to 2.5 and 2.8 times, respectively, while...
Martens, Willem H J
In this article the psychodynamic link between loneliness and sadism is examined on basis of a case report of the sadistic and cannibalistic serial killer Jeffery Dahmer. Envy, shame/rage mechanism, a disturbed oral-sadistic development, castration fear and severe feelings of inferiority, the conviction of being unlovable and unacceptable, need to diminish tension, powerful and sadistic fantasies as a consequence of inadequate and frustrated parenting, and reality distortion appear to be involved in sadistic etiology. © 2011 N.P.A.P.
Dohnálek, Jan; Kolenko, Petr; Skálová, Tereza; Hašek, Jindřich; Vaněk, O.; Rozbeský, D.; Kotýnková, Kristýna; Novák, Petr; Bezouška, K.
Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 15 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /9./. 24.03.2011-26.03.2011, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0477; GA ČR GAP207/10/1040; GA ČR GAP302/11/0855 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 31220 - SPINE2-COMPLEXES Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : protein structure * X-ray diffraction * natural killer cell Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry
Boudreau, Jeanette E; Hsu, Katharine C
The functional capacities of natural killer (NK) cells differ within and between individuals, reflecting considerable genetic variation. 'Licensing/arming', 'disarming', and 'tuning' are models that have been proposed to explain how interactions between MHC class I molecules and their cognate inhibitory receptors - Ly49 in mice and KIR in humans - 'educate' NK cells for variable reactivity and sensitivity to inhibition. In this review we discuss recent progress toward understanding the genetic, epigenetic, and molecular features that titrate NK effector function and inhibition, and the impact of variable NK cell education on human health and disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Brownell, Robert L; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki
We measured the concentrations of butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds in blubber, liver, lung, and muscle of seven stranded killer whales (Orcinus orca) collected from Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan. BTs in blubber (n = 6), liver (n = 4), lung (n = 1), and muscle (n = 4) of adult whale were in the range of 37-90, 385-676, 15, and 26-53 microg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of PTs in blubber, liver, lung, and muscle were whale calf were lower than those in adult whales. MBT and DBT in the liver of the calf were the same (42%). MBT in blubber was the dominant compound among BTs.
Foote, Andrew D; Newton, Jason; Piertney, Stuart B
promoting divergence. Here we use morphological traits, nitrogen stable isotope ratios and tooth wear to characterize two disparate types of North Atlantic killer whale. We find a highly specialist type, which reaches up to 8.5 m in length and a generalist type which reaches up to 6.6 m in length...... is more strongly influenced by between-individual variation rather than within-individual variation in the composition of the diet. This first step to divergent specialization on different ecological resources provides a rare example of the ecological conditions at the early stages of adaptive radiation....
Naomi S. Sta Maria
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are a crucial part of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host anti-viral, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor responses. The elucidation of NK cell biology and their therapeutic use are actively being pursued with 200 clinical trials currently underway. In this review, we outline the role of NK cells in cancer immunotherapies and summarize current noninvasive imaging technologies used to track NK cells in vivo to investigate mechanisms of action, develop new therapies, and evaluate efficacy of adoptive transfer.
Lacy E. Lowry
Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that the human immune system plays a crucial role in preventing the formation and progression of innumerable types of cancer (1. The mechanisms by which this occurs are numerous, including contributions from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. As such, immunotherapy has long been believed to be an auspicious solution in the treatment of malignancy (2. Recent research has highlighted the promise of natural killer (NK cells as a more directed immunotherapy approach. This paper will focus on the methods of potentiation of NK cells for their use in cancer therapy.
Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Cha, Ran-hui; Han, Seung Seok; Jeon, Un Sil; Kim, Dong Ki; Song, Junghan; Lee, Dong-Sup; Kim, Yon Su
There is a significant immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the role of immunomodulatory natural killer T (NKT) cell subtypes is not well understood. Here, we compared the severity of IRI in mice deficient in type I/II NKT cells (CD1d−/−) or type I NKT cells (Jα18−/−). The absence of NKT cells, especially type II NKT cells, accentuated the severity of renal injury, whereas repletion of NKT cells attenuated injury. Adoptively transferred NKT cells trafficked into the tubul...
Marr, Kaleb J; Jones, Gareth J; Mody, Christopher H
Murine experimentation has provided many useful tools, including the ability to knockout or over-express genes and to perform experiments that are limited by ethical considerations. Over the past century, mice have imparted valuable insights into the biology of many systems, including human immunity. However, although there are many similarities between the immune response of humans and mice, there are also many differences; none is more prominent than when examining natural killer cell biology. These differences include tissue distribution, effector molecules, receptor repertoire, and cytokine responses, all of which have important implications when extrapolating the studies to the human immune responses to Cryptococcus neoformans.
Aldebot, Stephanie; de Mamani, Amy G Weisman
Antipsychotics are often the first line of treatment for individuals with schizophrenia (). One challenge to effective treatment is lack of adherence to prescribed medication. Lower rates of adherence are associated with considerably higher rates of relapse and poorer course of illness. Therefore studying the characteristics that may be related to medication adherence is important. Coping styles may be one such factor. Individuals use a variety of coping mechanisms to manage and navigate difficult life events, including mental illness (). In the present study, 40 individuals with schizophrenia were assessed regarding their coping styles and medication adherence practices. As hypothesized, it was found that denial coping was inversely related to medication adherence. However, contrary to expectations, acceptance coping was not related to medication adherence. These findings suggest that targeting denial coping strategies in treatment may help foster more optimal strategies for managing schizophrenia.
Robertson, Lucy; Smith, Michael; Tannenbaum, Dennis
Non-adherence to treatment presents a significant obstacle to achieving favourable health outcomes. We have studied consumers' adherence to an online disease management system for depression, called Recovery Road. Recovery Road was implemented on a pilot basis for mental health care in Western Australia. Recovery Road was available for use by consumers and clinicians to augment usual treatment. One hundred and thirty consumers who had been diagnosed with major depression were enrolled. Consumers who used Recovery Road (n = 98) were provided with education, progress monitoring, e-consultation, e-diary and online evidenced-based therapy. Consumers received either standard, automated adherence reminders by email (n = 69), or case management, which included personalized email and telephone follow-up in response to non-adherence (n = 29). After the first eight sessions, the adherence was 84% in the case management group and 55% in the automatic reminders group. The results suggest that case management increases adherence to online disease management systems.
Dolansky, Mary A; Stepanczuk, Beth; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Moore, Shirley M
The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether age affects women's and men's exercise adherence after a cardiac event. In a convenience sample of 248 adults ages 38 to 86 who had a cardiac event, exercise adherence (three exercise sessions per week) was compared between men and women in three age groups (younger than 60, 61 to 70, and older than 70). Exercise patterns were recorded by heart rate monitors worn during exercise. No differences were found in adherence between the age groups for women; older men were nonadherent sooner than younger men when controlling for fitness level, pain, comorbidity, self-efficacy, depressed mood, and social support. Exercise adherence after a cardiac event was higher for younger men compared with older men. For all age groups, less than 37% of the total sample adhered to a three-times-per-week exercise regimen after 1 year, suggesting that interventions to maintain exercise adherence are needed. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Zhao, Qiuhong; Meints, Laura; Peipert, Benjamin J.; Redding, Colleen A.; Allsworth, Jenifer E.
