WorldWideScience

Sample records for adherent cellular cultures

  1. Microfluidic bioreactors for culture of non-adherent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota;

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic bioreactors (μBR) are becoming increasingly popular for cell culture, sample preparation and analysis in case of routine genetic and clinical diagnostics. We present a novel μBR for non-adherent cells designed to mimic in vivo perfusion of cells based on diffusion of media through...

  2. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011. In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4 for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii added simultaneously with the cells or (iii one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings.

  3. Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license.

  4. Susceptibility of adherent versus suspension target cells derived from adherent tissue culture lines to cell-mediated cytotoxicity in rapid 51Cr-release assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of target cells from tissue culture lines which grow adherent to tissue culture vessels is often desirable for tests of cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). In the present study the authors used cells derived from adherent tissue culture lines to compare the merits of suspension vs. adherent target cells in short-term 51Cr-release assays. Cytotoxic activity of murine spleen cells sensitized in vitro against allogeneic spleen cells or syngeneic sarcoma cells was tested with fibroblast or sarcoma target cells. In parallel tests, aliquots of tissue culture lines were detached and used as either suspension or adherent target cells in CMC assays, matching the concentrations of suspension and adherent target cells. In both allogeneic and syngeneic combinations adherent target cells released less 51Cr spontaneously and were more susceptible to CMC than their suspension counterparts. (Auth.)

  5. Cultural Diagnosis: An Empirical Investigation of Cellular Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Ali

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes research in five cellular companies operating in Pakistan, aimed at identifying their current and preferred organizational culture. Using Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983 competing values framework, the overall cultural profiles and dominant characteristics of the organizations and industry are determined through a personally administered survey employing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. The results indicate that hierarchy culture is dominating in cellular industry, whereas the clan is found to be the most preferred cultural archetype in majority of cellular companies. This indicates a misalignment between what employees think is needed and what is perceived to exist.

  6. Cultural Diagnosis: An Empirical Investigation of Cellular Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar Ali; Manqoosh ur Rehman

    2011-01-01

    This study describes research in five cellular companies operating in Pakistan, aimed at identifying their current and preferred organizational culture. Using Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983) competing values framework, the overall cultural profiles and dominant characteristics of the organizations and industry are determined through a personally administered survey employing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). The results indicate that hierarchy culture is dominating in cellul...

  7. Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (<1 s per 1,208 × 960 pixels image). Based on the high segmentation performance, it was possible to precisely determine culture confluency, cell density, and the morphology of cellular objects, demonstrating the wide applicability of our algorithm for typical microscopy image processing pipelines. Furthermore, PCM image segmentation was used to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of fluorescence microscopy data, enabling the determination of temporal and spatial expression patterns of a fluorescent reporter. We created a software toolbox (PHANTAST) that bundles all the algorithms and provides an easy to use graphical user interface. Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license. PMID:24037521

  8. Agglomeration, sedimentation, and cellular toxicity of alumina nanoparticles in cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated for a wide range of concentration (25–200 μg/mL) and incubation time (0–72 h) using floating cells (THP-1) and adherent cells (J774A.1, A549, and 293). Alumina NPs were gradually agglomerated over time although a significant portion of sedimentation occurred at the early stage within 6 h. A decrease of the viability was found in floating (THP-1) and adherent (J774A.1 and A549) cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the time-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed only in adherent cells (J774A.1 and A549), which is predominantly related with the sedimentation of alumina NPs in cell culture medium. The uptake of alumina NPs in macrophages and an increased cell-to-cell adhesion in adherent cells were observed. There was no significant change in the viability of 293 cells. This in vitro test suggests that the agglomeration and sedimentation of alumina NPs affected cellular viability depending on cell types such as monocytes (THP-1), macrophages (J774A.1), lung carcinoma cells (A549), and embryonic kidney cells (293).

  9. Characterization and Classification of Adherent Cells in Monolayer Culture using Automated Tracking and Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.; Bedder, M; Smith, S L; Walker, D; Shabir, S.; Southgate, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for tracking and characterizing adherent cells in monolayer culture. A system of cell tracking employing computer vision techniques was applied to time-lapse videos of replicate normal human uro-epithelial cell cultures exposed to different concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and a selective purinergic P2X antagonist (PPADS), acquired over a 24hour period. Subsequent analysis following feature extraction demonstrated the ability of the technique t...

  10. Difference of adherence, proliferation and osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on different HA/ZrO2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Ren-fu; TANG Yang-hua; HUANG Zhong-ming; YANG Di-sheng; LI Wei; XU Jin-wei; WU Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the adherence,proliferation and osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on different HA/ZrO2 composites.Methods: The simplex and graded HA/ZrO2 composites were prepared using dry-laid method.The surface topography of the composites was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The MSCs were isolated from rabbits and cultured on experimental groups (simplex HA/ ZrO2 composite,graded HA/ZrO2 composite,pure HA or pure ZrO2 coatings respectively) and control group (ordinary culture plate).Then,we observed the adherence,proliferation and osteogenesis of the MSCs,detected the cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities,extracted total RNA and detected the mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ,osteocalcin and osteopontin using the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.Results: The SEM images confirmed that the surfaceof the simplex HA/ZrO2 composite was coverd by discontiguous HA layer with clear visualization of the partial ZrO2 matrix,while the surface of the graded HA/ZrO2 composite was fairly rough with porosity.X-ray diffraction showed that after high temperature sintering,the ZrO2 phase still remained,while the HA phase was transformed to β-Ca3 (pO4)2,α-Ca3(PO4)2 and CaZrO3 phases on the surface of both composites.Cell culture indicated that the HA/ ZrO2 composites supported cell attachment.Neither ALP expression nor mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ,osteocalcin or osteopontin from RT-PCR results showed significant deviation among four groups.Conclusion:Among these four composites,the graded HA/ZrO2 composite promotes the MSCs proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation to a certain extent.

  11. Development and Cultural Adaptation Of the Spanish Version of the End Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire (SESRD-AQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngmee; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.

    2013-01-01

    We previously developed and validated the End-Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire (ESRD-AQ) to measure adherence behaviors (e.g., hemodialysis attendance, medication use, fluid restrictions, and diet) of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. To determine whether the ESRD-AQ can be used to measure adherence behaviors in non- English-speaking patients, we translated and adapted the ESRD-AQ into Spanish (SESRD-AQ) using forward and backward translation and cultural adaptation of the cont...

  12. Geopolitical and cultural factors affecting ARV adherence on the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, Michele G; Decena, Carlos Ulises; Beltran, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The data discussed represent the findings from a study by the NIH-funded Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center, exploring the influence of institutional and psychosocial factors on adherence to antiretroviral medications by Mexican-origin persons living with AIDS on the US-Mexico Border. A qualitative approach was utilized consisting of clinic observations, baseline and follow-up interviews with patients (N = 113), key informant interviews (N = 9) and focus groups (5) with patients and health providers. Findings include the social-normative, institutional and geo-political factors affecting treatment and service delivery as well as individual variation and culturally patterned behaviors. ARV adherence and retention were found to depend on complex interactions and negotiation of co-occurring factors including the experience of medications and side-effects, patient/provider relationships, cultural norms and the changing dynamics of international borders. We note effects of drug-related violence which created border-crossing obstacles influencing mobility, access to services and adherence. PMID:22797951

  13. Adherence to Asian Cultural Values and Cultural Fit in Korean American Undergraduates' Help-Seeking Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…

  14. Fibrinogen acts as a bridging molecule in the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to cultured human endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, A L; Krishnan, M.; Jaffe, E A; Fischetti, V A

    1991-01-01

    The propensity of Staphylococcus aureus to cause acute endovascular infections during transient bacteremia is poorly understood. To examine the events leading to the attachment of staphylococci to endothelium, adherence assays were developed to study the role of blood factors in the mediation of staphylococcal adherence to cultured human umbilical vein endothelium in vitro. Results indicate that the preferential attachment of S. aureus to endothelial cells is mediated by fibrinogen adsorbed f...

  15. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y., E-mail: yuta-n@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 096-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan); Tsusu, K.; Minami, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan); Nakanishi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 096-8555 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  16. Adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to epithelial cells in vitro and in pig gut loops is affected by bacterial culture conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Xianhua; Feng, Yanni; Wheatcroft, Roger; Chambers, James; Gong, Joshua; Gyles, Carlton L.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of bacterial culture conditions on adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain 86-24 in vivo to pig enterocytes and to compare the results with adherence in vitro to cultured HEp-2 and IPEC-J2 cells. Growth of O157:H7 in MacConkey broth (MB) resulted in almost no adherence to both HEp-2 and IPEC-J2 cells; prior exposure of the bacteria to pH 2.5 reduced adherence. There was greater adherence by bacteria from s...

  17. Exploring the patterns of use and the feasibility of using cellular phones for clinic appointment reminders and adherence messages in an antiretroviral treatment clinic, Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Corless, Inge B; Giddy, Janet; Nicholas, Patrice K; Eichbaum, Quentin; Butler, Lisa M

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for a proposed intervention at an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Durban, South Africa, we explored the dynamics and patterns of cellular phone use among this population, in order to ascertain whether clinic contact via patients' cellular phones was a feasible and acceptable modality for appointment reminders and adherence messages. Adults, who were more than 18 years old, ambulatory, and who presented for treatment at the clinic between October-December 2007, were consecutively recruited until the sample size was reached (n = 300). A structured questionnaire was administered, including questions surrounding sociodemographics, cellular phone availability, patterns of use, and acceptability of clinic contact for the purpose of clinic appointment reminders and adherence support. Most respondents (n = 242; 81%) reported current ownership of a cellular phone with 95% utilizing a prepaid airtime service. Those participants who currently owned a cellular phone reported high cellular phone turnover due to theft or loss (n = 94, 39%) and/or damage (n = 68, 28%). More females than men switched their cell phones off during the day (p = 0.002) and were more likely to not take calls in certain social milieus (p ≤ 0.0001). Females were more likely to share their cell phone with others (p = 0.002) or leave it in a place where someone could access it (p = 0.005). Most respondents were willing to have clinic contact via their cellular phones, either verbally (99%) or via text messages (96%). The use of cellular phones for intervention purposes is feasible and should be further investigated. The findings highlight the value of gender-based analyses in informing interventions.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation to Brazil of Medication Adherence Rating Scale for psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Carvalho Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this research was to make a cross-cultural adaptation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS for psychiatric patients to the Brazilian context. Methods The procedure consisted of four phases: translation of the original scale, back-translation, review by an Expert Committee and Pre-test study with a patients’ sample. Results The Expert Committee corrected the items’ translation when necessary and modified the scale administration format and its instructions from self-report to face-to-face interview form in order to ensure easy understanding by the target population. During Pre-test, the instructions and most of the items were properly understood by patients, with the exception of three of them which had to be changed in order to ensure better understanding. The Pre-test sample was composed by 30 psychiatric patients, with severe and persistent disorders mainly single (46.7%, female (60.0%, with a mean age of 43.8 years old and an average of five years of education. Conclusion The Brazilian version of MARS scale is now adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and culture and is easily understood by the psychiatric target population. It is necessary to do further research to evaluate the scale psychometric qualities of validity and reliability in order to use it in Brazil.

  19. Contributions of EspA Filaments and Curli Fimbriae in Cellular Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kudva, Indira T; Bearson, Bradley L; Stasko, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed increased adherence to HEp-2 cells and produced abundant biofilms. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of espA as well as the csgA gene, which encodes curli fimbriae that are essential for biofilm formation. In the present study, we constructed hha espA, hha csgA, and hha csgA espA deletion mutants to determine the relative importance of EspA and CsgA in O157 adherence to HEp-2 cells and biofilm formation. In vitro adherence assays, conducted at 37°C in a tissue culture medium containing 0.1% glucose, showed that HEp-2 cell adherence required EspA because hha espA and hha csgA espA mutants adhered to HEp-2 cells at higher levels only when complemented with an espA-expressing plasmid. Biofilm assays performed at 28°C in a medium lacking glucose showed dependency of biofilm formation on CsgA; however EspA was not produced under these conditions. Despite production of detectable levels of EspA at 37°C in media supplemented with 0.1% glucose, the biofilm formation occurred independent of EspA. These results indicate dependency of O157 adherence to epithelial cells on EspA filaments, while CsgA promoted biofilm formation under conditions mimicking those found in the environment (low temperature with nutrient limitations) and in the digestive tract of an host animal (higher temperature and low levels of glucose).

  20. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment culture was based on the fact that BMSCs were assembled in compact bones. Thus, the procedure included flushing bone marrow out of bone cavity and culturing the fragments without any collagenase digestion. The cell yield from cultured fragments was slightly less than that from cultured bone marrow using the same bone quantity. However, the trypsinized cells from cultured fragments exhibited significantly higher proliferation and were accompanied with more CD90 and CD44 expressions and less CD45 expression. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity of cells from cultured fragments were better than those of cells from bone marrow. The directly adherent culture of compact bone is suitable for mouse BMSC isolation, and more BMSCs with potentially improved proliferation capacity can be obtained in the primary culture.

  1. The Buddha Images and Conservation and Adherence to Cultural Values in Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athikan Suksri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is caused by the problem of conservation of the Buddha images to exist in the original condition and by the problem of transference and adherence to indigenous knowledge of local craftsmen. At present there have not yet been systematic and wide conservation and adherence to the Buddha images. Other causes are such as incorrect techniques of conserving the Buddha images, lack of encouraging people and the community to appreciate the Buddha images, incorrect techniques of restoring the Buddha images, lack of increment of economic and cultural values in terms of tourism, lack of correct techniques of studying styles of the Buddha images to rebuild the styles for the community to appreciate local art, lack of clear examination of the background and there have not been comparative studies to find out relationships with other localities. Purposes were to examine backgrounds of Isan Buddha images and iconology, to examine current conditions and problems of the Buddha images and to investigate models of conservation and adherence to cultural values in Iran. Study area covered Changwat Maha Sarakham, Changwat Kalasin and Changwat Roi Et where there have been long backgrounds and continuous developments of the Buddha image in all Ages. Approach: This study used qualitative methodology by collecting data from related literature and from field studies by interviews and focused group discussion from totally 66 informants. Findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The result of this research revealed that there were 5 models of the Buddha image art found in Isan: Sandstone Buddha images, baked-clay votive tablets, cast motar Buddha images, bronze Buddha images and wooden Buddha images. They were in the Periods of Dvaravati, Lop Buri and Lan Chang. The Buddha images were popularly built in many different styles such as concentration style, double-miracle style, nag-over-his-head style, blessing style

  2. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  3. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Yiting Cai; Tianshu Liu; Fang Fang; Chengliang Xiong; Shiliang Shen

    2015-01-01

    The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment cult...

  4. Adhere to Developing School through Culture and Make Tracks for Cultural Consciousness%坚持文化立校 走向文化自觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜纯梓

    2012-01-01

    电大系统要把握创建开放大学的契机,充分认识文化建设的重要性与紧迫性,大力加强电大系统自身的文化建设,坚持文化立校,勇于文化担当,形成文化自觉,致力文化引领。%RTUV system should seize the opportunity of creating open university, fully understand the importance and urgency of culture construction and vigorously strengthen the culture construction of RTVU system. RTUV system should adhere to developing school through culture, have the courage to undertake culture, form cultural consciousness and strive for cultural leadership.

  5. Development and cultural adaptation of the Spanish version of the End Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire (SESRD-AQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmee; Evangelista, Lorraine S

    2013-01-01

    We previously developed and validated the End-Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire (ESRD-AQ) to measure adherence behaviors (e.g., hemodialysis attendance, medication use, fluid restrictions, and diet) of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. To determine whether the ESRD-AQ can be used to measure adherence behaviors in non-English-speaking patients, we translated and adapted the ESRD-AQ into Spanish (SESRD-AQ) using forward and backward translation and cultural adaptation of the content. Validity and reliability were measured using item-level content validity indexes, intraclass correlation coefficients, and known-group analysis. All validity indices were within an acceptable range; strong test-retest stability existed across all items, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. The developed SESRD-AQ is a valid assessment tool for use among Spanish-speaking patients on maintenance hemodialysis. This instrument refinement and validation process can be replicated with other maintenance hemodialysis population groups.

  6. Micro 3D cell culture systems for cellular behavior studies: Culture matrices, devices, substrates, and in-situ sensing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Eun Kyu; Choo, Jaebum; Yuh, Junhan; Hong, Jong Wook

    2015-09-01

    Microfabricated systems equipped with 3D cell culture devices and in-situ cellular biosensing tools can be a powerful bionanotechnology platform to investigate a variety of biomedical applications. Various construction substrates such as plastics, glass, and paper are used for microstructures. When selecting a construction substrate, a key consideration is a porous microenvironment that allows for spheroid growth and mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cell aggregates. Various bio-functionalized hydrogels are ideal candidates that mimic the natural ECM for 3D cell culture. When selecting an optimal and appropriate microfabrication method, both the intended use of the system and the characteristics and restrictions of the target cells should be carefully considered. For highly sensitive and near-cell surface detection of excreted cellular compounds, SERS-based microsystems capable of dual modal imaging have the potential to be powerful tools; however, the development of optical reporters and nanoprobes remains a key challenge. We expect that the microsystems capable of both 3D cell culture and cellular response monitoring would serve as excellent tools to provide fundamental cellular behavior information for various biomedical applications such as metastasis, wound healing, high throughput screening, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery and development. PMID:26358782

  7. A Review of Non-cultured Epidermal Cellular Grafting in Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Nanja van Geel; Boon Kee Goh; Elien Wallaeys; Stefanie De Keyser; Jo Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Non-cultured epidermal cellular grafting is an innovative surgical technique that can be used for the treatment of stabilized leucoderma, including vitiligo. Many reports have been published since its introduction in 1992, including several modifications and simplification of the original technique. This systematic review gives an overview of the literature.

  8. Determinants of Adherence to Treatment in Hypertensive Patients of African Descent and the Role of Culturally Appropriate Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. Objective To identify patient-related determina

  9. Managing treatment for end-stage renal disease--a qualitative study exploring cultural perspectives on facilitators and barriers to treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, K; Ng, H J; Loei, J; Mooppil, N; McBain, H; Newman, S P

    2013-01-01

    Although adherence to hemodialysis (HD) regimes is important to maximise good clinical outcomes, it remains suboptimal and not well understood, particularly for those in non-Western settings and patients from Asian cultures. This qualitative study sought to explore cultural perspectives on facilitators and barriers to treatment adherence in HD patients. A descriptive exploratory design was used for the study, incorporating individual semi-structured interviews (n = 17) and three focus groups (n = 20). Each interview/focus group was audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, and coding was conducted by two coders using an iterative process. Study participants identified personal and social/contextual factors as major barriers or facilitators of treatment adherence. Barriers include time consumption, forgetfulness, concerns about safety, poor knowledge/understanding, poor communication and lack of control/social pressure. Participants also identified facilitators, both internal (self-initiated) and external (initiated by family, health care professional and peers) to ensure treatment adherence. These included support from family members and social obligation towards others, risk perception, establishment of routines and peer support. Internal and external factors can hinder or facilitate adherence to diet, fluid and medications in the context of dialysis. Several of these barriers/facilitators can be effectively addressed in the context of interventions and psycho-educational programmes. PMID:22780853

  10. Glioma stem cell lines expanded in adherent culture have tumor-specific phenotypes and are suitable for chemical and genetic screens

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Steven M; YOSHIKAWA, KOICHI; Clarke, Ian D.; Danovi, Davide; Stricker, Stefan; Russell, Roslin; Bayani, Jane; Head, Renee; Lee, Marco; Bernstein, Mark; Squire, Jeremy A.; Smith, Austin; Dirks, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Human brain tumors appear to have a hierarchical cellular organization suggestive of a stem cell foundation. In vitro expansion of the putative cancer stem cells as stable cell lines would provide a powerful model system to study their biology. Here, we demonstrate routine and efficient derivation of adherent cell lines from malignant glioma that display stem cell properties and initiate high-grade gliomas following xenotransplantation. Significantly, glioma neural stem (GNS) cell lines from ...

  11. 3-bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Eric; Arend, Christian; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes. PMID:25196479

  12. cGMP-Compliant Expansion of Human iPSC Cultures as Adherent Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Ann M; Walsh, Patrick J; Truong, Vincent; Dutton, James R

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic uses of cells differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), either embryonic stem (ES) cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are now being tested in clinical trials, and it is likely that this will lead to increased commercial interest in the clinical translation of promising hPSC research. Recent technical advances in the use of defined media and culture substrates have significantly improved both the simplicity and predictability of growing hPSCs, allowing a much more straightforward application of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to the culture of these cells. In addition, the adoption of cGMP-compliant techniques in research environments will both improve the replication of results and make the transition of promising investigations to the commercial sector significantly less cumbersome. However, passaging methods for hPSCs are inherently unpredictable and rely on operator experience and expertise. This is problematic for the cell manufacturing process where operator time and process predictability are often determining cost drivers. We have adopted a human iPSC system using defined media and a recombinant substrate that employs cell dissociation with a hypertonic citrate solution which eliminates variability during hPSC cell expansion and provides a simple cGMP-compliant technique for hiPSC cultivation that is appropriate in both research and commercial applications. PMID:25863788

  13. Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L enhance cellular insulin signaling in primary human skeletal muscle culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong Q.; RIBNICKY, DAVID; Zhang, Xian H.; Raskin, Ilya; Yu, Yongmei; Cefalu, William T.

    2008-01-01

    An alcoholic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI 5011) has been shown to decrease glucose and improve insulin levels in animal models, suggesting an ability to enhance insulin sensitivity. We sought to assess the cellular mechanism by which this botanical affects carbohydrate metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle culture. We measured basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen accumulation, phosphoinositide 3 (PI-3) kinase activity, and Akt phosphorylation in primary skele...

  14. Multiple steady states with distinct cellular metabolism in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Europa, A F; Gambhir, A; Fu, P C; Hu, W S

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the ability to proliferate under different nutrient environments by utilizing different combinations of the nutrients, especially glucose and the amino acids. Under the conditions often used in in vitro cultivation, the cells consume glucose and amino acids in great excess of what is needed for making up biomass and products. They also produce large amounts of metabolites with lactate, ammonia, and some non-essential amino acids such as alanine as the most dominant ones. By controlling glucose and glutamine at low levels, cellular metabolism can be altered and can result in reduced glucose and glutamine consumption as well as in reduced metabolite formation. Using a fed-batch reactor to manipulate glucose at a low level (as compared to a typical batch culture), cell metabolism was altered to a state with substantially reduced lactate production. The culture was then switched to a continuous mode and allowed to reach a steady-state. At this steady-state, the concentrations of cells and antibody were substantially higher than a control culture that was initiated from a batch culture without first altering cellular metabolism. The lactate and other metabolite concentrations were also substantially reduced as compared to the control culture. This newly observed steady-state was achieved at the same dilution rate and feed medium as the control culture. The paths leading to the two steady-states, however, were different. These results demonstrate steady-state multiplicity. At this new steady-state, not only was glucose metabolism altered, but the metabolism of amino acids was altered as well. The amino acid metabolism in the new steady-state was more balanced, and the excretion of non-essential amino acids and ammonia was substantially lower. This approach of reaching a more desirable steady-state with higher concentrations of cells and product opens a new avenue for high-density- and high-productivity-cell culture.

  15. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects.

  16. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B.; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. OBJECTIVES This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. SOURCES OF DATA The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. PROCEDURES The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. RESULTS The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include 1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; 2) assess the population, need, and context; 3

  17. Single cell dual adherent-suspension co-culture micro-environment for studying tumor-stromal interactions with functionally selected cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Zhang, Zhixiong; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Deol, Yadwinder; Ingram, Patrick N; McDermott, Sean P; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-08-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are critical in tumor pathogenesis, but their rarity and transience has led to much controversy about their exact nature. Although CSCs can be functionally identified using dish-based tumorsphere assays, it is difficult to handle and monitor single cells in dish-based approaches; single cell-based microfluidic approaches offer better control and reliable single cell derived sphere formation. However, like normal stem cells, CSCs are heavily regulated by their microenvironment, requiring tumor-stromal interactions for tumorigenic and proliferative behaviors. To enable single cell derived tumorsphere formation within a stromal microenvironment, we present a dual adherent/suspension co-culture device, which combines a suspension environment for single-cell tumorsphere assays and an adherent environment for co-culturing stromal cells in close proximity by selectively patterning polyHEMA in indented microwells. By minimizing dead volume and improving cell capture efficiency, the presented platform allows for the use of small numbers of cells (concept, we co-cultured single T47D (breast cancer) cells and primary cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) on-chip for 14 days to monitor sphere formation and growth. Compared to mono-culture, co-cultured T47D have higher tumorigenic potential (sphere formation rate) and proliferation rates (larger sphere size). Furthermore, 96-multiplexed single-cell transcriptome analyses were performed to compare the gene expression of co-cultured and mono-cultured T47D cells. Phenotypic changes observed in co-culture correlated with expression changes in genes associated with proliferation, apoptotic suppression, tumorigenicity and even epithelial-to-mesechymal transition. Combining the presented platform with single cell transcriptome analysis, we successfully identified functional CSCs and investigated the phenotypic and transcriptome effects induced by tumor

  18. Contributions of EspA filaments and curli fimbriae in cellular adherence and biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed incr...

  19. Reconstruction of mouse testicular cellular microenvironments in long-term seminiferous tubule culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Mäkelä

    Full Text Available Research on spermatogonia is hampered by complex architecture of the seminiferous tubule, poor viability of testicular tissue ex vivo and lack of physiologically relevant long-term culture systems. Therefore there is a need for an in vitro model that would enable long term survival and propagation of spermatogonia. We aimed at the most simplified approach to enable all different cell types within the seminiferous tubules to contribute to the creation of a niche for spermatogonia. In the present study we describe the establishment of a co-culture of mouse testicular cells that is based on proliferative and migratory activity of seminiferous tubule cells and does not involve separation, purification or differential plating of individual cell populations. The co-culture is composed of the constituents of testicular stem cell niche: Sertoli cells [identified by expression of Wilm's tumour antigen 1 (WT1 and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF], peritubular myoid cells (expressing alpha smooth muscle actin, αSMA and spermatogonia [expressing MAGE-B4, PLZF (promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger, LIN28, Gpr125 (G protein-coupled receptor 125, CD9, c-Kit and Nanog], and can be maintained for at least five weeks. GDNF was found in the medium at a sufficient concentration to support proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs that were able to start spermatogenic differentiation after transplantation to an experimentally sterile recipient testis. Gdnf mRNA levels were elevated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH which shows that the Sertoli cells in the co-culture respond to physiological stimuli. After approximately 2-4 weeks of culture a spontaneous formation of cord-like structures was monitored. These structures can be more than 10 mm in length and branch. They are formed by peritubular myoid cells, Sertoli cells, fibroblasts and spermatogonia as assessed by gene expression profiling. In conclusion, we have managed to

  20. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects. PMID:27435508

  1. Rethinking adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John F

    2012-10-16

    In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will introduce measures of adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs into its Medicare Advantage quality program. To meet these quality goals, delivery systems will need to develop and disseminate strategies to improve adherence. The design of adherence interventions has too often been guided by the mistaken assumptions that adherence is a single behavior that can be predicted from readily available patient characteristics and that individual clinicians alone can improve adherence at the population level.Effective interventions require recognition that adherence is a set of interacting behaviors influenced by individual, social, and environmental forces; adherence interventions must be broadly based, rather than targeted to specific population subgroups; and counseling with a trusted clinician needs to be complemented by outreach interventions and removal of structural and organizational barriers. To achieve the adherence goals set by CMS, front-line clinicians, interdisciplinary teams, organizational leaders, and policymakers will need to coordinate efforts in ways that exemplify the underlying principles of health care reform. PMID:23070491

  2. Multiplex profiling of cellular invasion in 3D cell culture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Burgstaller

    Full Text Available To-date, most invasion or migration assays use a modified Boyden chamber-like design to assess migration as single-cell or scratch assays on coated or uncoated planar plastic surfaces. Here, we describe a 96-well microplate-based, high-content, three-dimensional cell culture assay capable of assessing invasion dynamics and molecular signatures thereof. On applying our invasion assay, we were able to demonstrate significant effects on the invasion capacity of fibroblast cell lines, as well as primary lung fibroblasts. Administration of epidermal growth factor resulted in a substantial increase of cellular invasion, thus making this technique suitable for high-throughput pharmacological screening of novel compounds regulating invasive and migratory pathways of primary cells. Our assay also correlates cellular invasiveness to molecular events. Thus, we argue of having developed a powerful and versatile toolbox for an extensive profiling of invasive cells in a 96-well format. This will have a major impact on research in disease areas like fibrosis, metastatic cancers, or chronic inflammatory states.

  3. Amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation by cellular biomineralization in mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiang

    Full Text Available The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation.

  4. Cellular distribution of inorganic mercury and its relation to cytotoxicity in bovine kidney cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bovine kidney cell culture system was used to assess what relationship mercuric chloride (HgCl2) uptake and subcellular distribution had to cytotoxicity. Twenty-four-hour incubations with 0.05-50 μM HgCl2 elicited a concentration-related cytotoxicity. Cellular accumulation of 203Hg was also concentration-related, with 1.0 nmol/106 cells at the IC50. Measurement of Hg uptake over the 24-h exposure period revealed a multiphasic process. Peak accumulation was attained by 1 h and was followed by extrusion and plateauing of intracellular Hg levels. Least-squares regression analysis of the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake data indicated a potential relationship between the Hg uptake and cytotoxicity. However, the subcellular distribution of Hg was not concentration-related. Mitochondria and soluble protein fractions accounted for greater than 65% of the cell-associated Hg at all concentrations. The remaining Hg was distributed between the microsomal (6-10%) and nuclear and cell debris (11-22%) fractions at all concentrations tested. Less than 20% of the total cell-associated Hg was bound with metallothionein-like protein. 31 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Influence of aeration of Candida albicans during culturing on their surface aggregation in the presence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Candida albicans surfaces are extremely sensitive to changes in growth conditions. In this study, adhesion to glass of aerated and non-aerated C. albicans ATCC 10261 in the presence and absence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7869 was determined in a parallel plate flow chamber. In addition,

  6. Development of an Insert Co-culture System of Two Cellular Types in the Absence of Cell-Cell Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Justine; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    The role of secreted soluble factors in the modification of cellular responses is a recurrent theme in the study of all tissues and systems. In an attempt to make straightforward the very complex relationships between the several cellular subtypes that compose multicellular organisms, in vitro techniques have been developed to help researchers acquire a detailed understanding of single cell populations. One of these techniques uses inserts with a permeable membrane allowing secreted soluble factors to diffuse. Thus, a population of cells grown in inserts can be co-cultured in a well or dish containing a different cell type for evaluating cellular changes following paracrine signaling in the absence of cell-cell contact. Such insert co-culture systems offer various advantages over other co-culture techniques, namely bidirectional signaling, conserved cell polarity and population-specific detection of cellular changes. In addition to being utilized in the field of inflammation, cancer, angiogenesis and differentiation, these co-culture systems are of prime importance in the study of the intricate relationships that exist between the different cellular subtypes present in the central nervous system, particularly in the context of neuroinflammation. This article offers general methodological guidelines in order to set up an experiment in order to evaluating cellular changes mediated by secreted soluble factors using an insert co-culture system. Moreover, a specific protocol to measure the neuroinflammatory effects of cytokines secreted by lipopolysaccharide-activated N9 microglia on neuronal PC12 cells will be detailed, offering a concrete understanding of insert co-culture methodology.

  7. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Navabi

    Full Text Available Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12 and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6 origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immunohistology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces

  8. Hetero-cellular prototyping by synchronized multi-material bioprinting for rotary cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica; Son, Ae Rin; Hamid, Qudus; Wu, Honglu; Sun, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Bottom-up tissue engineering requires methodological progress of biofabrication to capture key design facets of anatomical arrangements across micro, meso and macro-scales. The diffusive mass transfer properties necessary to elicit stability and functionality require hetero-typic contact, cell-to-cell signaling and uniform nutrient diffusion. Bioprinting techniques successfully build mathematically defined porous architecture to diminish resistance to mass transfer. Current limitations of bioprinted cell assemblies include poor micro-scale formability of cell-laden soft gels and asymmetrical macro-scale diffusion through 3D volumes. The objective of this work is to engineer a synchronized multi-material bioprinter (SMMB) system which improves the resolution and expands the capability of existing bioprinting systems by packaging multiple cell types in heterotypic arrays prior to deposition. This unit cell approach to arranging multiple cell-laden solutions is integrated with a motion system to print heterogeneous filaments as tissue engineered scaffolds and nanoliter droplets. The set of SMMB process parameters control the geometric arrangement of the combined flow's internal features and constituent material's volume fractions. SMMB printed hepatocyte-endothelial laden 200 nl droplets are cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to study the effect of microgravity on an in vitro model of the human hepatic lobule. RCCS conditioning for 48 h increased hepatocyte cytoplasm diameter 2 μm, increased metabolic rate, and decreased drug half-life. SMMB hetero-cellular models present a 10-fold increase in metabolic rate, compared to SMMB mono-culture models. Improved bioprinting resolution due to process control of cell-laden matrix packaging as well as nanoliter droplet printing capability identify SMMB as a viable technique to improve in vitro model efficacy. PMID:26759993

  9. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains form Biofilm on Abiotic Surfaces Regardless of Their Adherence Pattern on Cultured Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert F. Culler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4% of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence. This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea.

  10. Exploring the cultural context of HIV stigma on antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoror, Titilayo A; Falade, Catherine O; Olorunlana, Adetayo; Walker, Ebunlomo M; Okareh, Oladapo T

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the cultural context of HIV stigma on antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in southwest Nigeria. Using purposive sampling, participants were recruited through a community-based organization. Consenting PLWHA participated in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions that were audio-taped. Using Deacon's conceptual framework of stigma, four opinion guides facilitated the interviews and discussions. Interviews and discussions were conducted in three languages, and lasted from 45 min to 2 h. A total of 35 women and men participated in the study. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 58 years, with an average of 4 years since clinical diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. All participants were receiving ART, and self-reported high adherence level. Using thematic analysis, three themes emerged: life before ART, life after ART, and strategies used in ART adherence. In describing their lives before ART, participants reported experiencing self, anticipated and enacted stigmas due to their sickly appearance from HIV-related complications. After initiating ART, participants talked about friends and families "returning to them" and "apologizing for abandoning" them once they started "looking well." In response to anticipated stigma, many reported sticking to their medications. Drawing from the cultural milieu as part of their strategies, participants discussed the use of plastic bags for medications and àkònpó, as ways of diverting attention from their use of many medications. Implications for ART program policies and stigma interventions were discussed, along with limitation of a short-term ART study on stigma since long-term use of ART can contribute to stigma by way of lipoatrophy as PLWHA age.

  11. Induction of vascular endothelial phenotype and cellular proliferation from human cord blood stem cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Brian; Z-M Wan, Jim; Abley, Doris; Akabutu, John

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that stem cells derived from adult hematopoietic tissues are capable of trans-differentiation into non-hematopoietic cells, and that the culture in microgravity ( μg) may modulate the proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the application of μg to human umbilical cord blood stem cells (CBSC) in the induction of vascular endothelial phenotype expression and cellular proliferation. CD34+ mononuclear cells were isolated from waste human umbilical cord blood samples and cultured in simulated μg for 14 days. The cells were seeded in rotary wall vessels (RWV) with or without microcarrier beads (MCB) and vascular endothelial growth factor was added during culture. Controls consisted of culture in 1 G. The cell cultures in RWV were examined by inverted microscopy. Cell counts, endothelial cell and leukocyte markers performed by flow-cytometry and FACS scan were assayed at days 1, 4, 7 and at the termination of the experiments. Culture in RWV revealed significantly increased cellular proliferation with three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like aggregates. At day 4, CD34+ cells cultured in RWV bioreactor without MCB developed vascular tubular assemblies and exhibited endothelial phenotypic markers. These data suggest that CD34+ human umbilical cord blood progenitors are capable of trans-differentiation into vascular endothelial cell phenotype and assemble into 3D tissue structures. Culture of CBSC in simulated μg may be potentially beneficial in the fields of stem cell biology and somatic cell therapy.

  12. Neurotoxic potential and cellular uptake of T-2 toxin in human astrocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Maria; Lenczyk, Marlies; Schwerdt, Gerald; Gekle, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-03-18

    The trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin, which is produced by fungi of the Fusarium species, is a worldwide occurring contaminant of cereal based food and feed. The cytotoxic properties of T-2 toxin are already well described with apoptosis being a major mechanism of action in various cell lines as well as in primary cells of different origin. However, only few data on neurotoxic properties of T-2 toxin are reported so far, but in vivo studies showed different effects of T-2 toxin on behavior as well as on levels of brain amines in animals. To further investigate the cytotoxic properties of T-2 toxin on cells derived from brain tissue, normal human astrocytes in primary culture (NHA) were used in this study. Besides studies of cytotoxicity, apoptosis (caspase-3-activation, Annexin V) and necrosis (LDH-release), the cellular uptake and metabolism of T-2 toxin in NHA was analyzed and compared to the uptake in an established human cell line (HT-29). The results show that human astrocytes were highly sensitive to the cytotoxic properties of T-2 toxin, and apoptosis, induced at low concentrations, was identified for the first time as the mechanism of toxic action in NHA. Furthermore, a strong accumulation of T-2 toxin in NHA and HT-29 cells was detected, and T-2 toxin was subjected to metabolism leading to HT-2 toxin, a commonly found metabolite after T-2 toxin incubation in both cell types. This formation seems to occur within the cells since incubations of T-2 toxin with cell depleted culture medium did not lead to any degradation of the parent toxin. The results of this study emphasize the neurotoxic potential of T-2 toxin in human astrocytes at low concentrations after short incubation times. PMID:23363530

  13. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Du, C.; Herrero Acero, E.; Tang-Schomer, M. D.; Özkucur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  14. Human sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC) is able to adhere to and invade kidney epithelial cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adhesins of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are essential for mediating direct interactions between the microbes and the host cell surfaces that they infect. Using fluorescence microscopy and gentamycin protection assays, we observed that 49 sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC) strains isolated from human adults adhered to and invaded Vero cells in the presence of D-mannose (100%). In addition, bacteria concentrations of approximately 2 × 107 CFU/mL were recovered from Vero cells following an invasion assay. Furthermore, PCR analysis of adhesin genes showed that 98.0% of these SEPEC strains tested positive for fimH, 69.4% for flu, 53.1% for csgA, 38.8% for mat, and 32.7% for iha. Analysis of the invasin genes showed that 16.3% of the SEPEC strains were positive for tia, 12.3% for gimB, and 10.2% for ibeA. Therefore, these data suggest that SEPEC adhesion to cell surfaces occurs through non-fimH mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of microcolonies on the Vero cell surface. SEPEC invasiveness was also confirmed by the presence of intracellular bacteria, and ultrastructural analysis using electron transmission microscopy revealed bacteria inside the Vero cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that these SEPEC strains had the ability to adhere to and invade Vero cells. Moreover, these data support the theory that renal cells may be the predominant pathway through which SEPEC enters human blood vessels

  15. Human sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC) is able to adhere to and invade kidney epithelial cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceição, R.A. [Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ludovico, M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Andrade, C.G.T.J. [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Yano, T. [Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-13

    The adhesins of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are essential for mediating direct interactions between the microbes and the host cell surfaces that they infect. Using fluorescence microscopy and gentamycin protection assays, we observed that 49 sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC) strains isolated from human adults adhered to and invaded Vero cells in the presence of D-mannose (100%). In addition, bacteria concentrations of approximately 2 × 10{sup 7} CFU/mL were recovered from Vero cells following an invasion assay. Furthermore, PCR analysis of adhesin genes showed that 98.0% of these SEPEC strains tested positive for fimH, 69.4% for flu, 53.1% for csgA, 38.8% for mat, and 32.7% for iha. Analysis of the invasin genes showed that 16.3% of the SEPEC strains were positive for tia, 12.3% for gimB, and 10.2% for ibeA. Therefore, these data suggest that SEPEC adhesion to cell surfaces occurs through non-fimH mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of microcolonies on the Vero cell surface. SEPEC invasiveness was also confirmed by the presence of intracellular bacteria, and ultrastructural analysis using electron transmission microscopy revealed bacteria inside the Vero cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that these SEPEC strains had the ability to adhere to and invade Vero cells. Moreover, these data support the theory that renal cells may be the predominant pathway through which SEPEC enters human blood vessels.

