Sample records for adherent cellular cultures

  1. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E


    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  2. Adherence of human basophils to cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells.


    The mechanism by which circulating human basophils adhere to vascular endothelium and migrate to sites of allergic reactions is unknown. Agents have been identified which stimulate the adherence of purified basophils to cultured human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HuVEC). Treatment of HuVEC with interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), bacterial endotoxin, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) resulted in time and dose-dependent increases of adhesiveness for basophils...

  3. Comparison of invasiveness among surface-adherent variants of Listeria monocytogenes in Caco-2 cell culture assays.

    Kushwaha, Kalpana; Muriana, Peter M


    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat processing plants is believed to be partly linked with their adherence properties to abiotic surfaces that may allow contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Isolates of raw meats, RTE meats and environmental samples from RTE meat processing facilities that demonstrated differences in adherence to abiotic surfaces (glass, plastic, stainless steel, and rubber) were tested for cellular adherence and invasion in the Caco-2 human cell line. Strains of L. monocytogenes were classified into strong (CW50, 99-38, CW77, SM5 and CW62) and weakly adherent (CW34, CW35, CW72, SM3, J7 and J126) based on a microplate adherence assay using the fluorescing substrate, 5,6-CFDA. These strains were tested for adherence and invasion in cell culture assays with Caco-2 cells. At long incubation time (2h) and high multiplicity of infection (MOI, 100:1) we observed equivalent cellular adherence and invasiveness. After optimizing conditions for time of infection (15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-min) and MOI (100:1, 10:1, 1:1, and 0.1:1), we found that under the conditions of 15-min infection time at an MOI of 10:1 (Listeria:Caco-2 cells), we again observed equivalent cellular adherence by the two distinct surface-adherent groups, but we only recovered invading Listeria from the group that was strongly adherent to environmental surfaces. The data indicate that a surface factor that provides for strong environmental surface adherence may also be involved with internal cellular virulence and survival and implicates strongly adherent strains as possibly being of greater invasiveness than weakly adherent strains.

  4. Differentiation of cellular processes involved in the induction and maintenance of stimulated neutrophil adherence.

    English, D; Gabig, T G


    Neutrophil adherence stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was investigated by quantitating the attachment of 51Cr-labeled neutrophils to plastic surfaces and to the endothelium of umbilical veins mounted in compartmentalized Lucite chambers. PMA-induced adherence could be functionally separated into an induction phase requiring cellular metabolism and a Mg++ dependent maintenance phase that was independent of cellular metabolism. Thus, metabolic inhibitors (N-ethylmaleimide, 2-deoxyglucose) blocked adherence when added to neutrophils prior to PMA, but did not cause detachment of cells adhering as a consequence of prior exposure to PMA. PMA failed to induce adherence of neutrophils incubated at low (0.4 degree C) temperature, but temperature reduction, even for prolonged periods, did not cause detachment of adherent cells. Thus, the attractive forces that mediate stimulated adherence persist independently of any sustained metabolic response to the inducing stimulus. However, removal of Mg++ from the media above adherent cells resulted in immediate detachment, indicating that the cation was required for the persistent expression or maintenance of the attractive forces involved. The extent of stimulated adherence correlated well with the extent of degranulation when rates were varied by limiting the incubation time or stimulus concentration. This correlation was not absolute; in the absence of Mg++, PMA induced degranulation normally but failed to enhance adherence. To explain these findings, we investigated the possibility that PMA-stimulated adherence was maintained by Mg++-dependent cellular adherence molecules released during exocytosis. Supernatants of stimulated neutrophils were devoid of adherence-promoting activity, and only weak activity was recovered in supernatants of mechanically disrupted neutrophils. PMA effectively stimulated the tight adherence of degranulated neutrophil cytoplasts to plastic surfaces and did so in the absence of stimulated

  5. Microfluidic bioreactors for culture of non-adherent cells

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota


    Microfluidic bioreactors (μBR) are becoming increasingly popular for cell culture, sample preparation and analysis in case of routine genetic and clinical diagnostics. We present a novel μBR for non-adherent cells designed to mimic in vivo perfusion of cells based on diffusion of media through...

  6. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    Verena Ziegler


    Full Text Available In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011. In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4 for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii added simultaneously with the cells or (iii one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings.

  7. Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images.

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas


    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license.

  8. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms regulating Acanthamoeba castellanii adherence to host cells.

    Soto-Arredondo, K J; Flores-Villavicencio, L L; Serrano-Luna, J J; Shibayama, M; Sabanero-López, M


    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of infections such as amoebic keratitis (AK), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and cutaneous lesions. The mechanisms involved in the establishment of infection are unknown. However, it is accepted that the initial phase of pathogenesis involves adherence to the host tissue. In this work, we analysed surface molecules with an affinity for epithelial and neuronal cells from the trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. We also investigated the cellular mechanisms that govern the process of trophozoite adhesion to the host cells. We first used confocal and epifluorescence microscopy to examine the distribution of the A. castellanii actin cytoskeleton during interaction with the host cells. The use of drugs, as cytochalasin B (CB) and latrunculin B (LB), revealed the participation of cytoskeletal filaments in the adhesion process. In addition, to identify the proteins and glycoproteins on the surface of A. castellanii, the trophozoites were labelled with biotin and biotinylated lectins. The results revealed bands of surface proteins, some of which were glycoproteins with mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues. Interaction assays of biotinylated amoebae proteins with epithelial and neuronal cells showed that some surface proteins had affinity for both cell types. The results of this study provide insight into the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of the Acanthamoeba infection process.

  9. Cultural Diagnosis: An Empirical Investigation of Cellular Industry of Pakistan

    Qamar Ali


    Full Text Available This study describes research in five cellular companies operating in Pakistan, aimed at identifying their current and preferred organizational culture. Using Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983 competing values framework, the overall cultural profiles and dominant characteristics of the organizations and industry are determined through a personally administered survey employing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. The results indicate that hierarchy culture is dominating in cellular industry, whereas the clan is found to be the most preferred cultural archetype in majority of cellular companies. This indicates a misalignment between what employees think is needed and what is perceived to exist.

  10. Adherent primary cultures of mouse intercostal muscle fibers for isolated fiber studies.

    Robison, Patrick; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Schneider, Martin F


    Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an adherent culture system for single adult intercostal muscle fibers from the adult mouse. This system allows for monitoring functional properties of these living muscle fibers in culture with or without electrical field stimulation to drive muscle fiber contraction at physiological or pathological respiratory firing patterns. We also provide initial characterization of these fibers, demonstrating several common techniques in this new model system in the context of the established Flexor Digitorum Brevis muscle primary culture model.

  11. Adherent Primary Cultures of Mouse Intercostal Muscle Fibers for Isolated Fiber Studies

    Patrick Robison


    Full Text Available Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an adherent culture system for single adult intercostal muscle fibers from the adult mouse. This system allows for monitoring functional properties of these living muscle fibers in culture with or without electrical field stimulation to drive muscle fiber contraction at physiological or pathological respiratory firing patterns. We also provide initial characterization of these fibers, demonstrating several common techniques in this new model system in the context of the established Flexor Digitorum Brevis muscle primary culture model.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of adherence on abiotic and cellular surfaces of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from catheter tips

    Gislaine Franco de Moura Costa


    Full Text Available The cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion to abiotic and cellular surfaces was tested in five clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from catheter tips. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains were also studied. Hydrophobicity was characterized by a test for affinity to xylene. Adhesion to abiotic surfaces (polystyrene, formica, latex and glass was evaluated in Petri plates using the stamp technique. Buccal epithelial cells were used for tests of adhesion to cellular surfaces. Adhesion to the catheter was evaluated by repeatedly rinsing the catheters and rolling them over nutrient agar. Molecular typing of the strains was done by the ERIC-PCR technique. The degree of hydrophobicity of the strains varied from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. All the strains adhered to the cell surfaces and to the catheters, and three of them strongly adhered to latex, polystyrene and formica. Catheter adhesion was reduced by meropenem. We found a direct relationship between the degree of bacterial hydrophobicity and adhesion to the abiotic surfaces, but not with adhesion to cellular surfaces, which suggests that different mechanisms are involved in adherence.

  13. Adherent Primary Cultures of Mouse Intercostal Muscle Fibers for Isolated Fiber Studies


    Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an ad...

  14. Difference of adherence, proliferation and osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on different HA/ZrO2 composites

    QUAN Ren-fu; TANG Yang-hua; HUANG Zhong-ming; YANG Di-sheng; LI Wei; XU Jin-wei; WU Xiao-chun


    Objective: To study the adherence,proliferation and osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on different HA/ZrO2 composites.Methods: The simplex and graded HA/ZrO2 composites were prepared using dry-laid method.The surface topography of the composites was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The MSCs were isolated from rabbits and cultured on experimental groups (simplex HA/ ZrO2 composite,graded HA/ZrO2 composite,pure HA or pure ZrO2 coatings respectively) and control group (ordinary culture plate).Then,we observed the adherence,proliferation and osteogenesis of the MSCs,detected the cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities,extracted total RNA and detected the mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ,osteocalcin and osteopontin using the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.Results: The SEM images confirmed that the surfaceof the simplex HA/ZrO2 composite was coverd by discontiguous HA layer with clear visualization of the partial ZrO2 matrix,while the surface of the graded HA/ZrO2 composite was fairly rough with porosity.X-ray diffraction showed that after high temperature sintering,the ZrO2 phase still remained,while the HA phase was transformed to β-Ca3 (pO4)2,α-Ca3(PO4)2 and CaZrO3 phases on the surface of both composites.Cell culture indicated that the HA/ ZrO2 composites supported cell attachment.Neither ALP expression nor mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ,osteocalcin or osteopontin from RT-PCR results showed significant deviation among four groups.Conclusion:Among these four composites,the graded HA/ZrO2 composite promotes the MSCs proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation to a certain extent.