Background Patient characteristics associated with adherence to dual method contraceptive use are not known. Study Design Project PROTECT was a 24-month long randomized trial designed to promote the use of dual methods of contraception using an individualized computer-based intervention or enhanced standard care counseling intervention. We analyzed 463 women with follow-up data and examined sustained dual method use (reported at 2+ interviews). Results While 32% initiated dual method contraceptive use, only 9% reported sustained use. Education increased (RRadj = 4.42; 95%CI 1.19-16.42), substance abuse decreased (RRadj = 0.49; 95%CI 0.24-0.97), no contraceptive use at baseline decreased (RRadj = 0.32; 95%CI 0.11-0.92), and contraceptive stage of change increased (RRadj =5.04; 95%CI 1.09-23.4) adherence to dual method use. Conclusion To effectively prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies, dual method use must be consistent and sustained. Future interventions to promote dual method use should focus on high-risk groups and additional dual method combinations (e.g., barrier plus intrauterine devices or implants). PMID:21843690
Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Izzat; Thomas, Rhys Huw
Adherence to medication regimens is a crucial factor in seizure-freedom and well-being for people with epilepsy. In contrast, taking medication inconsistently increases the risk of not only seizures and their adverse effects, but drug side-effects and unnecessary modifications to treatment plans. Epilepsy is prevalent across all age groups and we have been slow to utilise both the technologies and psychologies derived from computer gaming. Gaming has broken through to the mainstream and is no longer the preserve of younger males, mirroring the adoption of smart-phones. 'Gamification' motivates users into engaging in an activity with a higher intensity and duration. Introducing gaming elements into a non-gaming context has the potential to transform routine tasks into more enjoyable and motivating experiences. This has been exploited by marketing executives, but also has clear uses in a healthcare setting too. We discuss how previously published frameworks could be employed to help people with epilepsy adhere to medication regimens to create a patient-focussed, modifiable and fun experience. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan
Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash
Background and aims. It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the colonization and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investiga...
Dalvi, Vidya; Mekoth, Nandakumar
Purpose While interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) has been used in health psychology research, it has so far not been applied to seek deeper insights into the patients' experiences about treatment. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by using IPA to understand patient non-adherence. Design/methodology/approach In total, 18 patients with chronic conditions seeking healthcare services in Goa and Karnataka, India, were selected by using the snowball sampling method. In-depth interviews were conducted face to face. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect the data. IPA was used to explore the themes to predict patient non-adherence. Findings The study results indicate that economic factors, health system related factors, social factors and psychological factors impact patient non-adherence. Patient non-adherence includes medication non-adherence and lifestyle modification non-adherence. Research limitations/implications Being cross sectional in design, the results may not be as appropriate as the results derived from a longitudinal study given that non-adherence occurs over time. Practical implications Patient non-adherence is a global health issue. Multidisciplinary approach to enhance patient adherence to treatment should form part of public healthcare policy. Social implications Exploring the factors influencing patient non-adherence will help the health-care industry stakeholders to reduce healthcare cost and improve patient's quality of life. Originality/value Although there is extensive quantitative research on the prevalence of non-adherence, qualitative research is limited. This paper addresses this gap by using IPA to understand patient non-adherence and its factors and dimensions.
Full Text Available Sarah D Fenerty1, Cameron West1, Scott A Davis1, Sebastian G Kaplan3, Steven R Feldman1,2,41Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USABackground: Patient adherence is an important component of the treatment of chronic disease. An understanding of patient adherence and its modulating factors is necessary to correctly interpret treatment efficacy and barriers to therapeutic success.Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to systematically review published randomized controlled trials of reminder interventions to assist patient adherence to prescribed medications.Methods: A Medline search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1968 and June 2011, which studied the effect of reminder-based interventions on adherence to self-administered daily medications.Results: Eleven published randomized controlled trials were found between 1999 and 2009 which measured adherence to a daily medication in a group receiving reminder interventions compared to controls receiving no reminders. Medication adherence was measured as the number of doses taken compared to the number prescribed within a set period of time. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant increase in adherence in groups receiving a reminder intervention compared to controls (66.61% versus 54.71%, 95% CI for mean: 0.8% to 22.4%. Self-reported and electronically monitored adherence rates did not significantly differ (68.04% versus 63.67%, P = 1.0. Eight of eleven studies showed a statistically significant increase in adherence for at least one of the reminder group arms compared to the control groups receiving no reminder intervention.Limitations: The data are limited by imperfect measures of adherence due to variability in data collection methods. It is also likely
Mehler Phillip S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapy with 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins improve outcomes in a broad spectrum of patients with hyperlipidemia. However, effective therapy requires ongoing medication adherence; restrictive pharmacy policies may represent a barrier to successful adherence, particularly among vulnerable patients. In this study we sought to assess the relationship between the quantity of statin dispensed by the pharmacy with patient adherence and total cholesterol. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 3,386 patients receiving more than one fill of statin medications through an integrated, inner-city health care system between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2002. Our measure of adherence was days of drug acquisition divided by days in the study for each patient, with adequate adherence defined as ≥ 80%. Log-binomial regression was used to determine the relative risk of various factors, including prescription size, on adherence. We also assessed the relationship between adherence and total cholesterol using multiple linear regression. Results After controlling for age, gender, race, co-payment, comorbidities, and insurance status, patients who obtained a majority of fills as 60-day supply compared with 30-day supply were more likely to be adherent to their statin medications (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.28–1.55, P Conclusion In a healthcare system serving predominantly indigent patients, the provision of a greater quantity of statin medication at each prescription fill contributes to improved adherence and greater drug effectiveness.
Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil
Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure, adherence to treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with acute heart failure: Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.
Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Moss, Mary; Buchanan, Cindy L; Goebel, Jens
Non-adherence remains a significant problem among pediatric (and adult) renal transplant recipients. Non-adherence among solid organ transplant recipients results in US$15-100 million annual costs. Estimates of non-adherence range from 30 to 70% among pediatric patients. Research demonstrates that a 10% decrement in adherence is associated with 8% higher hazard of graft failure and mortality. Focus has begun to shift from patient factors that impact adherence to the contributing healthcare and systems factors. The purpose of this review is to describe problems within the systems implicated in non-adherence and potential solutions that may be related to positive adherence outcomes. Systems issues include insurance and legal regulations, provider and care team barriers to optimal care, and difficulties with transitioning to adult care. Potential solutions include recognition of how systems can work together to improve patient outcomes through improvements in insurance programs, a multi-disciplinary care team approach, evidence-based medical management, pharmacy-based applications and interventions to simplify medication regimens, improved transition protocols, and telehealth/technology-based multi-component interventions. However, there remains a significant lack of reliability in the application of these potential solutions to systems issues that impact patient adherence. Future efforts should accordingly focus on these efforts, likely by leveraging quality improvement and related principles, and on the investigation of the efficacy of these interventions to improve adherence and graft outcomes.