  16. Cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in patients with culture-positive early Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, A; Glickstein, L; Field, J A; McHugh, G; Sikand, V K; Damle, N; Steere, A C

    2001-12-01

    We determined cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi lysate and to recombinant flagellin (FlaB), OspC, and OspA in acute- and convalescent-phase samples from 39 culture-positive patients with erythema migrans and in 20 healthy control subjects. During the acute illness, a median of 4 days after the onset of erythema migrans, 51% of the patients had proliferative cellular responses and 72% had antibody responses to at least one of the borrelial antigens tested. During convalescence, at the conclusion of antibiotic therapy, 64% of the patients had proliferative cellular reactivity and 95% had antibody reactivity with at least one of the spirochetal antigens tested. In both acute- and convalescent-phase samples, cellular immune responses were found as frequently to OspA as to OspC and FlaB. Although antibody responses were also frequently seen to OspC and FlaB, only a few patients had marginal antibody reactivity with OspA. The percentage of patients with proliferative responses was similar in those with clinical evidence of localized or disseminated infection, whereas humoral reactivity was found more often in those with disseminated disease. We conclude that cellular and humoral responses to B. burgdorferi antigens are often found among patients with early Lyme disease. In contrast with the other antigens tested, cellular but not humoral reactivity was often found with OspA.

  17. A Simple Method for Establishing Adherent Ex Vivo Explant Cultures from Human Eye Pathologies for Use in Subsequent Calcium Imaging and Inflammatory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Andjelic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and reproducible method for cultivating pathological tissues obtained from human eyes during surgery was developed using viscoelastic material as a tissue adherent to facilitate cell attachment and expansion and calcium imaging of cultured cells challenged by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation as well as inflammatory studies. Anterior lens capsule-lens epithelial cells (aLC-LECs from cataract surgery and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (fvERMs from human eyes were used in the study. We hereby show calcium signaling in aLC-LECs by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation and indicate presence of ACh receptors in these cells. Furthermore, an ex vivo study model was established for measuring the inflammatory response in fvERMs and aLC-LECs upon TNFα treatment.

  18. Using a Virtual Tissue Culture System to Assist Students in Understanding Life at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauglin, Jacqueline S.; Seaquist, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    In every biology course ever taught in the nation's classrooms, and in every biology book ever published, students are taught about the "cell." The cell is as fundamental to biology as the atom is to chemistry. Truly, everything an organism does occurs fundamentally at the cellular level. Beyond memorizing the cellular definition, students are not…

  19. Real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics using a microfluidic cell culture system with integrated electrode array and potentiostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zor, Kinga; Vergani, M.; Heiskanen, Arto;

    2011-01-01

    A versatile microfluidic, multichamber cell culture and analysis system with an integrated electrode array and potentiostat suitable for electrochemical detection and microscopic imaging is presented in this paper. The system, which allows on-line electrode cleaning and modification, was developed...... for real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics, exemplified in this work by monitoring of redox metabolism inside living yeast cells and dopamine release from PC12 cells....

  20. Kruppel-Like Factor 4 Overexpression Initiates a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition and Redifferentiation of Human Pancreatic Cells following Expansion in Long Term Adherent Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Muir

    Full Text Available A replenishable source of insulin-producing cells has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. Attempts to culture and expand pancreatic β-cells in vitro have resulted in their transition from insulin-producing epithelial cells to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs with high proliferative capacity but devoid of any hormone production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, could induce a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET of the cultured cells. Islet-enriched pancreatic cells, allowed to dedifferentiate and expand in adherent cell culture, were transduced with an adenovirus containing KLF4 (Ad-Klf4. Cells were subsequently analysed for changes in cell morphology by light microscopy, and for the presence of epithelial and pancreatic markers by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT/PCR. Infection with Ad-Klf4 resulted in morphological changes, down-regulation of mesenchymal markers, and re-expression of both epithelial and pancreatic cell markers including insulin and transcription factors specific to β-cells. This effect was further enhanced by culturing cells in suspension. However, the effects of Ad-KLf4 were transient and this was shown to be due to increased apoptosis in Klf4-expressing cells. Klf4 has been recently identified as a pioneer factor with the ability to modulate the structure of chromatin and enhance reprogramming/transdifferentiation. Our results show that Klf4 may have a role in the redifferentiation of expanded pancreatic cells in culture, but before this can be achieved the off-target effects that result in increased apoptosis would need to be overcome.

  1. Efficient definitive endoderm induction from mouse embryonic stem cell adherent cultures: A rapid screening model for differentiation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Kunjom Mfopou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitive endoderm (DE differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC monolayer cultures has been limited by poor cell survival or low efficiency. Recently, a combination of TGFβ and Wnt activation with BMP inhibition improved DE induction in embryoid bodies cultured in suspension. Based on these observations we developed a protocol to efficiently induce DE cells in monolayer cultures of mESCs. We obtained a good cell yield with 54.92% DE induction as shown by Foxa2, Sox17, Cxcr4 and E-Cadherin expression. These DE-cells could be further differentiated into posterior foregut and pancreatic phenotypes using a culture protocol initially developed for human embryonic stem cell (hESC differentiation. In addition, this mESC-derived DE gave rise to hepatocyte-like cells after exposure to BMP and FGF ligands. Our data therefore indicate a substantial improvement of monolayer DE induction from mESCs and support the concept that differentiation conditions for mESC-derived DE are similar to those for hESCs. As mESCs are easier to maintain and manipulate in culture compared to hESCs, and considering the shorter duration of embryonic development in the mouse, this method of efficient DE induction on monolayer will promote the development of new differentiation protocols to obtain DE-derivatives, like pancreatic beta-cells, for future use in cell replacement therapies.

  2. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  3. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gaberman

    Full Text Available Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×10(6 cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001, while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001. The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37 was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05. A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective "off the shelf" therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia.

  4. Production of high-titer human influenza A virus with adherent and suspension MDCK cells cultured in a single-use hollow fiber bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vogel, Thomas; Genzel, Yvonne; Behrendt, Ilona; Hirschel, Mark; Gangemi, J David; Reichl, Udo

    2014-02-12

    Hollow fiber bioreactors (HFBRs) have been widely described as capable of supporting the production of highly concentrated monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Only recently HFBRs have been proposed as new single-use platforms for production of high-titer influenza A virus. These bioreactors contain multiple hollow fiber capillary tubes that separate the bioreactor in an intra- and an extra-capillary space. Cells are usually cultured in the extra-capillary space and can grow to a very high cell concentration. This work describes the evaluation of the single-use hollow fiber bioreactor PRIMER HF (Biovest International Inc., USA) for production of influenza A virus. The process was setup, characterized and optimized by running a total of 15 cultivations. The HFBRs were seeded with either adherent or suspension MDCK cells, and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), and the pandemic strain A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1). High HA titers and TCID₅₀ of up to 3.87 log₁₀(HA units/100 μL) and 1.8 × 10(10)virions/mL, respectively, were obtained for A/PR/8/34 influenza strain. Influenza virus was collected by performing multiple harvests of the extra-capillary space during a virus production time of up to 12 days. Cell-specific virus yields between 2,000 and 8,000 virions/cell were estimated for adherent MDCK cells, and between 11,000 and 19,000 virions/cell for suspension MDCK.SUS2 cells. These results do not only coincide with the cell-specific virus yields obtained with cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors and other high cell density systems, but also demonstrate that HFBRs are promising and competitive single-use platforms that can be considered for commercial production of influenza virus.

  5. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Arau´zo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Le Gac, Séverine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Do different human ART culture protocols prepare embryos differently for post-implantation development? ... Our data promote awareness that human ART culture media affect embryo development. Effects reported here in the mouse may apply also in human, because no ART medium presently available on the

  6. Fucose content of monoclonal antibodies can be controlled by culture medium osmolality for high antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Ken; TAKAHASHI, Eiji; Sakae, Shinji; Wakitani, Masako; Yamano, Kazuya; Suzawa, Toshiyuki; Yano, Keiichi; Ohta, Toshio; Koike, Masamichi; Wakamatsu, Kaori; Hosoi, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is dependent on the fucose content of oligosaccharides bound to monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). As MAbs with a low fucose content exhibit high ADCC activity, it is important to control the defucosylation levels (deFuc%) of MAbs and to analyze the factors that affect deFuc%. In this study, we observed that the deFuc% was inversely related to culture medium osmolality for MAbs produced in the rat hybridoma cell line YB2/0, with r2 values as high as ...

  7. Non-Immortalized Human Tenocyte Cultures as a Vehicle for Understanding Cellular Aspects to Tendinopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, L.; Bestwick, Charles S.; Bestwick, L.A.; Aspden, Richard M.; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Summary The biochemical mechanisms underlying tendinopathy are obscure. We briefly describe preliminary observations of human tenocyte behaviour in culture as a vehicle for determining the role of reactive oxygen in tendon pathology.

  8. In Situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) Analysis of Protein Complexes Formed Between Golgi-Resident, Glycosylation-Related Transporters and Transferases in Adherent Mammalian Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszczak-Seneczko, Dorota; Sosicka, Paulina; Olczak, Teresa; Olczak, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a novel, revolutionary technique that can be employed to visualize protein complexes in fixed cells and tissues. This approach enables demonstration of close (i.e., up to 40 nm) proximity between any two proteins of interest that can be detected using a pair of specific antibodies that have been raised in distinct species. Primary antibodies bound to the target proteins are subsequently recognized by two PLA probes, i.e., secondary antibodies conjugated with oligonucleotides that anneal when brought into close proximity in the presence of two connector oligonucleotides and a DNA ligase forming a circular DNA molecule. In the next step, the resulting circular DNA is amplified by a rolling circle polymerase. Finally, fluorescent oligonucleotide probes hybridize to complementary fragments of the amplified DNA molecule, forming a typical, spot-like pattern of PLA signal that reflects subcellular localization of protein complexes. Here we describe the use of in situ PLA in adherent cultures of mammalian cells in order to visualize interactions between Golgi-resident, functionally related glycosyltransferases and nucleotide sugar transporters relevant to N-glycan biosynthesis. PMID:27632007

  9. Probing cellular behaviors through nanopatterned chitosan membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a high-throughput method for developing physically modified chitosan membranes to probe the cellular behavior of MDCK epithelial cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts adhered onto these modified membranes. To prepare chitosan membranes with micro/nanoscaled features, we have demonstrated an easy-to-handle, facile approach that could be easily integrated with IC-based manufacturing processes with mass production potential. These physically modified chitosan membranes were observed by scanning electron microscopy to gain a better understanding of chitosan membrane surface morphology. After MDCK cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts were cultured on these modified chitosan membranes for various culture durations (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h), they were investigated to decipher cellular behavior. We found that both cells preferred to adhere onto a flat surface rather than on a nanopatterned surface. However, most (> 80%) of the MDCK cells showed rounded morphology and would suspend in the cultured medium instead of adhering onto the planar surface of negatively nanopatterned chitosan membranes. This means different cell types (e.g. fibroblasts versus epithelia) showed distinct capabilities/preferences of adherence for materials of varying surface roughness. We also showed that chitosan membranes could be re-used at least nine times without significant contamination and would provide us consistency for probing cell–material interactions by permitting reuse of the same substrate. We believe these results would provide us better insight into cellular behavior, specifically, microscopic properties and characteristics of cells grown under unique, nanopatterned cell-interface conditions. (paper)

  10. A distinct role for interleukin-6 as a major mediator of cellular adjustment to an altered culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwa-Kyung; Park, Iha; Kim, Jue Young; Kim, Do Kyeong; Illeperuma, Rasika P; Bae, Jung Yoon; Lee, Doo Young; Oh, Eun-Sang; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Kim, Jin

    2015-11-01

    Tissue microenvironment adjusts biological properties of different cells by modulating signaling pathways and cell to cell interactions. This study showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/ mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) can be modulated by altering culture conditions. HPV E6/E7-transfected immortalized oral keratinocytes (IHOK) cultured in different media displayed reversible EMT/MET accompanied by changes in cell phenotype, proliferation, gene expression at transcriptional, and translational level, and migratory and invasive activities. Cholera toxin, a major supplement to culture medium, was responsible for inducing the morphological and biological changes of IHOK. Cholera toxin per se induced EMT by triggering the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from IHOK. We found IL-6 to be a central molecule that modulates the reversibility of EMT based not only on the mRNA level but also on the level of secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IL-6, a cytokine whose transcription is activated by alterations in culture conditions, is a key molecule for regulating reversible EMT/MET. This study will contribute to understand one way of cellular adjustment for surviving in unfamiliar conditions.

  11. Cellular uptake of 125I-mIBG and of 111In-pentetreotide by human neuroblastoma cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim. Neuroblastoma have various prognosis, leading or not to heavy therapeutics. MIBG scan is the reference for assessment of the disease extent, but somatostatin analogs are promising as somatostatin receptors expression might indicate neuroendocrine tumoral cell differentiation. The aim of our study was to establish an experimental model to assess cellular uptake of 125I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (125I-mIBG) and of 111In pentetreotide (111In-OCT), by neuroblastoma cells culture. Material and methods. We compared the uptake of these tracers by SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line in monolayer culture. After cell characterization, toxicity of ligands and of their competitive inhibitors was studied. Experiments with separate incubation of each tracer, using different times and concentrations, determined optimal conditions, which were then applied to simultaneous incubation studies. Results. Total uptakes after simultaneous 3 h-incubation with 125I-mIBG (106 M) and 111In-OCT (108 M) (respectively 3.5 % and 0.03 % of administered activity per 105 cells) were not different from total uptake with separate incubation. Conclusions. Our results confirms the validity of the methodology which is now under use to study the influence of cell differentiation on cellular uptake. (authors)

  12. Cellular and molecular markers in monitoring the fate of lymphoid cell culture from Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Jose, Seena; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoid cell culture from penaeid shrimps has gained much acceptance as an in vitro platform to facilitate research on the development of prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies against viruses and for cell line development. However, lymphoid cells can be used as platform for in vitro research, only if they are in metabolically and mitotically active state in vitro with unaltered cell surface receptors. Through this study, we addressed the response of lymphoid cells to a new microenvironment at cellular and molecular levels; including the study of mitotic events, DNA synthesis, expression profile of cell cycle genes, cytoskeleton organization, metabolic activity and viral susceptibility. The S-phase entry and synthesis of new DNA was recorded by immunoflourescent technique. Cdc2, CycA, CycB, EF-1α and BUB3 genes involved in cell cycle were studied in both the cells and tissue, of which EF-1α showed an elevated expression in cells in vitro (∼ 19.7%). Cytoskeleton network of the cell was examined by studying the organization of actin filaments. As the markers for metabolic status, mitochondrial dehydrogenase, protein synthesis and glucose assimilation by the cells were also assessed. Viral susceptibility of the cell was determined using WSSV to confirm the preservation of cellular receptors. This study envisages to strengthen the shrimp cell line research and to bring forth lymphoid cell culture system as a 'model' in vitro system for shrimp and crustaceans altogether.

  13. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature.

  14. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature

  15. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells, March 1968-April 1981. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the development and application to cell-culture genetics of unique haploid cell lines from frog embryo developed in this laboratory. Since 1968, the main aim of this project has been to develop the haploid cell system for studies of mutagenesis in culture, particularly by ultraviolet radiation. In the course of this work we isolated chromosomally stable cell lines, derived and characterized a number of variants, and adapted cell hybridization and other methods to this material. Particular emphasis was placed on ultraviolet photobiology, including studies of cell survival, mutagenesis, and pathways of repair of uv-damaged DNA. Although at present less widely used for genetic experiments than mammalian cell lines, the frog cells offer the advantages of authentic haploidy and a favorable repertory of DNA repair pathways for study of uv mutagenesis

  16. The cellular state determines the effect of melatonin on the survival of mixed cerebellar cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Gil Franco

    Full Text Available The constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, a key transcription factor involved in neuroinflammation, is essential for the survival of neurons in situ and of cerebellar granule cells in culture. Melatonin is known to inhibit the activation of NF-κB and has a cytoprotective function. In this study, we evaluated whether the cytoprotective effect of melatonin depends on the state of activation of a mixed cerebellar culture that is composed predominantly of granule cells; we tested the effect of melatonin on cultured rat cerebellar cells stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The addition of melatonin (0.1 nM-1 µM reduced the survival of naïve cells while inhibiting LPS-induced cell death. Melatonin (100 nM transiently (15 min inhibited the nuclear translocation of both NF-κB dimers (p50/p50, p50/RelA and, after 60 min, increased the activation of p50/RelA. Melatonin-induced p50/RelA activity in naïve cells resulted in the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the production of NO. Otherwise, in cultures treated with LPS, melatonin blocked the LPS-induced activation of p50/RelA and the reduction in p50/p50 levels and inhibited iNOS expression and NO synthesis. Therefore, melatonin in vehicle-treated cells induces cell death, while it protects against LPS-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, we confirmed that melatonin is a neuroprotective drug when cerebellar cells are challenged; however, melatonin can also lead to cell death when the normal balance of the NF-κB pathway is disturbed. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the influence of cell context on the final output response of melatonin.

  17. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml-1 shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: → DON uptake by cells is not extensive. → All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. → DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. → Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. → Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  18. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  19. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on prostaglandin production and cellular integrity in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Whorton, A R; Montgomery, M E; Kent, R S

    1985-01-01

    Oxidative damage to the vascular endothelium may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and aging, and may account in part for reduced vascular prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis associated with both conditions. Using H2O2 to induce injury, we investigated the effects of oxidative damage on PGI2 synthesis in cultured endothelial cells (EC). Preincubation of EC with H2O2 produced a dose-dependent inhibition (inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 35 microM) of PGI2 formation from ...

  20. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models. PMID:27296089

  1. Preliminary analysis of cellular sociology of co-cultured glioma initiating cells and macrophages in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxia Zhang; Xingliang Dai; Xiaonan Li; Qiang Huang; Jun Dong; Junjie Chen; Lin Wang; Xiaoyan Ji; Lin Yang; Yujing Sheng; Hairui Liu; Haiyang Wang; Aidong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Real-time monitoring of cytokine secretion at the single immunocyte level, based on the concept of immune cells, sociology has been recently reported. However, the relationships between glioma-initiating cells (GICs) and host immune cells and their mutual interactions in the tumor microenvironment have not been directly observed and remain unclear. Methods:The dual fluorescence tracing technique was applied to label the co-cultured GICs and host macrophages (Mø), and the interactions between the two types of cells were observed using a live cell imaging system. Fusion cells in the co-culture system were monocloned and proliferated in vitro and their social interactions were observed and recorded. Results:Using real-time dynamic observation of target cells, 6 types of intercellular conjunction microtubes were found to function in the transfer of intercellular information between GICs and Mø;GICs and host Mø can fuse into hybrid cells after several rounds of mutual interactions, and then these fusion cells fused with each other;Fusion cells generated offspring cells through symmetrical and asymmetrical division or underwent apoptosis. A“cell in cell” phenomenon was observed in the fusion cells, which was often followed by cell release, namely entosis. Conclusions:Preliminary studies revealed the patterns of cell conjunction via microtubes between GICs and host Mø and the processes of cell fusion, division, and entosis. The results revealed malignant transformation of host Mø, induced by GICs, suggesting complex social relationships among tumor-immune cells in gliomas.

  2. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell–matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell–cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell–cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices. (paper)

  3. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Progress report, August 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year we have continued our studies of the relation of ultraviolet mutagenesis to DNA repair in cultures of the haploid frog cell line ICR 2A. Our method of irradiation of cells in suspension was improved by construction of an improved detector with major sensitivity to the 254 nm Hg resonance line, to give better estimates of actual exposure of the cells. Using this method, dose-response and dose-fractionation studies on irradiation of ouabain resistance were carried out. The uv induction of this phenotype in the ICR 2A cell line was found to be less than that necessary for adequate analysis of dose-response curves. Cell fusion experiments using frog and mouse cells revealed an enhancement of mutagenesis in the mouse parent that will be explored in further work

  4. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Progress report, August 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, studies were continued on the relation of ultraviolet mutagenesis to DNA repair in cultures of the haploid frog cell line ICR 2A. The method of irradiation of cells in suspension was improved by construction of an improved detector with major sensitivity to the 254 nm Hg resonance line, to give better estimates of actual exposure of the cells. Using this method, dose-response and dose-fractionation studies on irradiation of ouabain resistance were carried out. The uv induction of this phenotype in the ICR 2A cell line was found to be less than that necessary for adequate analysis of dose-response curves. Cell fusion experiments using frog and mouse cells revealed an enhancement of mutagenesis in the mouse parent that will be explored in further work

  5. The challenge of patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leslie R; Williams, Summer L; Haskard, Kelly B; Dimatteo, M Robin

    2005-09-01

    Quality healthcare outcomes depend upon patients' adherence to recommended treatment regimens. Patient nonadherence can be a pervasive threat to health and wellbeing and carry an appreciable economic burden as well. In some disease conditions, more than 40% of patients sustain significant risks by misunderstanding, forgetting, or ignoring healthcare advice. While no single intervention strategy can improve the adherence of all patients, decades of research studies agree that successful attempts to improve patient adherence depend upon a set of key factors. These include realistic assessment of patients' knowledge and understanding of the regimen, clear and effective communication between health professionals and their patients, and the nurturance of trust in the therapeutic relationship. Patients must be given the opportunity to tell the story of their unique illness experiences. Knowing the patient as a person allows the health professional to understand elements that are crucial to the patient's adherence: beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, cultural context, social supports, and emotional health challenges, particularly depression. Physician-patient partnerships are essential when choosing amongst various therapeutic options to maximize adherence. Mutual collaboration fosters greater patient satisfaction, reduces the risks of nonadherence, and improves patients' healthcare outcomes. PMID:18360559

  6. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-09-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  7. Reaction of small heat-shock proteins to different kinds of cellular stress in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Kirbach, Britta; Golenhofen, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) in response to cellular stress is one mechanism to increase cell viability.We previously described that cultured rat hippocampal neurons express five of the 11 family members but only upregulate two of them (HspB1 and HspB5) at the protein level after heat stress. Since neurons have to cope with many other pathological conditions, we investigated in this study the expression of all five expressed sHsps on mRNA and protein level after sublethal sodium arsenite and oxidative and hyperosmotic stress. Under all three conditions, HspB1, HspB5, HspB6, and HspB8 but not HspB11 were consistently upregulated but showed differences in the time course of upregulation. The increase of sHsps always occurred earlier on mRNA level compared with protein levels. We conclude from our data that these four upregulated sHsps (HspB1, HspB5, HspB6, HspB8) act together in different proportions in the protection of neurons from various stress conditions.

  8. Adherent culture and identification of smooth muscle cells isolated from SD rat thoracic aorta%SD 大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞组织贴块法培养及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红远; 白静; 汤喆; 刘秀华; 王禹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) isolated from SD rat thoracic aorta after adherent culture .Methods The thoracic aorta was isolated from SD rats un-der sterile conditions .The VSMC were isolated from the SD rat thoracic aorta ,primarily cultured 4-6 h later with DMEM containing 20% FCS for two weeks ,and identified with immunoflures-cence staining .Results The VSMC grew out on days 5-7 ,became nearly 80% confluent on days 10-14 after adherent culture ,and could thus be passaged .The in vitro cultured VSMC could be passaged to the 20th generation and grew in a typical“peak valley”mode .Immunoflurescence stai-ning showed that their purity was 95% .Conclusion Adherent culture is a stable ,simple and con-venient procedure for VSMC isolated from SD rat aorta with a high purity .Immunoflurescence staining can effectively identify VSMC .%目的:建立SD大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞(vascular smooth muscle cells ,VSMC)组织贴块培养法并进行鉴定。方法无菌条件下取大鼠胸主动脉,4~6 h后加入含20%胎牛血清的DM EM培养液,原代培养2周并用免疫荧光染色对培养的VSMC进行鉴定。结果组织贴块法成功培养了大鼠胸主动脉VSMC ,5~7 d细胞迁出,10~14 d细胞融合至80%进行传代。体外培养的VSMC可传至20代,培养的细胞呈典型的“峰谷”样生长,免疫荧光染色鉴定细胞纯度达95%。结论组织贴块法培养大鼠胸主动脉VSMC培养体系稳定,操作简单、方便,纯度较高,免疫荧光是鉴定VSMC的较佳方法。

  9. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  10. Adherence to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Farinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  11. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C.; Cruz, Marco Antônio L.; Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; de Oliveira, Eduardo A. G.; Elbl, Paula M.; Floh, Eny I. S.; Silveira, Vanildo

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27064899

  12. Cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wu; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Chang, Eddie

    2006-07-31

    Neuronal networks have been widely used for neurophysiology, drug discovery and toxicity testing. An essential prerequisite for future widespread application of neuronal networks is the development of efficient cryopreservation protocols to facilitate their storage and transportation. Here is the first report on cryopreservation of mammalian adherent neuronal networks. Dissociated spinal cord cells were attached to a poly-d-lysine/laminin surface and allowed to form neuronal networks. Adherent neuronal networks were embedded in a thin film of collagen gel and loaded with trehalose prior to transfer to a freezing medium containing DMSO, FBS and culture medium. This was followed by a slow rate of cooling to -80 degrees C for 24 h and then storage for up to 2 months in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The three components: DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading combined provided the highest post-thaw viability, relative to individual or two component protocols. The post-thaw cells with this protocol demonstrated similar neuronal and astrocytic markers and morphological structure as those detected in unfrozen cells. Fluorescent dye FM1-43 staining revealed active recycling of synaptic vesicles upon depolarizing stimulation in the post-thaw neuronal networks. These results suggest that a combination of DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading can significantly improve conventional slow-cooling methods in cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

  13. Diel variation of the cellular carbon to nitrogen ratio of Chlorella autotrophica (Chlorophyta) growing in phosphorus- and nitrogen-limited continuous cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Ho Albert; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between daily growth rates and diel variation of carbon (C) metabolism and C to nitrogen (N) ratio under P- and N-limitation in the green algae Chlorella autotrophica. To do this, continuous cultures of C. autotrophica were maintained in a cyclostat culture system under 14:10 light:dark cycle over a series of P- and N-limited growth rates. Cell abundance, together with cell size, as reflected by side scatter signal from flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a synchronized diel pattern with cell division occurring at night. Under either type of nutrient limitation, the cellular C:N ratio increased through the light period and decreased through the dark period over all growth rates, indicating a higher diel variation of C metabolism than that of N. Daily average cellular C:N ratios were higher at lower dilution rates under both types of nutrient limitation but cell enlargement was only observed at lower dilution rates under P-limitation. Carbon specific growth rates during the dark period positively correlated with cellular daily growth rates (dilution rates), with net loss of C during night at the lowest growth rates under N-limitation. Under P-limitation, dark C specific growth rates were close to zero at low dilution rates but also exhibited an increasing trend at high dilution rates. In general, diel variations of cellular C:N were low when dark C specific growth rates were high. This result indicated that the fast growing cells performed dark C assimilation at high rates, hence diminished the uncoupling of C and N metabolism at night. PMID:26986260

  14. Effects of aluminum on DNA synthesis, cellular polyamines, polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and inorganic ions in cell suspension cultures of a woody plant, Catharanthus roseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, R.; Shortle, W.C. (USDA Forest Service, Durham (US)); Minocha, S.C.; Long, S.L. (Dept. of Plant Biology, Univ. of New Hamshire, Durham (US))

    1992-01-01

    Increased aluminium (Al) solubility in soil waters due to acid precipitation has aroused considerable interest in the problem of Al toxicity in plants. In the present study, an in vitro suspension culture system of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don was used to analyze the effects of aluminum on several biochemical processes in these cells. The aliphatic polyamines, spermine and spermidine, and their precusor, putrescine, have been implicated in a number of stress responses of plants. Addition of 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0 mM AlCl{sub 3} to cells cultured for 3 days caused a small but significant increase in cellular levels of putrescine at 4 h followed by a sharp decline by 16 h. There was no further decline in levels of putrescine during the next 32 h. Spermidine levels did not change appreciably compared to those in the control cultures. However, spermine levels increased by 2-3-fold at 24 and 48 h. Cellular activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC; EC 4.1.1.50) were both inhibited by 20-25% at 4 and 7 h. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) was less than 10% of ADC activity at all times. Whereas all concentrations of Al caused a slight decrease in total cell number, cell viability was affected only by 1.0 mM Al. There was a decrease in the cellular levels of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, P and Fe in the cells treated with Al at 4 h, but a significant increase by 16 and 24 h. The results presented here suggest that both the absolute amounts of Al and the length of exposure to it are important for cell toxicity. (au).

  15. SPI-9 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is constituted by an operon positively regulated by RpoS and contributes to adherence to epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Juan C; Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Villagra, Nicolás; Santiviago, Carlos A; Mora, Guido C; Fuentes, Juan A

    2016-08-01

    The genomic island 9 (SPI-9) from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) carries three ORFs (STY2876, STY2877, STY2878) presenting 98 % identity with a type 1 secretory apparatus (T1SS), and a single ORF (STY2875) similar to a large RTX-like protein exhibiting repeated Ig domains. BapA, the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis orthologous to S. Typhi STY2875, has been associated with biofilm formation, and is described as a virulence factor in mice. Preliminary in silico analyses revealed that S. Typhi STY2875 ORF has a 600 bp deletion compared with S. Enteritidis bapA, suggesting that S. Typhi STY2875 might be non-functional. At present, SPI-9 has not been studied in S. Typhi. We found that the genes constituting SPI-9 are arranged in an operon whose promoter was up-regulated in high osmolarity and low pH in a RpoS-dependent manner. All the proteins encoded by S. Typhi SPI-9 were located at the membrane fraction, consistent with their putative role as T1SS. Furthermore, SPI-9 contributed to adherence of S. Typhi to epithelial cells when bacteria were grown under high osmolarity or low pH. Under the test conditions, S. Typhi SPI-9 did not participate in biofilm formation. SPI-9 is functional in S. Typhi and encodes an adhesin induced under conditions normally found in the intestine, such as high osmolarity. Hence, this is an example of a locus that might be designated a pseudogene by computational approaches but not by direct biological assays.

  16. Cellular aggregation is a key parameter associated with long term variability in paclitaxel accumulation in Taxus suspension cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Rohan A.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a renewable source for synthesis and supply of commercially valuable plant-derived products, particularly for secondary metabolites. However, instability in product yields over multiple passages has hampered the efficient and sustainable use of this technology. Paclitaxel accumulation in Taxus cell suspension culture was quantified over multiple passages and correlated to mean aggregate size, extracellular sugar level, ploidy, and cell cycle distribution. Paclitaxe...

  17. Adherence to Sublingual Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Leo, Gualtiero; Ridolo, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    Adherence is a major issue in any medical treatment. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is particularly affected by a poor adherence because a flawed application prevents the immunological effects that underlie the clinical outcome of the treatment. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1990s, and the early studies suggested that adherence and compliance to such a route of administration was better than the traditional subcutaneous route. However, the recent data from manufacturers revealed that only 13% of patients treated with SLIT reach the recommended 3-year duration. Therefore, improved adherence to SLIT is an unmet need that may be achieved by various approaches. The utility of patient education and accurate monitoring during the treatment was demonstrated by specific studies, while the success of technology-based tools, including online platforms, social media, e-mail, and a short message service by phone, is currently considered to improve the adherence. This goal is of pivotal importance to fulfill the object of SLIT that is to modify the natural history of allergy, ensuring a long-lasting clinical benefit, and a consequent pharmaco-economic advantage, when patients complete at least a 3-year course of treatment. PMID:26758865

  18. Role of cellular antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) in the growth and development of wild carrot suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of endogenous glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in proliferating and developing wild carrot cultures showed that lower levels of GSH and AA were associated with developing cultures. The GSSG and DHA levels did not account for the changes in the levels of antioxidants between proliferating and developing cultures. Studies were designed to test an observed auxin (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D)-antioxidant association. Two fractions (embryo and less developed) were obtained by screening developed cultures which were previously grown in the presence of 14C-2, 4-D. The embryo fraction had a lower concentration of 14C than the less developed fraction, supporting the association, since the two fractions showed this relationship with respect to GSH and AA concentrations. Determinations of GSH and AA levels of cells grown in various concentrations of 2,4-D showed the association, decreases in the 2,4-D concentration correlated with decreases in the GSH and AA concentrations. The existence of a respiratory pathway involving GSSG reductase, DHA reductase, and AA oxidase was investigated to test whether inhibition of AA oxidase by 2,4-D could explain the auxin-antioxidant association; however, AA oxidase activity was not detected

  19. Modulation by retinoic acid of cellular, surface-exposed, and secreted glycoconjugates in cultured human sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meromsky, L; Lotan, R

    1984-02-01

    The effect of beta-all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on the synthesis of cellular, cell surface, and secreted glycoconjugates by human Hs705 chondrosarcoma and Hs791 osteosarcoma cells was investigated in vitro. Untreated and RA-treated cells were labeled either metabolically with radioactive precursors or by oxidation of externally exposed cell membrane glycoprotein(s) (GP) by treatment with NalO4 or neuraminidase and galactose oxidase followed by reduction with NaB[3H]4. The cells were solubilized and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography. RA enhanced the labeling of sialic acid and galactose residues on the GP of relative molecular weight(s) (Mr) in the range 95,000-300,000 on the surfaces of both cell types. [3H]glycosamine incorporation into GP with Mr of 100,000, 150,000, and 190,000 in both cell lines was also stimulated. In the Hs705 cells there was also an increase in the labeling of a 290,000-Mr GP. In contrast, [3H]glucosamine incorporation into glycoconjugates greater than 400,000 Mr in both the cells and the conditioned medium of Hs705 cells decreased. The latter glycoconjugates were susceptible to hyaluronidase and chondroitinases. [3H]glucosamine incorporation into a secreted 230,000-Mr GP, identified as fibronectin, was also reduced. Analyses of conditioned media of cells labeled with [35S]methionine or [14C]proline demonstrated that RA decreased the secretion of procollagen chains and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence revealed that RA alters the distribution of cell-associated fibronectin. These results demonstrated that RA increases the glycosylation of specific cellular and cell surface GP and decreases the production of secreted GP and glycosaminoglycans by the sarcoma cells.

  20. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 μg SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 μg SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more

  1. Cellular growth under hydrostatic pressure using bovine aortic EC-SMC co-cultured ePTFE vascular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lei; NIWA Koichi; LIN Jian-zhong; KARINO Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Blood vessels are constantly subjected to stretch due to blood pressure and changes in stretch usually instigate adaptive vascular remodeling, including abnormal growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as extracellular matrix (ECM). In this experiment, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (EC-SMC) co-cultured ePTFE vascular grafts subjected to normal atmospheric pressure (as a control), and 100 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 7 d. The increase of cell layer thickness was observed. When measured, the cell layer thickness increased by 116.2%. The increase of collagen (Type Ⅳ)synthesis was also observed in the immunohistochemistry assay. When stained with toluidine blue, the cells showed metachromatic phenomenon.

  2. A STUDY ON CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED ON RELATIONAL DATABASES AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATIONS OF CULTURE DIFFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a development of the extended Cellular Automata (CA), based on relational databases(RDB), to model dynamic interactions among spatial objects. The integration of Geographical Information System (GIS)and CA has the great advantage of simulating geographical processes. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellularshape and neighbourhood and neighbour rules, which restrict the CA's ability to simulate complex, real world environ-ments. This paper discusses a cell's spatial relation based on the spatial object's geometrical and non-geometrical characteris-tics, and extends the cell' s neighbour definition, and considers that the cell' s neighbour lies in the forms of not only spa-tial adjacency but also attribute correlation. This paper then puts forward that spatial relations between two different cellscan be divided into three types, including spatial adjacency, neighbourhood and complicated separation. Based on tradition-al ideas, it is impossible to settle CA's restrictions completely. RDB-based CA is an academic experiment, in whichsome fields are designed to describe the essential information needed to define and select a cell's neighbour. The cultureinnovation diffusion system has multiple forms of space diffusion and inherited characteristics that the RDB-based CA iscapable of simulating more effectively. Finally this paper details a successful case study on the diffusion of fashion weartrends. Compared to the original CA, the RDB-based CA is a more natural and efficient representation of human knowl-edge over space, and is an effective tool in simulating complex systems that have multiple forms of spatial diffusion.

  3. Cellular responses to stress: comparison of a family of 71--73-kilodalton proteins rapidly synthesized in rat tissue slices and canavanine-treated cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; White, F P

    1981-08-01

    Cultured rat embryo cells exposed to the L-arginine analogue L-canavanine rapidly accumulated a major 71 kilodalton polypeptide and several minor ones (110, 95, 88, and 78 kilodaltons). Canavanine-treated cultures contained elevated levels of translatable mRNA encoding P71, and the stimulated synthesis of this protein was blocked by actinomycin D, suggesting that P71 is inducible. Rat embryo cells maintained under routine culture conditions synthesized only trace amounts of P71; however, they accumulated an abundant 73 kilodalton protein that was closely related to P71. No kinetic evidence of a precursor-product relationship between P73 and P71 was found. The peptide map of P71 from cultured cells was identical to the map of proteins with the same electrophoretic mobility isolated from incubated slices of rat telencephalon. Previous studies (White, '80a, b, c) have shown that the latter proteins are rapidly synthesized by cells associated with cerebral microvessels in incubated brain slices, but are not detectable in vivo. Herein we present evidence that the synthesis of P71 is not unique to brain slices. Incubated slices of heart, lung, thymus, kidney, spleen, and liver all accumulated an abundant 71 kilodalton size class. The peptide maps of P71 obtained from brain, heart, lung and thymus tissue were similar. The stimulated synthesis of P71 in brain, heart, and lung slices was inhibited strongly by the addition of actinomycin D at the start of incubation. The 71-73 kilodalton proteins of canavanine-treated rat embryo cells and incubated slices from seven different organs were compared in detail on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Eight charge variants were detected in extracts of lung, spleen, and thymus tissue, four in liver and heart, three in kidney, and two different pairs of variants in extracts of brain tissue and cultured cells. The possible significance of the rapid synthesis of a similar small set of proteins in tissue slices and cultured cells in

  4. Medication adherence in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Frances Yap, BSc (Pharm) (Hons); Thiru Thirumoorthy, MBBS, FRCP (London), FAMS; Yu Heng Kwan, BSc (Pharm) (Hons)

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is a crucial component in the treatment of chronic diseases. In the elderly, clinicians are faced with a unique set of problems associated with adherence that they may not have been adequately trained for. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of medication adherence in the elderly through a case study. The different factors affecting medication adherence in the elderly are highlighted: patient, medication, health care providers, health care system, and socioeconom...