  15. Adherence to Asian Cultural Values and Cultural Fit in Korean American Undergraduates' Help-Seeking Attitudes

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel


    Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…

  16. Laminin-adherent versus suspension-non-adherent cell culture conditions for the isolation of cancer stem cells in the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line.

    de la Rosa, Javier; Sáenz Antoñanzas, Ander; Shahi, Mehdi H; Meléndez, Bárbara; Rey, Juan A; Castresana, Javier S


    Medulloblastoma (MB) is a highly malignant tumor of childhood. MB seems to be initiated and maintained by a small group of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSC hypothesis suggests that a subset of tumor cells is able to proliferate, sustain the tumor, and develop chemoresistance, all of which make of CSC an interesting target for new anticancer therapies. The MB cell line DAOY was cultured in suspension by a medullosphere traditional culturing method and in adherent conditions by laminin-pre-coated flasks and serum-free medium enriched with specific growth factors. An increase in the stem features was shown when cells were successively cultured in hypoxia conditions. By contrast, a reduction in these properties was appreciated when cells were exposed to differentiation conditions. In addition, the CD133+ and CD133- subpopulations were isolated from cells grown in laminin-pre-coated flasks, and in vitro experiments showed that the CD133+ fraction represented the stem population and it could have CSC with a higher probability than the CD133- fraction. We can conclude that the laminin culture method in adherent conditions and the medullosphere traditional culturing method in suspension are similarly good for obtaining stem-like cells in the DAOY cell line.

  17. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    Nakashima, Y., E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 096-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan); Tsusu, K.; Minami, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan); Nakanishi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 096-8555 (Japan)


    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  18. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta


    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  19. An approach to collaborative care and consultation: interviewing, cultural competence, and enhancing rapport and adherence.

    Beck, B J; Gordon, Christopher


    Although changes in the US health care system promote a population-based approach, increases in population diversity emphasize the need for culturally competent, patient-centered, participatory care. Despite this perceived conflict, the global view has improved the recognition of mental health issues as a driver of overall health as well as health care spending. This recognition, along with the many forces that keep mental health care in the primary care sector, actually encourages the development of collaborative models that capitalize on the primary care provider's opportunity to leverage their rapport with the patient to improve access to, and comfort with, specialty mental health services. Engaging patients in their own path to recovery or well-being improves engagement in, and adherence to, the treatment plan and ultimately improves outcomes.

  20. Development and optimization of a metabolomic method for analysis of adherent cell cultures.

    Danielsson, Anders P H; Moritz, Thomas; Mulder, Hindrik; Spégel, Peter


    In this investigation, a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomic protocol for adherent cell cultures was developed using statistical design of experiments. Cell disruption, metabolite extraction, and the GC/MS settings were optimized aiming at a gentle, unbiased, sensitive, and high-throughput metabolomic protocol. Due to the heterogeneity of the metabolome and the inherent selectivity of all analytical techniques, development of unbiased protocols is highly complex. Changing one parameter of the protocol may change the response of many groups of metabolites. In this investigation, statistical design of experiments and multivariate analysis also allowed such interaction effects to be taken into account. The protocol was validated with respect to linear range, precision, and limit of detection in a clonal rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1 832/13). The protocol allowed high-throughput profiling of metabolites covering the major metabolic pathways. The majority of metabolites displayed a linear range from a single well in a 96-well plate up to a 10 cm culture dish. The method allowed a total of 47 analyses to be performed in 24h.

  1. Exploring the patterns of use and the feasibility of using cellular phones for clinic appointment reminders and adherence messages in an antiretroviral treatment clinic, Durban, South Africa.

    Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Corless, Inge B; Giddy, Janet; Nicholas, Patrice K; Eichbaum, Quentin; Butler, Lisa M


    In preparation for a proposed intervention at an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Durban, South Africa, we explored the dynamics and patterns of cellular phone use among this population, in order to ascertain whether clinic contact via patients' cellular phones was a feasible and acceptable modality for appointment reminders and adherence messages. Adults, who were more than 18 years old, ambulatory, and who presented for treatment at the clinic between October-December 2007, were consecutively recruited until the sample size was reached (n = 300). A structured questionnaire was administered, including questions surrounding sociodemographics, cellular phone availability, patterns of use, and acceptability of clinic contact for the purpose of clinic appointment reminders and adherence support. Most respondents (n = 242; 81%) reported current ownership of a cellular phone with 95% utilizing a prepaid airtime service. Those participants who currently owned a cellular phone reported high cellular phone turnover due to theft or loss (n = 94, 39%) and/or damage (n = 68, 28%). More females than men switched their cell phones off during the day (p = 0.002) and were more likely to not take calls in certain social milieus (p ≤ 0.0001). Females were more likely to share their cell phone with others (p = 0.002) or leave it in a place where someone could access it (p = 0.005). Most respondents were willing to have clinic contact via their cellular phones, either verbally (99%) or via text messages (96%). The use of cellular phones for intervention purposes is feasible and should be further investigated. The findings highlight the value of gender-based analyses in informing interventions.

  2. Contributions of EspA Filaments and Curli Fimbriae in Cellular Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kudva, Indira T; Bearson, Bradley L; Stasko, Judith A


    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed increased adherence to HEp-2 cells and produced abundant biofilms. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of espA as well as the csgA gene, which encodes curli fimbriae that are essential for biofilm formation. In the present study, we constructed hha espA, hha csgA, and hha csgA espA deletion mutants to determine the relative importance of EspA and CsgA in O157 adherence to HEp-2 cells and biofilm formation. In vitro adherence assays, conducted at 37°C in a tissue culture medium containing 0.1% glucose, showed that HEp-2 cell adherence required EspA because hha espA and hha csgA espA mutants adhered to HEp-2 cells at higher levels only when complemented with an espA-expressing plasmid. Biofilm assays performed at 28°C in a medium lacking glucose showed dependency of biofilm formation on CsgA; however EspA was not produced under these conditions. Despite production of detectable levels of EspA at 37°C in media supplemented with 0.1% glucose, the biofilm formation occurred independent of EspA. These results indicate dependency of O157 adherence to epithelial cells on EspA filaments, while CsgA promoted biofilm formation under conditions mimicking those found in the environment (low temperature with nutrient limitations) and in the digestive tract of an host animal (higher temperature and low levels of glucose).

  3. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    Yiting Cai


    Full Text Available The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment culture was based on the fact that BMSCs were assembled in compact bones. Thus, the procedure included flushing bone marrow out of bone cavity and culturing the fragments without any collagenase digestion. The cell yield from cultured fragments was slightly less than that from cultured bone marrow using the same bone quantity. However, the trypsinized cells from cultured fragments exhibited significantly higher proliferation and were accompanied with more CD90 and CD44 expressions and less CD45 expression. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity of cells from cultured fragments were better than those of cells from bone marrow. The directly adherent culture of compact bone is suitable for mouse BMSC isolation, and more BMSCs with potentially improved proliferation capacity can be obtained in the primary culture.

  4. The Buddha Images and Conservation and Adherence to Cultural Values in Northeast

    Athikan Suksri


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is caused by the problem of conservation of the Buddha images to exist in the original condition and by the problem of transference and adherence to indigenous knowledge of local craftsmen. At present there have not yet been systematic and wide conservation and adherence to the Buddha images. Other causes are such as incorrect techniques of conserving the Buddha images, lack of encouraging people and the community to appreciate the Buddha images, incorrect techniques of restoring the Buddha images, lack of increment of economic and cultural values in terms of tourism, lack of correct techniques of studying styles of the Buddha images to rebuild the styles for the community to appreciate local art, lack of clear examination of the background and there have not been comparative studies to find out relationships with other localities. Purposes were to examine backgrounds of Isan Buddha images and iconology, to examine current conditions and problems of the Buddha images and to investigate models of conservation and adherence to cultural values in Iran. Study area covered Changwat Maha Sarakham, Changwat Kalasin and Changwat Roi Et where there have been long backgrounds and continuous developments of the Buddha image in all Ages. Approach: This study used qualitative methodology by collecting data from related literature and from field studies by interviews and focused group discussion from totally 66 informants. Findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The result of this research revealed that there were 5 models of the Buddha image art found in Isan: Sandstone Buddha images, baked-clay votive tablets, cast motar Buddha images, bronze Buddha images and wooden Buddha images. They were in the Periods of Dvaravati, Lop Buri and Lan Chang. The Buddha images were popularly built in many different styles such as concentration style, double-miracle style, nag-over-his-head style, blessing style

  5. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead


    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  6. A new in vitro model to study cellular responses after thermomechanical damage in monolayer cultures.