Dwyer, Andrew A; Tiemensma, Jitske; Quinton, Richard; Pitteloud, Nelly; Morin, Diane
Men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) typically require lifelong hormonal therapy, and discontinuing treatment can have negative health consequences. Little is known about adherence to treatment or the psychosocial impact of CHH. A sequential, multiple methods approach was used. A quantitative online survey assessed adherence to treatment, depressive symptoms and illness perceptions. Subsequently, qualitative focus groups explored patient-reported factors for adherence. Adult men with CHH on at least 1 year of treatment were recruited internationally. Adherence (Morisky medication adherence scale), depressive symptoms (Zung self-rating depression scale) and patient perception of CHH (revised illness perception questionnaire) were assessed in an online survey, and comparisons were made to reference groups. Patient focus group discussions were conducted and thematic analysis was employed to identify patient-reported factors for adherence. In total, 101 men on long-term treatment were included (mean age 37 ± 11 years). Forty three percent (43/101) exhibited low medication adherence and a significantly elevated prevalence of mild, moderate or severe depressive symptoms (27%, 17%, 20%, respectively, all P hypogonadism men are challenged to adhere to long-term treatment. Poor adherence may contribute to adverse effects on bone, sexual and psychological health. The psychosocial morbidity of CHH is significant and appears to be underappreciated by healthcare providers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Buengeler, Claudia; Klonek, Florian; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Poppe, Ronald
As part of the Lorentz workshop, “Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics,” held in Leiden, Netherlands, this article describes how Geeks and Groupies (computer and social scientists) may benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration toward the development of killer apps in team contexts that are meaningful and challenging for both. First, we discuss interaction processes during team meetings as a research topic for both Groupies and Geeks. Second, we highlight teamwork in health care settings as an interdisciplinary research challenge. Third, we discuss how an automated solution for optimal team design could benefit team effectiveness and feed into team-based interventions. Fourth, we discuss team collaboration in massive open online courses as a challenge for both Geeks and Groupies. We argue for the necessary integration of social and computational research insights and approaches. In the hope of inspiring future interdisciplinary collaborations, we develop criteria for evaluating killer apps—including the four proposed here—and discuss future research challenges and opportunities that potentially derive from these developments. PMID:28989264
Full Text Available Despite all efforts to improve HLA typing and immunosuppression, it is still impossible to prevent severe graft versus host disease (GVHD which can be fatal. GVHD is not always associated with graft versus malignancy and can prevent stem cell transplantation from reaching its goals. Overall T-cell alloreactivity is not the sole mechanism modulating the immune defense. Innate immune system has its own antigens, ligands, and mediators. The bridge between HLA and natural killer (NK cell-mediated reactions is becoming better understood in the context of stem cell transplantation. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs constitute a wide range of alleles/antigens segregated independently from the HLA alleles and classified into two major haplotypes which imprints the person's ability to suppress or to amplify T-cell alloreactivity. This paper will summarize the impact of both activating and inhibitory KIRs and their ligands on stem cell transplantation outcome. The ultimate goal is to develop algorithms based on KIR profiles to select donors with maximum antileukemic and minimum antihost effects.
Full Text Available The comics form has not remained untouched by true crime’s massive surge in status across popular culture, especially in America. Comics as a form is uniquely positioned to represent violent and graphic narratives in such a way as to maximise reader affect and create a chronicle of crime that is both entertaining and captivating, guiding and being guided by the reader. Two comics have received massive critical acclaim for their portrayals of ‘famous’ American serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer in Derf’s 'My Friend Dahmer' (2012 and Arthur Shawcross in Jeff Jensen & Jonathan Case’s 'Green River Killer' (2011. This article considers the framing techniques deployed in both comics. I consider how these two comics, distinct in their artistic presentation and their focus, frame their respective subjects and represent the complexities of serial murder. To conclude, I perform a close analysis of one framing aspect of 'My Friend Dahmer' and expand on what the execution of this technique can tell us about comics as a true crime form.
Coelho, Joseph R; Holliday, Charles W; Hastings, Jon M; Phillips, Christy M
A comprehensive investigation of the Pacific cicada killer, Sphecius convallis Patton, was undertaken to examine the behavioral and physiological mechanisms by which they are able to complete their life cycle in the thermal extremes of the Upper Sonoran Desert. S. convallis were endothermic, exhibiting elevated and relatively constant thorax temperatures during many activities. Males basked in trees at dawn to warm up, then used a variety of behaviors and perching strategies to maintain thorax temperature during territorial behavior. The thorax temperature of females was highest during provisioning and orientation flights, somewhat lower while investigating burrows, and lowest while digging burrows. The optimal thorax temperature for flight was about 40°C, which was approximated most closely by males resting in the shade during the afternoon. In mating clusters, the mated male was the hottest, the female was coolest and the other males were intermediate. Wasps lost about 5% of body mass during heating treatments, and may use evaporative water loss for cooling. Pacific cicada killers use a complex suite of behavioral and physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature during their nesting season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, Huei-Wei; Kurago, Zoya B.; Stewart, C. Andrew; Wilson, Michael J.; Martin, Maureen P.; Mace, Brian E.; Carrington, Mary; Trowsdale, John; Lutz, Charles T.
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) bind self–major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, allowing natural killer (NK) cells to recognize aberrant cells that have down-regulated class I. NK cells express variable numbers and combinations of highly homologous clonally restricted KIR genes, but uniformly express KIR2DL4. We show that NK clones express both 2DL4 alleles and either one or both alleles of the clonally restricted KIR 3DL1 and 3DL2 genes. Despite allele-independent expression, 3DL1 alleles differed in the core promoter by only one or two nucleotides. Allele-specific 3DL1 gene expression correlated with promoter and 5′ gene DNA hypomethylation in NK cells in vitro and in vivo. The DNA methylase inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, induced KIR DNA hypomethylation and heterogeneous expression of multiple KIR genes. Thus, NK cells use DNA methylation to maintain clonally restricted expression of highly homologous KIR genes and alleles. PMID:12538663
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by persistent synovitis, ultimately leading to cartilage and bone degeneration. Natural Killer cells and CD28 null T-cells are suspected as role players in RA pathogenesis. These cells are similar in feature and function, as they both exert their cytotoxic effect via Killer Cell Immunoglobulin- Like Receptors (KIR on their surface. KIR genes have either an inhibitory or activating effect depending on their intracytoplasmic structure. Herein we genotyped 16 KIR genes, 3 pseudo genes and 6 HLA class І genes as their corresponding ligands in RA patients and control subjects.In this case-control study, KIR and HLA genes were genotyped in 400 RA patients and 372 matched healthy controls using sequence-specific primers (SSP-PCR. Differences in the frequency of genes and haplotypes were determined by χ² test.KIR2DL2, 2DL5a, 2DL5b and activating KIR: KIR2DS5 and 3DS1 were all protective against RA. KIR2DL5 removal from a full Inhibitory KIR haplotype converted the mild protection (OR = 0.56 to a powerful predisposition to RA (OR = 16.47. Inhibitory haplotype No. 7 comprising KIR2DL5 in the absence of KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3 confers a 14-fold protective effect against RA.Individuals carrying the inhibitory KIR haplotype No. 6 have a high potential risk for developing RA.