  5. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  6. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dragoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7 family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI. Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors.

  7. Health Games - Modern Tools for Enhancing Patient Adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Bhaskar GOKHALE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low patient adherence remains a major public health challenge globally and imposes a considerable economic burden on healthcare systems. It is critical to develop an effective intervention to improve patient adherence. Factors such as physician-patient relation, patient's health literacy, attitude, cultural variations, and patient’s involvement in decision making are responsible for improving adherence. Information technology has revolutionized almost all industries including healthcare but its use has not shown its full promise to boost adherence. Recent developments in smart phone market penetration, gamification, and easy to navigate user experience have made it possible for healthcare providers to effectively connect with patients using innovative ways enabled by technology. Leveraging on this fact, healthcare industry should be focusing on development and use of interactive health games. Indication-wise games can be developed in collaboration with physicians, academics, thought leaders and experienced media companies. In summary, gamification mayeffectively be used to improve patient adherence.

  8. Characterization of cellular uptake and toxicity of aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges in central nervous system-relevant cell culture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Z

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhizhi Sun,1 Vinith Yathindranath,2 Matthew Worden,3 James A Thliveris,4 Stephanie Chu,1 Fiona E Parkinson,1 Torsten Hegmann,1–3 Donald W Miller1 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA; 4Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada  Background: Aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (AmS-IONPs have been widely used in constructing complex and multifunctional drug delivery systems. However, the biocompatibility and uptake characteristics of AmS-IONPs in central nervous system (CNS-relevant cells are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of surface charge and magnetic field on toxicity and uptake of AmS-IONPs in CNS-relevant cell types. Methods: The toxicity and uptake profile of positively charged AmS-IONPs and negatively charged COOH-AmS-IONPs of similar size were examined using a mouse brain microvessel endothelial cell line (bEnd.3 and primary cultured mouse astrocytes and neurons. Cell accumulation of IONPs was examined using the ferrozine assay, and cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: No toxicity was observed in bEnd.3 cells at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL for either AmS-IONPs or COOH-AmS-IONPs. AmS-IONPs at concentrations above 200 µg/mL reduced neuron viability by 50% in the presence or absence of a magnetic field, while only 20% reductions in viability were observed with COOH-AmS-IONPs. Similar concentrations of AmS-IONPs in astrocyte cultures reduced viability to 75% but only in the presence of a magnetic field, while exposure to COOH-AmS-IONPs reduced viability to 65% and 35% in the absence and presence of a magnetic field, respectively. Cellular accumulation of AmS-IONPs was greater

  9. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty: Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chachques, J. (J.); Acar, C; J. Herreros; Trainini, J. (Jorge); Prosper, F.; D’Attellis, N. (N.); Fabiani, J. N.; Carpentier, A

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration can be induced with the implantation of a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. More than 150 patients have been treated with cellular cardiomyoplasty worldwide, 18 patients have been treated by our group. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit postischemic remodelling, and restore regional myocardial contractility. Techniques for skeletal myoblasts culture and ex vivo expansion using auto...

  10. Saul Bellow’s Adherence and Breakthrough to Jewish Tradition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most significant American Jewish writers in the 20th century, Saul Bellow was influenced by the Jewish tradition and American mainstream thoughts in his writing creations. The conflicts and amalgamation between these two different cultures in his novels indicate that Bellow not only adheres to the Jewish traditional culture, but also breaks through the narrow-mindedness of it.

  11. Examining the Neural and Astroglial Protective Effects of Cellular Prion Protein Expression and Cell Death Protease Inhibition in Mouse Cerebrocortical Mixed Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin K W; Yang, Zhihui; Chiu, Allen; Lin, Fan; Rubenstein, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Overexpression of cellular prion protein, PrP(C), has cytoprotective effects against neuronal injuries. Inhibition of cell death-associated proteases such as necrosis-linked calpain and apoptosis-linked caspase are also neuroprotective. Here, we systematically studied how PrP(C) expression levels and cell death protease inhibition affect cytotoxic challenges to both neuronal and glial cells in mouse cerebrocortical mixed cultures (CCM). Primary CCM derived from three mouse lines expressing no (PrP(C) knockout mice (PrPKO)), normal (wild-type (wt)), or high (tga20) levels of PrP(C) were subjected to necrotic challenge (calcium ionophore A23187) and apoptotic challenge (staurosporine (STS)). CCM which originated from tga20 mice provided the most robust neuron-astroglia protective effects against necrotic and early apoptotic cell death (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release) at 6 h but subsequently lost its cytoprotective effects. In contrast, PrPKO-derived cultures displayed elevated A23187- and STS-induced cell death at 24 h. Calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945 protected against A23187 challenge at 6 h in CCM from all three mouse lines but protected only against A23187 and STS treatments by 24 h in the PrPKO line. In parallel, caspase inhibitor Z-D-DCB protected against pro-apoptotic STS challenge at 6 and 24 h. Furthermore, we also examined αII-spectrin breakdown products (primarily from neurons) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) breakdown products (from astroglia) as cytoskeletal proteolytic biomarkers. Overall, it appeared that both neurons and astroglial cells were less vulnerable to proteolytic attack during A23187 and STS challenges in tga20-derived cultures but more vulnerable in PrPKO-derived cultures. In addition, calpain and caspase inhibitors provide further protection against respective protease attacks on these neuronal and glial cytoskeletal proteins in CCM regardless of mouse-line origin. Lastly, some synergistic cytoprotective effects between Pr

  12. In vitro osteogenic differentiation and identification of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells isolated and cultured with whole bone marrow adherent culture method%全骨髓贴壁法培养兔骨髓间充质干细胞体外定向成骨诱导分化及鉴定*★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖仕辉; 韦庆军; 赵劲民; 薄占东; 韦积华; 李伟岸

    2013-01-01

      背景:流式细胞仪分离法和免疫磁珠分离法对细胞活性影响较大,密度梯度离心法虽然能够获得纯度高的单核细胞,但由于多次离心可造成细胞的大量流失且对细胞活性有一定的影响使其应用值得商榷。目的:采用全骨髓贴壁法分离兔骨髓间充质干细胞进行成骨诱导分化及鉴定。方法:采用全骨髓贴壁法体外分离培养兔骨髓间充质干细胞,倒置显微镜下观察细胞形态学特征。在成骨诱导剂作用下,通过碱性磷酸酶染色试剂盒行碱性磷酸酶染色,Ⅰ型胶原免疫细胞化学染色,Von Kossa 法及茜素红进行矿化结节染色以及电镜下检测兔骨髓间充质干细胞成骨诱导后的形态结构。结果与结论:经诱导后细胞出现与成骨细胞相似的形态学特征,碱性磷酸酶染色阳性,Ⅰ型胶原免疫细胞化学染色,Von-Kossa 法及茜素红矿化结节染色阳性。表明经成骨诱导剂诱导后全骨髓贴壁法体外分离纯化培养的兔骨髓间充质干细胞能向成骨细胞方向分化增殖。%BACKGROUND: The flow cytometry and immunomagnetic separation method have greater impact on cel viability, and although the density gradient centrifugation method can be used to obtain the high purity monocytes, however, the multiple centrifugation may cause a huge loss of cells and has some impact on the cel activity, so the application is debatable. OBJECTIVE: To isolate and culture rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with whole bone marrow adherent culture method for osteogenic differentiation and identification. METHODS: The rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and cultured by whole bone marrow adherent culture method, then the morphological characteristics of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were observed under inverted microscope. Under the induction of osteogenic inducer, alkaline phosphatase staining, typeⅠcol age immunocytochemical

  13. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  14. [Adherence to psychopharmacological treatment: Psychotherapeutic strategies to enhance adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, R; Korn, D

    2015-05-01

    Effective psychopharmacological medication with good tolerability represents the cornerstone of treatment for severe mental illness; however, the 1-year adherence rates are only approximately 50%. The term adherence emphasizes the collaborative responsibility of the clinician and the patient for a positive treatment outcome. Reasons for non-adherence are manifold and include patient-specific factors, such as self-stigmatization, lack of social and familial support, cognitive impairment and substance use besides insufficient effectiveness and the occurrence of side effects of the psychotropic drugs. To enhance adherence, both clinician and patient have to fully understand all the reasons for and against adherence to medication before a collaborative decision is made on future long-term treatment. A positive attitude towards medication critically depends on whether patients feel that the medication supports the attainment of the individual goals. PMID:25903501

  15. Adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to the ileal and colonic mucosa: an in vitro study utilizing the scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Alves Braga de Andrade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains have been associated with persistent diarrhea in several developing countries. In vivo procedures with animal models, in vitro assays with cellular lines and in vitro organ culture with intestinal fragments have been utilized to study these bacteria and their pathogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The present experimental research assessed the pathogenic interactions of three enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains, using the in vitro organ culture, in order to show the adherence to different regions of both, the ileal and the colonic mucosa and demonstrate possible mechanisms that could have the participation in the prolongation of diarrheiogenic process. METHODS: This study used intestinal fragments from terminal ileum and colon that were excised from pediatric patients undergoing intestinal surgeries and from adult patients that underwent to colonoscopic procedures. Each strain was tested with three intestinal fragments for each region. Tissue was fixed for scanning electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS: These bacteria colonized ileal and colonic mucosa in the typical stacked-brick configuration in the ileum and colon. In both regions, the strains were seen over a great amount of mucus and sometimes over the intact epithelium. In some regions, there is a probable evidence of effacement of the microvilli. It was possible to see adhered to the intestinal surface, bacteria fimbrial structures that could be responsible for the adherence process. CONCLUSION: In order to cause diarrhea, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains adhere to the intestinal mucosa, create a mucoid biofilm on the small bowel surface that could justify the digestive-absorptive abnormalities and consequently, prolonging the diarrhea.

  16. Never-ageing cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrunc, Müge; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Cellular senescence was historically discovered as a form of cellular ageing of in vitro cultured cells. It has been under the spotlight following the evidence of oncogene-induced senescence in vivo and its role as a potent tumour suppressor mechanism. Presently, a PubMed search using keywords ‘cellular senescence and cancer’ reveals 8398 number of references (by April 2011) showing that while our knowledge of senescence keeps expanding, the complexity of the phenomenon keeps us – researchers...

  17. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our findings demonstrated that D. vulgaris surface-adhered populations produce extracellular structures, and that the cells have altered carbon and energy flux compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms did not have greatly increased carbohydrate accumulation. Interestingly genes present on the native plasmid found in D. vulgaris Hildenborough were necessary for wild type biofilm formation. In addition, extracellular appendages dependent on functions or proteins encoded by flaG or fliA also contributed to biofilm formation. Studies with SRB biofilms have indicated that the reduction and precipitation of metals can occur within the biofilm matrix; however, little work has been done to elucidate the physiological state of surface-adhered cells during metal reduction (Cr6+, U6+) and how this process is affected by nutrient feed levels (i.e., the stimulant).

  18. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judy D. Wall

    2011-06-09

    Our findings demonstrated that D. vulgaris surface-adhered populations produce extracellular structures, and that that the cells have altered carbon and energy flux compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms did not have greatly increased carbohydrate accumulation. Interestingly genes present on the native plasmid found in D. vulgaris Hildenborough were necessary for wild type biofilm formation. In addition, extracellular appendages dependent on functions or proteins encoded by flaG or fliA also contributed to biofilm formation. Studies with SRB biofilms have indicated that the reduction and precipitation of metals can occur within the biofilm matrix; however, little work has been done to elucidate the physiological state of surface-adhered cells during metal reduction (Cr6+, U6+) and how this process is affected by nutrient feed levels (i.e., the stimulant).

  19. Adherence and Readiness to Antiretroviral Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Södergård, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy places extraordinarily high demands on adherence, since non-adherence affects both individuals and society due to the spread of resistant viral strains. The aims of the thesis were to investigate the prevalence of adherence in Swedish HIV-infected patients, changes in adherence over time, and factors associated with adherence, including patients’ readiness to adhere. Further, to investigate the collaboration between nurses, doctors and pharmacists after the introduction...

  20. Treatment adherence to an antiretroviral regime: the lived experience of Native Hawaiians and kokua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, L

    2001-09-01

    Treatment adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is a critical issue in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. HAART can extend the longevity of people living with HIV, but treatment efficacy relies on strict adherence that is difficult for many consumers to manage. Results presented in this article are based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with Native Hawaiian consumers (n = 6) who reported moderate to low levels of overall HAART adherence, and based on their kokua, or primary support. All interviews were recorded on audiotape, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Grounded Theory methods. Research questions that guided the inquiry, included: What are the challenges of Hawaiians who report moderate to low levels of HAART adherence? How does non-adherence occur? What is the role of the kokua (primary caregiver) and/or family members in treatment adherence? What types of support enhance adherence? The unpredictability of living with HIV was a major challenge to adherence. Symptom distress and active use of alcohol and other drugs interfered with the capacity to appropriately adhere. Two patterns of non-adherence were identified: interrupted regime and intermittent use. Tangible and emotional types of support, sometimes delivered in culture-specific ways, were viewed as helpful in maintaining compliance and in resuming the regime when difficulties arose. The findings complement extant research on HAART by providing an understanding of adherence as a lived experience among Native Hawaiians and their kokua. PMID:12180508

  1. Cellular and molecular investigations of the adhesion and mechanics of Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskhan, Asma Omar

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to quantify the adherence and mechanical properties of an array of L. monocytogenes strains and their surface biopolymers. First, eight L. monocytogenes strains that represented the two major lineages of the species were compared for their adherence and mechanics at cellular and molecular levels. Our results indicated that strains of lineage' II were characterized by higher adhesion and Young's moduli, longer and more rigid surface biopolymers and lower specific and nonspecific forces when compared to lineage' I strains. Additionally, adherence and mechanical properties of eight L. monocytogenes epidemic and environmental strains were probed. Our results pointed to that environmental and epidemic strains representative of a given lineage were similar in their adherence and mechanical properties when investigated at a cellular level. However, when the molecular properties of the strains were considered, epidemic strains were characterized by higher specific and nonspecific forces, shorter, denser and more flexible biopolymers compared to environmental strains. Second, the role of environmental pH conditions of growth on the adhesion and mechanics of a pathogenic L. monocytogenes EGDe was investigated. Our results pointed to a transition in the adhesion energies for cells cultured at pH 7. In addition, when the types of molecular forces that govern the adhesion were quantified using Poisson statistical approach and using a new proposed method, specific hydrogen-bond energies dominated the bacterial adhesion process. Such a finding is instrumental to researchers designing methods to control bacterial adhesion. Similarly, bacterial cells underwent a transition in their mechanical properties. We have shown that cells cultured at pH 7 were the most rigid compared to those cultured in lower or higher pH conditions of growth. Due to transitions observed in adherence and mechanics when cells were cultured at pH 7, we hypothesized that

  2. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.

  3. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in Romanian young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Dima; A.M. Schweitzer; K.R. Amico; R.S. Wanless

    2013-01-01

    Developing theory-driven and culturally appropriate support for treatment adherence is critical to positive health outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults living with HIV/AIDS. Romanian young long-time HIV survivors represent a special population requiring urgent assessment of specific adherence

  4. Variação da composição química do meio de cultura e da bioquímica celular de Phaeodactylum tricomutum (Bohlin, em cultivos estanques Long term changes in the culture medium composition and cellular biochemistry of Phacodactylum tricomutum (Bohlin, in batch cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aidar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available P. tricornutum was grown in batch cultures under 21ºC temperature and continuous irradiance of 183 µE.m-2 . s-1, provided by fluorescent light tubes. Cultures growth were followed by cell countings, "in vivo" fluorescence and cellular protein, carbohydrate and chlorophyll-α content. The maximum value of protein/carbohydrate ratio was found at the exponential phase and the minimum value at the stationary phase. This ratio characterizes the physiological stage of the culture. Cell uptake rates for nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from the media were higher during the lag-phase. Nitrite excretion by the cells were detected following nitrate uptake.

  5. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  6. Characterization of Adherent Nonhematopoietic Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安小惠; 蔡国平

    2003-01-01

    To confirm and characterize the adherent fibroblast-like progenitors in human umbilical cord blood, we isolated mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Hypaque.Two main morphologically different kinds of cells were formed by culturing the cells in collagen-coated 24-well plastic dishes and flasks.One type was the adherent fibroblast-like cells, while the other was loosely adherent clonally expanded round cells.Our experiments demonstrate that the adherent fibroblast-like cells possess multilineage potential, including the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and to express the mesenchymal cell marker.

  7. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  8. Stromal cells from the adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction and culture expanded adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells: a joint statement of the International Federation for Adipose Therapeutics (IFATS) and Science and the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOURIN, PHILIPPE; BUNNELL, BRUCE A.; CASTEILLA, LOUIS; DOMINICI, MASSIMO; KATZ, ADAM J.; MARCH, KEITH L.; REDL, HEINZ; RUBIN, J. PETER; YOSHIMURA, KOTARO; GIMBLE, JEFFREY M.

    2014-01-01

    Background aims Adipose tissue is a rich and very convenient source of cells for regenerative medicine therapeutic approaches. However, a characterization of the population of adipose-derived stromal and stem cells (ASCs) with the greatest therapeutic potential remains unclear. Under the authority of International Federation of Adipose Therapeutics and International Society for Cellular Therapy, this paper sets out to establish minimal definitions of stromal cells both as uncultured stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and as an adherent stromal/stem cells population. Methods Phenotypic and functional criteria for the identification of adipose-derived cells were drawn from the literature. Results In the SVF, cells are identified phenotypically by the following markers: CD45-CD235a-CD31-CD34+. Added value may be provided by both a viability marker and the following surface antigens: CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD105. The fibroblastoid colony-forming unit assay permits the evaluation of progenitor frequency in the SVF population. In culture, ASCs retain markers in common with other mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), including CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD44 and remain negative for CD45 and CD31. They can be distinguished from bone-marrow-derived MSCs by their positivity for CD36 and negativity for CD106. The CFU-F assay is recommended to calculate population doublings capacity of ASCs. The adipocytic, chondroblastic and osteoblastic differentiation assays serve to complete the cell identification and potency assessment in conjunction with a quantitative evaluation of the differentiation either biochemically or by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions The goal of this paper is to provide initial guidance for the scientific community working with adipose-derived cells and to facilitate development of international standards based on reproducible parameters. PMID:23570660

  9. Cellular Interactions and Biological Responses to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B Cells: Role of Cell Culture Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the composition of the biological medium used in vitro can affect the cellular interaction and biological response of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in human lung epithelial cells. However, it is unclear if these effects are co...

  10. Adherence with Preventive Medication in Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burgess

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.

  11. When tuberculosis treatment fails. A social behavioral account of patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumartojo, E

    1993-05-01

    seriousness of their problems with tuberculosis are more likely to be adherent. Additional research on adherence predictors is needed, but it should reflect the complexity of the problem. This research requires a theory-based approach, which has been essentially missing from studies on adherence and tuberculosis. Research also needs to target predictors for specific groups of patients. There is clear evidence of the effect on adherence of culturally influenced beliefs and attitudes about tuberculosis and its treatment. Cultural factors are associated with misinformation about the medical aspects of the disease and the stigmatization of persons with tuberculosis. Culturally sensitive, targeted information is needed, and some has been developed by local tuberculosis programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8484650

  12. Adherence to the Treatment in Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Although medical treatments and drug industry develop day by day, there have been no changes in the treatment adherence ratios in the past years. To generate possible solutions, treatment adherence should be assessed in all clinical interviews and if patient is non-adherent this issue should be handled seriously. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 555-568

  13. Glutamate receptor activation in cultured cerebellar granule cells increases cytosolic free Ca2+ by mobilization of cellular Ca2+ and activation of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, P; Belhage, B; Frandsen, A;

    1989-01-01

    The Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent probe, fura-2 has been used to monitor cytosolic free calcium levels in mature primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells during exposure to L-glutamate and other excitatory amino acids: quisqualate (QA) kainate (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Glutamate...

  14. Manipulation of a quasi-natural cell block for high-efficiency transplantation of adherent somatic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, H.J.; Hassan, M. M.; Park, J O; Kim, H. J.; S.T. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have raised hope that transplantation of adherent somatic cells could provide dramatic new therapies for various diseases. However, current methods for transplanting adherent somatic cells are not efficient enough for therapeutic applications. Here, we report the development of a novel method to generate quasi-natural cell blocks for high-efficiency transplantation of adherent somatic cells. The blocks were created by providing a unique environment in which cultured cells gene...

  15. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  16. High-throughput microcavitation bubble induced cellular mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Jonathan Lee

    Focused pulsed laser irradiation allows for the deposition of energy with high spatial and temporal resolution. These attributes provide an optimal tool for non-contact manipulation in cellular biology such as laser microsurgery, cell membrane permeabilization, as well as targeted cell death. In this thesis we investigate the direct physical effects produced by laser- generated microcavitation bubbles in adherent cell cultures. We examine how variation in pulse durations (180 ps - 6ns) and pulse energy (0.5 - 40 mu;J) affect microcavitation bubble (mu;CB) generated cell lysis, necrosis, and molecular delivery. To compare the effects of pulse duration we employ classical fluid dynamics modeling to quantify the perturbation caused on cell populations from mu;CB generated microTsunamis (a transient microscale burst of hydrodynamic shear stress). Through time-resolved imaging we capture the mu;CB dynamics at various energies and pulse durations. Moreover, the mathematical modeling provides information regarding the cellular exposure to time varying shear stress and impulse as a function of radial location from the mu;CB center. We demonstrate that the resultant cellular effect can be predicted based on the total impulse across a two order of magnitude span of pulse duration and pulse energy. We also examine the region of cells beyond the zone of molecular delivery to investigate possible cellular reactions to mu;Tsunami exposure. Our studies have shown that cellular mechanotransduction occurs within cell populations spanning an area of up to 1 mm2 surrounding the mu;CB. Visualization of mechanotransduction is achieved through the visualization of intracellular calcium signaling via fluorescence microscopy that occurs due to the ability of the muTsunami generated shear stresses to stimulate G-protein coupled receptors at the apical cell surface. Moreover, we have shown that the observed signaling can be attenuated in a dose-dependent manner using 2-APB which is a known

  17. [CO-CULTURE OF BOAR SPERMATOGONIAL CELLS WITH SERTOLI CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkova, I P; Vasil'eva, S A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using co-culture of boar spermatogonial cells with Sertoli cells. Testes from 60-day-old crossbred boar were used. A spermatogonia-enriched culture was achieved by enzymatic digestion method and purification by density gradient centrifugation using a discontinuous Percoll gradient and differentiated adherence technique. Lipid drops were detected in isolated Sertoli cells by Oil Red O staining. We have found that the cultivation of boar spermatogonia in the presence of Sertoli cells (up to 35 days) leads to their differentiation as well as in vivo in testis. Association of cells in groups, formation of chains and suspension clusters of the spermatogenic cells were observed on the 10th day. Spermatogonial cellular colonies were noted at the same time. These cellular colonies were analyzed for the expression of genes: Nanog and Plzf in RT PCR. The expression of the Nanog gene in the experimental cellular clones obtained by short-term culture of spermatogonial cells in the presence of Sertoli cells was 200 times higher than the expression of this gene in the freshly isolated spermatogonial cells expression was found in freshly isolated germ cells and in cellular clones derived in vitro. We have found that, in the case of longer cultivation of these cells on Sertoli cells, in vitro process of differentiation of germ cells and formation of single mobile boar spermatozoa occurs at 30-33 days. Cellular population is heterogeneous at this stage. Spermatogenic differentiation in vitro without Sertoli cells stays on the 7th day of cultivation. The results show that co-culture of boar spermatogonia-enriched cells with Sertoli cells can induce their differentiation into spermatozoa in vitro and facilitate obtaining of porcine germ cell culture. PMID:27228660

  18. Adherence and quality of care in IBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Julsgaard, Mette; Vestergaard, Thea;

    2016-01-01

    different aspects of adherence and to identify predictors of non-adherence, including the quality of care, for outpatients with IBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous electronic questionnaire was used to investigate different aspects of adherence, the quality of care, patient involvement and shared...... decision making among 377 IBD outpatients. RESULTS: Three hundred (80%) filled in the questionnaire. The overall adherence rate was 93%. Young age (< 35 years old) and smoking were significantly associated with non-adherence (prevalence odds ratio (POR) 2.98, 95% CI 1.04-8.52, p < 0.05 and POR 3.88, 95% CI...

  19. “不立廉洁”与“不离廉洁”--禅宗文化中“廉洁”真义及其当代价值%“Not-Setting-up Honesty”and“Not-Adherence Honesty”:Honesty’s True Meaning and Contemporary Significance in Zen Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖宇

    2015-01-01

    禅宗是我国重要的文化传统之一,其中包含的廉洁思想影响至今。禅宗廉洁指因破除无明而认识到世界现象的虚幻不实而对外物没有贪欲。禅宗可谓“不立廉洁”和“不离廉洁”,即不执着于廉洁。禅宗廉洁与社会主义廉洁虽有根本不同,但都讲究自我修炼,对于我们建设社会主义廉洁文化有着重要的借鉴意义。对于禅宗信仰者而言,禅宗廉洁是其行动指南;对于非禅宗信仰者之外的广大人民群众而言,禅宗廉洁提供了一个新的角度认识廉洁文化,即不执着于廉洁:廉洁是我们今天工作中的重要工作要求,但它并非唯一的要求。%Zen is one of the important cultural traditions and Zen’s honesty considerations has an impact even today. Zen hon-esty means to get rid of ignorance and recognize that the world phenomenon is unreal and there should be no greed for any ex-ternal things. Zen’s honesty is“not-setting-up honesty”and“not-adherence honesty.”Although Zen’s honesty culture is very different from socialism honesty culture, they both pay much attention to self-cultivation. Zen’s honesty culture can well be re-ferred to today in building socialism honest culture. For Zen’s followers and practitioners, Zen’s honesty is their guide of ac-tion. For non-believers of Zen, the Zen honest culture provides a new perspective and understanding of honest culture. That is to say, honesty is an important requirement of our work, but it is not the only requirement.

  20. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada P Wasti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. RESULTS: A total of 282 (85.5% respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014; alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035. Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription, followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. CONCLUSION: Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients' lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop

  1. Glutamate receptor activation in cultured cerebellar granule cells increases cytosolic free Ca2+ by mobilization of cellular Ca2+ and activation of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, P; Belhage, B; Frandsen, A;

    1989-01-01

    The Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent probe, fura-2 has been used to monitor cytosolic free calcium levels in mature primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells during exposure to L-glutamate and other excitatory amino acids: quisqualate (QA) kainate (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Glutamate...... at micromolar concentrations produced a prompt and dose-related increase in the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+, ([Ca2+]i), whereas QA, KA and NMDA had no effect. This increase was also seen in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that L-glutamate promotes mobilization of Ca2+ from...

  2. Adherence of Veillonella Species Mediated by Extracellular Glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, R. M.; Donkersloot, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of extracellular products from Streptococcus salivarius on sucrose-dependent adherence to smooth surfaces by other oral bacteria was studied in vitro. Strains of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Veillonella parvula without innate ability to adhere to a steel wire were able to do so when incubated with sucrose and cell-free culture fluid from S. salivarius strains 9759, 25975, CNII, and MEPI. These culture fluids synthesized more adherent material and water-insoluble glucan than those from Streptococcus mutans C67-1 and seven other S. salivarius strains. Among the S. salivarius strains, glucosyltransferase (GT; dextransucrase, EC 2.4.1.5) activity varied more than 100-fold. Cells of Veillonella and S. mitis S3 that had been incubated in culture fluids from S. salivarius 25975 and 9759, respectively, and then washed adhered upon subsequent incubation with sucrose. This was due to adsorbed GT because (i) the adherence was sensitive to dextranase; (ii) it was observed only with the high-GT culture fluids; (iii) it was dependent on sucrose; and (iv) the washed Veillonella cells synthesized glucan, but not fructan, from sucrose. These results suggest that sucrose-dependent adherence of bacteria without such innate ability can be mediated by (i) entrapment in insoluble glucan synthesized by S. salivarius culture fluids, and (ii) prior adsorption of GT from S. salivarius culture fluids. The possibility that GT formed by high-yield strains of S. salivarius is distributed through the mouth by the action of salivary flow and contributes to sucrose-dependent adherence and plaque formation is considered. Images PMID:591064

  3. An antagonist of the platelet-activating factor receptor inhibits adherence of both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae to cultured human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla SD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shakti D Shukla,1,* Rory L Fairbairn,1,* David A Gell,1 Roger D Latham,1 Sukhwinder S Sohal,1,2 Eugene H Walters,1 Ronan F O’Toole11Breathe Well Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: COPD is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. Tobacco smoking, the primary risk factor for the development of COPD, induces increased expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr in the lung epithelium. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae adhere to PAFr on the luminal surface of human respiratory tract epithelial cells.Objective: To investigate PAFr as a potential drug target for the prevention of infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of acute exacerbations in COPD patients, NTHi and S. pneumoniae.Methods: Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. PAFr expression levels were determined using immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The epithelial cells were challenged with either NTHi or S. pneumoniae labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and bacterial adhesion was measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of a well-evaluated antagonist of PAFr, WEB-2086, on binding of the bacterial pathogens to BEAS-2B cells was then assessed. In silico studies of the tertiary structure of PAFr and the binding pocket for PAF and its antagonist WEB-2086 were undertaken.Results: PAFr expression by bronchial epithelial cells was upregulated by CSE, and significantly associated with increased bacterial adhesion. WEB-2086 reduced the epithelial adhesion by both NTHi and S. pneumoniae to levels observed for non-CSE-exposed cells. Furthermore, it was nontoxic toward the bronchial epithelial

  4. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna; Danielle Cabral Bonfim; Amanda dos Santos Cavalcanti; Marco Cury Fernandes; Suzana Assad Kahn; Priscila Ladeira Casado; Inayá Correa Lima; Murray, Samuel S.; Elsa J. Brochmann Murray; Maria Eugenia Leite Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we...

  5. Isolation and manipulation of living adherent cells by micromolded magnetic rafts

    OpenAIRE

    Gach, Philip C.; Wang, Yuli; Phillips, Colleen; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    A new strategy for magnetically manipulating and isolating adherent cells with extremely high post-collection purity and viability is reported. Micromolded magnetic elements (termed microrafts) were fabricated in an array format and used as culture surfaces and carriers for living, adherent cells. A poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) polymer containing well dispersed magnetic nanoparticles was developed for creating the microstructures by molding. Nanoparticles of γFe2O3 at concentrations up to 1%...

  6. Isolation, culture and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells by using whole bone marrow adherence method%全骨髓贴壁法分离培养人骨髓间充质干细胞及成骨诱导分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利铭; 陈智超; 邹萍; 李秋柏

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore a better method of isolation human bone marrow stem cells and study its potentiality of osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Methods Human bone marrow stem cells were isolated and cultured by using whole bone marrow adherence method. The cell morphology was observed under the inverted phase contrast microscope . The cell cycle and immunological phenotype were examined by flow cytometry. Osteogenic ability was examined by alkaline phosphatase( ALP) and alizarin red stain. Result:The passage cells were homogeneous in shape, similar to fibroblasts. The passage 3 cells were postive for CD90,CD13,CD105.CD44, but negative for CD34,CD45,CD14, and the overwhelming majority of cells were in Go/d phase. Following by 14, 21 days of osteogenic differentiation, the ALP and alizarin red stains were postive in osteoblasts. Conclusion: Whole bone marrow adherence method as a simple, cheap and high efficiency performance is a good culture method for human bone marrow stem cells.%[目的]:探讨体外分离骨髓间充质干细胞的方法及其成骨潜能.[方法]:应用全骨髓贴壁法分离培养人骨髓间充质干细胞,倒置显微镜下观察细胞形态,流式细胞仪检测细胞周期及免疫表型,碱性磷酸酶及茜素红染色检测成骨能力.[结果]:传代后的人骨髓间充质干细胞形态均一呈成纤维细胞样.第三代骨髓间充质干细胞免疫表型CD90、CD13、CD105、CD44阳性,CD34、CD45、CD14阴性.96.47%细胞处于G0/G1期,14 d、21 d成骨诱导培养后碱性磷酸酶及茜素红染色阳性.[结论]:应用全骨髓贴壁法体外分离培养人骨髓间充质干细胞简便、经济、高效.

  7. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faden, H.; Hong, J.J.; Ogra, P.L.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced by prior RSV infection. The degree of adherence was directly related to the amount of viral antigen expressed on the cell surface. The adherence was temperature dependent, with maximal adherence observed at 37/sup 0/C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP.

  8. Cellular conservation of endangered midget buffalo (Lowland Anoa, Bubalus quarlesi) by establishment of primary cultured cell, and its immortalization with expression of cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Iino, Yuuka; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Onuma, Manabu; Katayama, Masafumi; Murata, Koichi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hara, Kumiko; Isogai, Emiko; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-10-01

    Lowland Anoa has become endangered due to hunting and human activity. Protection and breeding of endangered species in a controlled environment is the best way of conservation. However, it is not possible to adopt this approach for all endangered species because of the cost involved and the ever-increasing number of critically endangered species. In consideration of these limitations to the conventional conservation methods, we established a primary cell culture of endangered buffalo (Lowland Anoa, Bubalus quarlesi), for the preservation of this biological resource. In addition, we introduced human derived, mutant cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), Cyclin D, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) into the primary cells. The successful introduction of these three genes was confirmed by western blot with specific antibodies, and enzymatic activity. We also showed that the expression of mutant CDK4, Cyclin D, and TERT allows us to efficiently establish an immortalized cell line, with an intact chromosome pattern, from Lowland Anoa. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation that established an immortalized cell line of an endangered wild animal species. PMID:27449922

  9. Control and adherence: living with diabetes in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naemiratch, Bhensri; Manderson, Lenore

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes is managed via a regimen of control. Physicians advise adults living with type 2 diabetes to control blood sugar levels by controlling diet, maintaining regular exercise, and complying with medication. The extent to which individuals are able to adhere to such recommendations varies. In this article, we explore lay perceptions of diabetes and its control, drawing on data from an ethnographic study conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Between August 2001 and February 2003 the first author spent time with twelve man and women living with type 2 diabetes, their spouses, children and health providers. An additional 21 people were interviewed to extend the data and test for generalisibility. It was found that individual explanations of control, and adherence or resistance to medical advice, are interpreted and adapted in ways consistent with Buddhist philosophy and Thai norms that govern everyday life. Notions of moderation and cultural values of being and behaving, and ideals of interaction, provide a philosophical basis and practical guidelines for control.

  10. Cellular senescence in aging primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Utz; Ferreira, Mark; Condel, Laura; Carey, Dee; Sedivy, John M

    2006-03-01

    The aging of organisms is characterized by a gradual functional decline of all organ systems. Mammalian somatic cells in culture display a limited proliferative life span, at the end of which they undergo an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as replicative senescence. Whether cellular senescence contributes to organismal aging has been controversial. We investigated telomere dysfunction, a recently discovered biomarker of cellular senescence, and found that the number of senescent fibroblasts increases exponentially in the skin of aging baboons, reaching >15% of all cells in very old individuals. In addition, the same cells contain activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase and heterochromatinized nuclei, confirming their senescent status. PMID:16456035

  11. A Qualitative Study Exploring Factors Associated with Provider Adherence to Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolliar, Sarah M; Moore, Megan; Thompson, Hilaire J; Whiteside, Lauren K; Mink, Richard B; Wainwright, Mark S; Groner, Jonathan I; Bell, Michael J; Giza, Christopher C; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Ng Boyle, Linda; Mitchell, Pamela H; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-08-15

    Despite demonstrated improvement in patient outcomes with use of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Guidelines (Guidelines), there are differential rates of adherence. Provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to adherence have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify and explore in depth the provider perspective on factors associated with adherence to the Guidelines using 19 focus groups with nurses and physicians who provided acute management for pediatric patients with TBI at five university-affiliated Level 1 trauma centers. Data were examined using deductive and inductive content analysis. Results indicated that three inter-related domains were associated with clinical adherence: 1) perceived guideline credibility and applicability to individual patients, 2) implementation, dissemination, and enforcement strategies, and 3) provider culture, communication styles, and attitudes towards protocols. Specifically, Guideline usefulness was determined by the perceived relevance to the individual patient given age, injury etiology, and severity and the strength of the evidence. Institutional methods to formally endorse, codify, and implement the Guidelines into the local culture were important. Providers wanted local protocols developed using interdisciplinary consensus. Finally, a culture of collaboration, including consistent, respectful communication and interdisciplinary cooperation, facilitated adherence. Provider training and experience, as well as attitudes towards other standardized care protocols, mirror the use and attitudes towards the Guidelines. Adherence was determined by the interaction of each of these guideline, institutional, and provider factors acting in concert. Incorporating provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to adherence into hospital and team protocols is an important step toward improving adherence and ultimately patient outcomes. PMID:26760283

  12. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a new self-adhering flowable composite by dentin barrier test

    OpenAIRE

    Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Ülker, Mustafa; Özcan, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a new self-adhering flowable composite (Vertise Flow) in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional cultures of bovine dental pulp derived cells.MATERIALS AND METHOD: Artificial cell culture perfusion chambers were separated into two compartments using a 500 µm dentin disc. In the lower compartment, a pulp chamber was created by placing the three-dimensional cultures onto the dentin disc. Test materials were introd...

  13. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear. METHODOLOGY: The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours. SIGNIFICANCE: Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  14. Intent-to-adhere and adherence to malaria prevention recommendations in two travel clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Irit; Grefat, Rami; Ephros, Moshe; Rishpon, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infects 30,000 travelers annually worldwide. At greatest risk are those who travel for long duration. Prevention of malaria includes chemoprophylaxis. This prospective study on 121 travelers who visited two travel clinics shows that adherence to prophylactic treatment was low, especially in long duration trips, and that adherence rate could be predicted by the much more available intent-to-adhere rate.

  15. STUDY ON ADHERENCE ABILITY OF PERIODONTAL PATHOGENS AND CARIOGENIC BACTERIA TO HYDROXYAPATITE DISKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min-feng; LI De-yi; LI Zong-lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the adherence activity of six representative periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria to hydroxyapatite disks. Methods Six periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria of P. gingivalis, A.actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, S. sanguis, A. viscosus and S. mutans were cultured in modified MD-300 chemostat according to total fifteen experimental groups of single-specie and each pair of periodontal pathogens and cariogenic bacteria, respectively. After 1h attached live bacteria on removable hydroxyapatite disks was analyzed by culture technologies to evaluate the adherence level. Results The adherence activity of periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria to HA was in the following order: S. sanguis > A. viscosus > S. mutans > A. actinomycetemcomitans > F. nucleatum > P. gingivalis. The number of periodontopathic bacteria to HA was enhanced by S.sanguis and A. viscosus, respectively. When mix-cultivated with S. mutans, the colonization of P. gingivalis was reduced significantly( P<0.001 ). Periodontopathic bacteria had no effect on the adherence activity of S. mutans and A. viscosus, except S. sanguis. Conclusion It was showed that the adherence activity of periodontal pathogens was weaker than that of cariogenic bacteria and emphasized the importance of bacterial adherence in determining the level of bacterial colonization on tooth surfaces. It was suggested that periodontopathic bacteria can utilize initial colonizers to become those predominant bacteria in periodontal ecosystem, which maybe have close relation to the periodontopathic mechanism.