    Alice Hettler

    Full Text Available Although electrosurgical instruments are widely used in surgery to cut tissue layers or to achieve hemostasis by coagulation (electrocautery, only little information is available concerning the inflammatory or immune response towards the debris generated. Given the elevated local temperatures required for successful electrocautery, the remaining debris is likely to contain a plethora of compounds entirely novel to the intracorporal setting. A very common in vitro method to study cell migration after mechanical damage is the scratch assay, however, there is no established model for thermomechanical damage to characterise cellular reactions. In this study, we established a new in vitro model to investigate exposure to high temperature in a carefully controlled cell culture system. Heatable thermostat-controlled aluminium stamps were developed to induce local damage in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The thermomechanical damage invoked is reproducibly locally confined, therefore allowing studies, under the same experimental conditions, of cells affected to various degrees as well as of unaffected cells. We show that the unaffected cells surrounding the thermomechanical damage zone are able to migrate into the damaged area, resulting in a complete closure of the 'wound' within 48 h. Initial studies have shown that there are significant morphological and biological differences in endothelial cells after thermomechanical damage compared to the mechanical damage inflicted by using the unheated stamp as a control. Accordingly, after thermomechanical damage, cell death as well as cell protection programs were activated. Mononuclear cells adhered in the area adjacent to thermomechanical damage, but not to the zone of mechanical damage. Therefore, our model can help to understand the differences in wound healing during the early phase of regeneration after thermomechanical vs. mechanical damage. Furthermore, this model lends itself

  7. [The influence of solcoseryl on population and cellular parameters of HeLa and RD cultures].

    Magakian, Iu A; Karalian, Z A; Karalova, E M; Abroian, L O; Akopian, L A; Gasparian, M G; Dzhagatspanian, N G; Semerdzhian, Z B; Ter-Pogosian, Z R


    Changes of population and cellular parameters of HeLa and RD cultures after introducing of solcoseryl in culture medium were studied by methods of scanning cytophotometry and cytomorphometry. Monolayer density, proliferation activity, the number of dead cells in a monolayer, the number of nucleoli in nuclei and distribution of cells in the populations by this parameter, RNA and DNA masses in nuclei and nucleoli, total volumes and surface areas of the nuclei and nucleoli were determined. It has been shown that solcoseryl differently affects the cultures both on population and on cellular levels of their organization. The results of multi-parametric analysis of the influence of solseryl on the cultures allow considering it as a biologically active compound with the features typical for cell and cell population growth regulating factors.

  8. When in Rome: the role of culture & context in adherence to robot recommendations

    Wang, L.; Rau, P.-L.P.; Evers, V.; Robinson, B.K.; Hinds, P.


    In this study, we sought to clarify the effects of users' cultural background and cultural context on human-robot team collaboration by investigating attitudes toward and the extent to which people changed their decisions based on the recommendations of a robot collaborator. We report the results of

  9. Determinants of Adherence to Treatment in Hypertensive Patients of African Descent and the Role of Culturally Appropriate Education

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.


    Background In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. Objective To identify patient-related determina

  10. African-Americans' perceptions of health care provider cultural competence that promote HIV medical self-care and antiretroviral medication adherence.

    Gaston, Gina B


    Most studies of cultural competence in healthcare examine healthcare providers' definitions of cultural competence practices. This study is unique in that it examines the relationship between African-American patients' perceptions of the cultural competence of their HIV healthcare providers and the adherence of these patients to medical self-care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cross-sectional, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted at the Ruth Rothstein CORE Center in Chicago, Illinois. The sample consisted of 202 HIV-positive African-Americans who completed surveys during clinic visits. Multiple measures were used, including the Patient Assessments of Cultural Competency survey instrument developed by the Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical self-care was measured using the advice and instructions scale and the self-care symptom management for people living with HIV/AIDS categorical scale. ART adherence was measured using the Adherence Behaviors Self-Report and Adherence Self-Report scales. The data revealed many significant correlations between variables. The more patients believed that providers should integrate culture in HIV treatment; the better their reported health (F1,138=0.151, P=0.05) and the more they followed their provider's advice and instructions (medical self-care; F1,138=0.029, P=0.05). Participants who trusted their providers engaged in more medical self-care (F1,138=0.280, P=0.01). More shared treatment decisions were reported among participants who had higher levels of education (F1,127=0.337, P=0.05). Findings of this study indicate the need for increased attention to the role of cultural competence in HIV/AIDS care. Understanding patient perceptions of provider cultural competence has the potential to improve HIV treatment adherence and health outcomes.

  11. Extracellular mass transport considerations for space flight research concerning suspended and adherent in vitro cell cultures

    Klaus, David M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Nelson, Emily S.; Hammond, Timmothy G.


    Conducting biological research in space requires consideration be given to isolating appropriate control parameters. For in vitro cell cultures, numerous environmental factors can adversely affect data interpretation. A biological response attributed to microgravity can, in theory, be explicitly correlated to a specific lack of weight or gravity-driven motion occurring to, within or around a cell. Weight can be broken down to include the formation of hydrostatic gradients, structural load (stress) or physical deformation (strain). Gravitationally induced motion within or near individual cells in a fluid includes sedimentation (or buoyancy) of the cell and associated shear forces, displacement of cytoskeleton or organelles, and factors associated with intra- or extracellular mass transport. Finally, and of particular importance for cell culture experiments, the collective effects of gravity must be considered for the overall system consisting of the cells, their environment and the device in which they are contained. This does not, however, rule out other confounding variables such as launch acceleration, on orbit vibration, transient acceleration impulses or radiation, which can be isolated using onboard centrifuges or vibration isolation techniques. A framework is offered for characterizing specific cause-and-effect relationships for gravity-dependent responses as a function of the above parameters.

  12. 3-bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    Ehrke, Eric; Arend, Christian; Dringen, Ralf


    The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes.

  13. Multiple steady states with distinct cellular metabolism in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Europa, A F; Gambhir, A; Fu, P C; Hu, W S


    Mammalian cells have the ability to proliferate under different nutrient environments by utilizing different combinations of the nutrients, especially glucose and the amino acids. Under the conditions often used in in vitro cultivation, the cells consume glucose and amino acids in great excess of what is needed for making up biomass and products. They also produce large amounts of metabolites with lactate, ammonia, and some non-essential amino acids such as alanine as the most dominant ones. By controlling glucose and glutamine at low levels, cellular metabolism can be altered and can result in reduced glucose and glutamine consumption as well as in reduced metabolite formation. Using a fed-batch reactor to manipulate glucose at a low level (as compared to a typical batch culture), cell metabolism was altered to a state with substantially reduced lactate production. The culture was then switched to a continuous mode and allowed to reach a steady-state. At this steady-state, the concentrations of cells and antibody were substantially higher than a control culture that was initiated from a batch culture without first altering cellular metabolism. The lactate and other metabolite concentrations were also substantially reduced as compared to the control culture. This newly observed steady-state was achieved at the same dilution rate and feed medium as the control culture. The paths leading to the two steady-states, however, were different. These results demonstrate steady-state multiplicity. At this new steady-state, not only was glucose metabolism altered, but the metabolism of amino acids was altered as well. The amino acid metabolism in the new steady-state was more balanced, and the excretion of non-essential amino acids and ammonia was substantially lower. This approach of reaching a more desirable steady-state with higher concentrations of cells and product opens a new avenue for high-density- and high-productivity-cell culture.

  14. Cellular Adaptation: Culture conditions of R. opacus and bioflotation of apatite and quartz

    Antonio Gutiérrez Merma

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the culture conditions of microorganisms may affect their surface properties, zeta potential and hydrophobicity via the modification of the cell wall functional groups or metabolic products. The R. opacus bacteria strain was separately adapted to the presence of apatite and quartz, after which a cellular adaptation procedure was developed by repeated sub-culturing with a successive increase in the mineral content. Zeta potential, surface tension, FTIR and microflotation studies were used to evaluate the behavior of the cells that were developed under defined culture conditions. The cellular adaptation induced a modification of the bacterial surface charge. The FTIR results showed a modification of its functional groups. The surface tension results suggested that longer growing time promoted a higher production of metabolites. The use of mineral-adapted cells promoted an improvement in the flotability of both minerals, but it was more significant for apatite flotation. Additionally, the mineral flotability remained unchanged when the cells developed under a longer culture time. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the surface tension.

  15. Paper-based microreactor integrating cell culture and subsequent immunoassay for the investigation of cellular phosphorylation.

    Lei, Kin Fong; Huang, Chia-Hao


    Investigation of cellular phosphorylation and signaling pathway has recently gained much attention for the study of pathogenesis of cancer. Related conventional bioanalytical operations for this study including cell culture and Western blotting are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this work, a paper-based microreactor has been developed to integrate cell culture and subsequent immunoassay on a single paper. The paper-based microreactor was a filter paper with an array of circular zones for running multiple cell cultures and subsequent immunoassays. Cancer cells were directly seeded in the circular zones without hydrogel encapsulation and cultured for 1 day. Subsequently, protein expressions including structural, functional, and phosphorylated proteins of the cells could be detected by their specific antibodies, respectively. Study of the activation level of phosphorylated Stat3 of liver cancer cells stimulated by IL-6 cytokine was demonstrated by the paper-based microreactor. This technique can highly reduce tedious bioanalytical operation and sample and reagent consumption. Also, the time required by the entire process can be shortened. This work provides a simple and rapid screening tool for the investigation of cellular phosphorylation and signaling pathway for understanding the pathogenesis of cancer. In addition, the operation of the paper-based microreactor is compatible to the molecular biological training, and therefore, it has the potential to be developed for routine protocol for various research areas in conventional bioanalytical laboratories.