Meriem, Bani; Jihen, Seket; Houda, Kaabi; Ghaya, Cherif; Manel, Chaabane; Hedi, Bellali; Slama, Hmida
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK) cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 267 unrelated and healthy Tunisian subjects by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method. All 16 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies; framework genes KIR3DP1 and KIR3DL2 and the nonframework genes KIR2DL1 and KIR2DP1 were present in all individuals. A total of 26 different KIR gene profiles and 54 subgenotypes were observed in the tested population samples. Genotype 1, with a frequency of 36.6%, is the most commonly observed in the Tunisian population. Our results showed that the Tunisian population possesses the previously reported general features of the Caucasian as well as African populations, with some additional interesting differences. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noël, Marie; Barrett-Lennard, Lance; Guinet, Christophe; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous environmental contaminants of which significant concentrations are reported in upper trophic level animals. In 1998, we collected blubber biopsy samples (n=11) from killer whales (Orcinus orca) inhabiting the coastal waters around Possession Island, Crozet Archipelago, southern Indian Ocean, for contaminant analyses. Despite inhabiting an isolated region far removed from industrial activities, these killer whales can presently be considered among the most PCB-contaminated cetaceans in the southern hemisphere, with concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 20.5mg/kg lipid weight (lw). PCDD levels ranged from below the detection limit (5 ng/kg) to 77.1 ng/kg lw and PCDF levels from below the detection limit (7 ng/kg) to 36.1 ng/kg lw. Over 70% of our study animals had PCB concentrations which exceeded a 1.3mg/kg PCB threshold established for endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity in free-ranging harbour seals, suggesting that organic contaminants cannot be ruled out as an additional threat to this declining population.
Williams, Rob; Erbe, Christine; Ashe, Erin; Beerman, Amber; Smith, Jodi
Critical habitats of at-risk populations of northeast Pacific "resident" killer whales can be heavily trafficked by large ships, with transits occurring on average once every hour in busy shipping lanes. We modeled behavioral responses of killer whales to ship transits during 35 "natural experiments" as a dose-response function of estimated received noise levels in both broadband and audiogram-weighted terms. Interpreting effects is contingent on a subjective and seemingly arbitrary decision about severity threshold indicating a response. Subtle responses were observed around broadband received levels of 130 dB re 1 μPa (rms); more severe responses are hypothesized to occur at received levels beyond 150 dB re 1 μPa, where our study lacked data. Avoidance responses are expected to carry minor energetic costs in terms of increased energy expenditure, but future research must assess the potential for reduced prey acquisition, and potential population consequences, under these noise levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Chen, Yi; Huang, Guanling; Xiong, Zhen; Liu, Jing; Li, Chong; Ye, Buqing; Du, Ying; Fan, Zusen
Natural killer (NK) cells and non-cytotoxic interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing group I innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) produce large amounts of IFN-γ and cause activation of innate and adaptive immunity. However, how NKs and ILC1s are primed during infection remains elusive. Here we have shown that a lymphocyte subpopulation natural killer-like B (NKB) cells existed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). NKBs had unique features that differed from T and B cells, and produced interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-12 at an early phase of infection. NKB cells played a critical role in eradication of microbial infection via secretion of IL-18 and IL-12. Moreover, IL-18 deficiency abrogated the antibacterial effect of NKBs. Upon bacterial challenge, NKB precursors (NKBPs) rapidly differentiated to NKBs that activated NKs and ILC1s against microbial infection. Our findings suggest that NKBs might be exploited to develop effective therapies for treatment of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O. V. Lebedinskaya
Full Text Available Morphology, topography, and immunohistochemical features of leukocyte infiltrates were studied in various sites of the liver samples from the patients with metastatic disease, been affected by hepatitis B and C viruses at different degree of activity. Liver of СВА mice with implanted САО-1 tumour was also under study. Histochemical, and functional features, as well as immune phenotype of these cells were investigated. It has been shown that the major fraction of leukocyte infiltrates, mostly associated with implanted tumours in experimental mice, and in the areas adjacent to the tumor in humans, like as on the peak of viral hepatitis activity, is composed of lymphocytes. They are presented by large numvers of activated proliferating and differentiating cells bearing specific antigens, as well as natural killers and T-lymphocytes, possessing high-level killer activity towards NK-sensitive, and autologous lines of cancer cells. Hence, the results of our study, generally, confirm the data from literature reporting on existence of a special lymphocyte subpopulation, NKT cells, in human or murine liver affected by hepatitis virus or malignant tumors. The data concerning functional properties of these cells may be used for development of immunotherapy methods of viral diseases and oncological conditions complicated by liver metastases.
Krijgsman, Daniëlle; Hokland, Marianne; Kuppen, Peter J. K.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of CD1d-restricted T cells at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells can be subdivided into functional subsets that respond rapidly to a wide variety of glycolipids and stress-related proteins using T- or natural killer (NK) cell-like effector mechanisms. Because of their major modulating effects on immune responses via secretion of cytokines, NKT cells are also considered important players in tumor immunosurveillance. During early tumor development, T helper (TH)1-like NKT cell subsets have the potential to rapidly stimulate tumor-specific T cells and effector NK cells that can eliminate tumor cells. In case of tumor progression, NKT cells may become overstimulated and anergic leading to deletion of a part of the NKT cell population in patients via activation-induced cell death. In addition, the remaining NKT cells become hyporesponsive, or switch to immunosuppressive TH2-/T regulatory-like NKT cell subsets, thereby facilitating tumor progression and immune escape. In this review, we discuss this important role of NKT cells in tumor development and we conclude that there should be three important focuses of future research in cancer patients in relation with NKT cells: (1) expansion of the NKT cell population, (2) prevention and breaking of NKT cell anergy, and (3) skewing of NKT cells toward TH1-like subsets with antitumor activity. PMID:29535734
Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Madhana, Rajaram Mohan Rao; Sriram, Chandra Shaker
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune effectors that are primarily involved in immunosurveillance to spontaneously eliminate malignantly transformed and virally infected cells without prior sensitization. NK cells trigger targeted attack through release of cytotoxic granules, and secrete various cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. NK cells selectively attack target cells with diminished major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression. This "Missing-self" recognition by NK cells at first puzzled researchers in the early 1990s, and the mystery was solved with the discovery of germ line encoded killer immunoglobulin receptors that recognize MHC-I molecules. This review summarizes the biology of NK cells detailing the phenotypes, receptors and functions; interactions of NK cells with dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and T cells. Further we discuss the various strategies to modulate NK cell activity and the practice of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy employing NK cell lines, autologous, allogeneic and genetically engineered cell populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buengeler, Claudia; Klonek, Florian; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Poppe, Ronald
As part of the Lorentz workshop, "Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics," held in Leiden, Netherlands, this article describes how Geeks and Groupies (computer and social scientists) may benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration toward the development of killer apps in team contexts that are meaningful and challenging for both. First, we discuss interaction processes during team meetings as a research topic for both Groupies and Geeks. Second, we highlight teamwork in health care settings as an interdisciplinary research challenge. Third, we discuss how an automated solution for optimal team design could benefit team effectiveness and feed into team-based interventions. Fourth, we discuss team collaboration in massive open online courses as a challenge for both Geeks and Groupies. We argue for the necessary integration of social and computational research insights and approaches. In the hope of inspiring future interdisciplinary collaborations, we develop criteria for evaluating killer apps-including the four proposed here-and discuss future research challenges and opportunities that potentially derive from these developments.