  16. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  17. Adherence to vitamin supplementation following adolescent bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Avani C.; Zeller, Meg H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is know about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adher...

  18. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  19. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  20. Novel Aggregative Adherence Fimbria Variant of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boisen, Nadia;

    2015-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) organisms belong to a diarrheagenic pathotype known to cause diarrhea and can be characterized by distinct aggregative adherence (AA) in a stacked-brick pattern to cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated 118 EAEC strains isolated from....... Transformation to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 and complementation of the nonadherent C338-14 mutant with the complete gene cluster restored the AA adhesion. Overall, we found the agg5A gene in 12% of the 118 strains isolated from Denmark, suggesting that this novel adhesin represents an important variant....

  1. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettey, Christina M.; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Cleves, Mario A.; Price, Elvin T.; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN), and African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years). Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group. PMID:27148469

  2. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Pettey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN, and African Americans (AAs are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years. Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group.

  3. 细胞培养中珍贵贴壁细胞污染挽救方法的评价%Evaluation of Methods for Rescuing Novel Adherent Cell Line Contaminated bv Bacteria in Cell Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿; 张伟; 孟娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the methods for rescuing the cell line contaminated by bacteria. Methods Antibiotics or antibiotic combined with macrophage or animal inoculation were used to eliminate the bacteria in laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line LSC-1. Then cytokeratin( CK AE1/AE3 ) and DNA ploidy in LSC-1 cells were detected by immunohistochemical and flow cytometer analysis. Results ① Cefoperazone/Sulbactam at a dose of 32 mg/L was the best one in three sensitive antibiotics and made LSC-1 cells to survive three passages. Cefoperazone/Sulbactam combined with macrophage made LSC-1 cells to survive 5 ~ 6 passages. But in the two methods, bacteria appeared again when Cefoperazone/Sulbactam was eliminated and the cells gradually died. LSC-1 cells that experienced animal inoculation survived over 8 passages with well growth, and bacterial culture was negative. ② The positive rate of CK AE1/AE3 in the cells undergone animal inoculation was higher than that of the other two groups and the same as that of the third passage of LSC-1 largely. ③ DNA ploidy analysis showed that LSC-1 cells undergone animal inoculation had diploid and aneuploid karyotypes and were consistent with the third passage of LSC - 1 . However LSC - 1 treated with Cefoperazone / Sulbactam only expressed diploid. Conclusion Using animal inoculation to eliminate contaminating bacteria in cell line is a useful method. Not only the bacteria can be cleared thoroughly but also the original characteristics and malignancy of the cell may be reserved.%目的 细菌污染在细胞培养工作中在所难免,特别是珍稀细胞系受到细菌污染,污染后能否逆转,哪种方法可以挽救污染细胞既有效又对细胞生物学特性影响小,是本文探讨的目的 .方法 分别采用抗生素除菌法、抗生素联合巨噬细胞吞噬法和裸鼠体内接种除菌法清除人喉鳞状细胞癌细胞系(laryngeal squamous carcinoma-1,LSC-1)的污染细菌, 并对除菌效果做无菌检

  4. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  5. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Behnood-Rod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88. About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6% showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6. There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r=-0.231, P<0.001 as well as diastolic BP (r=-0.280, P<0.001. In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B=-0.52, P=0.02, previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B=-0.79, P=0.001, and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B=-0.51, P=0.04 were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.

  6. A magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool for quantitative analysis of strain induced cellular reorientation and actin alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademolhosseini, F.; Liu, C.-C.; Lim, C. J.; Chiao, M.

    2016-08-01

    Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells.

  7. On World Religion Adherence Distribution Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Religious adherence can be considered as a degree of freedom, in a statistical physics sense, for a human agent belonging to a population. The distribution, performance and life time of religions can thus be studied having in mind heterogeneous interacting agent modeling in mind. We present a comprehensive analysis of 58 so called religion (to be better defined in the main text) evolutions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000, - data taken from the World Christ...

  8. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, P G; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colo...

  9. In vitro osteoblastic differentiation and identification of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by whole bone marrow adherent culture%全骨髓贴壁培养大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞体外成骨的定向诱导及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌钰; 李宁毅; 樊功为; 袁荣涛; 金晓明; 陈立强

    2007-01-01

    淀,茜素红染色为橙红色结节状,对照组未见钙结节形成.③诱导分化组诱导2周细胞碱性磷酸酶活性明显增高,对照组活性较弱.④诱导分化组经诱导后成骨细胞转录因子、骨钙素、成骨细胞特异性基因mRNA的表达均较强.结论:大鼠的骨髓间充质干细胞经全骨髓培养法体外诱导和分化,表现出与典型的成骨细胞相似的形态特征和生物学特性.%BACKGROUND: Many operations for isolating, purifying and identifying bone marrow mesenchymal stem calls (BMSCs) are complicated and cost much. Also they have great effect on cell activity. Whether whole bone marrow adherent culture can avoid above-mentioned disadvantages remains unclear. At present, many studies huve been done to confirm an effective and low cost method for isolating, purifying and identifying such cells.OBJECTIVE: This study is to in vitro induce and differentiate rat BMSCs by whole bone marrow adherent culture,and to identify the cells.DESIGN: A controlled observational experiment.SETTING: Qingdao University Medical College.MATERIALS: This study was carried out in the Laboratory of Oral Cavity and Laboratory of Molecular Biology (provincial level) Qingdao University Medical College between November 2005 and March 2007. Twenty Wistar rats of either gender, aged 3 to 4 weeks, of SPF grade, weighing 120-150 g, were provided by the Qingdao Laboratory Center. The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals. Fetal bovine serum (FBS, Hangzhou Sijiqing Bioengineering Material Research Institute), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) kit (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Research Institute), reverse transcription kit (American Promega Corporation) and primer (Shanghai Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.) were used in this study.METHODS: Adult rat BMSCs were isolated and cultured by whole bone marrow adherent culture. They were digested with 2.5 g/L trypse and inoculated at a density of 5

  10. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Gareth; Hawkins Kim; Mullin Rebecca; Nepusz Tamás; Naughton Declan P; Sheeran Paschal; Petróczi Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95%) of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80%) of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investiga...

  11. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Woodsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1 Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2 Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3 Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4 Partner influence on use, (5 Retention and continuation and (6 Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  12. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena

    2013-01-01

    After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs. PMID:23561044

  13. Being as an iceberg: hypertensive treatment adherence experiences in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dehghan Nayeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment adherence is often an important issue in the management of hypertension. Deep understanding of adherence behavior as well as its influential factors can expand knowledge about treatment adherence among hypertensives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore patients, their families, and healthcare providers’ experiences about hypertension treatment adherence in southeast of Iran. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of patients, family members, and healthcare providers (n=18 by using a conventional content analysis. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through semi-structured and deep interviews. Results: Data analysis showed that hypertensive treatment adherence in an Iranian context is like an iceberg with two subthemes. The first subtheme relates to the upper and clear part of this iceberg and it consists of two categories, including 1 healthy and 2 unhealthy regimens. The second subtheme associates with under-water and unanticipated part and it consists of four categories, including 1 the nature of disease and treatment, 2 the individual resources, 3 the healthcare organization, and 4 the socio-cultural environment. Conclusions: The treatment adherence features emerged in this study can be useful in designing and developing context-based hypertension interventions. Further qualitative and quantitative studies with a closer collaboration between the social, natural, and medical sciences in other Iranian populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  14. The Seven Stages of Man: The Role of Developmental Stage on Medication Adherence in Respiratory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Richard W; Foster, Juliet M; Grigg, Jonathan; Eakin, Michelle N; Canonica, Walter; Yunus, Fasail; Ryan, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    The circumstances and drivers of the decision to initiate, implement, or persist with a medication differ for individuals at each developmental stage. For school-age children with asthma, the social environment of their family's cultural beliefs and the influence of peer networks and school policies are strong determinants of medication adherence. The stage of adolescence can be a particularly challenging time because there is a reduction in parental supervision of asthma management as the young person strives to become more autonomous. To illustrate the importance of such factors, adherence interventions in children and young adults with asthma have used peer-based supports and social supports, particularly social media platforms. In older patients, it is internal rather than external factors and age-related decline that pose challenges to medication adherence. Seniors face the challenges of polypharmacy, reduced social support, increased isolation, and loss of cognitive function. Strategies to promote adherence must be tailored to the developmental stage and respective behavioral determinants of the target group. This review considers the different attitudes toward medication and the different adherence behaviors in young and elderly patients with chronic respiratory conditions, specifically asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Opportunities to intervene to optimize adherence are suggested. PMID:27587315

  15. Self-assembled IKVAV Peptide Nanofibers Promote Adherence of PC12 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongchao; ZHENG Qixin; DU Jingyuan; SONG Yulin; WU Bin; GUO Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    Lack of biocompatibility and bioactivity is a big problem for the synthetic materials that have been generated for neural tissue engineering. To get around the problem and generate better scaffold for neural tissue repair, we intended to generate nano-fibers by self-assembly of polypeptide IKVAV. Bioactive IKVAV Peptide-Amphiphile (IKVAV-PA) was first synthesized and purified, the property of which was analyzed and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)and mass spectrometry (MS). Then, by addition of hydrogen chloride (HCl), self-assembly of IKVAV-PA was induced in vitro and nano-fibers formed as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of IKVAV nanofibers on adherence of PC12 cells was assayed in cell culture and the results showed that the rates of adherence of PC12 increased significantly when the density of IKVAV was within a certain range (0.58 μg/cm2 to 15.6 μg/cm2). However, its effect on the rates of adherence did not significantly alter with time, whether after 1 hour or 3 hours of culture. In general,we showed that IKVAV-PA can successfully self-assemble to form nanofiber, and promote rapid and stable adherence of PC12 cells, and the effect of the self-assembled IKVAV to promote PC12 cells adherence is dosage-dependent within a certain range of densities.

  16. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F. [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Martínez-Castañón, G.A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Téllez-Déctor, E.J. [Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Veracruzana campus Río Blanco, Mariano Abasolo S/N. Col. Centro. Río Blanco, Veracruz (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans.

  17. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans

  18. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele OA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion: The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is

  19. Factors that influence adherence to antiretroviral treatment in an urban population, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rosamond Nony Weaver

    Full Text Available Although the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Indonesia has increased in recent years, little is known about the specific characteristics affecting adherence in this population. Indonesia is different from most of its neighbors given that it is a geographically and culturally diverse country, with a large Muslim population. We aimed to identify the current rate of adherence and explore factors that influence ART adherence.Data were collected from ART-prescribed outpatients on an HIV registry at a North Jakarta hospital in 2012. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were explored as factors associated with adherence using logistics regression analyses. Chi squared test was used to compare the difference between proportions. Reasons for missing medication were analyzed descriptively.Two hundred and sixty-one patients participated, of whom 77% reported ART adherence in the last 3 months. The level of social support experienced was independently associated with adherence where some social support (p = 0.018 and good social support (p = 0.039 improved adherence compared to poor social support. Frequently cited reasons for not taking ART medication included forgetting to take medication (67%, busy with something else (63% and asleep at medication time (60%.This study identified that an increase in the level of social support experienced by ART-prescribed patients was positively associated with adherence. Social support may minimize the impact of stigma among ART prescribed patients. Based on these findings, if social support is not available, alternative support through community-based organizations is recommended to maximize treatment success.

  20. Apoptotic regulation of epithelial cellular extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    De Andrade, Daniel,; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Cellular extrusion is a mechanism that removes dying cells from epithelial tissues to prevent compromising their barrier function. Extrusion occurs in all observed epithelia in vivo and can be modeled in vitro by inducing apoptosis in cultured epithelial monolayers. We established that actin and myosin form a ring that contracts in the surrounding cells that drives cellular extrusion. It is not clear, however, if all apoptotic pathways lead to extrusion and how apoptosis and extrusion are mol...

  1. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuxin; Zhang, Jinghan; Ben, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from C57BL/6J mice were separated and cultured using the “pour-off” method. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supplementation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor ex...

  2. A three-dimensional finite element model of an adherent eukaryotic cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGarry J. G.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical stimulation is known to cause alterations in the behaviour of cells adhering to a substrate. The mechanisms by which forces are transduced into biological responses within the cell remain largely unknown. Since cellular deformation is likely involved, further understanding of the biomechanical origins of alterations in cellular response can be aided by the use of computational models in describing cellular structural behaviour and in determining cellular deformation due to imposed loads of various magnitudes. In this paper, a finite element modelling approach that can describe the biomechanical behaviour of adherent eukaryotic cells is presented. It fuses two previous modelling approaches by incorporating, in an idealised geometry, all cellular components considered structurally significant, i.e. prestressed cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane components. The aim is to determine if we can use this model to describe the non-linear structural behaviour of an adherent cell and to determine the contribution of the various cellular components to cellular stability. Results obtained by applying forces (in the picoNewton range to the model membrane nodes suggest a key role for the cytoskeleton in determining cellular stiffness. The model captures non-linear structural behaviours such as strain hardening and prestress effects (in the region of receptor sites, and variable compliance along the cell surface. The role of the cytoskeleton in stiffening a cell during the process of cell spreading is investigated by applying forces to five increasingly spread cell geometries. Parameter studies reveal that material properties of the cytoplasm (elasticity and compressibility also have a large influence on cellular stiffness. The computational model of a single cell developed here is proposed as one that is sufficiently complex to capture the non-linear behaviours of the cell response to forces whilst not being so complex that the parameters

  3. Assessing adherence factors in patients under topical treatment: development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Ina; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Lotzin, Annett; Karakasili, Eleni; Reich, Kristian

    2014-04-01

    Medication adherence rates strongly depend on favorable disease outcomes. It is known that medication adherence rates are lower for topical treatment than for systemic treatment. However, to date no validated instrument for the assessment of adherence factors in topical treatment is available. The aim of this study was to develop a new questionnaire to assess adherence risk factors in topical treatment. The development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ) was based on a systematic literature review, and qualitative patient focus interviews and expert focus groups' input. The psychometric properties and comprehensibility of the TTAQ and PPQ were assessed in a feasibility study with 59 psoriasis patients. Our first preliminary results indicate that the TTAQ and PPQ are psychometrically sound and reliable measures for the assessment of factors influencing topical treatment adherence. The questionnaires are currently being further developed and various parameters (e.g., time point of assessment) are currently being tested in an exploratory pilot study with ca. 2,000 psoriasis patients receiving topical treatment in a European clinical trial. The use of the final versions of TTAQ and PPQ in clinical practice may facilitate the early identification of specific non-adherence factors in patients under topical treatment, which could enable designing and applying adherence-enhancing interventions according to the patient's individual needs.

  4. Cellular contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Cinnamon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular contractility, essential for cell movement and proliferation, is regulated by microtubules, RhoA and actomyosin. The RhoA dependent kinase ROCK ensures the phosphorylation of the regulatory Myosin II Light Chain (MLC Ser19, thereby activating actomyosin contractions. Microtubules are upstream inhibitors of contractility and their depolymerization or depletion cause cells to contract by activating RhoA. How microtubule dynamics regulates RhoA remains, a major missing link in understanding contractility. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that contractility is inhibited by microtubules not only, as previously reported, in adherent cells, but also in non-adhering interphase and mitotic cells. Strikingly we observed that contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis by a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase. Inhibition of proteolysis, ubiquitination and neddylation all led to complete cessation of contractility and considerably reduced MLC Ser19 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that cells express a contractility inhibitor that is degraded by ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, either constitutively or in response to microtubule depolymerization. This degradation seems to depend on a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase and is required for cellular contractions.

  5. Structural barriers to ART adherence in Southern Africa: Challenges and potential ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, A; Remien, R H; Berkman, A; Hoffman, S; Campos, L; Swartz, L

    2011-01-01

    Structural barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence are economic, institutional, political and cultural factors, that collectively influence the extent to which persons living with HIV follow their medication regimens. We identify three sets of structural barriers to ART adherence that are salient in Southern Africa: poverty-related, institutional, and political and cultural. Examples of poverty-related barriers are competing demands in the context of resource-constrained settings, the lack of transport infrastructure, food insecurity, the role of disability grants and poor social support. Examples of institutional factors are logistical barriers, overburdened health care facilities, limited access to mental health services and difficulties in ensuring adequate counselling. Examples of political and cultural barriers are controversies in the provision of treatment for AIDS, migration, traditional beliefs about HIV and AIDS, poor health literacy and gender inequalities. In forging a way forward, we identify ways in which individuals, communities and health care systems may overcome some of these structural barriers. Finally, we make recommendations for further research on structural barriers to ART adherence. In all likelihood, enhancing adherence to ART requires the efforts of a variety of disciplines, including public health, psychology, anthropology, sociology and medicine. PMID:20509066

  6. Conceptualisations of masculinity and self-reported medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men in Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-06-01

    HIV-positive Latino men have been found to have poorer medication adherence compared to Whites. This study sought to identify how cultural conceptualisations of masculinity are associated with self-reported medication adherence among Latino men. A total of 208 HIV-positive men reported the number of doses of antiretroviral medication missed in the previous seven days (dichotomised at 100% adherence versus less). Conceptualisations of masculinity consisted of traditional machismo (e.g., power and aggressive attitudes, which are normally associated with negative stereotypes of machismo) and caballerismo (e.g., fairness, respect for elders and the importance of family). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. The mean adherence was 97% (SD = 6.5%; range = 57-100%). In all, 77% of the participants reported 100% adherence in the previous seven days. Caballerismo was associated with a greater likelihood (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; p = 0.03) and machismo with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.95; p = 0.03) of medication adherence. In addition, higher medication side-effects were found to be associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81; p = 0.001) of medication adherence. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying cultural factors that may affect medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men resident in the USA.

  7. Improving medication adherence in patients with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve...... medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review......, tailored adherence counselling including motivational interviewing and telephone follow-ups. The primary outcome was composite medication possession ratio (MPR) to antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents, at one-year follow-up, assessed by analyzing pharmacy records. Secondary outcomes at 12 months...

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of different staining methods to monitor apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in adherent cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jinshun 赵进顺; Alexandra Schmid-Kotsas; Hans-Juergen Gross; Adolf Gruenert; Max G. Bachem

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the sensitivity and specificity of different staining methods to monitor apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in adherent cells.Methods Sensitivity and specificity of several common methods for apoptosis determination were evaluated (Apo2.7-expression, Annexin V-binding, TUNEL-reaction, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-(PARP) cleavage and single-stranded-DNA (ssDNA) staining). Apoptosis was induced by oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide in 3 cultured cells types growing as adherent monolayer (MiaPaCa-2, Hep-G2 and human skin fibroblasts), necrosis was induced by depletion of cellular ATP using sodium azide. Cells positively stained by the respective apoptosis assay were quantified and alterations of cell morphology were monitored by fluorescence microscopy. The date was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and significance test of correlation coefficient.Results One hour after apoptosis induction significant cell fractions were positively stained for ssDNA (33% with MiaPaCa-2 cells, 35% with Hep-G2 cells, 56% with human skin fibroblasts). PARP-cleavage was less sensitive compared to the ssDNA-staining. Apo2.7-expression, Annexin V-binding and TUNEL-reaction were not applicable to detect early apoptosis induced by oxidative stress (below 2 hours), but were efficiently monitoring late apoptosis.Specificity of ssDNA-staining was complete with each cell type even 4 hs after induction of necrosis by the highest sodium azide concentration. In contrast, the same experimental conditions resulted in 50%-90% positively stained necrotic cells by using Apo2.7-expression, TUNEL-reaction or AnnexinV-binding. Surprisingly, specificity of PARP-cleavage was highly depending on the respective cell type.Conclusions Our study prove that among the five methods investigated only ssDNA-staining allowed to completely differentiate apoptosis from necrosis, and is thus suitable to reliably detect early as well as late apoptosis. Therefore, the ss

  9. Impact of Adherence Counseling Dose on Antiretroviral Adherence and HIV Viral Load among HIV-Infected Methadone Maintained Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Heo, Moonseong; Berg, Karina M.; Li, Xuan; Litwin, Alain H.; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence counseling can improve antiretroviral adherence and related health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. However, little is known about how much counseling is necessary to achieve clinically significant effects. We investigated antiretroviral adherence and HIV viral load relative to the number of hours of adherence counseling received by 60 HIV-infected drug users participating in a trial of directly observed antiretroviral therapy delivered in methadone clinics. Our adherence couns...

  10. The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior

  11. [Adherence to statins: updates and practical proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Marine; Schneider, Marie-paule; Nanchen, David

    2016-03-01

    Statins are an established treatment for dyslipidemia, because they were shown to decrease the cardiovascular risk by 25%. However, one third of patients using statins don't take them regularly. Statin intolerance is an important risk factor for nonadherence, but health literacy and lack of education regarding the cardiovascular benefits are also important triggers for poor adherence to statins. A better communication between the caregiver and his patient, by taking patient's perspectives into account could help find effective solutions. This article reviews the issue of statins adherence and suggests solutions to improve it. PMID:27089601

  12. Engineering cell-compatible paper chips for cell culturing, drug screening, and mass spectrometric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushui; He, Ziyi; Liu, Wu; Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-10-28

    Paper-supported cell culture is an unprecedented development for advanced bioassays. This study reports a strategy for in vitro engineering of cell-compatible paper chips that allow for adherent cell culture, quantitative assessment of drug efficiency, and label-free sensing of intracellular molecules via paper spray mass spectrometry. The polycarbonate paper is employed as an excellent alternative bioscaffold for cell distribution, adhesion, and growth, as well as allowing for fluorescence imaging without light scattering. The cell-cultured paper chips are thus amenable to fabricate 3D tissue construction and cocultures by flexible deformation, stacks and assembly by layers of cells. As a result, the successful development of cell-compatible paper chips subsequently offers a uniquely flexible approach for in situ sensing of live cell components by paper spray mass spectrometry, allowing profiling the cellular lipids and quantitative measurement of drug metabolism with minimum sample pretreatment. Consequently, the developed paper chips for adherent cell culture are inexpensive for one-time use, compatible with high throughputs, and amenable to label-free and rapid analysis.

  13. 单生卵囊藻(Oocystis solitaria)和月牙藻(Selenastrumsp.)的培养条件及其细胞组成%Culture condition and cellular biochemical composition of two microalgae Oocystis solitaria and Selenastrum sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佳琦; 黄旭雄; 马坤俊; 黄征征; 吕为群

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are the potential resources for producing biological and renewable energy. In this study, two microalgae Oocystis solitaria and Selenastrum sp. Were collected from a coastal freshwater pond, and a culture experiment was conducted to determine the optimum water temperature, light intensity, and water salinity for the growth and reproduction of the two microalgae. The cellular biochemical composition of the two microalgae was analyzed, and the effects of water salinity on the lipid content of these microalgae were investigated. The suitable water temperature and light intensity for the growth of 0. Solitaria and Selenastrum, sp. Were 35. 9-40.5 ℃ and 29.7-32. 8 ℃, and 46-70 μmol · M-2 · S-1 and 17-54 μmol · M-2 · S-1, respectively. O. Solitaria grew best in fresh water, while Selenastrum sp. Flourished in brackish water at salinity 2. Under suitable culture conditions, the cell protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents of O. Solitaria were 27.61% , 22. 00% , and 3. 84% , respectively, and those of Selenastrum sp. Were 28.06% , 21. 99% and 12. 53% , respectively. In the fatty acid of O. Solitaria, 18:3n3 was abundant; while in that of Selenastrum sp. , DHA presented. Water salinity affected the total lipid content of the two microalgae. At salinity 4 and 10, O. Solitaria and Selenastrum sp. Had the highest lipid content, being 8.29% and 18.21% , respectively.%从海滨的淡水池沼中分离得到单生卵囊藻(Oocystis solitaria)和月牙藻(Selenastrum sp.),分别研究了温度、光照强度、盐度对2种微藻生长繁殖的影响,分析了2种微藻的细胞组成、脂肪酸组成及盐度对2种微藻脂肪积累的影响.结果表明:单生卵囊藻和月牙藻的适宜生长温度分别为35.9℃~40.5℃和29.7℃~32.8℃;单生卵囊藻和月牙藻的适宜光照强度分别为46~70μmol · m-2·s-1和17 ~54 μmol·m-2·s-1;单生卵囊藻在淡水培养液中生长最好,月牙藻在盐度为2的半成水培养

  14. Adherence to physiotherapy clinical guideline acute ankle injury and determinants of adherence: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beers Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. In physiotherapy, insight in adherence to guidelines is limited. Knowledge of adherence is important to identify barriers and to enhance implementation. Purpose of this study is to investigate the ability to adherence to recommendations of the guideline Acute ankle injury, and to identify patient characteristics that determine adherence to the guideline. Methods Twenty-two physiotherapists collected data of 174 patients in a prospective cohort study, in which the course of treatment was systematically registered. Indicators were used to investigate adherence to recommendations. Patient characteristics were used to identify prognostic factors that may determine adherence to the guideline. Correlation between patient characteristics and adherence to outcome-indicators (treatment sessions, functioning of patient, accomplished goals was calculated using univariate logistic regression. To calculate explained variance of combined patient characteristics, multivariate analysis was performed. Results Adherence to individual recommendations varied from 71% to 100%. In 99 patients (57% the physiotherapists showed adherence to all indicators. Adherence to preset maximum of six treatment sessions for patients with severe ankle injury was 81% (132 patients. The odds to receive more than six sessions were statistically significant for three patient characteristics: females (OR:3.89; 95%CI: 1.41–10.72, recurrent sprain (OR: 6.90; 95%CI: 2.34 – 20.37, co-morbidity (OR: 25.92; 95% CI: 6.79 – 98.93. All factors together explained 40% of the variance. Inclusion of physiotherapist characteristics in the regression model showed that work-experience reduced the odds to receive more than six sessions (OR: 0.2; 95%CI: 0.06 – 0.77, and increased explained variance to 45%. Conclusion Adherence to the clinical guideline Acute ankle sprain showed that the

  15. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells. Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.

  16. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Verônica Fernandes; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos Santos; Fernandes, Marco Cury; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Lima, Inayá Correa; Murray, Samuel S.; Murray, Elsa J. Brochmann; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells) and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells). Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics. PMID:23710460

  17. Psoriasis: improving adherence to topical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, S.R.; Horn, E.J.; Balkrishnan, R.; Basra, M.K.; Finlay, A.Y.; McCoy, D.; Menter, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2008-01-01

    Topical therapy has an important role in psoriasis treatment. It is efficacious and has a favorable safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials. However, poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of the medication. The Internati

  18. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: Key concepts related to self-care and adherence were defined, discussed, and implemented as part of the ASEF framework. ASEF was applied to seven self-care case studies, and the perceived usefulness and feasibility of ASEF was evaluated in a questionnaire study by the case study participants...

  19. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  20. DRUG COMPLIANCE AND ADHERENCE TO TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In spite of any number of medicines will not be of use unless patient takes’ them. After diagnosing the disease, the next most i mportant step is to follow the instructions of physician in terms of treatment. The doctor’s respons ibility does not end with writing prescription, assuming patient will adhere to it. He/ she should cross check the behavior of patient for drug compliance and see that patient follo ws it and get the benefit. Non compliance is the main barrier for the effective delivery of the medical care. This will have greater implications on the economic burde n on the country in terms of frequent hospitalization, use of expensive medicines in case o f relapse due to non adherence.Though the terms compliance and adherence are used synonymously , they differ in the delivery of quality of the medicare as the former implicates the passive fol lowing of the physician instruction, while in the later, patient actively participates in the dev elopment of the treatment plan, which will improves outcome of the treatment. Adherence is the preferred term over compliance by WHO.

  1. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  2. Understanding adherence to web-based interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although eHealth technologies and especially web-based interventions for the promotion of health and health related behavior have been shown to be effective, the impact is hindered by non-adherence: while many eHealth interventions reach a large group of participants, not all of these participants c

  3. Primary non-adherence to prescribed medication in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristján; Halldórsson, Matthías; Thengilsdóttir, Gudrún;

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-adherence refers to the patient not redeeming a prescribed medication at some point during drug therapy. Research has mainly focused on secondary non-adherence. Prior to this study, the overall rate of primary non-adherence in general practice in Iceland was not known.......Primary non-adherence refers to the patient not redeeming a prescribed medication at some point during drug therapy. Research has mainly focused on secondary non-adherence. Prior to this study, the overall rate of primary non-adherence in general practice in Iceland was not known....

  4. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M

    2015-11-01

    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  5. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  6. Participation of integrin α5β1 in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Alvestegui, Alejandra; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Farfan, Mauricio J

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key feature in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection. The aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs) are involved in EAEC interaction with receptors at the surface of intestinal cells. We and others have demonstrated that fibronectin is a receptor for AAF/II fimbriae. Considering that the major cellular receptor of fibronectin is integrin α5β1, in this study we evaluated the participation of this receptor in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 to intestinal cells. We found that EAEC strain 042 has the ability to bind directly and indirectly to integrin α5β1; direct binding was not mediated by AAF/II fimbriae and indirect binding was mediated by AAF/II and fibronectin. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the formation of the complex AafA/fibronectin/integrin α5β1. To evaluate EAEC adherence to intestinal cells, T84 cells were incubated with fibronectin and an antibody that blocks the interaction region of integrin α5β1 to fibronectin, the RGD site. Under these conditions, we found the number of adherent bacteria to epithelial cells significantly reduced. Additionally, fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 was abolished in HEp-2 cells transfected with integrin α5 shRNA. Altogether, our data support the involvement of integrin α5β1 in the fibronectin-mediated EAEC binding to intestinal cells.

  7. Participation of Integrin α5β1 in the Fibronectin-Mediated Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Izquierdo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key feature in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC infection. The aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs are involved in EAEC interaction with receptors at the surface of intestinal cells. We and others have demonstrated that fibronectin is a receptor for AAF/II fimbriae. Considering that the major cellular receptor of fibronectin is integrin α5β1, in this study we evaluated the participation of this receptor in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 to intestinal cells. We found that EAEC strain 042 has the ability to bind directly and indirectly to integrin α5β1; direct binding was not mediated by AAF/II fimbriae and indirect binding was mediated by AAF/II and fibronectin. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the formation of the complex AafA/fibronectin/integrin α5β1. To evaluate EAEC adherence to intestinal cells, T84 cells were incubated with fibronectin and an antibody that blocks the interaction region of integrin α5β1 to fibronectin, the RGD site. Under these conditions, we found the number of adherent bacteria to epithelial cells significantly reduced. Additionally, fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 was abolished in HEp-2 cells transfected with integrin α5 shRNA. Altogether, our data support the involvement of integrin α5β1 in the fibronectin-mediated EAEC binding to intestinal cells.

  8. Ion channels involved in cell volume regulation: effects on migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death in non adherent EAT cells and adherent ELA cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death.

  9. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J, E-mail: cperemarch@fjd.es

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  10. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  11. Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jennifer B; Krivenko, Anna; Howland, Molly; Schlachet, Rebecca; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-09-01

    Poor medication adherence is a pervasive problem that causes disability and suffering as well as extensive financial costs among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). Barriers to adherence are numerous and cross multiple levels, including factors related to bipolar pathology and those unique to an individual's circumstances. External factors, including treatment setting, healthcare system, and broader health policies, can also affect medication adherence in people with BD. Fortunately, advances in research have suggested avenues for improving adherence. A comprehensive review of adherence-enhancement interventions for the years 2005-2015 is included. Specific bipolar adherence-enhancement approaches that target knowledge gaps, cognitive patterns, specific barriers, and motivation may be helpful, as may approaches that capitalize on technology or novel drug-delivery systems. However, much work remains to optimally facilitate long-term medication adherence in people with BD. For adherence-enhancement approaches to be widely adapted, they need to be easily accessible, affordable, and practical. PMID:27435356

  12. Indicators of adherence to physiotherapy attendance among Saudi female patients with mechanical low back pain: a clinical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Eisa Einas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among current musculoskeletal interventions used to treat low back pain (LBP, physiotherapy exercise has the highest evidence of effectiveness in avoiding recurrence and chronic disability. However, effectiveness of physiotherapy is thought to be directly related to the patients' adherence to physiotherapy. Since adherence is reported to be directly influenced by socio-cultural factors, this study was conducted to investigate factors related to patients' adherence in a group of Saudi female patients with LBP. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on female LBP patients referred to the department of physiotherapy at a local tertiary hospital over a 12 month period. A total of 98 charts were reviewed. Two physiotherapists specialized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation collected information from the medical files. Data were classified in three categories: patients' personal demographics, patients' medical condition and history, and type of physiotherapy administered. Contingency tables and chi-square test were computed to test for differences in proportions. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. Results Subjects who attended their scheduled appointments were classified as adherent (40%, and those who failed to attend 2 consecutive scheduled appointments and got discharged were classified as non-adherent (60%. Factors that significantly correlated with adherence included: age (r = 0.7, p Conclusion This study reveals an alarming level of non-adherence to physiotherapy among patients with LBP. It remains unclear as to what level of adherence is required to achieve beneficial effect of treatment. It is quite evident however, that early withdrawal from treatment would not allow the therapeutic benefits of the treatment to be realized. Future research should be directed toward developing strategies to improve adherence.

  13. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  14. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  15. Predictors of Low Clopidogrel Adherence Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Muntner, Paul; Mann, Devin M.; Woodward, Mark; Choi, James W.; Stoler, Robert C; Shimbo, Daichi; Farkouh, Michael E.; Kim, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Few data are available on factors associated with low adherence or early clopidogrel discontinuation following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients (n=284) were evaluated prior to hospital discharge following PCI to identify factors associated with low adherence to clopidogrel 30 days later. Pre-PCI adherence to daily medications was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and categorized as low, medium, or high (scores

  16. Improving adherence to medical regimens for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsley Carol B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor adherence to medical regimens can compromise the efficacy of treatments for children and adolescents with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA. The purpose of this review is to describe medical regimens for the treatment of JRA and the rates of adherence to these regimens. We also summarize and critically the few research studies aimed at improving adherence to regimens for JRA. Finally, we summarize strategies for enhancing adherence in clinical practice.

  17. Supporting patients : pharmacy based interventions to improve medication adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Kooij, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    For many patients it is not easy to adhere to the agreed treatment with medication. Adherence has been defined as “the extent to which a person’s behaviour - taking medication - corresponds with agreed recommendations from a health care provider”. Numerous factors influence this taking behaviour and non-adherence must not be seen as the patients’ problem only. Health care providers, including pharmacists, should support patients to adhere. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate interv...

  18. Adherence to Diet in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Susana R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviewed current findings on dietary adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), discussed factors predicting dietary adherence, and presented directions for future research. The search terms were: type 1 diabetes mellitus; youth (0-22 years); diet; dietary adherence; nutrition; dietary intake; obesity; and complications. The studies involved youth with T1DM, presented dietary adherence data specifically, and/or described usual dietary patterns in youth. Articles that ...

  19. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  20. Evaluation of medication adherence in Lebanese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mohammad; Al-Hajje, Amal; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Zein, Salam; Bawab, Wafa; Bou Zeid, Mayssam; El Hajj, Maya; Salameh, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    Controlling hypertension is essential in cardiovascular diseases. Poor medication adherence is associated with poor disease outcomes, waste of healthcare resources, and contributes to reduced blood pressure control. This study evaluates treatment adherence to antihypertensive therapy in Lebanese hypertensive patients by estimating the proportion of adherent hypertensive patients using a validated tool and investigates what factors predict this behavior. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 210 hypertensive outpatients selected from clinics located in tertiary-care hospitals and from private cardiology clinics located in Beirut. Adherence level was measured using a validated 8-item Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMMAS). Among 210 patients, 50.5% showed high adherence, 27.1% medium adherence, and 22.4% low adherence to medication. Mean MMMAS score was 6.59±2.0. In bivariate analyses, having controlled blood pressure (p=0.003) and taking a combination drug (p=0.023) were predictors of high adherence. Forgetfulness (p<0.01), complicated drug regimen (p=0.001), and side effects (p=0.006) were predictors of low adherence after multiple liner regression. Logistic regression results showed that calcium channel blockers (p=0.030) were associated with increased adherence levels. In conclusion, developing multidisciplinary intervention programs to address the factors identified, in addition to educational strategies targeting healthcare providers, are necessary to enhance patient adherence. PMID:26232704

  1. Adhesion Forces and Composition of Planktonic and Adhering Oral Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Maitra, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Slomp, A. M.; Busscher, H. J.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome consists of a planktonic microbiome residing in saliva and an adhering microbiome (the biofilm adhering to oral hard and soft tissues). Here we hypothesized that possible differences in microbial composition of the planktonic and adhering oral microbiome on teeth can be related t

  2. Measuring adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, S; Frey, M; Harris, M; Arfken, C

    2005-04-01

    Parent, child, physician report and pill counts were used to measure adherence in paediatric HIV. Relationships to viral load were assessed. Pill counts were considered invalid. Adherence measures did not correlate with one another. Physicians reported lower adherence than parents, but parent and physician report correlated with viral load. The clinical and research utility of the various measures are discussed.

  3. Ethical Questions in Medical Electronic Adherence Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Eyal, Nir; Musiimenta, Angella; Haberer, Jessica E

    2016-03-01

    Electronic adherence monitors (EAMs) record and report an array of health behaviors, ranging from taking daily medications to wearing medical devices. EAMs are utilized in research worldwide and are being investigated for clinical use. However, there is also growing popular concern about the extent to which electronic devices may be used to monitor individuals, including allegations in the media that EAMs represent a move towards "Big Brother" in medicine. Here, we highlight the unique benefits as well as the potential ethical challenges that electronic adherence monitoring generates. These challenges surround autonomy, privacy and confidentiality, trust, and ancillary care obligations. We describe key questions within each of these domains that warrant further investigation, and present potential solutions to many of the concerns raised. PMID:26358284

  4. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process. PMID:27338300

  5. Medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather C; Fox, Patrick J; Wallhagen, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the population, yet their physical and mental health status is extremely poor. This article presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the understanding older adults with schizophrenia have of their physical health status. The study was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia from a variety of settings using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Self-management of psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications and its effect on participants' health status was one of the central themes that emerged from the study. Different styles of medication adherence were identified and factors associated with each style are presented. The findings provide insights into the design of clinical interventions aimed at promoting medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia.

  6. Membrane potential mediates the cellular binding of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Edwin H.; Li, Ye; Kumar, Umesh; Sureka, Hursh V.; Zhang, Xianren; Payne, Christine K.