  16. Ultrastructural study of adherence to and penetration of cultured cells by two invasive Escherichia coli strains isolated from infants with enteritis.


    The adherence of invasive Escherichia coli strains 444-3 and 469-3 to human erythrocytes and to cultured HeLa and HEp-2 cells has been examined by electron microscopy. Bacteria elaborating type 1 fimbriae, glycocalyces , and nonfimbrial mannose-resistant hemagglutinins specific for human erythrocytes were identified in cultures of both strains, and each of these different bacterial surface components appeared to be involved in attachment of 444-3 and 469-3 to cultured epithelial cells or huma...

  17. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin


    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…

  18. Cultural adaptation of a cognitive-behavioural intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe: Nzira Itsva.

    Bere, Tarisai; Nyamayaro, Primrose; Magidson, Jessica F; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Alfred; Munjoma, Ronald; Macpherson, Kirsty; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo Ellen; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Kidia, Khameer; Safren, Steven A; Abas, Melanie


    Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The intervention consisted of a single, 50-minute problem-solving cognitive-behavioural intervention session with four skill-based booster sessions, delivered by four lay adherence counsellors in the context of HIV care. Adaptation followed a theoretically driven approach to intervention adaptation, Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical Experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT), and included modifications to language, session length, tailoring content for delivery by lay counsellors and inclusion of culturally competent probes. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n = 4) and patients (n = 15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6 months. Next steps from this study include conducting a randomised control trial to evaluate the adapted intervention compared to standard of care in a larger sample over a long-term follow-up.

  19. Formate generated by cellular oxidation of formaldehyde accelerates the glycolytic flux in cultured astrocytes.

    Tulpule, Ketki; Dringen, Ralf


    Formaldehyde is a neurotoxic compound that can be endogenously generated in the brain. Because astrocytes play a key role in metabolism and detoxification processes in brain, we have investigated the capacity of these cells to metabolize formaldehyde using primary astrocyte-rich cultures as a model system. Application of formaldehyde to these cultures resulted in the appearance of formate in cells and in a time-, concentration- and temperature-dependent disappearance of formaldehyde from the medium that was accompanied by a matching extracellular accumulation of formate. This formaldehyde-oxidizing capacity of astrocyte cultures is likely to be catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, because the cells of the cultures contain the mRNAs of these formaldehyde-oxidizing enzymes. In addition, exposure to formaldehyde increased both glucose consumption and lactate production by the cells. Both the strong increase in the cellular formate content and the increase in glycolytic flux were only observed after application of formaldehyde to the cells, but not after treatment with exogenous methanol or formate. The accelerated lactate production was not additive to that obtained for azide, a known inhibitor of complex IV of the respiratory chain, and persisted after removal of formaldehyde after a formaldehyde exposure for 1.5 h. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently oxidize formaldehyde to formate, which subsequently enhances glycolytic flux, most likely by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration.

  20. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina


    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects.

  1. Quantitative, functional and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L. Jr.


    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyl-CoA transferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ production, as well as Ca/sup 2+/ ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2 h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7, 10 or 12 Gy) of gamma-radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In vivo irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetyl-CoA hydrolase (catalysing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetyl-hydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionophore stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells.

  2. Single cell dual adherent-suspension co-culture micro-environment for studying tumor-stromal interactions with functionally selected cancer stem-like cells.

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Zhang, Zhixiong; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Deol, Yadwinder; Ingram, Patrick N; McDermott, Sean P; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S; Yoon, Euisik


    Considerable evidence suggests that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are critical in tumor pathogenesis, but their rarity and transience has led to much controversy about their exact nature. Although CSCs can be functionally identified using dish-based tumorsphere assays, it is difficult to handle and monitor single cells in dish-based approaches; single cell-based microfluidic approaches offer better control and reliable single cell derived sphere formation. However, like normal stem cells, CSCs are heavily regulated by their microenvironment, requiring tumor-stromal interactions for tumorigenic and proliferative behaviors. To enable single cell derived tumorsphere formation within a stromal microenvironment, we present a dual adherent/suspension co-culture device, which combines a suspension environment for single-cell tumorsphere assays and an adherent environment for co-culturing stromal cells in close proximity by selectively patterning polyHEMA in indented microwells. By minimizing dead volume and improving cell capture efficiency, the presented platform allows for the use of small numbers of cells (cells). As a proof of concept, we co-cultured single T47D (breast cancer) cells and primary cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) on-chip for 14 days to monitor sphere formation and growth. Compared to mono-culture, co-cultured T47D have higher tumorigenic potential (sphere formation rate) and proliferation rates (larger sphere size). Furthermore, 96-multiplexed single-cell transcriptome analyses were performed to compare the gene expression of co-cultured and mono-cultured T47D cells. Phenotypic changes observed in co-culture correlated with expression changes in genes associated with proliferation, apoptotic suppression, tumorigenicity and even epithelial-to-mesechymal transition. Combining the presented platform with single cell transcriptome analysis, we successfully identified functional CSCs and investigated the phenotypic and transcriptome effects induced by

  3. Reconstruction of mouse testicular cellular microenvironments in long-term seminiferous tubule culture.

    Juho-Antti Mäkelä

    Full Text Available Research on spermatogonia is hampered by complex architecture of the seminiferous tubule, poor viability of testicular tissue ex vivo and lack of physiologically relevant long-term culture systems. Therefore there is a need for an in vitro model that would enable long term survival and propagation of spermatogonia. We aimed at the most simplified approach to enable all different cell types within the seminiferous tubules to contribute to the creation of a niche for spermatogonia. In the present study we describe the establishment of a co-culture of mouse testicular cells that is based on proliferative and migratory activity of seminiferous tubule cells and does not involve separation, purification or differential plating of individual cell populations. The co-culture is composed of the constituents of testicular stem cell niche: Sertoli cells [identified by expression of Wilm's tumour antigen 1 (WT1 and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF], peritubular myoid cells (expressing alpha smooth muscle actin, αSMA and spermatogonia [expressing MAGE-B4, PLZF (promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger, LIN28, Gpr125 (G protein-coupled receptor 125, CD9, c-Kit and Nanog], and can be maintained for at least five weeks. GDNF was found in the medium at a sufficient concentration to support proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs that were able to start spermatogenic differentiation after transplantation to an experimentally sterile recipient testis. Gdnf mRNA levels were elevated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH which shows that the Sertoli cells in the co-culture respond to physiological stimuli. After approximately 2-4 weeks of culture a spontaneous formation of cord-like structures was monitored. These structures can be more than 10 mm in length and branch. They are formed by peritubular myoid cells, Sertoli cells, fibroblasts and spermatogonia as assessed by gene expression profiling. In conclusion, we have managed to

  4. Contributions of EspA filaments and curli fimbriae in cellular adherence and biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed incr...

  5. Influence of aeration of Candida albicans during culturing on their surface aggregation in the presence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.


    Candida albicans surfaces are extremely sensitive to changes in growth conditions. In this study, adhesion to glass of aerated and non-aerated C. albicans ATCC 10261 in the presence and absence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7869 was determined in a parallel plate flow chamber. In addition,

  6. Amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation by cellular biomineralization in mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata.

    Liang Xiang

    Full Text Available The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation.

  7. Multiplex profiling of cellular invasion in 3D cell culture models.

    Gerald Burgstaller

    Full Text Available To-date, most invasion or migration assays use a modified Boyden chamber-like design to assess migration as single-cell or scratch assays on coated or uncoated planar plastic surfaces. Here, we describe a 96-well microplate-based, high-content, three-dimensional cell culture assay capable of assessing invasion dynamics and molecular signatures thereof. On applying our invasion assay, we were able to demonstrate significant effects on the invasion capacity of fibroblast cell lines, as well as primary lung fibroblasts. Administration of epidermal growth factor resulted in a substantial increase of cellular invasion, thus making this technique suitable for high-throughput pharmacological screening of novel compounds regulating invasive and migratory pathways of primary cells. Our assay also correlates cellular invasiveness to molecular events. Thus, we argue of having developed a powerful and versatile toolbox for an extensive profiling of invasive cells in a 96-well format. This will have a major impact on research in disease areas like fibrosis, metastatic cancers, or chronic inflammatory states.

  8. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A


    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  9. Adapatação cultural e avaliação das propriedades de medida da "Self_Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale - SEAMS"

    Rafaela Batista dos Santos Pedrosa


    Resumo: Este estudo tem como objetivo disponibilizar uma versão da Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale ¿ SEAMS para a cultura brasileira e avaliar suas propriedades de medida quando aplicada em pacientes com doença arterial coronária (DAC) em seguimento ambulatorial.. O processo de adaptação cultural foi realizado de acordo com as etapas propostas na literatura - tradução, síntese, retrotradução, avaliação por comitê de especialistas e pré-teste, seguidos pela avaliação d...