Background This study investigates the coverage of adherence to medicine by the UK and US newsprint media. Adherence to medicine is recognised as an important issue facing healthcare professionals and the newsprint media is a key source of health information, however, little is known about newspaper coverage of medication adherence. Methods A search of the newspaper database Nexis®UK from 2004–2011 was performed. Content analysis of newspaper articles which referenced medication adherence from the twelve highest circulating UK and US daily newspapers and their Sunday equivalents was carried out. A second researcher coded a 15% sample of newspaper articles to establish the inter-rater reliability of coding. Results Searches of newspaper coverage of medication adherence in the UK and US yielded 181 relevant articles for each country. There was a large increase in the number of scientific articles on medication adherence in PubMed® over the study period, however, this was not reflected in the frequency of newspaper articles published on medication adherence. UK newspaper articles were significantly more likely to report the benefits of adherence (p = 0.005), whereas US newspaper articles were significantly more likely to report adherence issues in the elderly population (p = 0.004) and adherence associated with diseases of the central nervous system (p = 0.046). The most commonly reported barriers to adherence were patient factors e.g. poor memory, beliefs and age, whereas, the most commonly reported facilitators to adherence were medication factors including simplified regimens, shorter treatment duration and combination tablets. HIV/AIDS was the single most frequently cited disease (reported in 20% of newspaper articles). Poor quality reporting of medication adherence was identified in 62% of newspaper articles. Conclusion Adherence is not well covered in the newspaper media despite a significant presence in the medical literature. The mass media have the
Adriano, Liana Silveira; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria; de Fátima Menezes Azevedo, Maria; Beserra, Milena Pontes Portela; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacological treatment adherence of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, attended in an outpatient pharmacy at a tertiary hospital in northeastern Brazil. The analysis of adherence was performed along with caregivers, through a structured questionnaire based on Morisky, Green and Levine, which enabled the categorization of adherence in "highest", "moderate" or "low" grades, and through evaluating medication dispensing registers, which classified the act of getting medications at the pharmacy as "regular" or "irregular". Drug Related Problems (DRP) were identified through the narrative of caregivers and classified according to the Second Granada Consensus. Then, a pharmaceutical orientation chart with information about the therapeutic regimen was applied, in order to function as a guide for issues that influenced adherence. A total of 43 patients was included, with a mean age of 11.12 years, and 65.1% (n=28) were female. Applying the questionnaire, it was found "highest" adherence in 46.5% (n=20) patients, "moderate" adherence in 48.8% (n=21), and "low" adherence in 4.7% (n=2). Through an analysis of the medication dispensing registers, a lower level of adherence was observed: only 25.6% (n=11) of the participants received "regularly" the medications. Twenty-six DRP was identified, and 84.6% (n=22) were classified as real. There were no significant associations between socio-demographic variables and adherence, although some caregivers have reported difficulty in accessing the medicines and in understanding the treatment. Our findings showed problems in the adherence process related to inattention, forgetfulness and irregularity in getting medicines, reinforcing the need for the development of strategies to facilitate a better understanding of treatment and to ensure adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is critical in Tuberculosis (TB treatment success, but existing tools are inadequate in identifying non-adherents, reasons for non-adherence or interventions to improve adherence. This study intended to fill the gap by developing and validating a TB medication adherence scale (TBMAS. METHODS: An initial 41-item TBMAS was designed through review of literature, consultation from an 8-member clinical expert panel and a 15-patient focus group, and pilot-testing in 25 TB patients. The questionnaire was validated in 438 patients who visited 23 community health centers for TB treatment in Wuhan from September 1, 2010, to August 31, 2011, using pharmacy refill records in a 15-week period as external criteria for medication adherence. After removing redundant and cross-loading items, the internal consistency, reliability and validity of TBMAS in identifying non-adherents were examined. RESULTS: The final TBMAS included 30 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale, and these items were loaded in nine distinct factors that explained 65% of cumulative variance among respondents. Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability and split-half reliability were 0.87, 0.83, and 0.85, respectively. Convergent validity was supported by statistically significant associations between TBMAS scores and adherence measured by pharmacy refill records. Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis suggested a cut-off point at 113, with which TBMAS showed a positive predictive value of 65.5% and sensitivity of 82.9% in identifying non-adherents. CONCLUSION: TBMAS demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, reliability and validity in identifying TB patients with poor adherence and potential causes for non-adherence.
Yin, Xiaoxv; Tu, Xiaochen; Tong, Yeqing; Yang, Rui; Wang, Yunxia; Cao, Shiyi; Fan, Hong; Wang, Feng; Gong, Yanhong; Yin, Ping; Lu, Zuxun
Medication adherence is critical in Tuberculosis (TB) treatment success, but existing tools are inadequate in identifying non-adherents, reasons for non-adherence or interventions to improve adherence. This study intended to fill the gap by developing and validating a TB medication adherence scale (TBMAS). An initial 41-item TBMAS was designed through review of literature, consultation from an 8-member clinical expert panel and a 15-patient focus group, and pilot-testing in 25 TB patients. The questionnaire was validated in 438 patients who visited 23 community health centers for TB treatment in Wuhan from September 1, 2010, to August 31, 2011, using pharmacy refill records in a 15-week period as external criteria for medication adherence. After removing redundant and cross-loading items, the internal consistency, reliability and validity of TBMAS in identifying non-adherents were examined. The final TBMAS included 30 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale, and these items were loaded in nine distinct factors that explained 65% of cumulative variance among respondents. Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability and split-half reliability were 0.87, 0.83, and 0.85, respectively. Convergent validity was supported by statistically significant associations between TBMAS scores and adherence measured by pharmacy refill records. Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis suggested a cut-off point at 113, with which TBMAS showed a positive predictive value of 65.5% and sensitivity of 82.9% in identifying non-adherents. TBMAS demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, reliability and validity in identifying TB patients with poor adherence and potential causes for non-adherence.
Ellenburg, Joseph T; Lieberman, Jay A; Pattanaik, Debendra
Although allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective and safe, nonadherence is common. Limited data exist regarding adherence to AIT, factors that affect adherence, and systemic reactions associated with AIT among veteran populations. To evaluate adherence to AIT and the prevalence of reactions secondary to AIT among patients at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee. A retrospective chart review was performed of veterans who received AIT at a single Veterans Affairs facility. Age, race, sex, the total number of shots, travel distance, a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the number of severe adverse reactions were compared between the veterans who were adherent and veterans who were nonadherent. The overall adherence rate was 60.9%. Factors associated with adherence were a chart diagnosis of PTSD (29.3% [adherent group] versus 13.6% [nonadherent group]; p = 0.03) and home residence being a further distance from the facility (21.9 miles / 35.2 kilometers [adherent group] versus 18.0 miles / 28.9 kilometers [nonadherent group]; p = 0.03). Patients who were adherent received an average of more total injections compared with patients who were nonadherent. Age, sex, race, and history of systemic reactions during AIT displayed no statistically significant differences between the groups. There were a total of 20 systemic reactions, and the systemic reaction rate was 0.2% per AIT encounter and 0.1% per injection. AIT adherence and systemic reaction rates among veterans at our facility was comparable with similar studies. Adherence was associated with a chart diagnosis of PTSD and home residence that was further away from the clinic.
Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Jordaan, Esmé; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Morojele, Neo K
We sought to (a) replicate and (b) extend (via the addition of alcohol use) Cha et al.'s cross-sectional multi-component model of ART adherence on the relationship between social support, depression, self-efficacy beliefs, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, among HIV patients in Tshwane, South Africa. Using purposive sampling, 304 male and female ART recipients were recruited. ART adherence was assessed using three manifest indicators: total adherence ratio, the CASE adherence index and 1-month adherence measure. Data were analysed using structural equation modeling. In our replicated model, social support had both direct and indirect relationships with ART adherence, and inclusion of alcohol use improved prediction of ART adherence. Direct and indirect effects of alcohol use on ART adherence emerged: adherence self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the latter path. Findings highlight the importance of integrating into ART promotion interventions, the reduction of alcohol use, provision of social support, and enhancement of adherence self-efficacy beliefs.
Full Text Available Available information suggests that nonadherence with medication is a common problem in pregnant women. Not taking prescribed drugs may have potentially negative consequences as patients may not achieve their therapeutic goal. In addition to the many factors that may influence medication-taking behaviour in the general population, unique challenges are encountered in pregnant women as both maternal health and fetal well-being must be considered. On the one hand, pregnant women may be motivated to keep their underlying disease under control, while, on the other hand, fear and anxiety regarding the potential harmful effects of their medication on their unborn child may result in poor adherence with needed medication. Providing evidence-based information, ideally preconceptually, regarding the effects of their medication during pregnancy may be important in avoiding misperceptions that lead to nonadherence.
The study of medicine taking is controversial as it often reveals a discrepancy between healthcare professionals' advice and patients' actual behaviour. Qualitative researchers have examined depressed people's adherence to prescriptions of antidepressants by exploring the meaning they impute...... semi-structured interviews with 16 people four times during the year following an admission to hospital for depression. Data were collected in 2008-2009 in the Region of Southern Denmark. The study was based on an interactionist conception of social career and data were analysed thematically. Findings...... indicated that participants were confronted with recurrent challenges related to being depressed and taking medicine, and they learned how to manage these challenges in a post-admission career with two distinct stages: the basic restitution stage and the frustrated search stage. Medicine-taking depended...
Kriegbaum, Margit; Lau, Sofie Rosenlund
. This applied to information from both mass media and from general practitioners. There was no clear pattern of information seeking and statin non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The article point to the impact of information-seeking on the decision to take cholesterol-lowering medication. This included contributions...... discontinuation were analysed using multivariate logistical regression models. RESULTS: Experience of side effects and fear of side effects played an important role in the discontinuation of statin treatment. Feelings of uncertainty and confusion regarding information on statins predicted statin discontinuation...... from information disseminated by media outlets. Side effects and fear of side effects should be addressed in clinical practice. Health care professionals should pay attention to emotional aspects of how information is disseminated and perceived by statin users....
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse
BACKGROUND: The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIMS: To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD...... guidelines. METHODS: A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted...... were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. RESULTS: Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed...
McHorney, Colleen A
To conceptualize, develop, and provide preliminary psychometric evidence for the Adherence Estimator--a brief, three-item proximal screener for the likelihood of non-adherence to prescription medications (medication non-fulfillment and non-persistence) for chronic disease. Qualitative focus groups with 140 healthcare consumers and two internet-based surveys of adults with chronic disease, comprising a total of 1772 respondents, who were self-reported medication adherers, non-persisters, and non-fulfillers. Psychometric tests were performed on over 150 items assessing 14 patient beliefs and skills hypothesized to be related to medication non-adherence along a proximal-distal continuum. Psychometric tests included, but were not limited to, known-groups discriminant validity at the scale and item level. The psychometric analyses sought to identify: (1) the specific multi-item scales that best differentiated self-reported adherers from self-reported non-adherers (non-fulfillers and non-persisters) and, (2) the single best item within each prioritized multi-item scale that best differentiated self-reported adherers from self-reported non-adherers (non-fulfillers and non-persisters). The two rounds of psychometric testing identified and cross-validated three proximal drivers of self-reported adherence: perceived concerns about medications, perceived need for medications, and perceived affordability of medications. One item from each domain was selected to include in the Adherence Estimator using a synthesis of psychometric results gleaned from classical and modern psychometric test theory. By simple summation of the weights assigned to the category responses of the three items, a total score is obtained that is immediately interpretable and completely transparent. Patients can be placed into one of three segments based on the total score--low, medium, and high risk for non-adherence. Sensitivity was 88%--of the non-adherers, 88% would be accurately classified as medium
Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte
Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3−) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with
Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907
Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3−) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small
Sivle, L D; Kvadsheim, P H; Fahlman, A; Lam, F P A; Tyack, P L; Miller, P J O
Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of four killer whales (Orcinus orca), seven long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and four sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) was studied during controlled exposures to naval sonar [low frequency active sonar (LFAS): 1-2 kHz and mid frequency active sonar (MFAS): 6-7 kHz] during three field seasons (2006-2009). Diving behavior was monitored before, during and after sonar exposure using an archival tag placed on the animal with suction cups. The tag recorded the animal's vertical movement, and additional data on horizontal movement and vocalizations were used to determine behavioral modes. Killer whales that were conducting deep dives at sonar onset changed abruptly to shallow diving (ShD) during LFAS, while killer whales conducting deep dives at the onset of MFAS did not alter dive mode. When in ShD mode at sonar onset, killer whales did not change their diving behavior. Pilot and sperm whales performed normal deep dives (NDD) during MFAS exposure. During LFAS exposures, long-finned pilot whales mostly performed fewer deep dives and some sperm whales performed shallower and shorter dives. Acoustic recording data presented previously indicates that deep diving (DD) is associated with feeding. Therefore, the observed changes in dive behavior of the three species could potentially reduce the foraging efficiency of the affected animals.
By using a single equation prototype, seven interesting mysteries and phenomena can be seen as sharing a common chemical underpinning. The applications discussed are the Killer Lakes of Cameroon, chicken breath, the Permian Ocean, the snow line, boiler scale, the Fizz Keeper, and stalactites and stalagmites.
Simon, M.; McGregor, P.K.; Ugarte, F.
We describe the acoustic behaviour of piscivorous killer whales in Norwegian and Icelandic waters. Whales were assigned to one of three activities (feeding, travelling or other), and sound recordings were made in their proximity with a single hydrophone and a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder. A q...
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, a cytotoxic lymphocyte lineage, are able to kill tumor cells in vitro and in mouse models. However, whether these cells display an anti-tumor activity in cancer patients has not been demonstrated. Here we have addressed this issue in patients with several hematological cancers. We found a population of highly activated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells that have recently degranulated, evidence of killing activity, and it is absent in healthy donors. A high percentage of these cells expressed natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46, natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D and killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs and a low percentage expressed NKG2A and CD94. They are also characterized by a high metabolic activity and active proliferation. Notably, we found that activated NK cells from hematological cancer patients have non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface, evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. Finally, we found that these activated NK cells are distinguished by their CD45RA+RO+ phenotype, as opposed to non-activated cells in patients or in healthy donors displaying a CD45RA+RO− phenotype similar to naïve T cells. In summary, we show that CD45RA+RO+ cells, which resemble a unique NK population, have recognized tumor cells and degranulate in patients with hematological neoplasias.