    2013-06-01

    The use of nanoparticles for cellular therapeutic or sensing applications requires nanoparticles to bind, or adhere, to the cell surface. While nanoparticle parameters such as size, shape, charge, and composition are important factors in cellular binding, the cell itself must also be considered. All cells have an electrical potential across the plasma membrane driven by an ion gradient. Under standard conditions the ion gradient will result in a -10 to -100 mV potential across the membrane with a net negative charge on the cytosolic face. Using a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy experiments and dissipative particle dynamics simulations, we have found that a decrease in membrane potential leads to decreased cellular binding of anionic nanoparticles. The decreased cellular binding of anionic nanoparticles is a general phenomenon, independent of depolarization method, nanoparticle composition, and cell type. Increased membrane potential reverses this trend resulting in increased binding of anionic nanoparticles. The cellular binding of cationic nanoparticles is minimally affected by membrane potential due to the interaction of cationic nanoparticles with cell surface proteins. The influence of membrane potential on the cellular binding of nanoparticles is especially important when considering the use of nanoparticles in the treatment or detection of diseases, such as cancer, in which the membrane potential is decreased.The use of nanoparticles for cellular therapeutic or sensing applications requires nanoparticles to bind, or adhere, to the cell surface. While nanoparticle parameters such as size, shape, charge, and composition are important factors in cellular binding, the cell itself must also be considered. All cells have an electrical potential across the plasma membrane driven by an ion gradient. Under standard conditions the ion gradient will result in a -10 to -100 mV potential across the membrane with a net negative charge on the

  7. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  8. Can adherence to antihypertensive therapy be used to promote adherence to statin therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Chapman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard H Chapman1, Elise M Pelletier1, Paula J Smith1, Craig S Roberts21US Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Global Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAObjective: To compare adherence with statin therapy in patients switching to single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium with patients adding a separate statin to their amlodipine regimen.Methods: We identified hypertensive patients prescribed amlodipine who switched to amlodipine/atorvastatin (switch or added a statin to their amlodipine regimen (add-on from July 2004 to June 2007. Propensity score matching (1 switch:3 add-on was applied based on ‘nearest neighbor’ approach. The primary adherence measure was patients with proportion of days covered (PDC ≥0.80 at 180 days; secondary measures included mean PDC and persistence. A sensitivity analysis was performed, accounting for total statin/amlodipine exposure.Results: Among 4556 matched patients (n = 1139 switch; n = 3417 add-on, mean age was 53.9 years and 52.1% were male. After 180 days, adherence with statin therapy was higher for the switch vs add-on cohort (50.8% vs 44.3%; P < 0.001. After adjusting for pre-index amlodipine adherence, the switch cohort was more likely to be adherent than the add-on cohort (odds ratio: 1.64 [95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 1.89]. Persistence was higher in the switch than the add-on cohort (127.6 vs 117 days; P < 0.001.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients taking amlodipine who initiated statin therapy via single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin were more likely to remain adherent to their statin than patients adding a separate statin to their antihypertensive regimen.Keywords: adherence, amlodipine, atorvastatin, cardiovascular disease, persistence, single-pill

  9. Concordance of adherence measurement using self-reported adherence questionnaires and medication monitoring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan; Koleva, Yordanka; Fonseca, Vivian; Kalsekar, Anupama; Pawaskar, Manjiri

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review was to identify and examine the literature on the association between medication adherence self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and medication monitoring devices. The primary literature search was performed for 1980-2009 using PubMed, PubMed In Process and Non-Indexed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Ovid HealthStar, EMBASE (Elsevier) and Cochrane Databases and using the following search terms: 'patient compliance', 'medication adherence', 'treatment compliance', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'drugs', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance' and 'medications'. We identified studies that included SRQs and electronic monitoring devices to measure adherence and focused on the SRQs that were found to be moderately to highly correlated with the monitoring devices. Of the 1679 citations found via the primary search, 41 full-text articles were reviewed for correlation between monitoring devices and SRQs. A majority (68%) of articles reported high (27%), moderate (29%) or significant (12%) correlation between monitoring devices (37 using Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS®] and four using other devices) and SRQs (11 identified and numerous other unnamed SRQs). The most commonly used SRQs were the Adult/Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG/PACTG; 24.4%, 10/41) followed by the 4-item Morisky (9.8%, 4/41), Brief Medication Questionnaire (9.8%, 4/41) and visual analogue scale (VAS; 7.3%, 3/41). Although study designs differed across the articles, SRQs appeared to report a higher rate of medication adherence (+14.9%) than monitoring devices. In conclusion, several medication adherence SRQs were validated using electronic monitoring devices. A majority of them showed high or moderate correlation with medication adherence measured using monitoring devices, and could be considered for measuring patient

  10. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundele OA; Moodley D; Pillay AW; Seebregts CJ

    2016-01-01

    Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factor...

  11. Adherence to asthma guidelines in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghmann, M C; Sexton, M

    1999-06-01

    Adherence to asthma practice guidelines is low. Improved compliance could potentially improve care of patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients managed in a general practice with an associated asthma clinic are more likely to use asthma medications according to clinical practice guidelines than patients managed in the general surgery of the practice. A cross-sectional study of adult asthmatics, aged 18-55 years, was conducted in six British general practices. Prescription data on all asthma medication was collected for a 6-month period. Information on asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, and how patients used their inhaled beta2-agonist was collected through questionnaire. The prescription data for asthma medication and patient use of inhaled beta2-agonist were compared to the British Thoracic Society's (BTS) Guidelines for Management of Asthma in Adults to determine if the patient's asthma medication regimen was appropriate. There was no significant association found between appropriate asthma medication and asthma clinic attendance or other patient characteristics. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low. Fifty-eight percent of the asthma patients used asthma medication regimens that were not consistent with the BTS guidelines published 1 year earlier. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low regardless of patient characteristics, including asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, or individual practice. These findings underscore the need to document the utility of clinical practice guidelines which may improve physician compliance.

  12. Adherent Raindrop Modeling, Detectionand Removal in Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shaodi; Tan, Robby T; Kawakami, Rei; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2016-09-01

    Raindrops adhered to a windscreen or window glass can significantly degrade the visibility of a scene. Modeling, detecting and removing raindrops will, therefore, benefit many computer vision applications, particularly outdoor surveillance systems and intelligent vehicle systems. In this paper, a method that automatically detects and removes adherent raindrops is introduced. The core idea is to exploit the local spatio-temporal derivatives of raindrops. To accomplish the idea, we first model adherent raindrops using law of physics, and detect raindrops based on these models in combination with motion and intensity temporal derivatives of the input video. Having detected the raindrops, we remove them and restore the images based on an analysis that some areas of raindrops completely occludes the scene, and some other areas occlude only partially. For partially occluding areas, we restore them by retrieving as much as possible information of the scene, namely, by solving a blending function on the detected partially occluding areas using the temporal intensity derivative. For completely occluding areas, we recover them by using a video completion technique. Experimental results using various real videos show the effectiveness of our method. PMID:26485475

  13. Relationship of cell surface morphology and composition of Streptococcus salivarius K+ to adherence and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerkamp, A H; van der Mei, H C; Slot, J W

    1987-01-01

    The cell surfaces of a range of variants of Streptococcus salivarius HB, altered in cell wall antigen composition, were compared with those of the parent with respect to adherence, ability to adsorb to hexadecane, morphology, and exposure of lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Adherence to host surfaces was measured by using both saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads and tissue-cultured HeLa cells, and interbacterial adherence was measured by using Veillonella alcalescens V1 cells. Progressive loss of the protease-sensitive fibril classes was generally associated with decreasing ability to adsorb to hexadecane. However, increased exposure of protein antigen C (AgC) increased the apparent hydrophobicity of the cell. This correlated with the finding that AgC was the most hydrophobic of the solubilized fibrillar cell wall antigens. Collectively, this demonstrates that adsorption to hydrophobic ligands is directly related to the density of the fibrillar layer on the cells and the properties and surface exposure of specific fibril classes. The involvement of hydrophobic interactions in AgC-associated attachment was suggested by its sensitivity to low levels of the hydrophobic bond-breaking agent tetramethyl urea, although the reduction was not to the level of adherence observed with strains lacking AgC. However, hydrophobicity was less essential to other adherence reactions. Circumstantial evidence, including immunoelectron microscopy, showing that LTA was virtually absent from the fibrillar layer, whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting that surface exposure of LTA related inversely to the density of the fibrillar layer, and agarose gel electrophoresis, showing that LTA was not specifically associated with protein fibrillar antigens, strongly suggested that LTA does not confer hydrophobic properties to these cells and is not involved in adherence reactions associated with the cell wall protein antigens. Images PMID:3804445

  14. [Adherence to chronic medication: also a frequent problem in Belgium!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless

  15. Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Adherence to behavioural intervention programmes is a necessary condition for beneficial outcomes to be achieved. This study tested whether social cognitive variables and coping plans predict adherence. Design and methods. Adherence was examined in a randomized controlled trial with healt

  16. Adherence to inhaled therapy, mortality and hospital admission in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Anderson, J A; Calverley, P M A;

    2009-01-01

    between adherence and mortality remained unchanged and statistically significant after adjusting for other factors related to prognosis (hazard ratio 0.40 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.46), p... adherence and hospital admission remained unchanged and significant in a multivariate analysis (rate ratio 0.58 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.73, p... was more pronounced in patients with good adherence than in those with poor adherence. CONCLUSION: Adherence to inhaled medication is significantly associated with reduced risk of death and admission to hospital due to exacerbations in COPD. Further research is needed to understand these strong...

  17. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  18. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  19. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Kedar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  20. Diet and Exercise Adherence and Practices among Medically Underserved Patients with Chronic Disease: Variation across Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative ("n" = 71) and quantitative ("n" = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study among patients with…

  1. Response costs of mammography adherence: Iranian women’s perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayarian, Mahsa; Mazloomi-Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saied; Lamyian, Minoor; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Tavangar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mammography as the most common secondary prevention method has known to be helpful in detecting breast cancer at the early stages. Low level of participation among women toward mammography uptake due to cultural beliefs is a great concern. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of women about response costs of mammography adherence (MA) in Yazd, Iran. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was performed. Fourteen women,one oncology nurse, and a breast cancer survivor were purposefully interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by directed content analysis method based on protection motivation theory (PMT). Results: One main theme was emerged from the analysis namely called "response costs".Two main categories were also emerged from the data; (1) psychological barriers with six subcategories including "embarrassment," "worry about being diagnosed with cancer," "preoccupation with underlying disease," "misconception about mammography," "need for an accompanying person," and "internalizing the experiences of the others," and (2) maladaptive coping modes which encompassed three subcategories: "religious faith," "fatalism," and"avoidance and denial." Conclusion: Useful information was provided about the response costs of mammography utilization based on the perceptions of women. Cognitive barriers may be decreased by conducting modifications in women’s awareness and attitude toward MA as well as changing the national health system infrastructures. Incorporating religious and cultural belief systems into MA educational programs through motivational messages is recommended. PMID:27386423

  2. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-08-15

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation.

  3. Empirical study on entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Zhang; Renbin Xiao

    2009-01-01

    From the theoretical point of view,the states of manufacturing resources can be monitored and assessed through the amount of information needed to describe their technological structure and operational state.The amount of information needed to describe cellular manufacturing systems is investigated by two measures:the structural entropy and the operational entropy.Based on the Shannon entropy,the models of the structural entropy and the operational entropy of cellular manufacturing systems are developed,and the cognizance of the states of manufacturing resources is also illustrated.Scheduling is introduced to measure the entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems,and the feasible concepts of maximum schedule horizon and schedule adherence are advanced to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of schedules.Finally,an example is used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodology.

  4. Supporting children to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi method insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-07-01

    on the child, the caregiver and the health worker and which are situated within the reality of fragile health systems. The findings highlight the need for cost-free and less complex paediatric ART regimes and culturally appropriate tools to support children's adherence.

  5. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  6. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  7. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  8. Adherence ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis on prosthetic biomaterials: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Shida,1 Hironobu Koseki,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Hideyuki Sakoda,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Bacterial adhesion to the surface of biomaterials is an essential step in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to the surface of solid biomaterials, including oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy (Oxinium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium alloy, commercially pure titanium, and stainless steel, and performed a biomaterial-to-biomaterial comparison. The test specimens were physically analyzed to quantitatively determine the viable adherent density of the S. epidermidis strain RP62A (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 35984. Field emission scanning electron microscope and laser microscope examination revealed a featureless, smooth surface in all specimens (average roughness <10 nm. The amounts of S. epidermidis that adhered to the biomaterial were significantly lower for Oxinium and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy than for commercially pure titanium. These results suggest that Oxinium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are less susceptible to bacterial adherence and are less inclined to infection than other materials of a similar degree of smoothness.Keyword: bacterial adhesion, implant, infection, surface character

  9. Distinct mechanical behavior of HEK293 cells in adherent and suspended states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Kihara, Takanori; Miyake, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical features of individual animal cells have been regarded as indicators of cell type and state. Previously, we investigated the surface mechanics of cancer and normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states using atomic force microscopy. Cancer cells possessed specific mechanical and actin cytoskeleton features that were distinct from normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states. In this paper, we report the unique mechanical and actin cytoskeletal features of human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Unlike normal stromal and cancer cells, the surface stiffness of adherent HEK293 cells was very low, but increased after cell detachment from the culture surface. Induced actin filament depolymerization revealed that the actin cytoskeleton was the underlying source of the stiffness in suspended HEK293 cells. The exclusive mechanical response of HEK293 cells to perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton resembled that of adherent cancer cells and suspended normal stromal cells. Thus, with respect to their special cell-surface mechanical features, HEK293 cells could be categorized into a new class distinct from normal stromal and cancer cells.

  10. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaprabhu Achappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is now considered as a manageable chronic illness. There has been a dramatic reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV related morbidity and mortality due to antiretroviral therapy. A high level of adherence (>95% is required for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. There are many barriers to adherence in both developed and developing countries. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine adherence levels and factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, 116 HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS version 11.5. Chi-square test was done. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 116 participants, 63.7% reported adherence ≥ 95%. Mean adherence index was 91.25%. Financial constraints, forgetting to take medication, lack of family care, depression, alcohol use, social stigma and side effects to antiretroviral therapy were barriers for adherence in our study. Conclusion: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in south India is suboptimal. Intensive adherence counseling should be provided to all patients before initiation ofantiretroviral therapy. Health care providers must identify possible barriers to adherence at the earliest and provide appropriate solutions.

  11. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguso, Glenda N; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-08-01

    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the US report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore the factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transgender women. This secondary analysis is based on data collected from the Symptom and Genetic Study that included a convenience sample of 22 self-identified transgender women, 201 non-transgender men, and 72 non-transgender women recruited in northern California. Self-reported medication adherence was assessed using the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence Questionnaire. Gender differences in demographic and clinical variables were assessed, as were differences between transgender women reporting high and low adherence. Transgender women had lower adherence to medications compared to non-transgender males and non-transgender females (p = .028) and were less likely to achieve viral suppression (p = .039). Within the transgender group, Black/African-Americans reported better adherence than participants who were Whites/Caucasian or other races (p = .009). Adherence among transgender women was unrelated to medication count and estrogen therapy, but consistent with other reports on the HIV population as a whole; transgender women with high adherence were more likely to achieve viral suppression compared to the transgender women with low adherence. Despite the high incidence of HIV infection in the transgender population, few studies focus on TWLWH, either in regard to their adherence to antiretroviral therapies or to their healthcare in general. To address ongoing health disparities, more studies are needed focusing on the transgender population's continuum of care in

  12. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  13. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  14. Using communication skills to improve adherence in children with chronic disease : The adherence equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Paul L. P.; Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A.

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence to maintenance medication is common in paediatric chronic conditions. Despite the common belief that nonadherence is therapy-resistant, and the apparent lack of evidence for successful interventions to improve adherence, there is, in fact, a considerable body of evidence suggesting that

  15. Adherence to HAART : processes explaining adherence behavior in acceptors and non-acceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Sigrid C. J. M.; Grypdonck, Mieke H. F.; de Grauwe, Annelies; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore and clarify the underlying processes which lead to (non)-adherence behavior in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a qualitative study was conducted. Thirty-seven in-depth interviews were held with 30 Caucasian HIV-positive patients. Additional dat

  16. Automated microinjection system for adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youoku, Sachihiro; Suto, Yoshinori; Ando, Moritoshi; Ito, Akio

    2007-07-01

    We have developed an automated microinjection system that can handle more than 500 cells an hour. Microinjection injects foreign agents directly into cells using a micro-capillary. It can randomly introduce agents such as DNA, proteins and drugs into various types of cells. However, conventional methods require a skilled operator and suffer from low throughput. The new automated microinjection techniques we have developed consist of a Petri dish height measuring method and a capillary apex position measuring method. The dish surface height is measured by analyzing the images of cells that adhere to the dish surface. The contrast between the cell images is minimized when the focus plane of an object lens coincides with the dish surface. We have developed an optimized focus searching method with a height accuracy of +/-0.2 um. The capillary apex position detection method consists of three steps: rough, middle, and precise. These steps are employed sequentially to cover capillary displacements of up to +/-2 mm, and to ultimately accomplish an alignment accuracy of less than one micron. Experimental results using this system we developed show that it can introduce fluorescent material (Alexa488) into adherent cells, HEK293, with a success rate of 88.5%.

  17. Statistical Dynamics of Religions and Adherents

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M; Ausloos, Marcel; Petroni, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    Religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. All religions may evolve in their beliefs and adapt to the society developments. A religion is a social variable, like a language or wealth, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. Several questions can be raised, as considered in this study: e.g. (i) from a ``macroscopic'' point of view : How many religions exist at a given time? (ii) from a ``microscopic'' view point: How many adherents belong to one religion? Does the number of adherents increase or not, and how? No need to say that if quantitative answers and mathematical laws are found, agent based models can be imagined to describe such non-equilibrium processes. It is found that empirical laws can be deduced and related to preferential attachment processes, like on evolving network; we propose two different algorithmic models reproducing as well the data. Moreover, a population growth-death equation is shown to be a plausible modeling of evolution dynamics in a...

  18. Adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis....../contact, with at least one prescription of MTX (L04AX03), were included. Results. A total of 18,703 (47.6%) patients had ever used MTX among 39,286 with a diagnosis of RA; among the MTX users, 16,503 (88.2%) had filed more than one MTX prescription. The median time from diagnosis to first MTX prescription was 0.66 (IQR...... 0.26-1.80) years. In those who filed more than one MTX prescription, the mean adherence time for ≥7.5 mg MTX per week was 1,925 (IQR 467-3,056) days for patients treated in private practice versus 1,892 (IQR 452-3,316) days for patients treated in hospital. The main determinants of nonadherence were...

  19. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  20. Dynamics of active cellular response under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitive nature of cells and the elastic response of the matrix, we predict the dynamics of orientation of cells. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the forces generated by cells in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material can be used to distinguish systems in which cell activity is controlled by stress from those where cell activity is controlled by strain. Reference: Nature Physics, vol. 3, pp 655 (2007).

  1. Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli Strains from Patients with Crohn's Disease Survive and Replicate within Macrophages without Inducing Host Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Glasser, Anne-Lise; Boudeau, Jerome; Barnich, Nicolas; Perruchot, Marie-Helene; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains recovered from Crohn's disease (CD) lesions are able to adhere to and invade cultured intestinal epithelial cells. We analyzed the behavior within macrophages of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) strains isolated from patients with CD. All the 15 AIEC strains tested were able to replicate extensively within J774-A1 cells: the numbers of intracellular bacteria increased 2.2- to 74.2-fold at 48 h over that at 1 h postinfection. By use of murine peritoneal macrophages and...

  2. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  3. Effect of Temperature on Fimbrial Gene Expression and Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranich Hinthong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of temperature on bacterial virulence has been studied worldwide from the viewpoint of climate change and global warming. The bacterium enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC is the causative agent of watery diarrhea and shows an increasing incidence worldwide. Its pathogenicity is associated with the virulence factors aggregative adherence fimbria type I and II (AAFI and AAFII, encoded by aggA and aafA in EAEC strains 17-2 and 042, respectively. This study focused on the effect of temperature increases from 29 °C to 40 °C on fimbrial gene expression using real-time PCR, and on its virulence using an aggregative adherence assay and biofilm formation assay. Incubation at 32 °C caused an up-regulation in both EAEC strains 17-2 and strain 042 virulence gene expression. EAEC strain 042 cultured at temperature above 32 °C showed down-regulation of aafA expression except at 38 °C. Interestingly, EAEC cultured at a high temperature showed a reduced adherence to cells and an uneven biofilm formation. These results provide evidence that increases in temperature potentially affect the virulence of pathogenic EAEC, although the response varies in each strain.

  4. [e-Health interventions and improvement in treatment adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Angelien; Bredie, S J H Bas; van Laarhoven, C J H M Kees; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Burger, David M; van Onzenoort, Hein A W

    2014-01-01

    Poor adherence to medication is one of the most important determinants in the treatment of patients with chronic disorders. e-Health-based interventions may be able to improve treatment adherence. This article gives an overview of the available e-Health interventions and the extent to which they can improve adherence. We searched in the PubMed, Cinahl, PsycInfo, and Embase databases for e-Health interventions that aimed at improving adherence to treatment. Of the 16 included studies, 15 used a website and one used an app. Ten studies showed a significant improvement in treatment adherence by using the intervention. e-Health interventions were generally complex. Simple interventions were the most successful in improving treatment adherence.

  5. Health Literacy Explains Racial Disparities in Diabetes Medication Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Cavanaugh, Kerri; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Kripalani, Sunil; White, Richard O.; Elasy, Tom A.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2011-01-01

    While low health literacy and suboptimal medication adherence are more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority groups than Whites, little is known about the relationship between these factors in adults with diabetes, and whether health literacy or numeracy might explain racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes medication adherence. Previous work in HIV suggests health literacy mediates racial differences in adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, but no study to date has explored numeracy as a media...

  6. Characterization of the adherence properties of Streptococcus salivarius.

    OpenAIRE

    Weerkamp, A H; McBride, B C

    1980-01-01

    The adherence and aggregation properties of 46 human oral Streptococcus salivarius isolates were examined. A total of 41% of the isolates aggregated with whole human saliva, 50% aggregated with human erythrocytes, and 85% adhered to human buccal epithelial cells. Strains that aggregated with saliva and erythrocytes usually reacted with Streptococcus group K typing serum whereas the non-hemagglutinating strains did not. K+ strains also adhered more strongly to human buccal epithelial cells tha...

  7. Treatment adherence among adolescents with epilepsy: what really matters?

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Loretta; Zebrack, Bradley; Plegue, Melissa; Joshi, Sucheta; Shellhaas, Renée

    2013-01-01

    Treatment adherence is often suboptimal among adolescents with epilepsy. Yet knowledge is lacking regarding factors that affect adherence. Empirical studies and theories of human development suggest that self-management skills, self-efficacy, and sense of control are related to adherence. Eighty-eight adolescents with epilepsy, and their parents, completed standardized measures assessing epilepsy knowledge and expectations, treatment self-management, sense of control, and self-efficacy. Bette...

  8. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to primary human gastrointestinal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Clyne, M.; Drumm, B

    1993-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori adheres only to gastric cells in vivo. However, the organism adheres to a wide variety of nongastric cells in vitro. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to assess the adherence of H. pylori to primary epithelial cells isolated from gastric, duodenal, and colonic biopsy specimens by collagenase digestion. After incubation of bacteria and cells together and subsequent staining with a two-stage fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled H. pylori antibody method, cells with a...

  9. Denial and Acceptance Coping Styles and Medication Adherence in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Aldebot, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy G.

    2009-01-01

    Antipsychotics are often the first line of treatment for individuals with schizophrenia (Fialko et al., 2008). One challenge to effective treatment is lack of adherence to prescribed medication. Lower rates of adherence are associated with considerably higher rates of relapse and poorer course of illness. Therefore studying characteristics that may be related to medication adherence is important. Coping styles may be one such factor. Individuals utilize a variety of coping mechanisms to manag...

  10. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Are Egyptian children adherent to maintenance therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Elhamy Rifky Abdel Khalek; Laila M Sherif; Naglaa Mohamed Kamal; Gharib, Amal F.; H M Shawky

    2015-01-01

    Background, Aims, Settings and Design: Poor adherence to oral maintenance chemotherapy can cause relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A multicenter study for the evaluation of adherence to oral 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) maintenance chemotherapy for childhood ALL in Egypt to identify contributing factors and possible steps to promote adherence. Materials and Methods: The study included 129 children with ALL in complete remission receiving 6-MP single daily oral dose in the evening....

  11. Adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO GU; JIN YING CHEN; MIN HOU; JING DONG HE; JI WU CHANG

    2006-01-01

    Human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis was established to investigate the adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to this cell line, in which the primary cell culture was performed by using cultivation of the normal epithelium of renal pelvis in keratinocyte serum free medium (K-SFM)with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE). Both UPEC132 obtained from urine specimen of patients with pyelonephritis and the pilus-free representative strain E. coli K-12p678-54 were used to study the adherence of these strains on human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis.The UPEC adherence was performed with observation on the morphological changes of the adhered cells,while the adhesion rates and indices were calculated in different times of experiment. In addition, the virulence genes hly and cnf1 of UPEC132 were detected by multiplex PCR assay. In this study, the human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis was found to exhibit the character of the transitional epithelial cells. Compared with the control group, the adhesion rates and indices began to increase from 15 min of the experiment time and reached its peak in 120 min. The adhesion rate and index of UPEC132 to human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis were 74.4% and 34.0 respectively. Many microscopic changes in the primary cells adhered with UPEC132 could be detected, such as rounding or irregularity in shape,unevenness in staining and the cytoplasmic and nuclear changes. It suggests that human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis can be used for the experiment on UPEC adhesion, thus providing a basis for the further study on the pathogenesis of UPEC.

  12. Adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto- chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei MARCACCI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The capacity of Candida albicans adherence is one ofits main factors of virulence. Surfaces of different materials canpropitiate conditions for higher or lower adherence and greater virulence of the microorganisms. Objective: Evaluate the adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto-chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering. Material and methods: Twenty-four cylindrical samples have been constructed, 12 of titanium and 12 of cobalt-chromium, divided in 4 groups of six. All have been polished in the habitual form by the same technician. Samples have been sandpapered at about high rotation for 15 seconds each sandpaper, on all its surface. A group of each metal was sandpapered only with sandpaper for metal number 80. The two other groups have been sandpapered in agreement with the sequence (decreasing granulation: 80, 150 and 220. Samples have been sterilized and located in plates of cells culture. In each well of the plate was added standardized amount of Sabouraud broth and suspension containing 106 cells per milliliter of C. albicans (ATCC 18804. After incubation, the number of adhered cells per mm2 was obtained by the method of sowing in plate of Petri. The obtained values have been tabulated and submitted to the tests of ANOVA and Tukey,with level of significance of 5%. Results: There was statistical difference for the granulation of sandpapers, what not occurred when considering metals.Conclusion: The bigger the final granulation of sandpaper, the greater the adherence and the type of metal did not influence in the result.

  13. Estimating the number of viable animal cells in multi-well cultures based on their lactate dehydrogenase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, G; Wyatt, D; Kitos, P A

    2000-01-01

    A method is described for estimating the numbers ofanimal cells in multi-well culture by simultaneouslymeasuring the lactate dehydrogenase activity of thetotal culture and the medium. The difference betweenthe two reflects the dehydrogenase content of thecells and correlates with cell number. This LDH/INTmethod was tested using several lines of normal andtransformed suspension and adherent cells. Thelactate dehydrogenase activities of duplicate cultureswere determined colourimetrically using reactioncocktails containing lactate, NAD(+), diaphorase,and p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, with and withoutTriton X-100. The difference in absorbance at 490 nm(DeltaA(490) = A(490, test) - A(490, control)) was used to calculate the lactatedehydrogenase activity of the total culture (+ Triton)and the medium (- Triton). The cellular lactatedehydrogenase activity (difference between totaland medium dehydrogenaseactivities) was proportional to viable cell number. The effects on cell growth of four metabolicinhibitors, sodium azide, actinomycin D,cycloheximide, and taxol, were determined using theLDH/INT assay and direct cell counting. The inhibitorconcentrations that caused decreases in the LDHactivity and cell number by 50% were similar. TheLDH/INT assay is quick and sensitive, works equallywell for adherent and suspension cells, and providesinformation about LDH activities of both the mediumand cells. It is particularly useful for screeningpotential cell-growth inhibitors. PMID:19002967

  14. Impact of prescription size on statin adherence and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehler Phillip S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapy with 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins improve outcomes in a broad spectrum of patients with hyperlipidemia. However, effective therapy requires ongoing medication adherence; restrictive pharmacy policies may represent a barrier to successful adherence, particularly among vulnerable patients. In this study we sought to assess the relationship between the quantity of statin dispensed by the pharmacy with patient adherence and total cholesterol. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 3,386 patients receiving more than one fill of statin medications through an integrated, inner-city health care system between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2002. Our measure of adherence was days of drug acquisition divided by days in the study for each patient, with adequate adherence defined as ≥ 80%. Log-binomial regression was used to determine the relative risk of various factors, including prescription size, on adherence. We also assessed the relationship between adherence and total cholesterol using multiple linear regression. Results After controlling for age, gender, race, co-payment, comorbidities, and insurance status, patients who obtained a majority of fills as 60-day supply compared with 30-day supply were more likely to be adherent to their statin medications (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.28–1.55, P Conclusion In a healthcare system serving predominantly indigent patients, the provision of a greater quantity of statin medication at each prescription fill contributes to improved adherence and greater drug effectiveness.

  15. The effect of reminder systems on patients' adherence to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenerty SD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah D Fenerty1, Cameron West1, Scott A Davis1, Sebastian G Kaplan3, Steven R Feldman1,2,41Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USABackground: Patient adherence is an important component of the treatment of chronic disease. An understanding of patient adherence and its modulating factors is necessary to correctly interpret treatment efficacy and barriers to therapeutic success.Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to systematically review published randomized controlled trials of reminder interventions to assist patient adherence to prescribed medications.Methods: A Medline search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1968 and June 2011, which studied the effect of reminder-based interventions on adherence to self-administered daily medications.Results: Eleven published randomized controlled trials were found between 1999 and 2009 which measured adherence to a daily medication in a group receiving reminder interventions compared to controls receiving no reminders. Medication adherence was measured as the number of doses taken compared to the number prescribed within a set period of time. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant increase in adherence in groups receiving a reminder intervention compared to controls (66.61% versus 54.71%, 95% CI for mean: 0.8% to 22.4%. Self-reported and electronically monitored adherence rates did not significantly differ (68.04% versus 63.67%, P = 1.0. Eight of eleven studies showed a statistically significant increase in adherence for at least one of the reminder group arms compared to the control groups receiving no reminder intervention.Limitations: The data are limited by imperfect measures of adherence due to variability in data collection methods. It is also likely

  16. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: are we doing enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, T; Mijch, A; Fairley, C K

    2003-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of response to therapy. For optimal antiretroviral therapy response, individuals need to take more than 95% of their prescribed medication. The most widely used method for measuring adherence is self-report of the number of missed doses and this should be done at every clinic visit. There are several well-recognized predictors of poor adherence, such as illicit drug use, depression, limited knowledge or ambivalence about starting treatment. Adherence can be improved by addressing these issues or through other means such as pill boxes or electronic reminders. PMID:12752896

  17. Tuberculosis treatment adherence and fatality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Rafael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adherence to long tuberculosis (TB treatment is a key factor in TB control programs. Always some patients abandon the treatment or die. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with defaulting from or dying during antituberculosis treatment. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of TB cases diagnosed during 2006-2007 by 61 members of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR. Predictive factors of completion outcome (cured plus completed treatment vs. defaulters plus lost to follow-up and fatality (died vs. the rest of patients were based on logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Of the 1490 patients included, 29.7% were foreign-born. The treatment outcomes were: cured 792 (53.2%, completed treatment 540 (36.2%, failure 2 (0.1%, transfer-out 33 (2.2%, default 27 (1.8%, death 27 (1.8%, lost to follow-up 65 (4.4%, other 4 (0.3%. Completion outcome reached 93.5% and poor adherence was associated with: being an immigrant (OR = 2.03; CI:1.06-3.88, living alone (OR = 2.35; CI:1.05-5.26, residents of confined institutions (OR = 4.79; CI:1.74-13.14, previous treatment (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98, being an injecting drug user (IDU (OR = 9.51; CI:2.70-33.47 and treatment comprehension difficulties (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98. Case fatality was 1.8% and it was associated with the following variables: age 50 or over (OR = 10.88; CI:1.12-105.01, retired (OR = 12.26;CI:1.74-86.04, HIV-infected (OR = 9.93; CI:1.48-66.34, comprehension difficulties (OR = 4.07; CI:1.24-13.29, IDU (OR = 23.59; CI:2.46-225.99 and Directly Observed Therapy (DOT (OR = 3.54; CI:1.07-11.77. Conclusion Immigrants, those living alone, residents of confined institutions, patients treated previously, those with treatment comprehension difficulties, and IDU patients have poor adherence and should be targeted for DOT. To reduce fatality rates, stricter monitoring is required

  18. OBTENTION OF RABIES ANTIGEN THROUGH BHK21 CELLS ADHERED TO MICROCARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZATTI GALLINA Neuza M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Four rabies antigen batches were produced from virus suspensions resulting from BHK21 cells adhered to microcarriers (Cytodex 1, inoculated and cultured in a bioreactor. In parallel the methodology of production of rabies virus through cultures of BHK21 cells in monolayers in bottles was used. The results obtained showed that infecting titles were 106.69 DL50/mL and 107.28 DL50/mL for suspensions cultured in bottles and in the bioreactor, respectively. The viral suspension volumes collected were on average 11,900 per batch from the bioreactor and 800mL per bottle. Ten horses were immunized with the antigen produced in the bioreactor. The means of antirabies antibody titers found were 240 and 212 IU/mL after the initial and the first booster doses, respectively. Rabies antigen with satisfactory infecting titers can be obtained on a large scale by culturing in a bioreactor inoculated BHK21 cells adhered to microcarriers.

  19. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  20. Hematopoietic effects of benzene inhalation assessed by long-term bone marrow culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, N G

    1996-12-01

    The strong and long-lasting hematotoxic effect after benzene exposure in vivo (300 ppm, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) was assessed in mice with bone marrow cells grown in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). Bone marrow cultures initiated 1 day after the last benzene exposure did not produce adequate numbers of hematopoietic cells over 3 weeks, and, in most cases, no erythroid or myeloid clonogenic cells could be recovered. The adherent cell layer of these cultures had a lowered capacity for supporting in vitro hematopoiesis after the second seeding with normal bone marrow cells compared with control cultures. Two weeks after the last benzene exposure, body weight, hematocrit, bone marrow cellularity, and committed hematopoietic progenitor content (BFU-E and CFU-GM) were regenerated to normal or subnormal values, whereas hematopoiesis in LTBMC was very poor. Over 8 weeks, little or no significant committed progenitor production was observed. Treatment of mice exposed to benzene with hemin (three doses of 3 micrograms/g bw i.v. over 2 weeks for a total dose of 9 micrograms/g) partially overcame the toxic effect of benzene on the hematopoietic system as measured by the LTBMC method. Cultures from mice treated with hemin had a modest recovery of BFU-E and CFU-GM clonogenic potential after 5 to 6 weeks in LTBMC. In contrast, little or no recovery was obtained for the adherent cell layer clonogenic capacity, even after hemin treatment. These results clearly indicate a strong, long-lasting toxic effect on the bone marrow stroma and a limited recovery of hematopoietic potential by clonogenic cells of the nonadherent population after in vivo hemin treatment.

  1. Biofilm formation and adherence characteristics of an Elizabethkingia meningoseptica isolate from Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenia Hafizah Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elizabethkingia spp. are opportunistic pathogens often found associated with intravascular device-related bacteraemias and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Their ability to exist as biofilm structures has been alluded to but not extensively investigated. Methods The ability of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica isolate CH2B from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and E. meningoseptica strain NCTC 10016T to adhere to abiotic surfaces was investigated using microtiter plate adherence assays following exposure to varying physico-chemical challenges. The role of cell-surface properties was investigated using hydrophobicity (bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons, autoaggregation and coaggregation assays. The role of extracellular components in adherence was determined using reversal or inhibition of coaggregation assays in conjunction with Listeria spp. isolates, while the role of cell-free supernatants, from diverse bacteria, in inducing enhanced adherence was investigated using microtitre plate assays. Biofilm architecture of isolate CH2B alone as well as in co-culture with Listeria monocytogenes was investigated using flow cells and microscopy. Results E. meningoseptica isolates CH2B and NCTC 10016T demonstrated stronger biofilm formation in nutrient-rich medium compared to nutrient-poor medium at both 21 and 37°C, respectively. Both isolates displayed a hydrophilic cell surface following the bacterial adherence to xylene assay. Varying autoaggregation and coaggregation indices were observed for the E. meningoseptica isolates. Coaggregation by isolate CH2B appeared to be strongest with foodborne pathogens like Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Listeria spp. Partial inhibition of coaggregation was observed when isolate CH2B was treated with heat or protease exposure, suggesting the presence of heat-sensitive adhesins, although sugar treatment resulted in increased coaggregation and may be associated with a lactose

  2. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417

  3. Magnetic Cellular Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...

  4. Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreemanta K. Parida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs, as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy.

  5. CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for adherent-invasive E. coli, supporting ileal mucosa colonization in Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnich, Nicolas; Carvalho, Frédéric A; Glasser, Anne-Lise; Darcha, Claude; Jantscheff, Peter; Allez, Matthieu; Peeters, Harald; Bommelaer, Gilles; Desreumaux, Pierre; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2007-06-01

    The ileal mucosa of Crohn disease (CD) patients is abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) that are able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we show that CD-associated AIEC strains adhere to the brush border of primary ileal enterocytes isolated from CD patients but not controls without inflammatory bowel disease. AIEC adhesion is dependent on type 1 pili expression on the bacterial surface and on carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) expression on the apical surface of ileal epithelial cells. We report also that CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for AIEC adhesion and is abnormally expressed by ileal epithelial cells in CD patients. In addition, our in vitro studies show that there is increased CEACAM6 expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells after IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha stimulation and after infection with AIEC bacteria, indicating that AIEC can promote its own colonization in CD patients. PMID:17525800

  6. Adherence to COPD guidelines in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIMS: To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD...... guidelines. METHODS: A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted...... were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. RESULTS: Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed...

  7. Sister Carrie, an Adherent of Desires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴水妹

    2007-01-01

    Sister Carrie is one of the most controversial characters in American literature.Thought as a "fallen woman" firstly,she was defined as a "new woman" by some critics later. However, by digging into the motivaton behind the whole process of Carrie's "success", the relationship between Carrie and her creator (the author), the social conditions of then American, it can be found that Carrie has never been free-standing on her thought and she has never found her real-sdf even after becoming a famous actress. In a society dominated by mass consumerism Carrie is only an adherent of her own desires. She also is a representative of all those country girls flooded into cities, a symbol and a sacrifice of the urbanization of America in a time countryside was overcome by cities.