  10. Development of an Insert Co-culture System of Two Cellular Types in the Absence of Cell-Cell Contact.

    Renaud, Justine; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia


    The role of secreted soluble factors in the modification of cellular responses is a recurrent theme in the study of all tissues and systems. In an attempt to make straightforward the very complex relationships between the several cellular subtypes that compose multicellular organisms, in vitro techniques have been developed to help researchers acquire a detailed understanding of single cell populations. One of these techniques uses inserts with a permeable membrane allowing secreted soluble factors to diffuse. Thus, a population of cells grown in inserts can be co-cultured in a well or dish containing a different cell type for evaluating cellular changes following paracrine signaling in the absence of cell-cell contact. Such insert co-culture systems offer various advantages over other co-culture techniques, namely bidirectional signaling, conserved cell polarity and population-specific detection of cellular changes. In addition to being utilized in the field of inflammation, cancer, angiogenesis and differentiation, these co-culture systems are of prime importance in the study of the intricate relationships that exist between the different cellular subtypes present in the central nervous system, particularly in the context of neuroinflammation. This article offers general methodological guidelines in order to set up an experiment in order to evaluating cellular changes mediated by secreted soluble factors using an insert co-culture system. Moreover, a specific protocol to measure the neuroinflammatory effects of cytokines secreted by lipopolysaccharide-activated N9 microglia on neuronal PC12 cells will be detailed, offering a concrete understanding of insert co-culture methodology.

  11. Hetero-cellular prototyping by synchronized multi-material bioprinting for rotary cell culture system.

    Snyder, Jessica; Son, Ae Rin; Hamid, Qudus; Wu, Honglu; Sun, Wei


    Bottom-up tissue engineering requires methodological progress of biofabrication to capture key design facets of anatomical arrangements across micro, meso and macro-scales. The diffusive mass transfer properties necessary to elicit stability and functionality require hetero-typic contact, cell-to-cell signaling and uniform nutrient diffusion. Bioprinting techniques successfully build mathematically defined porous architecture to diminish resistance to mass transfer. Current limitations of bioprinted cell assemblies include poor micro-scale formability of cell-laden soft gels and asymmetrical macro-scale diffusion through 3D volumes. The objective of this work is to engineer a synchronized multi-material bioprinter (SMMB) system which improves the resolution and expands the capability of existing bioprinting systems by packaging multiple cell types in heterotypic arrays prior to deposition. This unit cell approach to arranging multiple cell-laden solutions is integrated with a motion system to print heterogeneous filaments as tissue engineered scaffolds and nanoliter droplets. The set of SMMB process parameters control the geometric arrangement of the combined flow's internal features and constituent material's volume fractions. SMMB printed hepatocyte-endothelial laden 200 nl droplets are cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to study the effect of microgravity on an in vitro model of the human hepatic lobule. RCCS conditioning for 48 h increased hepatocyte cytoplasm diameter 2 μm, increased metabolic rate, and decreased drug half-life. SMMB hetero-cellular models present a 10-fold increase in metabolic rate, compared to SMMB mono-culture models. Improved bioprinting resolution due to process control of cell-laden matrix packaging as well as nanoliter droplet printing capability identify SMMB as a viable technique to improve in vitro model efficacy.

  12. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains form Biofilm on Abiotic Surfaces Regardless of Their Adherence Pattern on Cultured Epithelial Cells

    Hebert F. Culler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4% of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence. This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea.

  13. Exploring the cultural context of HIV stigma on antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest Nigeria.

    Okoror, Titilayo A; Falade, Catherine O; Olorunlana, Adetayo; Walker, Ebunlomo M; Okareh, Oladapo T


    This study explored the cultural context of HIV stigma on antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in southwest Nigeria. Using purposive sampling, participants were recruited through a community-based organization. Consenting PLWHA participated in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions that were audio-taped. Using Deacon's conceptual framework of stigma, four opinion guides facilitated the interviews and discussions. Interviews and discussions were conducted in three languages, and lasted from 45 min to 2 h. A total of 35 women and men participated in the study. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 58 years, with an average of 4 years since clinical diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. All participants were receiving ART, and self-reported high adherence level. Using thematic analysis, three themes emerged: life before ART, life after ART, and strategies used in ART adherence. In describing their lives before ART, participants reported experiencing self, anticipated and enacted stigmas due to their sickly appearance from HIV-related complications. After initiating ART, participants talked about friends and families "returning to them" and "apologizing for abandoning" them once they started "looking well." In response to anticipated stigma, many reported sticking to their medications. Drawing from the cultural milieu as part of their strategies, participants discussed the use of plastic bags for medications and àkònpó, as ways of diverting attention from their use of many medications. Implications for ART program policies and stigma interventions were discussed, along with limitation of a short-term ART study on stigma since long-term use of ART can contribute to stigma by way of lipoatrophy as PLWHA age.

  14. Characterization of Three-Dimensional Retinal Tissue Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Adherent Monolayer Cultures

    Singh, Ratnesh K.; Mallela, Ramya K.; Cornuet, Pamela K.; Reifler, Aaron N.; Chervenak, Andrew P.; West, Michael D.; Wong, Kwoon Y.; Nasonkin, Igor O.


    Stem cell-based therapy of retinal degenerative conditions is a promising modality to treat blindness, but requires new strategies to improve the number of functionally integrating cells. Grafting semidifferentiated retinal tissue rather than progenitors allows preservation of tissue structure and connectivity in retinal grafts, mandatory for vision restoration. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we derived retinal tissue growing in adherent conditions consisting of conjoined neural retina and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and evaluated cell fate determination and maturation in this tissue. We found that deriving such tissue in adherent conditions robustly induces all eye field genes (RX, PAX6, LHX2, SIX3, SIX6) and produces four layers of pure populations of retinal cells: RPE (expressing NHERF1, EZRIN, RPE65, DCT, TYR, TYRP, MITF, PMEL), early photoreceptors (PRs) (coexpressing CRX and RCVRN), inner nuclear layer neurons (expressing CALB2), and retinal ganglion cells [RGCs, expressing BRN3B and Neurofilament (NF) 200]. Furthermore, we found that retinal progenitors divide at the apical side of the hESC-derived retinal tissue (next to the RPE layer) and then migrate toward the basal side, similar to that found during embryonic retinogenesis. We detected synaptogenesis in hESC-derived retinal tissue, and found neurons containing many synaptophysin-positive boutons within the RGC and PR layers. We also observed long NF200-positive axons projected by RGCs toward the apical side. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that putative amacrine and/or ganglion cells exhibited electrophysiological responses reminiscent of those in normal retinal neurons. These responses included voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, depolarization-induced spiking, and responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists. Differentiation in adherent conditions allows generation of long and flexible pieces of 3D retinal tissue suitable for isolating transplantable slices of tissue for

  15. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems

    Ren, M.; Du, C.; Herrero Acero, E.; Tang-Schomer, M. D.; Özkucur, N.


    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  16. Human sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC) is able to adhere to and invade kidney epithelial cells in culture

    Conceição, R.A. [Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ludovico, M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Andrade, C.G.T.J. [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Yano, T. [Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The adhesins of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are essential for mediating direct interactions between the microbes and the host cell surfaces that they infect. Using fluorescence microscopy and gentamycin protection assays, we observed that 49 sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC) strains isolated from human adults adhered to and invaded Vero cells in the presence of D-mannose (100%). In addition, bacteria concentrations of approximately 2 × 10{sup 7} CFU/mL were recovered from Vero cells following an invasion assay. Furthermore, PCR analysis of adhesin genes showed that 98.0% of these SEPEC strains tested positive for fimH, 69.4% for flu, 53.1% for csgA, 38.8% for mat, and 32.7% for iha. Analysis of the invasin genes showed that 16.3% of the SEPEC strains were positive for tia, 12.3% for gimB, and 10.2% for ibeA. Therefore, these data suggest that SEPEC adhesion to cell surfaces occurs through non-fimH mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of microcolonies on the Vero cell surface. SEPEC invasiveness was also confirmed by the presence of intracellular bacteria, and ultrastructural analysis using electron transmission microscopy revealed bacteria inside the Vero cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that these SEPEC strains had the ability to adhere to and invade Vero cells. Moreover, these data support the theory that renal cells may be the predominant pathway through which SEPEC enters human blood vessels.

  17. Cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in patients with culture-positive early Lyme disease.

    Vaz, A; Glickstein, L; Field, J A; McHugh, G; Sikand, V K; Damle, N; Steere, A C


    We determined cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi lysate and to recombinant flagellin (FlaB), OspC, and OspA in acute- and convalescent-phase samples from 39 culture-positive patients with erythema migrans and in 20 healthy control subjects. During the acute illness, a median of 4 days after the onset of erythema migrans, 51% of the patients had proliferative cellular responses and 72% had antibody responses to at least one of the borrelial antigens tested. During convalescence, at the conclusion of antibiotic therapy, 64% of the patients had proliferative cellular reactivity and 95% had antibody reactivity with at least one of the spirochetal antigens tested. In both acute- and convalescent-phase samples, cellular immune responses were found as frequently to OspA as to OspC and FlaB. Although antibody responses were also frequently seen to OspC and FlaB, only a few patients had marginal antibody reactivity with OspA. The percentage of patients with proliferative responses was similar in those with clinical evidence of localized or disseminated infection, whereas humoral reactivity was found more often in those with disseminated disease. We conclude that cellular and humoral responses to B. burgdorferi antigens are often found among patients with early Lyme disease. In contrast with the other antigens tested, cellular but not humoral reactivity was often found with OspA.