Lise Doksæter Sivle
Full Text Available Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of 5 killer whales (Orcinus orca, 7 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas and 4 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus were studied during controlled exposures to naval sonar (LFAS: 1-2 kHz and MFAS: 6-7 kHz during three field seasons (2006-2009. Diving behavior was monitored before, during and after sonar exposure using an archival tag placed on the animal with suction cups. The tag recorded the animal’s vertical movement, and additional data on horizontal movement and vocalizations were used to determine behavioral modes. Killer whales that were conducting deep dives at sonar onset changed abruptly to shallow diving during LFAS, while killer whales conducting deep dives at the onset of MFAS did not alter dive mode. When in shallow diving mode at sonar onset, killer whales did not change their diving behavior. Pilot and sperm whales performed normal deep dives during MFAS exposure. During LFAS exposures, long-finned pilot whales mostly performed fewer deep dives and some sperm whales performed shallower and shorter dives. Acoustic recording data presented previously indicates that deep diving is associated with feeding. Therefore, the observed changes in dive behavior of the three species could potentially reduce the foraging efficiency of the affected animals.
Curé, C.; Antunes, R.; Alves, A.C.; Visser, F.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Miller, P.J.O.
Interactions between individuals of different cetacean species are often observed in the wild. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) can be potential predators of many other cetaceans, and the interception of their vocalizations by unintended cetacean receivers may trigger anti-predator behavior that could
Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Fahlman, A.; Lam, F.P.A.; Tyack, P.L.; Miller, P.J.O.
Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of four killer whales (Orcinus orca), seven long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and four sperm whales
Lombardi, Silvia Jane; De Leonardis, Antonella; Lustrato, Giuseppe; Testa, Bruno; Iorizzo, Massimo
Sparkling wines produced by traditional method owe their characteristics to secondary fermentation and maturation that occur during a slow ageing in bottles. Yeast autolysis plays an important role during the sparkling wine aging. Using a combination of killer and sensitive yeasts is possible to accelerate yeast autolysis and reduce maturing time. killer and sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, separately and in co-cultures, were inoculated in base wine and bottled on pilot-plant scale. Commercial Saccaromyces bayanus strain was also investigated. Protein free amino acid and polysaccharides contents and sensory analysis were determined on the wine samples at 3, 6 and 9 months of aging. Yeast autolysis that occurs during the production of sparkling wines, obtained with co-cultures of killer and sensitive strains, has influenced free amino acids, total protein and polysaccharides content after 3 months aging time: sparkling wines, produced without the use of these yeasts, have reached the same results only after 9 months aging time. These results demonstrate that killer and sensitive yeasts in co-culture can accelerate the onset of autolysis in enological conditions, and has a positive effect on the quality of the aroma and flavor of sparkling wine. This paper offers an interesting biotechnological method to reduce production time of sparkling wine with economical benefits for the producers. We revised all patents relating to sparkling wine considering only those of interest for our study.
Full Text Available Natural killer cells express activating and inhibitory receptors which recognize MHC class I alleles, termed Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs. Preclinical and clinical data from haploidentical T-cell depleted stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that alloreactive KIR-L mismatched natural killer cells play a major role as effectors against acute myeloid leukemia. Outside the transplantation setting, several reports have proven the safety and feasibility of natural killer cell infusion in acute myeloid leukemia patients and, in some cases, provided evidence that transferred NK cells are functionally alloreactive and may have a role in disease control. Aim of the present work is to briefly summarize the most recent advances in the field by moving from the first preclinical and clinical demonstration of donor NK alloreactivity in the transplantation setting to the most recent attempts of exploiting the use of alloreactive NK cell infusion as a means of adoptive immunotherapy against acute myeloid leukemia. Altogether, these data highlight the pivotal role of NK cells for the development of novel immunological approaches in the clinical management of acute myeloid leukemia.
Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S
We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.
Ridgway, Sam H; Hanson, Alicia C
Among cetaceans, killer whales and sperm whales have the widest distribution in the world's oceans. Both species use echolocation, are long-lived, and have the longest periods of gestation among whales. Sperm whales dive much deeper and much longer than killer whales. It has long been thought that sperm whales have the largest brains of all living things, but our brain mass evidence, from published sources and our own specimens, shows that big males of these two species share this distinction. Despite this, we also find that cerebellum size is very different between killer whales and sperm whales. The sperm whale cerebellum is only about 7% of the total brain mass, while the killer whale cerebellum is almost 14%. These results are significant because they contradict claims that the cerebellum scales proportionally with the rest of the brain in all mammals. They also correct the generalization that all cetaceans have enlarged cerebella. We suggest possible reasons for the existence of such a large cerebellar size difference between these two species. Cerebellar function is not fully understood, and comparing the abilities of animals with differently sized cerebella can help uncover functional roles of the cerebellum in humans and animals. Here we show that the large cerebellar difference likely relates to evolutionary history, diving, sensory capability, and ecology. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
ten Berge, R. J.; Schellekens, P. T.; Budding-Koppenol, A.; Dooren, L. J.; Vossen, J. M.
Natural killer-cell activity for K562 target cells was measured in 13 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency before bone marrow transplantation. Both unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sorted cell subsets (B73.1 positive, B73.1 negative, OKT3 positive, OKT3 negative) were
Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Ellegaard, J
This is the first report describing natural killer (NK) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of malignant monoblasts. Pure acute monoblastic leukemia was diagnosed in bone marrow aspirations from two patients by use of conventional cytochemical methods as well as multiple immunologic...
Miller, P.J.O.; Antunes, R.N.; Wensveen, P.J.; Samarra, F.I.P.; Alves, A.C.; Tyack, P.L.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Kleivane, L.; Lam, F.P.A.; Ainslie, M.A.; Thomas, L.
Eight experimentally controlled exposures to 1−2 kHz or 6−7 kHz sonar signals were conducted with four killer whale groups. The source level and proximity of the source were increased during each exposure in order to reveal response thresholds. Detailed inspection of movements during each exposure
In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD), worldwide, is the most common type of heart disease. Adherence to the evidence-based medications for secondary prevention is associated with further improvement in the outcomes. Objectives: To identify level of adherence towards secondary prevention medications among ...
Despite the advances in the treatment of diabetes mellitus over ... assessed the prevalence of medication non-adherence leading to poor glycemic control. .... level of adherence to therapy and patients knowledge about diabetes. Inclusion criteria. • Patients 18 years and above diagnosed with Type 2. Diabetes. • Presence of ...
guidelines in hypertensive patients with diabetes and LVH. Significantly better hypertension control was seen in patients who were on ACE inhibitors and guidelines-adherent therapy. . Keywords: Guidelines, Adherence, Hypertension ... like other parts of the world, prevalence and poor control of hypertension is alarmingly.
Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.
A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface. 3 figs.
the use of patient self-reports and 18.3% reporting the use of pill counts. A total of 68.7% of the doctors indicated that their adherence monitoring was reliable, whilst 19.7% indicated that they did not test the reliability of their monitoring tools .The most common strategy used to improve adherence by their patients was ...
Oct 19, 2009 ... the use of patient self-reports and 18.3% reporting the use of pill counts. A total of 68.7% of the doctors indicated that their adherence monitoring was reliable, whilst 19.7% indicated that they did not test the reliability of their monitoring tools .The most common strategy used to improve adherence by their ...
... fairs, and local events; (9) to provide counseling and education directly to consumers about adherence... the continuing support of a national effort to promote the importance of medication adherence to... effective national campaign begun in 2010 by the National Consumers League (NCL) called ``Script Your Future...
They completed self-report questionnaires about their demographic and medical data, their illness perception using the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) and their medication adherence using the Medication Adherence Report Scale-5 (MARS5). The outcome of the analysis using the Pearson Product ...