  8. Nematic order by elastic interactions and cellular rigidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, B. M.; Safran, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    We predict spontaneous nematic order in an ensemble of active force generators with elastic interactions as a minimal model for early nematic alignment of short stress fibers in non-motile, adhered cells. Mean-field theory is formally equivalent to Maier-Saupe theory for a nematic liquid. However, the elastic interactions are long-ranged (and thus depend on cell shape and matrix elasticity) and originate in cell activity. Depending on the density of force generators, we find two regimes of cellular rigidity sensing for which orientational, nematic order of stress fibers depends on matrix rigidity either in a step-like manner or with a maximum at an optimal rigidity.

  9. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  10. A fully automated system for adherent cells microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automated robotic system to perform cell microinjections to relieve human operators from this highly difficult and tedious manual procedure. The system, which uses commercial equipment currently found on most biomanipulation laboratories, consists of a multitask software framework combining computer vision and robotic control elements. The vision part features an injection pipette tracker and an automatic cell targeting system that is responsible for defining injection points within the contours of adherent cells in culture. The main challenge is the use of bright-field microscopy only, without the need for chemical markers normally employed to highlight the cells. Here, cells are identified and segmented using a threshold-based image processing technique working on defocused images. Fast and precise microinjection pipette positioning over the automatically defined targets is performed by a two-stage robotic system which achieves an average injection rate of 7.6 cells/min with a pipette positioning precision of 0.23 μm. The consistency of these microinjections and the performance of the visual targeting framework were experimentally evaluated using two cell lines (CHO-K1 and HEK) and over 500 cells. In these trials, the cells were automatically targeted and injected with a fluorescent marker, resulting in a correct cell detection rate of 87% and a successful marker delivery rate of 67.5%. These results demonstrate that the new system is capable of better performances than expert operators, highlighting its benefits and potential for large-scale application. PMID:24403406

  11. A fully automated system for adherent cells microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automated robotic system to perform cell microinjections to relieve human operators from this highly difficult and tedious manual procedure. The system, which uses commercial equipment currently found on most biomanipulation laboratories, consists of a multitask software framework combining computer vision and robotic control elements. The vision part features an injection pipette tracker and an automatic cell targeting system that is responsible for defining injection points within the contours of adherent cells in culture. The main challenge is the use of bright-field microscopy only, without the need for chemical markers normally employed to highlight the cells. Here, cells are identified and segmented using a threshold-based image processing technique working on defocused images. Fast and precise microinjection pipette positioning over the automatically defined targets is performed by a two-stage robotic system which achieves an average injection rate of 7.6 cells/min with a pipette positioning precision of 0.23 μm. The consistency of these microinjections and the performance of the visual targeting framework were experimentally evaluated using two cell lines (CHO-K1 and HEK) and over 500 cells. In these trials, the cells were automatically targeted and injected with a fluorescent marker, resulting in a correct cell detection rate of 87% and a successful marker delivery rate of 67.5%. These results demonstrate that the new system is capable of better performances than expert operators, highlighting its benefits and potential for large-scale application.

  12. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  13. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  14. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin Wu; Jinghan Zhang; Xiaoming Ben

    2013-01-01

    Non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s from C57BL/6J mice were sepa-rated and cultured using the “pour-off” method. Non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesen-chymal stem cel s developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supple-mentation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor expressed the neuron specific markers, neurofilament-200 and NeuN, in vitro. Non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s fromβ-galactosidase transgenic mice were also transplanted into focal ischemic brain (right corpus striatum) of C57BL/6J mice. At 8 weeks, cel s positive for LacZ andβ-galactosidase staining were observed in the ischemic tissues, and cel s co-labeled with both β-galactosidase and NeuN were seen by double immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggest that the non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s could differentiate into neuronal-like cel s in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  16. About Culture and Value. Research Orientations in Cross-Cultural Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Dupriez

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the main challenges addressed to intercultural management, in relationship with knowledge management, and considering the context of economic and cultural globalization. Romania, as a recently adhered EU country is examined, from the perspective of its cultural potential and managerial problems. Various models are discussed, and solutions to further implications in the field of intercultural management research are proposed and critically debated.

  17. Comparison of gene expression of mitogenic kinin path in adherent and non-adherent CD 34-stem cells using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Machaj

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more interesting cells present in the umbilical cord blood - as far as their potential clinical use is concerned - are stem cells not presenting the CD34 antigen. These are the pluripotential cells with their biological properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells, with the ability to differentiate into such tissue types as bone, cartilage, nervous (to some extent, glia and muscle. The authors compared the activity of genes coding the proteins in mitogenic signal paths activated by kinin receptors using oligonucleotide microarrays in adherent and non-adherent CD 34- cells derived from umbilical cord blood. In the linear regression model with a 95% prognosis area for differentiating genes outside this area, the following genes were selected: c-jun (present in 3 isoforms and c-fos. The fos and jun genes create the AP-1 transcriptive factor which regulates the expression of genes taking part in numerous cellular processes, including the cell cycle and mitosis. The obtained results shed some light on the molecular processes behind the MSC proliferation and are a starting point for further studies on the mesenchymal stem cell biology.

  18. Adherence to Pharmacological Treatment for Juvenile Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotar, Dennis; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Demeter, Christine A.; McNamara, Nora K.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Stange, Jonathan; Vijay, Priya; Findling, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and correlates of adherence to divalproex sodium (DVPX) and lithium carbonate (Li) combination treatment during the initial stabilization treatment phase. Method: Adherence to Li/DVPX combination therapy was measured by the presence or absence of minimum serum concentrations of…

  19. Patient adherence to medical treatment. A review of reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Dijk, L. van; Ridder, D. de; Heerdink, R.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the e

  20. Bromide as marker for drug adherence in hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, R.L.; Uum, S.H.M. van; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Insufficient drug adherence is an important reason for inadequate blood pressure control. Currently, methods that measure drug adherence objectively are lacking. Objective methods are needed to help improve blood pressure control and outcome in hypertensive

  1. Towards tailored and targeted adherence assessment to optimise asthma management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job F. M.; Trappenburg, Jaap C. A.; van der Molen, Thys; Chavannes, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to emphasise the need for a more comprehensive and tailored approach to manage the broad nature of non-adherence, to personalise current asthma management. Although currently several methods are available to measure the extent of asthma patients' adherence, the vast majority do

  2. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, Esther C; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Grol, Richard P T M; Braat, Didi D M; Hermens, Rosella P M G; Kremer, Jan A M

    2010-04-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the association between guideline adherence and outcome of IUI care. In a retrospective cohort study, 1100 infertile couples who underwent IUI treatment at 10 Dutch hospitals were asked to grant access to their medical record for assessment of guideline adherence using 25 systematically developed guideline-based performance indicators. A total of 558 couples who started 2334 IUI cycles participated. Guideline adherence regarding 20 process and five structure aspects of IUI care was often substandard and varied considerably between hospitals. Out of 10 possible associations investigated, guideline adherence regarding sperm quality and guideline adherence regarding the total number of IUI cycles were associated with improved ongoing pregnancy rates after IUI. Thus, guideline adherence in IUI care is far from optimal and varies substantially between hospitals. As associations between guideline adherence and ongoing pregnancy after IUI were mainly non-significant, further research is needed to evaluate associations between guideline adherence and other outcomes of IUI care besides ongoing pregnancy, such as patient safety and cost effectiveness. PMID:20129823

  3. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  4. Reliability of assessment of adherence to an antimicrobial treatment guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, PGM; Gans, ROB; Panday, PVN; Degener, JE; Laseur, M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    2005-01-01

    Assessment procedures for adherence to a guideline must be reliable and credible. The aim of this study was to explore the reliability of assessment of adherence, taking account of the professional backgrounds of the observers. A secondary analysis explored the impact of case characteristics on asse

  5. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447... Noninstitutional Services § 447.304 Adherence to upper limits; FFP. (a) The Medicaid agency must not pay more than... payments may be made only up to the reasonable charge under Medicare. (c) FFP is not available for a...

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy in youngsters : adherence in a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roder, E.; Berger, M. Y.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2008-01-01

    Background Adherence is essential for effective treatment. Although several trials on the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in youngsters have been published, few contain data on medication intake. Objective We aimed to quantify adherence both to study protocol and medication intake as wel

  7. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs)of expected weight loss ca...

  8. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs) of expected weight loss c...

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  10. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.......Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...

  11. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elísio; Giardini, Anna; Savin, Magda; Menditto, Enrica; Lehane, Elaine; Laosa, Olga; Pecorelli, Sergio; Monaco, Alessandro; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Medication adherence and persistence is recognized as a worldwide public health problem, particularly important in the management of chronic diseases. Nonadherence to medical plans affects every level of the population, but particularly older adults due to the high number of coexisting diseases they are affected by and the consequent polypharmacy. Chronic disease management requires a continuous psychological adaptation and behavioral reorganization. In literature, many interventions to improve medication adherence have been described for different clinical conditions, however, most interventions seem to fail in their aims. Moreover, most interventions associated with adherence improvements are not associated with improvements in other outcomes. Indeed, in the last decades, the degree of nonadherence remained unchanged. In this work, we review the most frequent interventions employed to increase the degree of medication adherence, the measured outcomes, and the improvements achieved, as well as the main limitations of the available studies on adherence, with a particular focus on older persons. PMID:26396502

  12. Control of Entamoeba histolytica adherence involves metallosurface protease 1, an M8 family surface metalloprotease with homology to leishmanolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose E; Sateriale, Adam; Bessoff, Kovi E; Huston, Christopher D

    2012-06-01

    Invasive amebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica infection is an important cause of morbidity in developing countries. The E. histolytica genome contains two homologues to the metalloprotease leishmanolysin gene, Entamoeba histolytica MSP-1 (EhMSP-1) and EhMSP-2, while the commensal ameba Entamoeba dispar has lost EhMSP-1. In this study, we sought to characterize E. histolytica metallosurface protease 1 (EhMSP-1). Using immunoprecipitation and a model substrate, we found that EhMSP-1 was a functional metalloprotease. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that EhMSP-1 localized to the cell surface and revealed the existence of distinct, nonclonal trophozoite populations with high and low EhMSP-1 surface abundance that became synchronized following serum starvation. Phenotypic assays were performed after silencing EhMSP-1. Adherence of EhMSP-1-deficient trophozoites to tissue culture cell monolayers was more than five times greater than that of control amebas, but surface staining of several antigens, including the galactose adherence lectin, was unchanged. EhMSP-1 silencing similarly increased adherence to both viable and apoptotic Jurkat lymphocytes. Tissue culture cell monolayer destruction was reduced by EhMSP-1 silencing, although it was blocked almost completely by inhibiting cysteine proteases. Consistent with a primary defect in regulation of amebic adherence, EhMSP-1 silencing also resulted in reduced mobility on tissue culture cell monolayers and in increased phagocytosis. In conclusion, EhMSP-1 was shown to be a surface metalloprotease involved in regulation of amebic adherence, with additional effects on cell motility, cell monolayer destruction, and phagocytosis.

  13. An optical pressure chamber designed for high numerical aperture studies on adherent living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, L; Reitz, F; Wang, J

    1995-06-01

    We have developed an optical pressure chamber designed for use with high numerical aperture oil immersion microscope objectives at working pressures up to 1,000 psi (67 atm abs). The chamber is optimized for studies of living, adherent, cultured mammalian cells using high resolution epifluorescence and phase contrast microscopy, and biophysical techniques such as fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching and optical trapping. The primary optical window assembly of the chamber can be removed and placed into a standard 35-mm tissue culture dish, allowing for culture, microinjection, and micromanipulation of adherent cells before they are loaded into the chamber. The chamber is designed to fit into a commercially available stage heater for temperature control, and we used a computer-controlled high pressure liquid chromatography pump for pressure control. A graphic software interface allows the user to program "dive" profiles and to link temperature and pressure data with digital image files of specimens under study. A minor modification of the present design will allow perfusion at high pressure. PMID:7633279

  14. Microstructures, mechanical behavior, cellular response, and hemocompatibility of bulk ultrafine-grained pure tantalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, F L; Zheng, Y F; Wang, Y; Wang, J T

    2014-02-01

    Bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) pure Ta had been successfully prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique till eight passes. The 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 8th ECAPed Ta samples were investigated in the current study, with the 0th ECAPed Ta sample as the microcrystalline counterpart control. The microstructure and grain size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffractometer patterns, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis by means of histogram. Although the mechanical behavior of all the experimental samples were analyzed through uniaxial tensile measurement and microhardness test, in vitro biological interactions onto the substrates such as protein adsorption, cellular responses derived from different types of cell lines, and the activity of erythrocyte and platelets were further evaluated and specifically assessed by bicinchoninic acid assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the method of colorimetric reading. A superior percentage of protein adsorption can be observed on the substrate of the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta (around 90%), even above those on the tissue culture plate (control) and the other ECAPed Ta samples. Furthermore, the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta shows no cytotoxic within 4 days culture when incubated with the murine fibroblast cell lines (L929). In addition, a priority order in the growth of endothelial cells (ECV304) other than vascular smooth muscle cells was observed in the case of the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta. In terms of hemolysis rate and adhered platelets (both the amount and the individual morphology), an evolutionary outcome of preferentially enhanced hemocompatibility can be concluded for the case of the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta. PMID:23908098

  15. Fibrinogen-Induced Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the predominant bacterial species associated with dental caries, can enter the bloodstream and cause infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells induced by human fibrinogen. The putative mechanism by which biofilm formation is induced as well as the impact of fibrinogen on S. mutans resistance to penicillin was also evaluated. Bovine plasma dose dependently induced biofilm formation by S. mutans. Of the various plasma proteins tested, only fibrinogen promoted the formation of biofilm in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of complex aggregates of bacterial cells firmly attached to the polystyrene support. S. mutans in biofilms induced by the presence of fibrinogen was markedly resistant to the bactericidal effect of penicillin. Fibrinogen also significantly increased the adherence of S. mutans to endothelial cells. Neither S. mutans cells nor culture supernatants converted fibrinogen into fibrin. However, fibrinogen is specifically bound to the cell surface of S. mutans and may act as a bridging molecule to mediate biofilm formation. In conclusion, our study identified a new mechanism promoting S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells which may contribute to infective endocarditis.

  16. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-12-01

    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children. PMID:26280164

  17. Morphological investigations of cells that adhered to the irregular patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Hee; Min, Junhong

    2009-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface consisting irregular pattern was investigated to develop cell-based biochip using PDMS. PDMS surface was modified with nano- and micro-combined patterns using surface deformation technology. Hydrophobicity of nano-patterned PDMS surface was sustained. Nevertheless it has irregular patterns consisting of micro- and nano-patterns. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy results by immunostaining method, human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) adhered well on irregularly patterned surface without any reagents such as gelatin and collagen, compared to commercial culture dish. It implies PDMS material can be utilized as template for cell-based biochip without any reagents. PMID:19427124

  18. Limits to the adherence of oxide scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture mechanics is used to identify criteria under which uniform oxide scales may be expected to fail due to rapidly applied strains. The most common failure mode occurs when the strain, ε, builds up in the scale until the strain energy density per unit area exceeds the fracture surface energy, γ, of the oxide. This produces spalling when ε > (2γ/hE)1/2, where h is the scale thickness and E is the oxide Youngs modulus. In thin scales, as the external strain is applied to the oxide via the metal substrate, it is clear that no further strain can be applied to the oxide if the substrate has itself been strained beyond yield. This gives rise to extended oxide adherence in which the oxide cracks and forms a series of islands but remains attached to the deformed metal. When the oxide thickness is less than its comminution limit, the flaw size necessary for brittle fracture exceeds the oxide thickness and the oxide yields in a ductile manner without cracking. The results are presented as maps of failure strain versus oxide thickness for various oxide systems such as Fe3O4, Cr2O3, Al2O3, SiO2 and NiO. The observed cases of spalling are found to lie within the predicted regions. (author)

  19. Genetic divergence in cellular resistance to heat shock in cattle: differences between breeds developed in temperate versus hot climates in responses of preimplantation embryos, reproductive tract tissues and lymphocytes to increased culture temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Lopes, F F; Chase, C C; Al-Katanani, Y M; Krininger, C E; Rivera, R M; Tekin, S; Majewski, A C; Ocon, O M; Olson, T A; Hansen, P J

    2003-02-01

    controlling resistance to cellular heat shock. PMID:12578542

  20. Integrated cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  1. [Concept analysis of medication adherence in patients with chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases. However, many patients with chronic disease do not adhere to their medication regimen. This results in worsening symptoms and frequent re-hospitalizations. As a result, healthcare providers may view these patients as bad. Medication adherence is a complex concept. Analyzing this concept may assist nurses to improve patient-centered care. This paper uses Walker & Avant's method to conduct a concept analysis of medication adherence. Results show the defining attributes of medication adherence as: (1) knowing and agreeing to the medication; (2) communicating and negotiating the regimen; and (3) active, continuous involvement in and appraisal of the treatment effect. Identified antecedents of medication adherence included the patient having: (1) a prescribed medication regimen; (2) cognitive and action abilities in her / his role as a patient; and (3) level of preparation for medication treatment. Identified consequences of medication adherence include: (1) improving symptom control; (2) decreasing re-hospitalizations and mortality; (3) reducing medical care costs; (4) restoring self-esteem; and (5) diminishing depression. It is hoped that this concept analysis provides a reference for nurses to achieve a better understanding of medication adherence and further improve nursing practice. PMID:24899565

  2. Adherence to lipid-lowering treatment: the patient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casula M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Manuela Casula,1 Elena Tragni,1 Alberico Luigi Catapano1,21Epidemiology and Preventive Pharmacology Centre (SEFAP, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto San Giovanni, ItalyAbstract: Despite the widespread prescription of highly effective lipid-lowering medications, such as the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, a large portion of the population has lipid levels higher than the recommended goals. Treatment failures have been attributed to a variety of causes but the most important is likely to be poor adherence to therapy in the form of irregular or interrupted intake and the high frequency of discontinuation or lack of persistence. Adherence is a multidimensional phenomenon determined by the interplay of patient factors, physician factors, and health care system factors. Patients' knowledge and beliefs about their illness, motivation to manage it, confidence in their ability to engage in illness-management behaviors, and expectations regarding the outcome of treatment and the consequences of poor adherence interact to influence adherence behavior. Patient-related factors account for the largest incremental explanatory power in predicting adherence. This article provides an overview of this critical issue, focusing on patient role in determining adherence level to lipid-lowering therapy.Keywords: hyperlipidemia/drug therapy, medication adherence, patient preference, health behavior

  3. Challenges of treatment adherence in older patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Ruscin, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    Patient adherence to a medication regimen is critical to treatment outcome, quality of life and future healthcare costs. For elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, obstacles to adherence can be particularly complex. Beyond age-related and economic factors, elderly patients with Parkinson's disease often require complicated dosing or titration schedules and have multiple co-morbidities that necessitate administration of therapies from multiple drug classes. In addition, neuropsychiatric disturbances and cognitive impairment, which are often part of the disease process, can affect adherence, as can variable responses to anti-parkinsonian agents as the disease progresses. Several recent studies in patients with Parkinson's disease point to the need for establishing good adherence patterns early and maintaining these throughout the course of treatment. To achieve optimal adherence in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches appears to be the best strategy for success. Examples include a strong provider-patient relationship, educational intervention by phone or face-to-face contact, simplified dosing and administration schedules, management and understanding of medication adverse events, and the use of adherence aids such as pill boxes and hour-by-hour organizational charts. Research into new avenues that include improved drug monitoring, pharmacogenetics and neuroprotective regimens may give rise to better adherence in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease in the future. PMID:19220071

  4. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  5. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  6. Spillover adherence effects of fixed-dose combination HIV therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauf TL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Teresa L Kauf1, Keith L Davis2, Stephanie R Earnshaw2, E Anne Davis31Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3Independent consultant, Pittsboro, NC, USAAbstract: The impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC products on adherence to other, non-fixed regimen components has not been examined. We compared adherence to a third antiretroviral (ART component among patients receiving a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone consisting of the FDC Epzicom®, GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC (abacavir sulfate 600 mg + lamivudine 300 mg; FDC group versus NRTI combinations taken as two separate pills (NRTI Combo group using data from a national sample of 30 health plans covering approximately 38 million lives from 1997 to 2005. Adherence was measured as the medication possession ratio (MPR. Multivariate logistic regression compared treatment groups based on the likelihood of achieving ≥95% adherence, with sensitivity analyses using alternative thresholds. MPR was assessed as a continuous variable using multivariate linear regression. Covariates included age, gender, insurance payer type, year of study drug initiation, presence of mental health and substance abuse disorders, and third agent class. The study sample consisted of 650 FDC and 1947 NRTI Combo patients. Unadjusted mean adherence to the third agent was higher in the FDC group than the NRTI Combo group (0.92 vs 0.85; P < 0.0001. In regression analyses, FDC patients were 48% and 39% more likely to achieve 95% and 90% third agent adherence, respectively (P ≤ 0.03. None of the other MPR specifications achieved comparable results. Among managed care patients, use of an FDC appears to substantially improve adherence to a third regimen component and thus the likelihood of achieving the accepted standard for adherence to HIV therapy of 95%.Keywords

  7. The cultural divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...... that they are dramatically different. Results: Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved...... amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary: We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance....

  8. Fewer Bacteria Adhere to Softer Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolewe, Kristopher W; Peyton, Shelly R; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2015-09-01

    Clinically, biofilm-associated infections commonly form on intravascular catheters and other hydrogel surfaces. The overuse of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance and underscores the importance of developing alternative strategies that delay the onset of biofilm formation. Previously, it has been reported that during surface contact, bacteria can detect surfaces through subtle changes in the function of their motors. However, how the stiffness of a polymer hydrogel influences the initial attachment of bacteria is unknown. Systematically, we investigated poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and agar hydrogels that were 20 times thicker than the cumulative size of bacterial cell appendages, as a function of Young's moduli. Soft (44.05-308.5 kPa), intermediate (1495-2877 kPa), and stiff (5152-6489 kPa) hydrogels were synthesized. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus attachment onto the hydrogels was analyzed using confocal microscopy after 2 and 24 h incubation periods. Independent of hydrogel chemistry and incubation time, E. coli and S. aureus attachment correlated positively to increasing hydrogel stiffness. For example, after a 24 h incubation period, there were 52 and 82% fewer E. coli adhered to soft PEGDMA hydrogels than to the intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels, respectively. A 62 and 79% reduction in the area coverage by the Gram-positive microbe S. aureus occurred after 24 h incubation on the soft versus intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels. We suggest that hydrogel stiffness is an easily tunable variable that could potentially be used synergistically with traditional antimicrobial strategies to reduce early bacterial adhesion and therefore the occurrence of biofilm-associated infections.

  9. A Review of the Effects of Medication Delivery Systems on Treatment Adherence in Children with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Background: A patient's adherence to an appropriate treatment regimen is necessary to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with childhood asthma. Many factors influence the success of treatment adherence.

  10. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  11. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) between the bacterial cell count estimated by the pour plate method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells. PMID:27406324

  12. The State of Cellular Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    Cellular probe technology is one of several potentially promising technologies for obtaining accurate travel time information. In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated E911 requirements that cellular location be provided when 911 emergency calls come in to emergency management authorities. The E911 requirements allow 50 -300 meters from the emergency call location, depending on the type of cellular phone technology used and whether handset-based or network-based solutions...

  13. Copper and nickel adherently electroplated on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. E.

    1967-01-01

    Anodic treatment of titanium alloy enables electroplating of tightly adherent coatings of copper and nickel on the alloy. The alloy is treated in a solution of hydrofluoric and acetic acids, followed by the electroplating process.

  14. Attrition and adherence in the online treatment of chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elizabeth A; Vincent, Norah; Lewycky, Samantha; Walsh, Kaitlyn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM; Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983) to explain adherence and attrition in an online treatment program for chronic insomnia. Responses to questionnaire measures of the TPB and TTM were used to predict adherence and dropout over the subsequent 5 weeks of treatment. Results showed that there was a 17% dropout rate and that perceived behavioral control, social support, and intention to complete the program were significantly associated with adherence to sleep hygiene homework. Attrition was predicted only by symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity. Implications are that these models should be considered to maximize adherence. PMID:20582757

  15. Clinical pharmacist interventions to support adherence to thrombopreventive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla

    individualised interventions and team-based care, e.g. integrating a clinical pharmacist with particular focus on patients’ drug-related problems. One approach with growing evidence of improving medication adherence is motivational interviewing (MI). So far, no clinical pharmacist intervention using MI has......-based patient interview and three follow-up telephone calls. There was no difference in the primary outcome, the composite medication possession ratio (MPR) for antiplatelets, anticoagulants and statins during the year after hospitalisation, as assessed by analysing prescription refill records. At 12 months...... to the one in the first study, except that the patient interview was more structured using the Drug Adherence Work-up (DRAW) tool and an adherence questionnaire for identifying potential adherence and lifestyle-related problems. At 12 months, 20.3% of the patients in the intervention group (N=231) were non...

  16. Older Adults' Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and 'solutions' included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults' attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults' uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors' perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes. PMID:26214265

  17. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-12-24

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  18. Older Adults' Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and 'solutions' included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults' attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults' uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors' perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.

  19. Predictors of duloxetine adherence and persistence in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Z

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhanglin Cui, Yang Zhao, Diego Novick, Douglas FariesEli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjectives: Adherence to medication for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM is predictive of lower overall health-care costs, and thus a lower burden on both patients and providers. The objectives of this study were to examine the predictors of adherence to and persistence with duloxetine therapy among commercially insured FM patients, and to identify subgroups of patients with high duloxetine persistence and adherence.Study design: This cross-sectional, retrospective study analyzed medical and pharmacy records over 1 year for patients in the US aged 18–64 years with FM who initiated (no prior 90-day use duloxetine treatment in 2008.Methods: Adherence to duloxetine was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR, with high adherence defined as MPR ≥ 0.8. Persistence was defined as the duration of therapy from the index date to the earliest of: the ending date of the last prescription, the date of the first gap of >15 days between prescriptions, or the end of the study period (12 months. Demographic and clinical predictors of adherence were examined via multiple logistic regression (MLR, and subgroups of duloxetine-persistent and -adherent patients were identified using classification and regression trees (CART.Results: Among 4660 duloxetine patients, 33% achieved high adherence. Factors associated with high adherence from MLR included older age, North Central and Northeast regions, prior venlafaxine, pregabalin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, or other antidepressant use, or comorbid dyslipidemia or osteoarthritis (all P < 0.05. CART analysis revealed that patients with prior antidepressant use, aged ≥46, or prior osteoarthritis had higher MPR (all P < 0.05, and patients aged ≥45 with a history of SSRI, venlafaxine, or anticonvulsant use had longer duration of therapy (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: Patients with high adherence to and

  20. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  1. Medical adherence to topical corticosteroid preparations prescribed for psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Hansen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Topical corticosteroids and corticosteroid combinations are the principal treatments in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate published literature dealing with medical adherence to topical corticosteroid or corticosteroid combinations in patients with psoriasis. MATERIALS...... health outcome in topical treatment of psoriasis, further studies should be conducted addressing determinants of nonadherence and test interventions to improve adherence. Validated measurements of medical nonadherence, prescription registers, or medication-weight are needed....

  2. Overactive bladder: strategies to ensure treatment compliance and adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal P; Wagg A

    2016-01-01

    Prabhpreet Dhaliwal, Adrian Wagg Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Abstract: Overactive bladder is a common, debilitating condition for many patients who may benefit from pharmacological management of their condition. However, adherence to medication in this condition is markedly worse than other chronic medical conditions. This review explores what is known about persistence and the factors which influence medication adherence for overactive bladder, those fac...

  3. Patient adherence to aromatase inhibitor treatment in the adjuvant setting

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, S.; Madarnas, Y.; Sehdev, S.; Martin, G; Bajcar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in adjuvant systemic therapy and detection of early disease have resulted in a decline of breast cancer death rates across all patient age groups in Canada. Non-adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy in the setting of early breast cancer may significantly affect patient outcome. Factors associated with medication adherence are complex and may be patient-related, therapy-related, and health care provider–related. To date, there is a gap in the literature concerning a comprehensive...

  4. Medication adherence: the critical step towards better patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Desai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence is defined as patient's adherence to take their medications as prescribed and continue to take the prescribed medication for stipulated time frame. Medication non-adherence is a growing concern to physicians, healthcare systems, and other stakeholders (e.g., payers and there is an increasing evidence of its prevalence and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes eventually resulting into higher costs of care. The cost of non-adherence has been estimated at $100 billion to $300 billion annually, including costs from avoidable hospitalizations, nursing home admissions, and premature deaths. Improving adherence to medication is critical to improve the quality of health care, to encourage better chronic care management, and promote better health outcomes. Reasons for non-adherence are multiple and complex. Studies have reported that poor adherence to drug dosage is due to patient perception that the disease is non-significant, adverse drug effects, lack of treatment effectiveness, and the patient's poor or incomplete knowledge of the disease and (cost. A multifactorial approach is required to tackle this complex problem as a single approach will be ineffective for all patients. The most effective intervention is to use a combination of approaches and address literacy, behavior, and organizational issues. There are challenges as well as opportunities in addressing the public health issue of medication adherence. Changing healthcare reforms, advances in digital health media, social media and modern technologies can now provide alternatives to tackle this issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 748-754

  5. Immunosuppressants and the renal transplant recipient: factors affecting adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    In renal transplantation, immunosuppressants are prescribed to patients to prevent graft loss. Although the extent of adherence required for such treatment to prevent graft loss has not been determined, it is thought to be high. Despite this, research suggests adherence rates for renal transplant recipients to be only between 50% and 95%. Considering the impact of graft loss on the renal patient, the national healthcare budget and on the limited resource of donor organs, it is important to id...

  6. Objective Assessment of Adherence to Inhalers by COPD Patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, Imran; Cushen, Breda; Greene, Garrett; Seheult, Jansen; Seow, Dexter; Rawat, Fiona; MacHale, Elaine; Mokoka, Matshediso; Moran, Catherine Nora; Bhreathnach, Aoife Sartini; MacHale, Philippa; Tappuni, Shahed; Deering, Brenda; Jackson, Mandy; McCarthy, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Objective adherence to inhaled therapy by patients with COPD has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to objectively quantify adherence to preventer DiskusTM inhaler therapy by patients with COPD with an electronic audio recording device (INCATM). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. On discharge from hospital patients were given a salmeterol/fluticasone inhaler with an INCATM device attached. Analysis of this audio quantified the frequency...

  7. Exploring self-management and adherence in haemophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijvers, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout life, a patient with severe haemophilia is confronted with many treatment-related challenges. Insight into self-management and non-adherence could improve the quality of care for these patients. The aim of this thesis was to provide an overview of a series of studies on self-management and adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia. Based on series of studies, aspects of treatment were explored: learning and performing self-infusion, achieving self-management skills in adolescence, ad...

  8. Treatment non-adherence in pseudo-refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodtkorb, Eylert; Samsonsen, Christian; Sund, Janne Kutschera; Bråthen, Geir; Helde, Grethe; Reimers, Arne

    2016-05-01

    Non-adherence to antiepileptic drug treatment strongly affects the outcome of epilepsy and is frequently clinically unrecognized. This review addresses current knowledge on medication-taking behavior in people with epilepsy, as well as the importance of tailoring interventions to the individual patterns of non-adherence. Non-adherence can be categorized as non-initiation, poor execution (accidental or intentional) or non-persistence and are related to clinical characteristics and health care barriers. All available methods to assess adherence are hampered by shortcomings. Self-reports are indirect and subjective. Pill-counts, electronic bottle-tops and pharmacy records are objective, but indirect measures of drug ingestion. Therapeutic drug monitoring is both direct and objective, but pharmacokinetic and diurnal variability must be taken into account. Young adults with generalized epilepsy may be particularly vulnerable to non-adherence. The drug burden in the form of polytherapy, multiple dosing and side effects are obvious obstacles. Poor understanding of the principles of prophylactic treatment as well as drug costs may be important in people with low socioeconomic status. Depression is also associated with low adherence. In people with multihandicaps, failed oral intake may be due to behavioral or physical problems, as well as insufficient education of the caregivers. Non-adherence often results in seizure breakthrough and hospital admissions, but the consequences may be more dramatic. It is the leading cause of status epilepticus in people with epilepsy, and the association with sudden death (SUDEP) is clear. The management of poor drug-taking behavior should be based on the identification of the specific causes in each individual and corresponding multiprofessional interventions. Non-adherence to antiepileptic drugs needs more clinical and scientific attention. PMID:26897547

  9. MONETARY EXPECTATIONS OF THE ROMANIAN EXECUTIVES REGARDING THE ADHERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the monetary expectations induced to the managers of Romanian firms by adheration. It is based on an investigation among twenty Romanian executives regarding the impact on adheration over monetary aspects: inflation, exchange rates and adoption of euro. We conclude that the results of the monetary policy in the last years made the executives confident that the Romanian authorities could maintain the monetary stability after theadheration.

  10. Family Social Status and Dietary Adherence of Patients with Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Latif Gachkar; Gelareh Asadzadeh-Totonchi; Mohammadreza Alaei; Shirin Farivar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:There are several problems associated to the management of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Social status could be one of the affecting factors on dietary adherence in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate family social status and dietary adherence of PKU patients in Iranian population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we studied 105 Iranian PKU patients (born 1984 to 2010), treated and followed at Mofid Childrens Hospital, Tehran. Social status was defined b...

  11. Dietary Adherence During Weight Loss Predicts Weight Regain

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Pedro Del; Bryan, David R.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Gower, Barbara A.; Gary R. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22–25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adh...

  12. relA Enhances the Adherence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Beny Spira; Gerson Moura Ferreira; Luiz Gustavo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a known causative agent of diarrhea in children. In the process of colonization of the small intestine, EPEC synthesizes two types of adhesins, the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) and intimin. The BFP pilus is an adhesin associated with the initial stages of adherence of EPEC to epithelial cells, while the outer membrane protein intimin carries out the intimate adherence that takes place at the third stage of infection. BFP is encoded by the bfp operon l...

  13. Household Contact Screening Adherence among Tuberculosis Patients in Northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs

    Full Text Available Household contacts of active tuberculosis cases are at high risk of getting tuberculosis disease. Tuberculosis detection rate among contacts of household members is high. Hence, this study investigated household contact screening adherence and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Amhara region, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 10 - June 30, 2013 in five urban districts of Amhara region, where 418 patients receiving treatment at tuberculosis clinic were interviewed. All patients were interviewed using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bringing at least one household contact to TB clinic was regarded as adherent to household contacts screening. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate association.The overall adherence to household contact screening in Amhara region was 33.7%. Adherence was higher among Muslims than Christians. Adherence was high if patient took health education from Health Care Worker [AOR: 3.22, 95% CI: 1.88 to 5.51] and 2.17 times higher if patient had sufficient knowledge on tuberculosis [AOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.67] during interview. Relationship with contact was a significant [AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9] social related factor.One third of tuberculosis patients adhered to household contact screening in health facilities during their treatment course. Promoting knowledge of tuberculosis in the community and continuous health education to tuberculosis patients are recommended.

  14. Antimicrobial and anti-adherence activity of various combinations of coffee-chicory solutions on Streptococcus mutans: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Several studies have demonstrated the activity of natural plants on the dental biofilm and caries development. But few studies on the antimicrobial activity of coffee-based solutions were found in the literature. Further there was no study available to check the antimicrobial effect of coffee solutions with different percentages of chicory in it. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different combinations of coffee-chicory solutions and their anti-adherence effect on Streptococcus mutans to glass surface. Materials and Methods: Test solutions were prepared. For antimicrobial activity testing, tubes containing test solution and culture medium were inoculated with a suspension of S. mutans followed by plating on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI agar. S. mutans adherence to glass in presence of the different test solutions was also tested. The number of adhered bacteria (CFU/mL was determined by plating method. Statistical Analysis: Statistical significance was measured using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey′s post hoc test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Pure chicory had shown significantly less bacterial count compared to all other groups. Groups IV and V had shown significant reduction in bacterial counts over the period of 4 hrs. Regarding anti-adherence effect, group I-IV had shown significantly less adherence of bacteria to glass surface. Conclusions: Chicory exerted antibacterial effect against S. mutans while coffee reduced significantly the adherence of S. mutans to the glass surface.

  15. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E.; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R. Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G.; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  16. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-03

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  17. Sub-cellular structure studied by combined atomic force-fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trache, Andreea

    2009-03-01

    A novel experimental technique that integrates atomic force microscopy (AFM) with fluorescence imaging was used to study the role of extracellular matrix proteins in cellular organization. To understand the mechanism by which living cells sense mechanical forces, and how they respond and adapt to their environment, we developed a new technology able to investigate cellular behavior at sub-cellular level that integrates an AFM with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fast-spinning disk (FSD) confocal microscopy. Live smooth muscle cells exhibited differences in focal adhesions and actin pattern depending on the extracellular matrix used for substrate coating. Data obtained by using the AFM-optical imaging integrated technique offer novel quantitative information that allows understanding the fundamental processes of cellular reorganization in response to extracellular matrix modulation. The integrated microscope presented here is broadly applicable across a wide range of molecular dynamic studies in any adherent live cells.

  18. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  19. Comparison of adherent and non-adherent staphylococci in the induction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, U; Espersen, F; Kharazmi, A

    1995-01-01

    The ability to consume complement and activate neutrophils was investigated for staphylococci adherent to silicone surfaces and non-adherent staphylococci. Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC 14990 and Staphylococcus aureus strain E 2371 were used in this study. The bacteria were allowed...... at 37 degrees C. The bacteria consumed complement to approximately the same extent when adherent to the catheter segments, but more slowly in comparison with planktonic bacteria. When planktonic bacteria were compared, complement was consumed more quickly by S. epidermidis than by S. aureus. Measuring...... the induction of chemiluminescence by planktonic bacteria, S. epidermidis induced a lower response than S. aureus, while when adherent to the catheter segments the bacteria induced similar responses. These responses were only 15 to 20% of those induced by planktonic bacteria and only slightly higher than...

  20. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekwaletswe CT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an

  1. Caveolar vesicles generate DNA damage and perpetuate cellular aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith Wheaton

    2011-01-01

    @@ The replicative limit of human fibroblasts has long provided a model to assess the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular aging [1].In culture, fibroblasts which reach the end of their proliferative lifespan acquire profound molecular changes that limit their response to growth factors, and cause permanent exit from the cell cycle [2].

  2. Using Cellular Slime Molds in the High School Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the life cycle of the cellular slime molds Acrasiales. Experiments that can be used to explore the aggregation, migration, and culmination activities of the organism are suggested. Laboratory procedures for culturing these slime molds and listings of biological supply houses and literature references are also given. (MA)

  3. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  4. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  5. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg

    2016-10-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are still considered as gold standard for investigation of in vitro metabolism and hepatotoxicity in pharmaceutical research. It has been shown that the three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of PHH in a sandwich configuration between two layers of extracellular matrix (ECM) enables the hepatocytes to adhere three dimensionally leading to formation of in vivo like cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different ECM compositions on morphology, cellular arrangement and bile canaliculi formation as well as bile excretion processes in PHH sandwich cultures systematically. Freshly isolated PHH were cultured for 6 days between two ECM layers made of collagen and/or Matrigel in four different combinations. The cultures were investigated by phase contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis with respect to cell-cell connections, repolarization as well as bile canaliculi formation. The influence of the ECM composition on cell activity and viability was measured using the XTT assay and a fluorescent dead or alive assay. Finally, the bile canalicular transport was analyzed by live cell imaging to monitor the secretion and accumulation of the fluorescent substance CDF in bile canaliculi. Using collagen and Matrigel in different compositions in sandwich cultures of hepatocytes, we observed differences in morphology, cellular arrangement and cell activity of PHH in dependence of the ECM composition. Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes with an underlay of collagen seem to represent the best in vivo tissue architecture in terms of formation of trabecular cell arrangement. Cultures overlaid with collagen were characterized by the formation of abundant bile canaliculi, while the bile canaliculi network in hepatocytes cultured on a layer of Matrigel and overlaid with collagen showed the most branched and stable canalicular network. All cultures showed a time-dependent leakage of

  6. Impact of an exercise program on adherence and fitness indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting fitness level, weight, BMI, and % body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to those exercising.