  18. A Simple Method for Establishing Adherent Ex Vivo Explant Cultures from Human Eye Pathologies for Use in Subsequent Calcium Imaging and Inflammatory Studies

    Sofija Andjelic


    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and reproducible method for cultivating pathological tissues obtained from human eyes during surgery was developed using viscoelastic material as a tissue adherent to facilitate cell attachment and expansion and calcium imaging of cultured cells challenged by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation as well as inflammatory studies. Anterior lens capsule-lens epithelial cells (aLC-LECs from cataract surgery and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (fvERMs from human eyes were used in the study. We hereby show calcium signaling in aLC-LECs by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation and indicate presence of ACh receptors in these cells. Furthermore, an ex vivo study model was established for measuring the inflammatory response in fvERMs and aLC-LECs upon TNFα treatment.

  19. Using a Virtual Tissue Culture System to Assist Students in Understanding Life at the Cellular Level

    McLauglin, Jacqueline S.; Seaquist, Stephen B.


    In every biology course ever taught in the nation's classrooms, and in every biology book ever published, students are taught about the "cell." The cell is as fundamental to biology as the atom is to chemistry. Truly, everything an organism does occurs fundamentally at the cellular level. Beyond memorizing the cellular definition, students are not…

  20. Kruppel-Like Factor 4 Overexpression Initiates a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition and Redifferentiation of Human Pancreatic Cells following Expansion in Long Term Adherent Culture.

    Kenneth R Muir

    Full Text Available A replenishable source of insulin-producing cells has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. Attempts to culture and expand pancreatic β-cells in vitro have resulted in their transition from insulin-producing epithelial cells to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs with high proliferative capacity but devoid of any hormone production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, could induce a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET of the cultured cells. Islet-enriched pancreatic cells, allowed to dedifferentiate and expand in adherent cell culture, were transduced with an adenovirus containing KLF4 (Ad-Klf4. Cells were subsequently analysed for changes in cell morphology by light microscopy, and for the presence of epithelial and pancreatic markers by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT/PCR. Infection with Ad-Klf4 resulted in morphological changes, down-regulation of mesenchymal markers, and re-expression of both epithelial and pancreatic cell markers including insulin and transcription factors specific to β-cells. This effect was further enhanced by culturing cells in suspension. However, the effects of Ad-KLf4 were transient and this was shown to be due to increased apoptosis in Klf4-expressing cells. Klf4 has been recently identified as a pioneer factor with the ability to modulate the structure of chromatin and enhance reprogramming/transdifferentiation. Our results show that Klf4 may have a role in the redifferentiation of expanded pancreatic cells in culture, but before this can be achieved the off-target effects that result in increased apoptosis would need to be overcome.

  1. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells.

    Elena Gaberman

    Full Text Available Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×10(6 cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001, while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001. The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37 was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05. A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective "off the shelf" therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia.

  2. Transient expression and cellular localization of recombinant proteins in cultured insect cells

    Heterologous protein expression systems are used for production of recombinant proteins, interpretation of cellular trafficking/localization, and for the determination of biochemical function of proteins at the sub-organismal level. Although baculovirus expression systems are increasingly used for ...

  3. Production of high-titer human influenza A virus with adherent and suspension MDCK cells cultured in a single-use hollow fiber bioreactor.

    Tapia, Felipe; Vogel, Thomas; Genzel, Yvonne; Behrendt, Ilona; Hirschel, Mark; Gangemi, J David; Reichl, Udo


    Hollow fiber bioreactors (HFBRs) have been widely described as capable of supporting the production of highly concentrated monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Only recently HFBRs have been proposed as new single-use platforms for production of high-titer influenza A virus. These bioreactors contain multiple hollow fiber capillary tubes that separate the bioreactor in an intra- and an extra-capillary space. Cells are usually cultured in the extra-capillary space and can grow to a very high cell concentration. This work describes the evaluation of the single-use hollow fiber bioreactor PRIMER HF (Biovest International Inc., USA) for production of influenza A virus. The process was setup, characterized and optimized by running a total of 15 cultivations. The HFBRs were seeded with either adherent or suspension MDCK cells, and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), and the pandemic strain A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1). High HA titers and TCID₅₀ of up to 3.87 log₁₀(HA units/100 μL) and 1.8 × 10(10)virions/mL, respectively, were obtained for A/PR/8/34 influenza strain. Influenza virus was collected by performing multiple harvests of the extra-capillary space during a virus production time of up to 12 days. Cell-specific virus yields between 2,000 and 8,000 virions/cell were estimated for adherent MDCK cells, and between 11,000 and 19,000 virions/cell for suspension MDCK.SUS2 cells. These results do not only coincide with the cell-specific virus yields obtained with cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors and other high cell density systems, but also demonstrate that HFBRs are promising and competitive single-use platforms that can be considered for commercial production of influenza virus.

  4. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Arau´zo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Le Gac, Séverine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele


    Do different human ART culture protocols prepare embryos differently for post-implantation development? ... Our data promote awareness that human ART culture media affect embryo development. Effects reported here in the mouse may apply also in human, because no ART medium presently available on the




    The objective of this study was to develop an optimal dissection procedure for fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon (VM) grafts and to characterize the cellular composition of such an explant, in particular with respect to the dopaminergic and GABAergic components. We have used a monolayer cell cultu


    Adriane Corrêa Jansen


    Full Text Available Estudio metodológico, desarrollado entre julio/2011 y junio/2012, con objeto de traducir y adaptar culturalmente para Brasil instrumento chino (健康照顧專業人員職業性危害針扎後之追蹤 que evalúa la intención de los profesionales de salud de cumplir con las conductas post-exposición profesional a material biológico. La muestra fue aleatorizada y abarcó a 15 profesionales de enfermería expuestos a material biológico. El proceso de adaptación cultural se mostró satisfactorio y la validación semántica evidenció que el instrumento es comprensible (73,3%, adecuado a la cultura brasileña y bien aceptado (85,2% de los ítems con respuestas favorables. El uso del instrumento en investigaciones brasileñas posibilitará ampliar la discusión sobre las acciones de prevención a la exposición ocupacional a material biológico y la planificación de nuevas estrategias para los servicios de salud.

  7. LED illumination effects on proliferation and survival of meningioma cellular cultures

    Solarte, Efrain; Urrea, Hernan; Criollo, William; Gutierrez, Oscar


    Meningioma cell cultures were prepared from frozen cell samples in 96 wells culture plates. Semiconductor light sources (LED) in seven different wavelength ranges were used to illuminate the wells, three different irradiation doses were selected per LED. Control cultures using three different concentrations of FBS were processed for comparison. Cell proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity were measured every 24 hours for 6 days, using the XTT colorimetric assay (RocheR). None of the irradiated cultures exhibit cytotoxicity; but some of them exhibit proliferation inhibition. The larger proliferation was detected at a 0.05J/cm2 dose, for all LEDs; but for the orange and violet LEDs generated the bigger proliferation rate was measured. Results show the improvement of meningioma cell proliferation using illumination in some given wavelength ranges.

  8. [Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric tests of a self-efficacy scale and an adherence scale for French adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

    Colson, Sébastien; Coté, José; Collombier, Madeleine; Debout, Christophe; Bonnel, Galadriel; Reynaud, Rachel; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude


    Introduction : many structured educational programs, using the concept of self-efficacy, have been studied in English-speaking countries. Background : tools were developed in English to assess this concept along with treatment adherence. However, there seems to be no French version of these tools in scientific literature. Aim : to adapt the tools to the French language and to test the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Self-Management (SEDM) and the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP). Methods : a cross-cultural adaptation of the SEDM and DSMP in French was performed. The psychometric properties were tested in a pilot study that took place between January 1st and December 31st, 2015. Results : Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of SEDM in French was 0.84, test-retest reliability 0.80 and sensitivity to change was moderate. The Cronbach’s alpha and sensitivity to change of the French DSMP were low, and the test-retest was 0.71. Discussion and conclusions : the first results of the psychometric properties of French SEDM were rather encouraging. The use of the French version of DSMP seems compromised in terms of psychometric properties and the opinion of the participants.

  9. In Situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) Analysis of Protein Complexes Formed Between Golgi-Resident, Glycosylation-Related Transporters and Transferases in Adherent Mammalian Cell Cultures.

    Maszczak-Seneczko, Dorota; Sosicka, Paulina; Olczak, Teresa; Olczak, Mariusz


    In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a novel, revolutionary technique that can be employed to visualize protein complexes in fixed cells and tissues. This approach enables demonstration of close (i.e., up to 40 nm) proximity between any two proteins of interest that can be detected using a pair of specific antibodies that have been raised in distinct species. Primary antibodies bound to the target proteins are subsequently recognized by two PLA probes, i.e., secondary antibodies conjugated with oligonucleotides that anneal when brought into close proximity in the presence of two connector oligonucleotides and a DNA ligase forming a circular DNA molecule. In the next step, the resulting circular DNA is amplified by a rolling circle polymerase. Finally, fluorescent oligonucleotide probes hybridize to complementary fragments of the amplified DNA molecule, forming a typical, spot-like pattern of PLA signal that reflects subcellular localization of protein complexes. Here we describe the use of in situ PLA in adherent cultures of mammalian cells in order to visualize interactions between Golgi-resident, functionally related glycosyltransferases and nucleotide sugar transporters relevant to N-glycan biosynthesis.