Are blood pressure values compatible with medication adherence in hypertensive patients? ... The patients with BP measurements completed the Medication Adherence Self‑Efficacy Scale‑Short Form 13 and the World Health Organization‑5 (WHO‑5) well‑being index. A Holter device was attached, and 24 h BP monitoring ...
Objective: Poor adherence to medications, including psychotropic medications contributes to the burden of disease. Mental health service users (MHSU) may also not attend follow-up appointments at their health care facilities where they could discuss adherence with their health care provider. This paper reports on ...
Mar 17, 2011 ... Background: Depressive disorders are associated with poorer health outcomes in people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and .... economical tool to assess adherence in resource-poor settings.25 ..... Willard S. Relationship of emotional intelligence and adherence to combination.
Mol, PGM; Gans, ROB; Panday, PVN; Degener, JE; Laseur, M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM
Assessment procedures for adherence to a guideline must be reliable and credible. The aim of this study was to explore the reliability of assessment of adherence, taking account of the professional backgrounds of the observers. A secondary analysis explored the impact of case characteristics on
The results of this study indicated that participants shared same viewpoints related to aspects of adherence to antipsychotic treatment; the mentally stable patients have knowledge related to the causes of mental illness; poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment results from the health seeking behaviour of the patients.
Sirur, Ruth; Richardson, Julie; Wishart, Laurie; Hanna, Steven
The purpose of this article is to apply theoretical frameworks to adherence behaviour and to guide the development of an intervention to increase adherence to prescribed home programmes. Delivering an effective intervention requires establishing one that is evidence based and of adequate dosage. Two-thirds of patients who receive home exercise prescriptions do not adhere to their home programme, which may contribute to their physiotherapy's being ineffective. The mediating concepts of self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectations (OE) are common to the five relevant theories used to explain adherence to exercise: the health belief model, protection motivation theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, and social cognitive theory. Few intervention studies with any theoretical underpinning have examined adherence to exercise. Even fewer have been designed to affect and measure change in the theoretical mediators of SE and OE in patient populations. Physiotherapists must consider increasing adherence as a component of effective physiotherapy. Ongoing research is needed to increase our understanding of adherence to prescribed home programmes and to design interventions to affect theoretical mediators for increasing adherence.
The impact of knowledge and attitudes on adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a case-control study in a Moroccan region. ... on TB especially among non adherent patients. This finding justifies the need to incorporate patient?s education into current TB case management. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:52 ...
Adherence is the most important factor influencing successful antiretroviral therapy. Long term success with antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires taking 95% of medication. Less than 95% adherence can result in less than optimal therapeutic response and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the ...
We conclude with a bivariate model for understanding the adherence behaviours that influenced different patterns of ART adherence among the sample, and offer recommendations for HIV-prevention and treatment interventions in a mining workplace. Keywords: assessment methods, behaviour, HAART, HIV/AIDS, ...
Full Text Available Background and aims. It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the colonization and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. Materials and methods. In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with different incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Student's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. Results. In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes. However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. Conclusion. The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer restorative material.
Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash
It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the coloni-zation and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable infor-mation about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little infor-mation available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with differ-ent incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Stu-dent's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes). However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ion-omer restorative material.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without...
Purpose: To evaluate doctors' adherence to Malaysian Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) 2008 in established hypertensive patients with cardiovascular diseases and factors associated with guideline adherence and hypertension control in Pulau Pinang Hospital, Malaysia. Methods: Prescriptions written by 13 doctors for ...
Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...
Adherence to rehabilitative programmes by patients living with neurological conditions: A South African context. ... factors however were noted in this study. Information obtained from the study will assist health professionals to understand the patients' context and can inform rehabilitation programmes to support adherence.
with PLWHA experiencing rejection even by their families; however with ... function test, Chest X-ray and blood chemistry. The .... PLWHA at LAUTECH teaching hospital Osogbo, Nigeria. Socio demographic characteristics. Good adherence. Poor adherence X2; df; p-value. (>95%). (< 95%). Age group. 20-29. 46 (95.8%).
Hogan, Susan L.; DeVellis, Robert F.
The primary purpose of this article is to document whether demographic, clinical, regimen-related, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors predict medication non-adherence for vasculitis patients. A secondary purpose is to explore whether adherence varies by medication type and whether patients experienced drug-related side effects. Vasculitis patients (n=228) completed online baseline and 3-month follow-up surveys. Demographic (age, gender, education, race, marital status, and insurance status), clinical (perceived vasculitis severity, disease duration, vasculitis type, and relapse/remission status), regimen-related (experience of side effects), intrapersonal (depressive symptoms), and interpersonal (adherence-related support from family and friends) factors were measured at baseline. Medication non-adherence was assessed at follow-up using the Vasculitis Self-Management Survey medication adherence sub-scale (α=0.89). Variables that significantly correlated (pvasculitis medication types, patients who experienced side effects were less adherent than patients who did not experience side effects. Multiple factors are associated with medication non-adherence for vasculitis patients. Providers should discuss medication adherence and drug-related side effects with vasculitis patients. Providers may want to particularly target younger patients and patients with clinical signs of depression. PMID:23314654
Consistent control of blood pressure requires that patients with hypertension follow medication regimen and lifestyle modification. However, many patients fail to adhere to treatment recommendations resulting in less than optimal treatment. While most studies have focused on medication adherence and its associations ...
Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie
To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…
The BAP were achieved by exposing the pathogens to freshly excised wounds. The adhered bacteria were then eluded and quantified using log (CFU/cm2) on Mueller Hinton Agar per cm2 of tissue. The results indicated that wound fluid and serum has a remarkable bacterial adherence potential (BAP) when exposed to ...
is better than cure' may therefore be applicable to the problem of non-adherence among patients on ART even more than in the management of chronic non- infectious diseases in which drug resistance is not an issue of concern. We therefore undertook an analysis of results from the adherence monitoring in our HIV care ...
Rajendran, S; Anand, S C
This study aimed to develop a variety of wound dressing materials, made from standard natural fibres, that have high absorption and non-adherent characteristics. A total of 21 dressings were made using knitted and crochet technologies and their absorbency was tested. Five non-adherent recipes were selected from a range of chemical formulations and the optimised non-adherent finishes were applied to the four best dressings. Their absorbency and non-adherent properties were evaluated. The study demonstrated that rib cotton (RC), rib viscose (RV), crochet cotton medium (CCM) and crochet viscose medium (CVM) dressings possess high absorption and that five finishing recipes, C + D, A + G, I, I + N and I + G, impart high absorption as well as non-adherent properties. The finish I + G is superior in imparting non-adherence to RV dressing, both in dry and moist conditions. This means that irrigation with water, saline or sodium citrate solution before removing the dressing from a wound is not needed. A number of novel knitted and crochet structures with enhanced absorbency have been designed for wound management using standard bleached fibres. Novel non-adherent finishes for the developed structures have been formulated for the developed dressings, and offer an alternative to existing non-adherent dressings.
Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between household economic factors and adherence. Our findings suggest that the role of economic status on adherence appears to be a function of the economic component. Debt and non-farming-related occupation were consistently associated ...
education on the benefits and risks of non-adherence, and ..... relied on public transport as their usual mode of transport to get to ... Mode of transport was not significantly associated with ART adherence. (p=0.201). A large proportion of the study participants (73%) reported to never have received at least one support visit.