  7. An exploration of factors influencing ambulance and emergency nurses protocol adherence in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Remco; Vloet, Lilian; Mintjes, Joke; Achterberg, Theo van

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to ambulance and ED protocols is often suboptimal. Insight into factors influencing adherence is a requisite for improvement of adherence. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of factors that influence ambulance and emergency nurses’ adherence to protocols.

  8. An exploration of factors influencing ambulance and emergency nurses' protocol adherence in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Schalk, D.M.; Mintjes-de Groot, J.; Achterberg, T. van

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adherence to ambulance and ED protocols is often suboptimal. Insight into factors influencing adherence is a requisite for improvement of adherence. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of factors that influence ambulance and emergency nurses' adherence to protocols. METHO

  9. Adherence to immunosuppression in adult lung transplant recipients : Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Otto H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; van der Bij, Wim

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adherence to medication is a favourable with regard to survival after kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Little is known about adherence to medication in lung transplant recipients. To determine the prevalence of adherence and identify risk factors of non-adherence (NA) we evaluate

  10. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Knops; M.N. Storm-Versloot; A.P.M. Mank; D.T. Ubbink; H. Vermeulen; P.M.M. Bossuyt; A. Goossens

    2010-01-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature gu

  11. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Zaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I. The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II. Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: In group I, there were 2.6 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p = 0.34. In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:70-5Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells

  12. Bacterial adherence and contamination during radiographic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, C E; White, J M; Goodis, H E; Rosenquist, J W

    1990-11-01

    Oral fluids are potential contaminants of radiographic processors. This investigation measured bacterial contamination in a radiographic processing room during times of high and low clinical activity and processing effects on five types of microorganisms. Cultures in the clinical setting, during high and low activity, were taken by brain-heart infusion agar plates placed near automatic processors. Site samples were taken of entrance, developer, fixer, water, and exit surfaces. Measurements of processing effects were accomplished by intentional contamination of films run in series through an automatic processor. Site samples were again taken of the processor. In the clinical setting colony-forming units increased with activity. Radiographic processing after intentional contamination decreased colony-forming units on films, but they increased for all processing solutions. Bacteria on radiographic film survived processing. Although processing procedures significantly reduce the number of bacteria on films, the potential for contamination and cross-contamination remains. PMID:2122350

  13. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuler KM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an

  14. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awachana Jiamsakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods: As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI (0.55 to 0.90, p=0.006, compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00, p=0.004 and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71, p<0.001. Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67, p=0.001 compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001. Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions: We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  15. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  16. Adherence with tobramycin inhaled solution and health care utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacco Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence with tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS during routine cystic fibrosis (CF care may differ from recommended guidelines and affect health care utilization. Methods We analyzed 2001-2006 healthcare claims data from 45 large employers. Study subjects had diagnoses of CF and at least 1 prescription for TIS. We measured adherence as the number of TIS therapy cycles completed during the year and categorized overall adherence as: low ≤ 2 cycles, medium >2 to Results Among 804 individuals identified with CF and a prescription for TIS, only 7% (n = 54 received ≥ 4 cycles of TIS per year. High adherence with TIS was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization when compared to individuals receiving ≤ 2 cycles (adjusted odds ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.84. High adherence with TIS was also associated with lower outpatient service costs (IQR: $2,159-$8444 vs. $2,410-$14,423 and higher outpatient prescription drug costs (IQR: $35,125-$60,969 vs. $10,353-$46,768. Conclusions Use of TIS did not reflect recommended guidelines and may impact other health care utilization.

  17. Adherence With Therapeutic Regimens: Behavioral and Pharmacoeconomic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Vincent J; Kamal, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    There is an extensive literature regarding nonadherence with both therapeutic regimens and medication. This literature includes reviews of empirical research regarding the factors associated with nonadherence. Health care system, provider, and patient factors as well as the nature of the illness and therapeutic regimen all effect adherence rates. Different behavioral models for adherence counseling such as the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Medication Interest Model, and Motivational Interviewing have also been reported in the research literature. This article will discuss the development of a brief model for patient counseling with specific techniques illustrated for pharmacists based on empirical findings that have demonstrated effectiveness in the adherence research literature. In addition, the article will address the measurement of the economic impact of medication nonadherence and propose a framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist counseling to increase adherence. The problem of nonadherence has significant effects upon health care expenditures through increase in physician's visits, emergency department incidents, rehospitalizations, and nursing home readmissions. Thus, the overall goal is to assist the pharmacist in developing a brief adherence counseling program in community pharmacy and evaluating the economic feasibility of the intervention demonstrating the value-added proposition of pharmacist intervention. PMID:25292442

  18. Effect of plastic catheter material on bacterial adherence and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, G; Pascual, A; Perea, E J

    1991-06-01

    The kinetics of adherence of single isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli to catheters made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Teflon, siliconised latex, polyurethane and Vialon was evaluated by a radiometric assay. Radiolabelled bacteria (10(8) cfu/ml) were incubated in vials containing 1-cm lengths of catheter for up to 3 days. The peak of maximal adherence to each biomaterial was reached after 24 h for P. aeruginosa and after 72 h for the other strains. Bacterial adherence to PVC and siliconised latex was significantly higher (2-6 times; p less than 0.05) than to the other biomaterials for all the strains. The lowest values of adherence were observed with polyurethane and Vialon for the staphylococci but with Teflon for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Bacterial viability and growth was evaluated in eluates obtained from incubation of segments of each catheter in buffer for 24 h. None of the eluates affected the viability of the staphylococci. However, all of them, significantly increased the growth of E. coli and P. aeruginosa with the exception of the eluate from siliconised latex, in which the inoculum count was reduced to an undetectable level for E. coli. We conclude that bacterial adherence to catheters may depend in part on the nature of the biomaterial and that certain substances eluted from the catheters may affect the viability and growth of different micro-organisms. PMID:1905357

  19. Determinants of CPAP Adherence in Hispanics with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Diaz-Abad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We hypothesized that socioeconomic factors and a language barrier would impact adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP among Hispanics with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Methods. Patients with OSA who were prescribed CPAP for at least 1 year and completed a questionnaire evaluating demographic data, socioeconomic status, and CPAP knowledge and adherence participated in the study. Results. Seventy-nine patients (26 males; 53±11 yrs; body mass index (BMI=45±9 kg/m2 with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI 33±30 events/hr completed the study. Included were 25 Hispanics, 39 African Americans, and 15 Caucasians, with no difference in age, AHI, CPAP use, or BMI between the groups. While there was a difference in educational level (P=0.006, income level (P<0.001, and employment status (P=0.03 between the groups, these did not influence CPAP adherence. Instead, overall improvement in quality of life and health status and perceived benefit from CPAP influenced adherence, both for the group as a whole (P=0.03, P=0.004, and P=0.001, resp., as well as in Hispanics (P=0.02, P=0.02, P=0.03, resp.. Conclusion. In Hispanic patients with OSA, perceived benefit with therapy, rather than socioeconomic status or a language barrier, appears to be the most important factor in determining CPAP adherence.

  20. The therapeutic relationship and adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie McCabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that a better therapeutic relationship (TR predicts more positive attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, but did not address whether it is also linked with actual adherence. This study investigated whether the TR is associated with adherence to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: 134 clinicians and 507 of their patients with schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder participated in a European multi-centre study. A logistic regression model examined how the TR as rated by patients and by clinicians is associated with medication adherence, adjusting for clinician clustering and symptom severity. RESULTS: Patient and clinician ratings of the TR were weakly inter-correlated (r(s = 0.13, p = 0.004, but each was independently linked with better adherence. After adjusting for patient rated TR and symptom severity, each unit increase in clinician rated TR was associated with an increase of the odds ratio of good compliance by 65.9% (95% CI: 34.6% to 104.5%. After adjusting for clinician rated TR and symptom severity, for each unit increase in patient rated TR the odds ratio of good compliance was increased by 20.8% (95% CI: 4.4% to 39.8%. CONCLUSIONS: A better TR is associated with better adherence to medication among patients with schizophrenia. Patients' and clinicians' perspectives of the TR are both important, but may reflect distinct aspects.

  1. Management of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)

  2. Manipulation of a quasi-natural cell block for high-efficiency transplantation of adherent somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Chung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have raised hope that transplantation of adherent somatic cells could provide dramatic new therapies for various diseases. However, current methods for transplanting adherent somatic cells are not efficient enough for therapeutic applications. Here, we report the development of a novel method to generate quasi-natural cell blocks for high-efficiency transplantation of adherent somatic cells. The blocks were created by providing a unique environment in which cultured cells generated their own extracellular matrix. Initially, stromal cells isolated from mice were expanded in vitro in liquid cell culture medium followed by transferring the cells into a hydrogel shell. After incubation for 1 day with mechanical agitation, the encapsulated cell mass was perforated with a thin needle and then incubated for an additional 6 days to form a quasi-natural cell block. Allograft transplantation of the cell block into C57BL/6 mice resulted in perfect adaptation of the allograft and complete integration into the tissue of the recipient. This method could be widely applied for repairing damaged cells or tissues, stem cell transplantation, ex vivo gene therapy, or plastic surgery.

  3. Manipulation of a quasi-natural cell block for high-efficiency transplantation of adherent somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H J; Hassan, M M; Park, J O; Kim, H J; Hong, S T

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances have raised hope that transplantation of adherent somatic cells could provide dramatic new therapies for various diseases. However, current methods for transplanting adherent somatic cells are not efficient enough for therapeutic applications. Here, we report the development of a novel method to generate quasi-natural cell blocks for high-efficiency transplantation of adherent somatic cells. The blocks were created by providing a unique environment in which cultured cells generated their own extracellular matrix. Initially, stromal cells isolated from mice were expanded in vitro in liquid cell culture medium followed by transferring the cells into a hydrogel shell. After incubation for 1 day with mechanical agitation, the encapsulated cell mass was perforated with a thin needle and then incubated for an additional 6 days to form a quasi-natural cell block. Allograft transplantation of the cell block into C57BL/6 mice resulted in perfect adaptation of the allograft and complete integration into the tissue of the recipient. This method could be widely applied for repairing damaged cells or tissues, stem cell transplantation, ex vivo gene therapy, or plastic surgery. PMID:25742639

  4. Association of knowledge on ART line of treatment, scarcity of treatment options and adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Habib O.; Muiruri, Charles; Maro, Venance P.; Omondi, Michael; Mushi, Julian B.; Lirhunde, Eileen S.; Bartlett, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is critical piece in the management of HIV infected patients. Despite the benefits of ART, non-adherence to ART persists. This study explores association between patient’s knowledge of the ART line of treatment, availability of future treatment options and adherence. Methods A cross sectional survey of HIV infected adolescent and adults was conducted. Cumulative optimal and sub-optimal adherence was defined as percentage adherence of ≥ 95 %...

  5. Relationship between germination of Candida albicans and increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, L H; Pearsall, N N

    1980-01-01

    A strong correlation was shown between germination and increased adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells, indicating that germination or other changes in the fungi accompanying germination were responsible for enhanced adherence. Partial inhibition of germination by cysteine resulted in a comparably lower adherence. Preferential adherence of germinated fungi occurred in competition assays with nongerminated and germinated fungi. The enhanced adherence to human mucosal c...

  6. Value-based insurance design yields near- and long-term improvements in medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2013-03-01

    Key findings. (1) Value-based insurance design (VBID) improves medication adherence by 1 to 3 percent in the first year after implementation; (2) Improvements in adherence were sustained and amplified in the second year post-implementation, ranging from 2 to 5 percent; (3) Adherence improvements varied ac­cording to VBID participants' baseline adherence, with greatest improve­ments evident in those with poorer baseline adherence

  7. Actual problems of cellular cardiomyoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kaupov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides review of cellular technologies used incardiology, describes types of cellular preparations depending onsources of cells and types of compounding cells. The generalmechanisms of therapies with stem cells applications are described.Use of cellular preparations for treatment of cardiovascular diseasesand is improvement of the forecast at patients with heartinsufficiency of various genesis is considered as alternative topractice with organ transplantations. Efforts of biotechnologicallaboratories are directed on search of optimum population of cellsfor application in cardiology and studying of mechanisms andfactors regulating function of cardiac stem cells.

  8. Characteristics of Cellular Structures and Growth Properties of Palmellococcus sp.Using Water Culture in Green House%不同生长发育期土壤绿藻——集球藻细胞形态结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶本强; 吴沛沛; 李敦海; 刘永定

    2011-01-01

    Palmellococcus Chod. Is a kind of green algae widely distributing in biological soil crusts and is able to accumulate red pigment (astaxanthin) and oil drops. So the alga has displayed especial physiological nature and potential value of application. Currently, studies on cellular structures and pigment accumulations of. Palmellococcus sp. Are relatively scarce. In this study, the morphology and structures of Palmellococcus sp. Are investigated by means of photo microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM) under liquid culture in green house. The results show that the nutritive cells of Palmellococcus sp. Are able to turn into genital cells, and yield filial cells by means of cell discerption. The cellular structures of Palmellococcus sp. Present gradual changes during development process and the algae own typical structure characteristics of chlorophyta and chlorococcales. However, it indicated that cellular organs of Palmellococcus sp. Disintegrated and disappear at anaphase and senescence phase. Moreover, the nutritive cells of Palmellococcus sp. Are found to turn into reddish-brown thick-wall cells, and there are large quantity accumulations of lipid bodies and starches in cells of Palmellococcus sp. At anaphase of development. This means that lipid bodies are in special structure lying in the cells of Palmellococcus sp. The research maybe provid a significative finding for better understanding morphological changes and pigment accumulation of Palmellococcus sp. In normal culture condition, and simultaneously provid some experimental data for based and applied researches on the green alga.%集球藻是一种广泛分布于生物结皮中的土壤绿藻,能够积累红色素(如虾青素)和油滴,显示出其独特的生理特性和潜在的应用价值.目前对集球藻的细胞结构以及色素积累研究非常匮乏.本文报道应用光学显微镜和透射电境观察集球藻在温室液体培养条件下,细胞形态与超微结构变化.结

  9. Application of Serum-Free Culture Medium for Preparation of A-NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Wang; Zhibin Zhang; Hui Zhang; Yan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    To compare the differences between proliferation and cytotoxicity of adherent natural killer (A-NK) cells cultured with serum-free medium AIMV and standard serum-containing medium in vitro, and also observe the assisting effect of IL-12 on the activation and the morphology character of IL-2-treated A-NK cells, cellular proliferation was evaluated by MTT method in vitro. The morphology of the target cells killed by A-NK cells was observed through electroscope. All of the A-NK cells cultured in serum-free medium AIMV could rapidly proliferate and keep high cytotoxicity compared with that in standard serum-containing medium. A-NK cells activated by both moderate-dose IL-2 and IL-12 were superior to the high-dose IL-2-treated A-NK cells. These data indicated that serum-free medium AIMV could replace standard serum-containing medium for culturing A-NK cells, and moderate-dose IL-2 and IL-12 could reduce side effects caused by high-dose IL-2. The study provided a new experimental basis for experimental and clinical preparation of A-NK cells.

  10. CD271 as a marker to identify mesenchymal stem cells fromdiverse sources before culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María álvarez-Viejo; Yolanda Menéndez-Menéndez; Jesús Otero-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, due to their characteristicsare ideal candidates for cellular therapy. Currently,in culture these cells are defined by their adherenceto plastic, specific surface antigen expression andmultipotent differentiation potential. However, thein vivo identification of mesenchymal stem cells,before culture, is not so well established. Pre-cultureidentification markers would ensure higher purity thanthat obtained with selection based on adherence toplastic. Up until now, CD271 has been described asthe most specific marker for the characterization andpurification of human bone marrow mesenchymal stemcells. This marker has been shown to be specificallyexpressed by these cells. Thus, CD271 has beenproposed as a versatile marker to selectively isolatedand expand multipotent mesenchymal stem cells withboth immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoieticengraftment-promoting properties. This reviewfocuses on this marker, specifically on identificationof mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues.Literature revision suggests that CD271 should not bedefined as a universal marker to identify mesenchymalstem cells before culture from different sources. In thecase of bone marrow or adipose tissue, CD271 couldbe considered a quite suitable marker; however thismarker seems to be inadequate for the isolation ofmesenchymal stem cells from other tissues such asumbilical cord blood or wharton's jelly among others.

  11. Cellular lysis in Bacillus subtilis; the affect of multiple extracellular protease deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, K; Bron, S; Harwood, CR

    1999-01-01

    Cellular lysis properties of strains of Bacillus subtilis deficient in the synthesis of extracellular proteases was investigated. In all cases, extracellular protease deficiency was found to increase the extent of cellular lysis of batch cultured strains following the transition to stationary phase,

  12. Do disability grants influence adherence to antiretroviral therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kagee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data suggest that some South Africans living with HIV who receive disability grants from the state deliberately default on their antiretroviral medication in an attempt to lower their CD4 count to remain eligible for grants. No actual empirical data however exist to show that disability grants act as such perverse incentives and are a valid reason for non-adherence. This article examines some of the complexities of antiretroviral adherence in the context of a resource-constrained environment. The multitude of structural barriers, including sometimes difficult patient-doctor conversations about the renewal of disability grants, shape patients’ experiences of the clinic environment and influence their adherence to care.

  13. [Adherence and fidelity in patients treated with intragastric balloon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazure, R A; Cancer, E; Martínez Olmos, M A; De Castro, M L; Abilés, V; Abilés, J; Bretón, I; Álvarez, V; Peláez, N; Culebras, J M

    2014-01-01

    A correct treatment of obesity needs a program of habits modification regardless of the selected technique, especially if it is minimally invasive as the intragastric balloon (BIG). The adherence of the obese patients with regard to recommended drugs measures to medium- and long-term is less than 50%. Given that the results obtained using the technique of gastric balloon must be seen influenced by adherence to the modification of habits program and its fulfillment, we reviewed series published in attention to the program proposed with the BIG. The series published to date provide few details about the used Therapeutic Programs as well as the adherence of patients to them, and even less concerning the Monitoring Plan and the loyalty of the patient can be seen. We conclude the convenience to agree on a follow-up strategy, at least the 6 months during which the BIG remain in the stomach. PMID:24483961

  14. Explanatory models of depression and treatment adherence to antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Johannessen, Helle; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    analysed thematically with "explanatory models" as the starting point. RESULTS: Patients had ambiguous experiences of depression and antidepressants. Patients explained their illness and the medical treatment in experience-near terms. Explanations of the reasons for depression were psychosocial and biology......BACKGROUND: Adherence to antidepressant medication is a challenging clinical issue, which reduces treatment efficacy: 30-60% of all patients commencing treatment with antidepressants are estimated to stop taking the medication within the first 12 weeks. Patients' personal beliefs about depression...... and antidepressants are regarded as central influences on adherence. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to gain detailed insight into patients' personal accounts of depression and use of antidepressant medication and to relate these accounts to the patients' self-reported level of adherence. METHODS: In-depth, qualitative...

  15. Women victims of sexual violence: adherence to chemoprevention of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; de Almeida, Lílian Conceição Guimarães; dos S Ribeiro, Bárbara Cristina; de Macêdo, Valéria Góes

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the adherence of women victims of sexual violence, to AIDS chemoprevention treatment. A quantitative study was carried out at a care service to victims of sexual violence in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Study participants were 172 women. Data were collected through interviews with forms and consultation of patient files. The results showed that 45.4% of the abused women were teenagers and 40.7% of the attended women were raped. Only 54% of the women were advised to use antiretrovirals to prevent HIV. Adherence to treatment occurred in 57.4% of cases and discontinuity corresponded to 42.6%. Non-adherence to treatment was attributed to psychological or emotional disorders and non-understanding of the established treatment. Therefore, it is important that professionals pay careful attention in order to perceive the conditions that might increase women's vulnerability to the infection. PMID:17375226

  16. Regulation of autophagy in oxygen-dependent cellular stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by supraphysiological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), can cause cellular injury associated with protein and lipid oxidation, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The cellular responses triggered by oxidative stress include the altered regulation of signaling pathways that culminate in the regulation of cell survival or cell death pathways. Recent studies suggest that autophagy, a cellular homeostatic process that governs the turnover of damaged organelles and proteins, may represent a general cellular and tissue response to oxidative stress. The autophagic pathway involves the encapsulation of substrates in double-membraned vesicles, which are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for enzymatic degradation and recycling of metabolic precursors. Autophagy may play multifunctional roles in cellular adaptation to stress, by maintaining mitochondrial integrity, and removing damaged proteins. Additionally, autophagy may play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and immune function. Modulation of the autophagic pathway has been reported in cell culture models of oxidative stress, including altered states of oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxia, hyperoxia), and exposure to oxidants. Furthermore, proteins that regulate autophagy may be subject to redox regulation. The heme oxygenase- 1 (HO)-1 enzyme system may have a role in the regulation of autophagy. Recent studies suggest that carbon monoxide (CO), a reaction product of HO activity which can alter mitochondrial function, may induce autophagy in cultured epithelial cells. In conclusion, current research suggests a central role for autophagy as a mammalian oxidative stress response and its interrelationship to other stress defense systems. PMID:23092322

  17. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜

    2004-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  18. Adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors in English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis O Rustveld

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Luis O Rustveld1, Valory N Pavlik1, Maria L Jibaja-Weiss1,2, Kimberly N Kline3, J Travis Gossey1, Robert J Volk11Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Outreach and Health Disparities, Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Communication, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: We conducted a qualitative study to elicit attitudes, attributions, and self-efficacy related to diabetes self-care in both English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men. Transcripts from six focus groups (three in English and three in Spanish were reviewed by the authors to extract principal and secondary themes. Participants could describe their medication and lifestyle regimens and were aware of whether they were adherent or nonadherent to physician recommendations. Lack of skills on how to incorporate diet and regular physical activity into daily living, lack of will power, and reluctance to change culturally rooted behaviors emerged as significant barriers to diabetes self-management. Medication adherence is for some men the principal diabetes self-care behavior. Nonadherence appeared to fit two profiles: 1 intentional, and 2 nonintentional. In both instances low self-efficacy emerged as a significant influence on attainment and maintenance of diabetes self-care goals. Participants also expressed a strong sense of fatalism regarding the course of their disease, and seemed to have little motivation to attempt long-term dietary control. Educational and counseling messages should stress that a diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, and full functional capacity can be maintained with good control.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, self-care, glycemic control, adherence

  19. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  20. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...

  1. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  2. Association of Continuity of Primary Care and Statin Adherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Warren

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medication adherence are a major barrier to effectiveness of chronic condition management. Continuity of primary care may promote adherence. We assessed the association of continuity of primary care with adherence to long-term medication as exemplified by statins.We linked data from a prospective study of 267,091 Australians aged 45 years and over to national data sets on prescription reimbursements, general practice claims, hospitalisations and deaths. For participants having a statin dispense within 90 days of study entry, we computed medication possession ratio (MPR and usual provider continuity index (UPI for the subsequent two years. We used multivariate Poisson regression to calculate the relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the association between tertiles of UPI and MPR adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related patient factors, including age, gender, remoteness of residence, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, prior heart disease and speaking a language other than English at home. We performed a comparison approach using propensity score matching on a subset of the sample.36,144 participants were eligible and included in the analysis among whom 58% had UPI greater than 75%. UPI was significantly associated with 5% increased MPR for statin adherence (95% CI 1.04-1.06 for highest versus lowest tertile. Dichotomised analysis using a cut-off of UPI at 75% showed a similar effect size. The association between UPI and statin adherence was independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors. Stratification analyses further showed a stronger association among those who were new to statins (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54.Greater continuity of care has a positive association with medication adherence for statins which is independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors.

  3. Human adipose stem cells maintain proliferative, synthetic and multipotential properties when suspension cultured as self-assembling spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have been gaining recognition as an extremely versatile cell source for tissue engineering. The usefulness of ASCs in biofabrication is further enhanced by our demonstration of the unique properties of these cells when they are cultured as three-dimensional cellular aggregates or spheroids. As described herein, three-dimensional formulations, or self-assembling ASC spheroids develop their own extracellular matrix that serves to increase the robustness of the cells to mechanical stresses. The composition of the extracellular matrix can be altered based on the external environment of the spheroids and these constructs can be grown in a reproducible manner and to a consistent size. The spheroid formulation helps preserve the viability and developmental plasticity of ASCs even under defined, serum-free media conditions. For the first time, we show that multiple generations of adherent ASCs produced from these spheroids retain their ability to differentiate into multiple cell/tissue types. These demonstrated properties support the idea that culture-expanded ASCs are an excellent candidate cellular material for ‘organ printing’—the approach of developing complex tissue structures from a standardized cell ‘ink’ or cell formulation. (paper)

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  5. Need for improving quality of operating structures and processes for better ARV adherence for patients with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania and other African countries:an experi-ence from Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irunde H; Nsimba SED; Comoro CJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was carried out in order to determine the following objectives:(1)To determine the pro-portion of patients who state achieving or not achieving optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)in selected Care and Treatment Sites in Arusha and Dares Salaam regions in Tanzania.(2)To identify factors such as structural,cultural or disease related contributing to sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARVs). (3)To assess quality of operating structures and processes for provision of antiretroviral (ARVs)in the select-ed healthcare facilities.(4)To document suggestions and proposals for improving ART adherence among ARV users.Methods:Data from 7 studied facilities (3 public and 4 private /or faith based)includes 207 interviews from ARV users,28 staff interview staff,26 observations during consultations,8 focus group discussions,10 key informant interviews,and stock checks in 6 facilities.The study design was a cross-sectional using both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.Quantitative data were collected by using an adherence tool check list,while qualitative data were obtained using a consultation observation checklist,semi-structured interviews,focus group discussions (FGDs)and key informant interviews.Results:There were slight varia-tions in the quality of operating structures and processes in the two studied regions.However results indicate that ARV adherence in Arusha region was comparatively similar to that of Dares Salaam.The composite adher-ence for one month in seven facilities was 90 % and only 21 % of ARV users achieved optimal adherence. Conclusion:The overall mean composite adherence rate of 90 % in the two areas surveyed is encouraging. More efforts to improve the quality and processes of operating structures in our study facilities and others in Tanzania are needed to ensure optimal adherence among the larger group (79 %)of ARV users who are cur-rently taking less than the critical 95 % of their medications.

  6. Adherence to European Association of Urology Guidelines on Prophylactic Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Tommaso; Verze, Paolo; Brugnolli, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli to piperacillin/tazobactam (9.1% vs. 5.4%; p=0.03), gentamicin (18.3% vs. 11.2%; p=0.02), and ciprofloxacin (32.3% vs. 19.1%; p=0.03) decreased significantly after protocol introduction. The defined daily dose (DDD) use of ciprofloxacin fell from 4.2 to 0.2 DDD per 100 patient-days after....... We found that adherence to the guidelines reduced the rate of bacterial resistance, in particular against piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, and reduced costs without increasing the risk of postoperative infection after urologic procedures. We recommend adherence to the...

  7. Adherence and neurocognitive screening in Romanian HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adherence is critical for the effectiveness of antiretroviral HIV therapy (ART, accordingly decreasing the opportunistic diseases and increasing the quality of life. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD are still frequent in ART era and could impair the adherence, but how ethical is to refer ART in patients with NCD? Objective: To assess the relation between NCD and adherence in HIV Romanian patients. Material and methods: Cross-sectional screening study on 151 patients under ART, no drug users, from HIV Clinic - Galati, assessed by HIV-Associated Dementia Scale (HDS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS [1], ART CNS-effectiveness Letendre scores [2] and adherence assessment questionnaire CNLAS- Romania. Normal values: HDS >10; anxiety/ depression <8. Statistical analysis performed: Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test, with 5% significance level. Results: Characteristics of the patients: median age 22 [20; 56] years old; sex ratio F/M 1.17; median educational level 8 [0; >12] years; HBV co-infection 27.8%; AIDS stage 85.3%; current median CD4 526/mm3 [8; 1605] and 65% undetectable HIV-RNA levels. 49.6% (75/151 patients attain HDS scores <10 and imply probable NCD. Scores below 8 for anxiety are more frequent than for depression: 24% vs 13%. The median ART CNS penetration score is 8 [5; 12]. Adherence is considered for 66% patients and is correlating with CD4 number (p=0.001, educational level >4 years (p=0.001; OR=4.2, HDS >10 (p=0.01; OR=2.4 and ART-CNS penetration score >7 (p=0.023; OR=2.4. Low HDS are influenced by old age (p=0.003, depression (p=0.02 and ART-CNS penetration scores <7 (p=0.01. Anxiety is related neither with adherence nor with NCD by HDS, but females are obvious anxious than males (p<0.001. Conclusions: Basic educational level is sufficient for developing ART adherence. High scores of HDS screening should be predictors for ART adherence. Referring ART as well to patients with low HDS scores is rational and

  8. Older Adults’ Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley-Hague, H. Horne, S. Skelton, D.A. Todd, C

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors’ experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semi-structured interviews,informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n=19) delivering multi-component exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults’ uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed ‘barriers’ related t...

  9. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD were performed on all subjects at entry to and at the end of the study. Participants found to be depressed were randomly assigned antidepressant treatment (20 mg citalopram or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT (5 sessions. Medication was dispensed at each visit and patients were asked to return all unused medication to determine ART adherence. The study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand. Results. Sixty-two HIV-positive persons receiving ART participated; 30 were not depressed (control group and 32 were depressed (patient group. No significant differences in demographic characteristics existed between the control and patient groups. Mean ART adherence at the start of the study was 99.5% (standard error (SE ±0.46 and 92.1% (SE ±1.69 in the control and patients groups, respectively. Mean ART adherence at the end of the study changed marginally in the control group (99.7%; SE ±0.46 and increased significantly in the patient group (99.5%; SE± 0.13 (p>0.05. The mean ART adherence rate of patients who received pharmacotherapy increased from 92.8% to 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased from 91.1% to 99.6% (p>0.05. There was no significant association between the increased adherence in the patient group and baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, irrespective of antidepressant therapy or IPT (p>0.05. Conclusion. Successful treatment of depression with an antidepressant or psychotherapy was associated with improved ART adherence, independent of the type

  10. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw ve...

  11. The Long Term Effects of Cellular-Telephone-Delivered Telephone Intervention Problem Solving (TIPS) For Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Smith, Kathlene; Phillips, Chad; Velligan, Dawn; Tavakoli, Abbas

    2014-11-01

    Introduction. Although an extensive body of literature suggests that face-to-face problem-solving interventions are an effective means of fostering psychiatric medication adherence for persons with SSDs, the majority of outpatients with SSDs lack access to this proven intervention. There is a need for exploration of alternate delivery methods for problem solving. Design. This randomized controlled trial will examine the effectiveness of cellular telephone delivered Telephone Intervention - Problem Solving (TIPS) upon medication adherence, medication self efficacy and symptom management in outpatients with SSDs over 9 monthsMethods. To ensure consistent telephone access, all one hundred twenty eight participants will be provided a basic cellular telephone with unlimited local calling for 9 months. Participants will be randomly assigned to treatment as usual plus weekly TIPS or treatment as usual only (TAU). Assessment of serum medication levels, pill count medication adherence, medication attitudes and psychiatric symptoms will be conducted at baseline and every 3 months on all participants. Summary.In addition to testing the long term effect of TIPS, this study will provide information on the responses to our cellular telephone delivery method. We believe this information will be critical as we continue to explore a variety of cellular telephone technologies to provide needed interventions to persons with SSDs in a feasible, economical way.

  12. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  13. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  14. Culture-General and Culture-Specific Factors in the Discrimination of Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a culture-general factor, pattern redundancy, on the discrimination of five-tone melodies that differed in their adherence to Western tonal conventions, among 9-month olds, 5-year olds, and adults. Increasing exposure seemed to attenuate the effects of the pattern redundancy while amplifying the influence of…

  15. The trouble with memes : Inference versus imitation in cultural creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atran, S

    2001-12-01

    Memes are hypothetical cultural units passed on by imitation; although nonbiological, they undergo Darwinian selection like genes. Cognitive study of multimodular human minds undermines memetics: unlike in genetic replication, high-fidelity transmission of cultural information is the exception, not the rule. Constant, rapid "mutation" of information during communication generates endlessly varied creations that nevertheless adhere to modular input conditions. The sort of cultural information most susceptible to modular processing is that most readily acquired by children, most easily transmitted across individuals, most apt to survive within a culture, most likely to recur in different cultures, and most disposed to cultural variation and elaboration. PMID:26192412

  16. Do Arabic weight-loss apps adhere to evidence-informed practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasser, Aroub A; Amalraj, Raja E; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman S; Marais, Debbi

    2016-09-01

    Mobile technology has been used successfully for promoting health and weight loss and for treating obesity. There is a high prevalence of smartphone and tablet users among the Saudi population. This study aimed to identify whether current Arabic weight-loss apps had features that adhered to evidence-informed practices. The six most relevant app stores were systematically searched using the Arabic words for weight and diet (n = 298). All apps that met the inclusion criteria (n = 65) were downloaded and examined for adherence to 13 evidence-informed practices. Latent class analysis identified two subgroups of apps: self-monitoring (15 % of apps) and advice-giving apps (85 %). The median number of evidence-informed practices was 1 (1, 2), with no apps having more than six and only nine apps including four to six. Meal planning was the most common feature (38 % of apps). These findings identify serious weaknesses in the currently available Arabic weight-loss apps. Thus, existing and future apps should include more features based on the best available evidence in the context of Arab culture. PMID:27528528

  17. Facilitators and barriers to treatment adherence within PMTCT programs in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Kristan

    2016-08-01

    In Malawi, an innovative prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program, Option B+, has greatly expanded access to antiretroviral treatment at no cost to women and their exposed infants. However, many women continue to experience social, cultural, and structural barriers impeding their ability to consistently access medical treatment. Understanding these women's perspectives may make programs more responsive to patients' needs. This qualitative study sought to explore factors influencing women's adherence within PMTCT programs in southern Malawi. Participants were current PMTCT patients (the first cohort following national implementation of Option B+), healthcare providers, community leaders, and patients who had dropped out of the program ("defaulters"). Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate barriers and facilitators to continued participation within PMTCT programs. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Barriers identified included fears of HIV disclosure to husbands, community-based HIV/AIDS stigma, and poor interactions with some health workers. Facilitators included the improved survival of PMTCT patients in recent years and the desire to remain healthy to care for one's children. This research highlights important sociocultural factors affecting adherence within HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Malawi. Recommendations to improve access to medical care for PMTCT patients include integrated services to increase attention to confidentiality and minimize stigma, shared HIV testing and counseling for couples to minimize conflict in gender-unequal relationships, and peer-led support groups to provide social support from other women with the shared experience of an HIV-positive serostatus. PMID:26984065

  18. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jones,1 Nathan Babiker,2 Emma Gardner,2,3 Jane Royle,2 Rachael Curley,3,4 Zhe Hui Hoo,3,4 Martin J Wildman3,4 1Psychology Department, University of Sheffield, 2Psychological Services, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 3Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Northern General Hospital, 4School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods: The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results: People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion: People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. Keywords: behavior change, social marketing, patient participation, nebulizers, medication adherence

  19. Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (NPs have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.

  20. Identification of cell surface-exposed proteins involved in the fimbria-mediated adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Nava-Acosta, Raul; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Farfan, Mauricio J

    2014-04-01

    Fimbria-mediated adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key step in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis. To date, four fimbriae have been described for EAEC; aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor for EAEC prototype strain 042. Previously, we described results showing that extracellular matrix (ECM) components might be involved in the recognition of AAF/II fimbriae by intestinal cells. In this study, we sought to identify novel potential receptors on intestinal epithelial cells recognized by the AAF/II fimbriae. Purified AafA-dsc protein, the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae, was incubated with a monolayer of T84 cells, cross-linked to the surface-exposed T84 cell proteins, and immunoprecipitated by using anti-AafA antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of cellular proteins bound to AafA-dsc protein identified laminin (previously recognized as a potential receptor for AAF/II) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Involvement of the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae (AafA protein) in the binding to recombinant CK8 was confirmed by adherence assays with purified AAF/II fimbriae, AafA-dsc protein, and strain 042. Moreover, HEp-2 cells transfected with CK8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed reduced 042 adherence compared with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA as a control. Adherence of 042 to HEp-2 cells preincubated with antibodies against ECM proteins or CK8 was substantially reduced. Altogether, our results supported the idea of a role of CK8 as a potential receptor for EAEC.

  1. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  2. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Cellular regulation of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    -membrane spanning protein Tac, thereby creating an extracellular antibody epitope. Upon expression in HEK293 cells this TacDAT fusion protein displayed functional properties similar to the wild type transporter. In an ELISA based internalization assay, TacDAT intracellular accumulation was increased by inhibitors......The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft and is a target for widely abused psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Nonetheless, little is known about the cellular distribution and trafficking of natively expressed DAT. DAT and its trafficking...... to natively expressed transporter, DAT was visualized directly in cultured DA neurons using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC 1-64. These data showed pronounced colocalization upon constitutive internalization with Lysotracker, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker; however only little cololization was observed...

  4. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  5. Noninfectious uveitis: strategies to optimize treatment compliance and adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolz-Marco R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Dolz-Marco,1 Roberto Gallego-Pinazo,1 Manuel Díaz-Llopis,2 Emmett T Cunningham Jr,3–6 J Fernando Arévalo7,8 1Unit of Macula, Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 5The Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco Medical Center, 6West Coast Retina Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 7Vitreoretina Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 8Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Noninfectious uveitis includes a heterogenous group of sight-threatening ocular and systemic disorders. Significant progress has been made in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis in recent years, particularly with regard to the effective use of corticosteroids and non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs, including biologic agents. All of these therapeutic approaches are limited, however, by any given patient’s ability to comply with and adhere to their prescribed treatment. In fact, compliance and adherence are among the most important patient-related determinants of treatment success. We discuss strategies to optimize compliance and adherence. Keywords: noninfectious uveitis, intraocular inflammation, immunosuppressive treatment, adherence, compliance, therapeutic failure

  6. Adherence of paclitaxel drug in magnetite chitosan nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar Zapata, Edna V.; Martinez Perez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Claudia A.; Castro Carmona, Javier S. [Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Del Charro 610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez Chihuahua (Mexico); Quevedo Lopez, Manuel A. [Departamento de Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Garcia-Casillas, Perla E., E-mail: pegarcia@uacj.mx [Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Del Charro 610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan silica magnetite adsorbs antineoplastic drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica coating improve the drug adherence. - Abstract: Cancer treatment is a big challenge in medicine where chemotherapies and radiotherapies are aggressive and poorly effective having side effects as delirium, fatigue, insomnia, nausea and vomiting which are common problems for cancer patients. For this reason, during the last two decades, many researchers have developed several techniques to improve the current therapies; one of them is the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles with an average crystallite size 21.8 nm were covered in a core/shell type; magnetite/silica, magnetite/chitosan, and a double shell magnetite/silica/chitosan were developed for attaching an antineoplastic drug. The mechanism for the functionalization of the nanoparticles with a single and double shell was studied with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adherence of an antineoplastic drug, paclitaxel, onto functionalized nanoparticles was analyzed with a UV-Visible spectroscopy at a wavelength of 253 nm. It was found that the adherence of the drug is improved up to 18% when magnetite nanoparticles are coated with a single chitosan shell, and when the nanoparticles are coated with a silica/chitosan shell the adherence increases up to 29%.