  10. Multi-cellular 3D human primary liver cell culture elevates metabolic activity under fluidic flow.

    Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A; Applegate, Dawn R; Shuler, Michael L


    We have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop between reservoirs and the accompanying periodically changing fluidic flow (average flow rate of 650 μL min(-1), and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne cm(-2)). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures increase their metabolic activity in response to fluidic flow periodically changes direction. Since fluidic flow that changes direction periodically drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, our findings support the theory that the increase in hepatic metabolic activity associated with fluidic flow is either activated by mechanisms other than shear sensing (for example increased opportunities for gas and metabolite exchange), or that it follows a shear sensing mechanism that does not depend on the direction of shear. Our mode of device operation allows us to evaluate drugs under fluidic cell culture conditions and at low device manufacturing and operation

  11. A distinct role for interleukin-6 as a major mediator of cellular adjustment to an altered culture condition.

    Son, Hwa-Kyung; Park, Iha; Kim, Jue Young; Kim, Do Kyeong; Illeperuma, Rasika P; Bae, Jung Yoon; Lee, Doo Young; Oh, Eun-Sang; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Kim, Jin


    Tissue microenvironment adjusts biological properties of different cells by modulating signaling pathways and cell to cell interactions. This study showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/ mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) can be modulated by altering culture conditions. HPV E6/E7-transfected immortalized oral keratinocytes (IHOK) cultured in different media displayed reversible EMT/MET accompanied by changes in cell phenotype, proliferation, gene expression at transcriptional, and translational level, and migratory and invasive activities. Cholera toxin, a major supplement to culture medium, was responsible for inducing the morphological and biological changes of IHOK. Cholera toxin per se induced EMT by triggering the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from IHOK. We found IL-6 to be a central molecule that modulates the reversibility of EMT based not only on the mRNA level but also on the level of secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IL-6, a cytokine whose transcription is activated by alterations in culture conditions, is a key molecule for regulating reversible EMT/MET. This study will contribute to understand one way of cellular adjustment for surviving in unfamiliar conditions.

  12. Cellular and molecular markers in monitoring the fate of lymphoid cell culture from Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798).

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Jose, Seena; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright


    Lymphoid cell culture from penaeid shrimps has gained much acceptance as an in vitro platform to facilitate research on the development of prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies against viruses and for cell line development. However, lymphoid cells can be used as platform for in vitro research, only if they are in metabolically and mitotically active state in vitro with unaltered cell surface receptors. Through this study, we addressed the response of lymphoid cells to a new microenvironment at cellular and molecular levels; including the study of mitotic events, DNA synthesis, expression profile of cell cycle genes, cytoskeleton organization, metabolic activity and viral susceptibility. The S-phase entry and synthesis of new DNA was recorded by immunoflourescent technique. Cdc2, CycA, CycB, EF-1α and BUB3 genes involved in cell cycle were studied in both the cells and tissue, of which EF-1α showed an elevated expression in cells in vitro (∼ 19.7%). Cytoskeleton network of the cell was examined by studying the organization of actin filaments. As the markers for metabolic status, mitochondrial dehydrogenase, protein synthesis and glucose assimilation by the cells were also assessed. Viral susceptibility of the cell was determined using WSSV to confirm the preservation of cellular receptors. This study envisages to strengthen the shrimp cell line research and to bring forth lymphoid cell culture system as a 'model' in vitro system for shrimp and crustaceans altogether.

  13. Cellular forces : adhering, shaping, sensing and dividing

    Hoorn, Hedde van


    Life’s building block is a cell. Different cell types are differentiated by specific functional properties. A white blood cell, for instance, can get rid of bacteria and many muscle cells contract together for proper muscle function. Deformation and force exertion play important roles in these proce

  14. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977. [UV radiation

    Freed, J.J.


    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature.

  15. The cellular state determines the effect of melatonin on the survival of mixed cerebellar cell culture.

    Daiane Gil Franco

    Full Text Available The constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, a key transcription factor involved in neuroinflammation, is essential for the survival of neurons in situ and of cerebellar granule cells in culture. Melatonin is known to inhibit the activation of NF-κB and has a cytoprotective function. In this study, we evaluated whether the cytoprotective effect of melatonin depends on the state of activation of a mixed cerebellar culture that is composed predominantly of granule cells; we tested the effect of melatonin on cultured rat cerebellar cells stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The addition of melatonin (0.1 nM-1 µM reduced the survival of naïve cells while inhibiting LPS-induced cell death. Melatonin (100 nM transiently (15 min inhibited the nuclear translocation of both NF-κB dimers (p50/p50, p50/RelA and, after 60 min, increased the activation of p50/RelA. Melatonin-induced p50/RelA activity in naïve cells resulted in the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the production of NO. Otherwise, in cultures treated with LPS, melatonin blocked the LPS-induced activation of p50/RelA and the reduction in p50/p50 levels and inhibited iNOS expression and NO synthesis. Therefore, melatonin in vehicle-treated cells induces cell death, while it protects against LPS-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, we confirmed that melatonin is a neuroprotective drug when cerebellar cells are challenged; however, melatonin can also lead to cell death when the normal balance of the NF-κB pathway is disturbed. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the influence of cell context on the final output response of melatonin.

  16. Quantitative, functional, and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties, and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation, and arachidonate metabolism. Scientific report

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L.


    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 production, as well as calcium (2+) ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7,10 or 12 Gy) of gamma radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In-vitro irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase (catalyzing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetylhydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionospheric stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells. While the properties of adherence, platelet-activating factor synthesis/inactivation-associated enzyme activities, and eicosanoid production are generally characterized as those of macrophages, lymphocytes or their products may influence or contribute to the observed radiation-induced changes.

  17. Modeling the cellular impact of nanoshell-based biosensors using mouse alveolar macrophage cultures.

    Swarup, Vimal P; Huang, Yiming; Murillo, Genoveva; Saleiro, Diana; Mehta, Rajendra G; Bishnoi, Sandra Whaley


    In this study, the relative toxicity of native gold-silica nanoshells (NS) has been compared to nanoshells modified with poly(ethylene glycol)-thiol (PEG-SH) and a Raman-active PEG, p-mercaptoaniline-poly(ethylene glycol) (pMA-PEG), in mouse alveolar macrophage cell cultures (RAW 264.7). The results from toxicity profiling using an MTT assay demonstrate that cell viability post-particle exposure is a function of three factors: nanoshell concentration, surface functionalization, and incubation time. By minimizing particle concentrations and incubation times, cell cultures are able to recover within 24 h of nanoshell removal, indicative of nanoshells having more of a cytostatic versus cytotoxic effect on macrophage cells. The mechanism of the cytostatic effect has been investigated by imaging the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a fluorescence assay kit (Image-iT™ LIVE) after the introduction of NS to the cell cultures. Elevated ROS signals are seen in the cells containing higher concentration of NS, and indicate that the major reason of toxicity may due to the oxidative stress caused by excess NS particles. Raman imaging experiments with pMA-PEG coated nanoshells showed that cells exposed for even short exposure times (∼2 h) retained those particles up to 24 h after exposure, while migration experiments suggest that surviving cells retain their nanoshells and may reallocate them to progeny cells upon cell division.

  18. Increasing cellular level of phosphatidic acid enhances FGF-1 production in long term-cultured rat astrocytes.

    Nagayasu, Yuko; Morita, Shin-Ya; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kazuki; Michikawa, Makoto; Ito, Jin-Ichi


    We found in a previous study that both mRNA expression and release of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) are greater in rat astrocytes that are long term-cultured for one month (W/M cells) than in the cells cultured for one week (W/W cells). However, FGF-1 does not enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in W/M cells, while it does in W/W cells. In this work we studied the mechanism to cause these differences between W/W and W/M cells in culture. As it is known that long term culture generates oxidative stress, we characterized the stresses which W/M cells undergo in comparison with W/W cells. The levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and mitochondrial Bax were higher in W/M cells than in W/W cells. W/M cells recovered their ability to respond to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) had no effect on mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells, although H2O2 enhances release of FGF-1 from W/W cells without inducing apoptosis. The influence of cell density was studied on mRNA expression of FGF-1 and cellular response to FGF-1, as an increasing cell density is observed in W/M cells. The increasing cell density enhanced mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells without suppression of responses to FGF-1. The decrease in cell density lowered the FGF-1 mRNA expression in W/M cells without recovery of the response to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK. These findings suggest that oxidative stress attenuate sensitivity to FGF-1 and higher cell density may enhance FGF-1 expression in W/M cells. In addition, we found that the cellular level of phosphatidic acid (PA) increased in H2O2-treated W/W and W/M cells and decreased by the treatment with antioxidants, and that PA enhances the mRNA expression of FGF-1 in the W/W cells. These findings suggest that the increasing PA production may enhance FGF-1 expression to protect astrocytes against oxidative stress

  19. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  20. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.


    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models. PMID:27296089

  1. Cellular and molecular toxicology of lead. I. Effect of lead on cultured cell proliferation

    Kusell, M.; O' Cheskey, S.; Gerschenson, L.E.