  7. Adherence Process Research on Developmental Interventions: Filling in the Middle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework and some practical examples for using rigorous implementation research to inform program outcomes and foster program development for developmental interventions. Focuses on: (1) role of process research, specifically developing developmental interventions; (2) characteristics of adherence process research; and (3)…

  8. Meaning of Adherence in Hepatitis C-Infected Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Frances H; Barnes, Donelle M

    2016-01-01

    Among United States (U.S.) veterans, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infection is three times that of the general U.S. population. Treatment success is proportionate to the degree of treatment adherence. There has been little research dedicated to the systematic exploration of issues related to treatment adherence. The purpose of this study was to describe factors that influenced adherence in infected military veterans. Phenomenological research emphasizes a rich description. A convenience sample of 21 veterans was recruited from a clinic in north Texas. One-time in-depth interviews explored reasons for remaining in treatment despite difficult side effects. Analysis included immersion, data transformation, thematic analysis, and summary. Cognitive strategies to stay on medication include making a commitment to treatment, "not ready to leave this world," conserving energy and staying busy, looking forward, and starting over. Veterans utilize previously learned military discipline to stay on medications and follow providers' orders. They are not ready to die and have plans for life after treatment. Patient education should focus on side effect management, rather than on genotypes or viral load. Treatment teams should include substance abuse specialists and gastroenterology providers. Future studies need to develop a measurement tool for adherence during antiviral treatment. PMID:26825560

  9. 78 FR 34109 - ``Script Your Future'' Medication Adherence Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration ``Script Your Future'' Medication Adherence Campaign AGENCY... medicine as directed to treat an illness or disease in order to get the best health outcome possible for...) called ``Script Your Future''. To continue and enhance this important public health initiative,...

  10. relA enhances the adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Spira

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC is a known causative agent of diarrhea in children. In the process of colonization of the small intestine, EPEC synthesizes two types of adhesins, the bundle-forming pilus (BFP and intimin. The BFP pilus is an adhesin associated with the initial stages of adherence of EPEC to epithelial cells, while the outer membrane protein intimin carries out the intimate adherence that takes place at the third stage of infection. BFP is encoded by the bfp operon located in plasmid EAF, present only in typical EPEC isolates, while eae, the gene that encodes intimin is situated in the LEE, a chromosomal pathogenicity island. Transcription of bfp and eae is regulated by the products of the perABC operon, also present in plasmid EAF. Here we show that deletion of relA, that encodes a guanosine penta and tetraphosphate synthetase impairs EPEC adherence to epithelial cells in vitro. In the absence of relA, the transcription of the regulatory operon perABC is reduced, resulting in lower levels of BFP and intimin. Bacterial adherence, BFP and intimin synthesis and perABC expression are restored upon complementation with the wild-type relA allele.

  11. Factors Associated with Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Wordlaw-Stintson, Lashawn; Vidal, Adriana; Smith, Jennifer S.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the gaps in knowledge about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, transmission, and health consequences and factors associated with the knowledge gap is an essential first step for the development of interventions to improve adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Purpose: To examine the relationship…

  12. Generic substitution of antihypertensive drugs : does it affect adherence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution is an important opportunity to reduce the costs of pharmaceutical care. However, pharmacists and physicians often find that patients and brand-name manufacturers have doubt about the equivalence of the substituted drug. This may be reflected by decreased adherence to

  13. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  14. Interaction of adhered metallic dust with transient plasma heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.; I. Bykov,; Rudakov, D.; de Angeli, M.; Vignitchouk, L.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bardin, S.; van der Meiden, H.; Vernimmen, J.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The first study of the interaction of metallic dust (tungsten, aluminum) adhered on tungsten substrates with transient plasma heat loads is presented. Experiments were carried out in the Pilot-PSI linear device with transient heat fluxes up to 550 MW m −2 and in the DIII-D divertor tokamak. The cent

  15. Elder and Caregiver Solutions to Improve Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quin, K. E.; Semalulu, T.; Orom, H.

    2015-01-01

    Medication mismanagement is a growing public health concern, especially among elders. Annually, it is a major contributor to emergency hospitalization and nursing home placement. Elders and their caregivers, as healthcare consumers and stakeholders in this issue, are uniquely qualified to inform strategies to improve medication adherence. We…

  16. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  17. Can Urine Lamivudine Be Used to Monitor Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Agibothu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patient adherence to treatment is an important factor in the effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens. Adherence to treatment could be monitored by estimation of antiretroviral drugs in biological fluids. We aimed to obtain information on the quantity and duration of excretion of lamivudine in urine following oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg and to assess its suitability for adherence monitoring purposes. Spot urine samples were collected before dosing and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 28, 32, 48, 72, and 96 hours post dosing from 10 healthy subjects, and lamivudine was estimated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Lamivudine values were expressed as a ratio of urine creatinine. About 91% of the ingested drug was excreted by 24 hours, and the concentration thereafter in urine was very negligible. A lamivudine value of 0.035 mg/mg creatinine or less at 48 hours is suggestive of a missed dose in the last 24 hours. The study findings showed that estimation of urine lamivudine in spot specimens could be useful in monitoring patient adherence to antiretroviral treatment. However, this needs to be confirmed on a larger sample size and among patients on once-daily and twice-daily treatment regimens.

  18. Medication adherence in schizophrenia: Exploring patients', carers' and professionals' views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kikkert; A.H. Schene; M.W.J. Koeter; D. Robson; A. Born; H. Helm; M. Nose; C. Goss; G. Thornicroft; R.J. Gray

    2006-01-01

    One of the major clinical problems in the treatment of people with schizophrenia is suboptimal medication adherence. Most research focusing on determinants of nonadherence use quantitative research methods. These studies have some important limitations in exploring the decision-making process of pat

  19. Enhancing antiepileptic drug adherence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian; Sheeran, Paschal; Reuber, Markus

    2009-12-01

    Suboptimal adherence to antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is commonplace, and increases the risk of status epilepticus and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. This randomized controlled trial was designed to demonstrate whether an implementation intention intervention involving the completion of a simple self-administered questionnaire linking the intention of taking medication with a particular time, place, and other activity can improve AED treatment schedule adherence. Of the 81 patients with epilepsy who were randomized, 69 completed a 1-month monitoring period with an objective measure of tablet taking (electronic registration of pill bottle openings, Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS]). Intervention participants showed improved adherence relative to controls on all three outcomes: doses taken in total (93.4% vs. 79.1%), days on which correct dose was taken (88.7% vs. 65.3%), and doses taken on schedule (78.8% vs. 55.3%) (Pintention intervention may be an easy-to-administer and effective means of promoting AED adherence. PMID:19864187

  20. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  1. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  2. Peptides from Tetraspanin CD9 Are Potent Inhibitors of Staphylococcus Aureus Adherence to Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventress, Jennifer K; Partridge, Lynda J; Read, Robert C; Cozens, Daniel; MacNeil, Sheila; Monk, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the primary causative agents of skin and wound infections. As bacterial adherence is essential for infection, blocking this step can reduce invasion of host tissues by pathogens. An anti-adhesion therapy, based on a host membrane protein family, the tetraspanins, has been developed that can inhibit the adhesion of S. aureus to human cells. Synthetic peptides derived from a keratinocyte-expressed tetraspanin, CD9, were tested for anti-adhesive properties and at low nanomolar concentrations were shown to inhibit bacterial adhesion to cultured keratinocytes and to be effective in a tissue engineered model of human skin infection. These potential therapeutics had no effect on keratinocyte viability, migration or proliferation, indicating that they could be a valuable addition to current treatments for skin infection. PMID:27467693

  3. Complexities of Adherence and Post-Cancer Lymphedema Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Ostby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL, a chronic, debilitating, condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management. Up to 40% of 3 million breast cancer survivors in the US will develop BCRL, which has no cure, is irreversible, and requires self-management with regimens that may include multiple components. The complexities of treatment can negatively affect adherence to BCRL self-management which is critical to preventing progressive swelling and infection. The aim of this review of contemporary literature published from 2005–2015 is to examine the complexities of BCRL self-management, to identify adherence-focused studies relevant to BCRL, and to summarize barriers to self-management of BCRL. Six electronic indices were searched from which 120 articles were retrieved; 17 were BCRL-focused; and eight met inclusion criteria. Seventeen of 120 articles identified barriers to self-management of BCRL such as complexities of treatment regimens, symptom burden, balance of time for treatment and life demands, and lack of education and support; however, only eight studies included outcome measures of adherence to BCRL treatment regimens with a subsequent improvement in reduced limb volumes and/or perceptions of self-efficacy and self-regulation. A major limitation is the few number of rigorously developed outcome measures of BCRL adherence. In addition, randomized studies are needed with larger sample sizes to establish adequate levels of evidence for establishing best practice standards for improving adherence to BCRL self-management treatment regimens.

  4. Developing a generic, individualised adherence programme for chronic medication users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herborg H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The scope of this article is to describe the background for and content of an adherence counselling programme with a specific focus on an individualised, multi-dimensional adherence model for patients with a potential adherence problem (a so-called ‘individualised systems model’.Methods: An intervention programme based on WHO’s systems model for adherence was developed for implementation in primary health care and tested in a development project in Danish pharmacies in 2004-2005 in three pharmacies and 4 GP practices by 27 patients. Data were collected from the participants by registration forms, questionnaires, and focus groups. Since the programme was to support patients in the self-management process regarding choice and implementation of medication treatment, various strategies were used and different theoretical assumptions and choices made prior to setting up the study. These strategies include distinguishing between different types of non-adherence, a model for stages of change, self-efficacy, narratives, motivating interviewing strategies and coaching techniques. These strategic and theoretical choices are described in the article. Results: The strategies and theoretical reflections formed the platform for the creation of a counselling programme, which was tested in two forms, a basic and an extended version - provided by either a pharmaconomist or a pharmacist. The result section also describes a toolbox of instruments to enable pharmacy staff and GPs to tailor a counselling programme for patients individually called ‘Safe and effective use of medicines’. Besides, the results include a description of how the WHO-model is transformed into an individualised counselling model.

  5. Patient adherence issues in the treatment of hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrey D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Larrey,1,2 Marie-Pierre Ripault,1 Georges-Philippe Pageaux11Département d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie et Transplantation, Hôpital Saint Eloi, 2IRB-INSERM1040, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: The current standard-of-care treatments for chronic hepatitis C, based on a bitherapy that combines peginterferon alpha-2a or -2b and ribavirin for all genotypes, and on a triple therapy with the addition of an antiprotease specifically for genotype 1, are associated with a limited adherence that decreases their efficacy. The main factors limiting adherence are difficulties in taking the treatment and side effects that worsen the quality of life of the patients. Programs of therapeutic education are essential to improve adherence, quality of life, likelihood of viral suppression, improvement of liver disease, and decrease of late complications. Therapeutic education should be understood as an acquisition of decisional, technical, and social competency with the purpose of making the patient able to make health choices, realize their own life plans, and use health care resources in the best manner. The patient should be placed in the center of an organization, comprising various care workers who include social service professionals and medical staff. For hepatitis C, therapeutic education may be separated into three phases: a first phase corresponding to the educative diagnosis; a second phase corresponding to support during treatment; and the third phase corresponding to support after treatment. Therapeutic education is performed using various instruments and methods specifically adapted to the needs and expectations of individual patients. Upcoming treatments for hepatitis C, with evidence for high efficacy, few side effects, and shorter duration, will certainly change the landscape of adherence and the management of therapeutic education.Keywords: adherence to treatment, quality of life, therapeutic education, hepatitis C

  6. Complexities of Adherence and Post-Cancer Lymphedema Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostby, Pamela L; Armer, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management. Up to 40% of 3 million breast cancer survivors in the US will develop BCRL, which has no cure, is irreversible, and requires self-management with regimens that may include multiple components. The complexities of treatment can negatively affect adherence to BCRL self-management which is critical to preventing progressive swelling and infection. The aim of this review of contemporary literature published from 2005-2015 is to examine the complexities of BCRL self-management, to identify adherence-focused studies relevant to BCRL, and to summarize barriers to self-management of BCRL. Six electronic indices were searched from which 120 articles were retrieved; 17 were BCRL-focused; and eight met inclusion criteria. Seventeen of 120 articles identified barriers to self-management of BCRL such as complexities of treatment regimens, symptom burden, balance of time for treatment and life demands, and lack of education and support; however, only eight studies included outcome measures of adherence to BCRL treatment regimens with a subsequent improvement in reduced limb volumes and/or perceptions of self-efficacy and self-regulation. A major limitation is the few number of rigorously developed outcome measures of BCRL adherence. In addition, randomized studies are needed with larger sample sizes to establish adequate levels of evidence for establishing best practice standards for improving adherence to BCRL self-management treatment regimens. PMID:26580657

  7. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  8. Explant cultures of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barrett, L.A.; Jackson, F.E.;

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium has been cultured as explants in a chemically defined medium for periods of 1 to 20 days. The viability of the explants was shown by the preservation of the ultrastructural features of the colonic epithelial cells and by active incorporation of radioactive precursors...... into cellular DNA and protein. A progressive decrease in the number of goblet cells, decrease in the depth of the crypts, and a change from a columnar to a cuboidal epithelium were observed. After 20 days in culture the colonic mucosa consisted of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells and a few glands....... The ability to maintain colonic mucosa in culture was subject to both intra- and interindividual variation. Cultured human colonic mucosa also activated a chemical procarcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene, into metabolites which bound to cellular DNA. A 100-fold interindividual variation in this binding was observed....

  9. Adaptive stochastic cellular automata: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.; Lee, Y. C.; Jones, R. D.; Barnes, C. W.; Flake, G. W.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Lee, K.; Chen, H. H.; Sun, G. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, D.; Giles, C. L.

    1990-09-01

    The stochastic learning cellular automata model has been applied to the problem of controlling unstable systems. Two example unstable systems studied are controlled by an adaptive stochastic cellular automata algorithm with an adaptive critic. The reinforcement learning algorithm and the architecture of the stochastic CA controller are presented. Learning to balance a single pole is discussed in detail. Balancing an inverted double pendulum highlights the power of the stochastic CA approach. The stochastic CA model is compared to conventional adaptive control and artificial neural network approaches.

  10. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.

  11. Pinpointing differences in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Holm, Jacob Bak; Poulsen, Kristian Arild;

    2010-01-01

    ascites tumour cells (ELA). Loss of KCl and cell shrinkage are hallmarks in apoptosis and has been shown in EATC. However, we find no reduction in cell volume and only a minor loss of K(+) which is accompanied by net uptake of Na(+) following 18 hours cisplatin exposure in ELA. Glutathione and taurine...... have previously been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptosis. We find, however, that increase or decrease in the cellular content of glutathione and taurine has no effect on cisplatin-induced cell death in EATC and ELA. Nevertheless, knock-down of the taurine transporter TauT leads...... to a significant increase in apoptosis in ELA following cisplatin exposure. We find that cytosolic accumulation of cisplatin is similar in EATC and ELA. However, the nuclear accumulation and DNA-binding of cisplatin is significant lower in ELA compared to EATC. We suggest three putative reasons for the observed...

  12. Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W.; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Sims, Christopher E.; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2012-01-01

    We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass–pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s−1 through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s−1 and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining

  13. The Change in HbA1c Associated with Initial Adherence and Subsequent Change in Adherence among Diabetes Patients Newly Initiating Metformin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Rosales, A Gabriela; Kimes, Teresa M; Tunceli, Kaan; Kurtyka, Karen; Mavros, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Whether changes in adherence are associated with changes in HbA1c is assumed but not known. Methods. We conducted a observational study of 2,844 type 2 diabetes patients who initiated metformin as their first antihyperglycemic drug. Using HbA1c measures before, 6-12 months after, and up to 3 years after metformin initiation, we analyzed HbA1c change as a function of initial adherence and change in adherence. Results. Compared with no adherence, initial adherence of 50-79% was associated with an adjusted reduction in HbA1c of 0.45% while adherence ≥80% was associated with HbA1c reduction of 0.73%. Change from some initial adherence (1-79%) to total nonadherence was associated with 0.25% increase in HbA1c. Change from some to full adherence was associated with an HbA1c decrease of 0.15%. Those associations were accentuated among patients not in glycemic control: change from some to no adherence was associated with an HbA1c increase of 0.63% and change from some to full adherence was associated with an HbA1c decrease of 0.40%. Conclusions. Initial adherence to newly prescribed metformin therapy produces substantial HbA1c reduction. Among those with modest adherence but suboptimal glycemic control, the difference between moving to full adherence versus nonadherence results in lower HbA1c of one percentage point. PMID:27579326

  14. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins. PMID:24853276

  15. Adherence to a Yoga Program in Older Women with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Savik, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Yoga is beneficial for osteoarthritis (OA) management in older adults; however, adherence to yoga practice is unknown. The purposes of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) yoga adherence during the intervention and follow-up periods; (2) the relationship between social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs and adherence; and (3) the impact of adherence on OA-related symptoms in 36 community-dwelling older women with knee OA. SCT was used as a framework to promote adherence to a yoga intervention program that included both group/homebased practices. Adherence to yoga was high during the intervention period but decreased over time. Although SCT was a useful framework for reducing attrition during the intervention, self-efficacy was the only construct that correlated with class attendance. Higher yoga adherence was correlated with improved symptoms, physical function, sleep quality, and quality of life. Yoga adherers were likely to be older, less educated, and had a lower body mass index than nonadherers. PMID:26214142

  16. Enhancing Respiratory Medication Adherence : The Role of Health Care Professionals and Cost-Effectiveness Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job F M; Ryan, Dermot; Eakin, Michelle N; Canonica, Giorgio W; Barot, Aji; Foster, Juliet M

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to medication comprises a multiphased temporal process involving (1) initiation of prescribed therapy, (2) implementation as prescribed, and (3) subsequent persistence. Medication adherence remains suboptimal in most patients with long-term respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic

  17. A 220-kilodalton glycoprotein in yeast extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus adherence to human endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D.A.; Hatcher, V B; Lowy, F D

    1991-01-01

    A 220-kDa glycoprotein from yeast extract causes a twofold decrease in S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells in vitro. Medium constituents can have a significant effect on bacterial adherence interactions.

  18. Evaluation of medication adherence methods in the treatment of malaria in Rwandan infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stichele Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To compare three methods for evaluating treatment adherence in a 7-day controlled treatment period for malaria in children in Rwanda. Methods Fifty-six children ( Results Medication adherence data were available for 54 of the 56 patients. Manual pill count and patient self-report yielded a medication adherence of 100% for the in- and out-patient treatment periods. Based on electronic pill-box monitoring, medication adherence during the seven-day treatment period was 90.5 ± 8.3%. Based on electronic pill-box monitoring inpatient medication adherence (99.3 ± 2.7% was markedly higher (p Conclusion Health workers' medication adherence was good. However, a significant lower medication adherence was observed for consumers' adherence in the outpatient setting. This was only detected by electronic pill-box monitoring. Therefore, this latter method is more accurate than the two other methods used in this study.

  19. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behaviour in chronically ill patients. Correlations from the included articles were meta-analysed using a random-size effect model. A moderation analysis was conducted for the type of adherence behaviour. The effect sizes for the different mental representations and adherence constructs ranged from -0.02 to 0.12. Further analyses showed that the relationship between the mental representations and adherence did not differ by the type of adherence behaviour. The low-effect sizes indicate that the relationships between the different mental representations of the CSM and adherence are very weak. Therefore, the CSM may not be the most appropriate model to use in predictive studies of adherence.

  20. ART adherence changes among patients in community substance use treatment: a preliminary analysis from MACH14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Marc I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiate substitution treatment has been associated with better adherence to lifesaving antiretroviral medications, but the impact of other substance abuse treatment on adherence is unknown. Findings In this study, 215 patients who had been in adherence-focused research studies provided electronically-measured adherence data and a measure of whether the patient had recently been in substance abuse treatment. Recent engagement in substance abuse treatment was independently associated with significantly higher adherence, after covarying for recent substance use and other factors potentially affecting adherence. Conclusions The findings suggest that substance abuse treatment is associated with better adherence. Potential mechanisms by which substance abuse treatment improves adherence, such as more stability or more future-orientation, require further study.

  1. Telomere-independent cellular senescence in human fetal cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Andrew J.; Levine, F

    2005-01-01

    Fetal cardiomyocytes have been proposed as a potential source of cell-based therapy for heart failure. This study examined cellular senescence in cultured human fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes (HFCs). HFCs were isolated and identified by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Cells were found to senesce after 20-25 population doublings, as determined by growth arrest, morphological changes and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. Using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay...

  2. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M;

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  3. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van Jan-Kees

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handli

  4. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, MQT; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian H.;

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-...

  5. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elísio Costa,1 Anna Giardini,2 Magda Savin,3 Enrica Menditto,4 Elaine Lehane,5 Olga Laosa,6 Sergio Pecorelli,7,8 Alessandro Monaco,7 Alessandra Marengoni9On behalf of the A1 Action group “Prescription and Adherence to Medical Plans”, European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing1UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 2Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Montescano (PV, Pavia, Italy; 3European Association of Pharmaceutical Full-line Wholesalers, Brussels, Belgium; 4CIRFF/Center of Pharmacoeconomics, School of Pharmacy, University of Naples FedericoII, Nápoles, Italy; 5Catherine McAuley School of Nursing and Midwifery, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 6Centro de Investigación Clínica del Anciano Fundación para la Investigación Biomédica, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Spain; 7Italian Medicines Agency – AIFA, Rome, Italy; 8University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 9Department of Clinical and Experimental Science, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: Medication adherence and persistence is recognized as a worldwide public health problem, particularly important in the management of chronic diseases. Nonadherence to medical plans affects every level of the population, but particularly older adults due to the high number of coexisting diseases they are affected by and the consequent polypharmacy. Chronic disease management requires a continuous psychological adaptation and behavioral reorganization. In literature, many interventions to improve medication adherence have been described for different clinical conditions, however, most interventions seem to fail in their aims. Moreover, most interventions associated with adherence improvements are not associated with improvements in other outcomes. Indeed, in the last decades, the degree of nonadherence remained unchanged. In this work, we

  6. Buoyant Nanoparticles: Implications for Nano-Biointeractions in Cellular Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C Y; DeLoid, G M; Pal, A; Demokritou, P

    2016-06-01

    In the safety and efficacy assessment of novel nanomaterials, the role of nanoparticle (NP) kinetics in in vitro studies is often ignored although it has significant implications in dosimetry, hazard ranking, and nanomedicine efficacy. It is demonstrated here that certain nanoparticles are buoyant due to low effective densities of their formed agglomerates in culture media, which alters particle transport and deposition, dose-response relationships, and underestimates toxicity and bioactivity. To investigate this phenomenon, this study determines the size distribution, effective density, and assesses fate and transport for a test buoyant NP (polypropylene). To enable accurate dose-response assessment, an inverted 96-well cell culture platform is developed in which adherent cells are incubated above the buoyant particle suspension. The effect of buoyancy is assessed by comparing dose-toxicity responses in human macrophages after 24 h incubation in conventional and inverted culture systems. In the conventional culture system, no adverse effects are observed at any NP concentration tested (up to 250 μg mL(-1) ), whereas dose-dependent decreases in viability and increases in reactive oxygen species are observed in the inverted system. This work sheds light on an unknown issue that plays a significant role in vitro hazard screening and proposes a standardized methodology for buoyant NP assessments. PMID:27135209

  7. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  8. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  9. Practical Strategies for Enhancing Adherence to Treatment Regimen in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Greenley, Rachel N.; Kunz, Jennifer H.; Walter, Jennifer; Hommel, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Promoting adherence to treatment among pediatric and adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a critical yet challenging task for health care providers. Several existing interventions to enhance adherence among individuals with IBD offer useful information about practical strategies to enhance adherence. The current review article has 3 goals. First, the review provides a context for understanding treatment regimen adherence in IBD by reviewing key definitional, measurement, an...

  10. The thorny path linking cellular senescence to organismalaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Christopher K.; Mian, Saira; Campisi, Judith

    2005-08-09

    Half a century is fast approaching since Hayflick and colleagues formally described the limited ability of normal human cells to proliferate in culture (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961). This finding--that normal somatic cells, in contrast to cancer cells, cannot divide indefinitely--challenged the prevailing idea that cells from mortal multicellular organisms were intrinsically ''immortal'' (Carrell, 1912). It also spawned two hypotheses, essential elements of which persist today. The first held that the restricted proliferation of normal cells, now termed cellular senescence, suppresses cancer (Hayflick, 1965; Sager, 1991; Campisi, 2001). The second hypothesis, as explained in the article by Lorenzini et al., suggested that the limited proliferation of cells in culture recapitulated aspects of organismal aging (Hayflick, 1965; Martin, 1993). How well have these hypotheses weathered the ensuing decades? Before answering this question, we first consider current insights into the causes and consequences of cellular senescence. Like Lorenzini et al., we limit our discussion to mammals. We also focus on fibroblasts, the cell type studied by Lorenzini et al., but consider other types as well. We suggest that replicative capacity in culture is not a straightforward assessment, and that it correlates poorly with both longevity and body mass. We speculate this is due to the malleable and variable nature of replicative capacity, which renders it an indirect metric of qualitative and quantitative differences among cells to undergo senescence, a response that directly alters cellular phenotype and might indirectly alter tissue structure and function.

  11. Teaching cultural competence using an exemplar from literary journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathryn L

    2004-06-01

    Fadiman's work of literary journalism, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, was used as a case study to teach transcultural and other nursing concepts to undergraduate nursing students. Campinha-Bacote's model of cultural competence was used to organize transcultural nursing concepts in the course. Before and after the course, students completed assessments consisting of two cultural attitude questionnaires and a paper describing a personal experience with adherence and failure to adhere by a Mexican American client. After reading Fadiman's book and completing several short writing assignments examining key course concepts, student scores on the questionnaires were mostly unchanged. However, students demonstrated growth in cultural awareness and skill in their "after" papers. Results suggest that valid, reliable tools are needed to detect changes in cultural competence. Qualitative data suggest that students can begin the process of becoming culturally competent through the creative use of literature in nursing education. PMID:15230304

  12. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  13. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  14. What We Mean When We Talk About Adherence in Respiratory Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijens, Bernard; Dima, Alexandra L; Van Ganse, Eric; van Boven, Job F M; Eakin, Michelle N; Foster, Juliet M; de Bruin, Marijn; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Adequate medication adherence is key for optimal benefit of pharmacological treatments. A wealth of research has been conducted to understand and identify opportunities to intervene to improve medication adherence, but variations in adherence definitions within prior research have led to ambiguity i

  15. Medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a critical appraisal of the existing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, B.J.F. van den; Zwikker, H.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to medication in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is low, varying from 30 to 80%. Improving adherence to therapy could therefore dramatically improve the efficacy of drug therapy. Although indicators for suboptimal adherence can be useful to identify nonadherent patients, and could funct

  16. Assessment of medication adherence among hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Bhusal

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Overall the medication adherence was poor in hypertensive patients. Adherence to therapeutic regimens is an important factor in blood pressure control among hypertensive patients and needs priority. Health education related to medication adherence needs be improved in hypertensive patients. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1606-1612

  17. It's the adherence, stupid (that determines asthma control in preschool children)!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Although guideline-based asthma care and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids are predictors of asthma control, the role of adherence in maintaining long-term asthma control is largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and long-

  18. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel O.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  19. Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids and Patient Perception : Towards a better understanding and individualised care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menckeberg, T.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to further deepen knowledge on factors associated with nonadherence to provide means to improve adherence. We evaluated several methods of assessing adherence. At first, we evaluated the accuracy of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS), a structured method for eliciti

  20. PS2-06: Feasibility of Determining Medication Adherence from Electronic Health Record Medication Orders

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Nikki; Luckett, Capp; Ellis, Jennifer; Raebel, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Medication adherence is essential to optimizing outcomes for many chronic diseases. Typically, calculation of adherence is based on dispensings identified from pharmacy claims databases. However, this procedure excludes prescription orders that are never dispensed and potentially results in biased adherence estimates. To explore extracting newly-ordered medications from the Electronic Health Record (EHR), we conducted a project to:

  1. Refill adherence and polypharmacy among patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Rykel; Gorter, Kees; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zuithoff, Peter; Klungel, Olaf H.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Non-adherence is considered a major barrier to better outcomes of diabetes care. A relationship has been established between polypharmacy and patients' adherence. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of polypharmacy and non-adherence in general practice, their mutual rel

  2. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellen, Q.M. van; Stronks, K.; Bindels, P.J.E.; Öry, F.G.; Aalderen, W.M.C. van

    2006-01-01

    Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) may contribute to the recent rise in asthma morbidity. In general, appropriate adherence to ICSs is a complex process that is influenced by various determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that were associated with adherence to

  3. Factors Associated with the Accuracy of Physicians’ Predictions of Patient Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L. Alison; Leventhal, Elaine A.; Leventhal, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Objective Physicians are inaccurate in predicting non-adherence in patients, a problem that interferes with physicians’: 1) appropriate prescribing decisions and 2) effective prevention/intervention of non-adherence. The purpose of the current study is to investigate potential reasons for the poor accuracy of physicians’ adherence-predictions and conditions under which their predictions may be more accurate. Methods After the medical encounter, predictions of patient-adherence and other ratings from primary-care physicians (n=24) regarding patient-factors that may have influenced their predictions were collected. Patients (n=288) rated their agreement regarding the prescribed treatment after the encounter and reported adherence one month later. Results Several factors were related to physicians’ adherence-predictions, including physicians’ perceptions of patient-agreement regarding treatment. However, some factors were not related to adherence and agreement-perceptions were inaccurate overall, potentially contributing to the poor accuracy of adherence-predictions. The degree to which physicians discussed treatment-specifics with the patient moderated agreement-perception accuracy but not adherence-prediction accuracy. Conclusions Training providers to discuss certain treatment-specifics with patients may improve their ability to perceive patient-agreement regarding treatment and may directly improve patient-adherence. Practice Implications Discussing treatment-specifics with patients may directly improve adherence, but providers should not rely on these discussions to give them accurate estimates of the patients’ likely adherence. PMID:21501943

  4. Porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines as a new in vitro model for studying adherence and pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seung Y; George, Sajan; Brözel, Volker; Moxley, Rodney; Francis, David; Kaushik, Radhey S

    2008-07-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections result in large economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The organism causes diarrhea by adhering to and colonizing enterocytes in the small intestines. While much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ETEC, no homologous intestinal epithelial cultures suitable for studying porcine ETEC pathogenesis have been described prior to this report. In the current study, we investigated the adherence of various porcine ETEC strains to two porcine (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) and one human (INT-407) small intestinal epithelial cell lines. Each cell line was assessed for its ability to support the adherence of E. coli expressing fimbrial adhesins K88ab, K88ac, K88ad, K99, F41, 987P, and F18. Wild-type ETEC expressing K88ab, K88ac, and K88ad efficiently bound to both IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells. An ETEC strain expressing both K99 and F41 bound heavily to both porcine cell lines but an E. coli strain expressing only K99 bound very poorly to these cells. E. coli expressing F18 adhesin strongly bound to IPEC-1 cells but did not adhere to IPEC-J2 cells. The E. coli strains G58-1 and 711 which express no fimbrial adhesins and those that express 987P fimbriae failed to bind to either porcine cell line. Only strains B41 and K12:K99 bound in abundance to INT-407 cells. The binding of porcine ETEC to IPEC-J2, IPEC-1 and INT-407 with varying affinities, together with lack of binding of 987P ETEC and non-fimbriated E. coli strains, suggests strain-specific E. coli binding to these cell lines. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of porcine intestinal cell lines for studying ETEC pathogenesis.

  5. Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2009-12-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.

  6. A social work study on measuring adherence to religious values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Allahyari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.

  7. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article

  8. Asthma Education, Action Plans, Psychosocial Issues and Adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kolbe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with four separate but not disparate topics. The first section discusses asthma education, reviews the current literature and attempts to challenge some of the dogma that is associated with this area. Knowledge alone does not guarantee appropriate behaviour, due to a variety of adverse socioeconomic and psychological factors that need to be considered for each patient. Action plans and peak flow monitoring have both been disappointing in terms of reducing asthma morbidity; the former needs to be individualized, and the latter may be useful in specific situations. Space precludes an in-depth discussion of psychological issues and adherence, but an attempt has been made to address salient issues, particularly related to the first two topics. Psychological factors, especially anxiety, play an important role in asthma outcome. Adherence to medication prescriptions and other management strategies need to be taken into account when an individual’s treatment program is planned.

  9. Identifying solutions to medication adherence in the visually impaired elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miranda; Bailey, Trista

    2014-02-01

    Adults older than 65 years of age with vision impairment are more likely to have difficulty managing medications compared with people having normal vision. This patient population has difficulty reading medication information and may take the wrong medication or incorrect doses of medication, resulting in serious consequences, including overdose or inadequate treatment of health problems. Visually impaired patients report increased anxiety related to medication management and must rely on others to obtain necessary drug information. Pharmacists have a unique opportunity to pursue accurate medication adherence in this special population. This article reviews literature illustrating how severe medication mismanagement can occur in the visually impaired elderly and presents resources and solutions for pharmacists to take a larger role in adherence management in this population.

  10. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  11. Health Literacy and Medication Adherence in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Demian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Poorer health literacy, defined as patients’ ability to access, process, and understand health-based information in order to make medically related decisions, is linked to adverse self-care and disease management outcomes in a variety of medical populations. We investigated the relationship between health literacy, other aspects of cognition, and medication adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients (N= 96). Our results indicated that poorer health literacy, as assessed by a novel meas...

  12. Glial origin of rapidly adhering amniotic fluid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Aula, P; von Koskull, H; Teramo, K; Karjalainen, O; Virtanen, I.; Lehto, V P; Dahl, D

    1980-01-01

    Rapidly adhering cells (RA cells) from the amniotic fluid of a pregnancy with fetal anencephaly were investigated by immunofluorescence assay with an antiserum against glial cells. After 24 hours' cultivation a high proportion of the cells showed positive glial-specific fluorescence, whereas no staining was seen in cells from samples of normal amniotic fluid. At the 24th week the mother was delivered of a stillborn infant with anencephaly. Immunofluorescence staining of RA cells with glial-sp...

  13. INFLUENCE OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE ON THE ADHERENCE OF PARTICULATE SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Toure, Yetioman; Rouxhet, Paul G.; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine; Sindic, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The removal of particulate soils from solid surfaces is the key process of cleaning many industrial devices, such as heat exchangers and spray dryers (food and pharmaceutical sector), and may be influenced by the presence of solutes, in particular of macromolecules. The present study deals with the influence of soluble polysaccharide on the adherence of particulate fouling of open surfaces and on subsequent cleaning. Model substrates differing by hydrophobicity (glass and polystyrene) were so...

  14. INFLUENCE OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE ON THE ADHERENCE OF PARTICULATE SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Toure, Yetioman; Rouxhet, G. Paul; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine; Sindic, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The removal of particulate soils from solid surfaces is the key process of cleaning many industrial devices, such as heat exchangers and spray dryers (food and pharmaceutical sector), and may be influenced by the presence of solutes, in particular of macromolecules. The present study deals with the influence of soluble polysaccharide on the adherence of particulate fouling of open surfaces and on subsequent cleaning. Model surfaces differing by hydrophobicity (glass and polystyrene) were soil...

  15. The adherence in the union stone-mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez García, María Reyes

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Stones placates present a wide of problems that result in the fall of plates. One of the causes is the lack of adherence stone-mortar. We considered a study to determine the adherence between several cement mortars (1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and a especial mortar prepared with latex and stones (white granite, pink granites, black granites, white marble and cream limestones. The results obtained suggest that only adequate adherence rates (higher than 3 kgf/cm2 achieved with cement mortar 1:3 and especial mortar. Besides it is observed that in the stones studied there is no relation between adherence and the absorption values.

    Los aplacados de piedra presentan una extensa patología que se traduce en la caída de las placas colocadas. Una de las causas es la falta de adherencia mortero-piedra. El estudio se realiza para determinar la tensión de adherencia entre diversos morteros de cemento (1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 y otro compuesto por mortero y látex y piedras (granito blanco, granitos rosa, granitos negros, mármol blanco y calizas crema. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que los únicos morteros que permiten valores de adherencia aceptables (superiores a 3 kp/cm2 son el mortero de cemento 1:3 y el especial. Igualmente se comprueba que, en las piedras estudiadas, no existe relación alguna entre la adherencia y la absorción de agua.

  16. ADHERENCE AND PROPERTIES OF SILICON CARBIDE BASED FILMS ON STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Lelogeais, M.; Ducarroir, M.; Berjoan, R.

    1991-01-01

    Coatings of silicon carbide with various compositions have been obtained in a r.f plasma assisted process using tetramethylsilane and argon as input gases. Some properties against mechanical applications of such deposits on steel have been investigated. Residual stresses and hardness are reported and discussed in relation with plasma parameters and deposit composition. By scratch testing, it was shown that the silicon carbide films on steel denote a good adherence when compared with previous ...

  17. Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role o...

  18. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Costa E; Giardini A; Savin M.; Menditto E; Lehane EA; Laosa O; Pecorelli S; Monaco A.; Marengoni A

    2015-01-01

    Elísio Costa,1 Anna Giardini,2 Magda Savin,3 Enrica Menditto,4 Elaine Lehane,5 Olga Laosa,6 Sergio Pecorelli,7,8 Alessandro Monaco,7 Alessandra Marengoni9On behalf of the A1 Action group “Prescription and Adherence to Medical Plans”, European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing1UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 2Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Montescano (PV), Pavia, Ita...

  19. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Elisio

    2015-01-01

    Elísio Costa,1 Anna Giardini,2 Magda Savin,3 Enrica Menditto,4 Elaine Lehane,5 Olga Laosa,6 Sergio Pecorelli,7,8 Alessandro Monaco,7 Alessandra Marengoni9On behalf of the A1 Action group “Prescription and Adherence to Medical Plans”, European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing1UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 2Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Montescano (PV)...

  20. Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cay eAnderson-Hanley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011. Best et al. (2014 found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012 found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants’ involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between change in EF, self-regulation, and exercise adherence in the post-intervention (naturalistic period. Herein, it was predicted that improvement in EF during an exercise intervention, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame during the naturalistic window. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with EF decline during the intervention used the exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between change in executive function, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work; perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator or caregivers may be instrumental in adherence.