    Growth studies were done on a cultured rat liver cell line (RLC-GAI) grown in a chemically defined medium in the presence of lead nitrate. Lead reversibly inhibited the growth of these cells even after 6 d of exposure to the heavy metal. To compare lead sensitivity in various cell lines, GI50 and LD50 values were determined in the RLC-GAI cells as well as two glioma cell lines (B82 and C/sub 6/) and a neuroblastoma cell line (N18). The LD50 values paralleled but were consistently lower than the GI50 values. Since lead is known to affect heme synthesis, hemin was added to test the possibility of preventing the growth-inhibitory effect of the lead. The growth capacity of lead-treated cells did not change with the addition of hemin. It is thought that differentiated cultured cell lines such as these could be useful in examining the molecular mechanism of lead toxicity.

  2. Preliminary analysis of cellular sociology of co-cultured glioma initiating cells and macrophages in vitro

    Mingxia Zhang; Xingliang Dai; Xiaonan Li; Qiang Huang; Jun Dong; Junjie Chen; Lin Wang; Xiaoyan Ji; Lin Yang; Yujing Sheng; Hairui Liu; Haiyang Wang; Aidong Wang


    Objective:Real-time monitoring of cytokine secretion at the single immunocyte level, based on the concept of immune cells, sociology has been recently reported. However, the relationships between glioma-initiating cells (GICs) and host immune cells and their mutual interactions in the tumor microenvironment have not been directly observed and remain unclear. Methods:The dual fluorescence tracing technique was applied to label the co-cultured GICs and host macrophages (Mø), and the interactions between the two types of cells were observed using a live cell imaging system. Fusion cells in the co-culture system were monocloned and proliferated in vitro and their social interactions were observed and recorded. Results:Using real-time dynamic observation of target cells, 6 types of intercellular conjunction microtubes were found to function in the transfer of intercellular information between GICs and Mø;GICs and host Mø can fuse into hybrid cells after several rounds of mutual interactions, and then these fusion cells fused with each other;Fusion cells generated offspring cells through symmetrical and asymmetrical division or underwent apoptosis. A“cell in cell” phenomenon was observed in the fusion cells, which was often followed by cell release, namely entosis. Conclusions:Preliminary studies revealed the patterns of cell conjunction via microtubes between GICs and host Mø and the processes of cell fusion, division, and entosis. The results revealed malignant transformation of host Mø, induced by GICs, suggesting complex social relationships among tumor-immune cells in gliomas.

  3. HIV Medication Adherence

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking firmly to ... Before and After Starting HIV Medicines . What is medication adherence? Adherence means “to stick firmly.” So for ...

  4. Cell viability studies and operation in cellular culture medium of n-type organic field-effect transistors

    Barra, M.; Viggiano, D.; Di Capua, R.; Di Girolamo, F.; Santoro, F.; Taglialatela, M.; Cassinese, A.


    The possibility of the fabrication of organic devices suitable to be applied in bio-sensing fields depends largely on the availability of organic compounds displaying robust electrical properties even in aqueous solutions and effective biocompatibility features. In this paper, we report about the good cellular biocompatibility and the electrical response stability in an ionic medium of n-type organic transistors based on the recently developed PDI-8CN2 oligomer. The biocompatibility has been tested by analyzing the adhesion and viability of two different cell lines, human epithelial HeLa cells and murine neuronal F11 cells, on PDI-8CN2 films grown by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) on SiO2 substrates. The effect of film thickness on cell attachment was also tested. Uncoated SiO2 substrates were used as control surfaces and sexithiophene (T6) as device testing control. Moreover, the possible toxicity of -CN groups of PDI-8CN2 was tested on HeLa cell cultures, using PDI-8 and T6 molecules as controls. Results showed that, although at high concentration these organic compounds are toxic in solution, if they are presented in form of film, cell lines can attach and grow on them. The electrical response stability of PDI-8CN2 transistors in a cellular culture medium characterized by high concentrations of ionic species has been also investigated. For this purpose, low-voltage operation devices with VGS ranging from -5 V to 5 V, able to strongly reduce the influence of Faradaic currents coming from the electrical operation in an highly ionic environment, have been fabricated on 35 nm thick SiO2 layers and electrically characterized. These results are useful to experimentally define the main critical issues to be further addressed for the fabrication of reliable bio-sensors based on organic transistors.

  5. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.


    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  6. Reaction of small heat-shock proteins to different kinds of cellular stress in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Bartelt-Kirbach, Britta; Golenhofen, Nikola


    Upregulation of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) in response to cellular stress is one mechanism to increase cell viability.We previously described that cultured rat hippocampal neurons express five of the 11 family members but only upregulate two of them (HspB1 and HspB5) at the protein level after heat stress. Since neurons have to cope with many other pathological conditions, we investigated in this study the expression of all five expressed sHsps on mRNA and protein level after sublethal sodium arsenite and oxidative and hyperosmotic stress. Under all three conditions, HspB1, HspB5, HspB6, and HspB8 but not HspB11 were consistently upregulated but showed differences in the time course of upregulation. The increase of sHsps always occurred earlier on mRNA level compared with protein levels. We conclude from our data that these four upregulated sHsps (HspB1, HspB5, HspB6, HspB8) act together in different proportions in the protection of neurons from various stress conditions.

  7. Sustaining a “culture of silence” in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: A grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels

    S. Swathi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians. Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to “sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations” (core category. The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The “culture of silence” reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a “noisy culture” prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs

  8. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.


    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  9. Adherence to antidepressants

    Abimbola Farinde


    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  10. An Adherence Semigroup


    By a dynamical system we mean a pair of (X,T), where X is compact Hausdorff space. In this paper we define an adherence semigroup A(X,T)∈XX, which is the set of all pointwise limit of subnets of (Tn)n∈N. We will prove some commonness between adherence semigroup and Ellis semigroup.

  11. Cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

    Ma, Wu; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Chang, Eddie


    Neuronal networks have been widely used for neurophysiology, drug discovery and toxicity testing. An essential prerequisite for future widespread application of neuronal networks is the development of efficient cryopreservation protocols to facilitate their storage and transportation. Here is the first report on cryopreservation of mammalian adherent neuronal networks. Dissociated spinal cord cells were attached to a poly-d-lysine/laminin surface and allowed to form neuronal networks. Adherent neuronal networks were embedded in a thin film of collagen gel and loaded with trehalose prior to transfer to a freezing medium containing DMSO, FBS and culture medium. This was followed by a slow rate of cooling to -80 degrees C for 24 h and then storage for up to 2 months in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The three components: DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading combined provided the highest post-thaw viability, relative to individual or two component protocols. The post-thaw cells with this protocol demonstrated similar neuronal and astrocytic markers and morphological structure as those detected in unfrozen cells. Fluorescent dye FM1-43 staining revealed active recycling of synaptic vesicles upon depolarizing stimulation in the post-thaw neuronal networks. These results suggest that a combination of DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading can significantly improve conventional slow-cooling methods in cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

  12. 电视节目创新必须始终坚持高度的“文化自觉”%The Innovation of TV Programs Must always Adhere to the Height of "Cultural Self- consciousness"

    田连友; 谢商精


    增强文化自觉,是实现“文化强国”目标的战略选择和重要举措。作为推动电视文化发展的关键环节和核心内容的电视节目创新必须始终坚持高度的“文化自觉”。即,在创新的原则上要牢固树立“价值自觉”,全面把握以社会主义核心价值体系为主的舆论导向;在创新的内容上要充分发挥“人文自觉”,努力彰显电视节目的人文内涵;在创新的形态上要科学践行“权益自觉”,倾力保障和满足受众多层次的文化审美需求。%It is a strategic choice and an important measure for achieving the goals of the "cultural power" to enhance cultural self- consciousness. The innovation of TV programs, which is the key and core content to promote the development of television culture, must always adhere to the height of "cultural self- consciousness" and by fully understanding the socialist core value system and the content of innovation, we should give full play to the "humanistic self- consciousness", and try to show the humanistic connotation of TV pn,grams. In the form of innovation, we must practice "rights self- consciousness" scientificly, protect and meet the multi - level cultural aesthetic demand of the audience.

  13. HIV Treatment Adherence

    ... Viral Suppression Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing ...

  14. SPI-9 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is constituted by an operon positively regulated by RpoS and contributes to adherence to epithelial cells in culture.

    Velásquez, Juan C; Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Villagra, Nicolás; Santiviago, Carlos A; Mora, Guido C; Fuentes, Juan A


    The genomic island 9 (SPI-9) from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) carries three ORFs (STY2876, STY2877, STY2878) presenting 98 % identity with a type 1 secretory apparatus (T1SS), and a single ORF (STY2875) similar to a large RTX-like protein exhibiting repeated Ig domains. BapA, the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis orthologous to S. Typhi STY2875, has been associated with biofilm formation, and is described as a virulence factor in mice. Preliminary in silico analyses revealed that S. Typhi STY2875 ORF has a 600 bp deletion compared with S. Enteritidis bapA, suggesting that S. Typhi STY2875 might be non-functional. At present, SPI-9 has not been studied in S. Typhi. We found that the genes constituting SPI-9 are arranged in an operon whose promoter was up-regulated in high osmolarity and low pH in a RpoS-dependent manner. All the proteins encoded by S. Typhi SPI-9 were located at the membrane fraction, consistent with their putative role as T1SS. Furthermore, SPI-9 contributed to adherence of S. Typhi to epithelial cells when bacteria were grown under high osmolarity or low pH. Under the test conditions, S. Typhi SPI-9 did not participate in biofilm formation. SPI-9 is functional in S. Typhi and encodes an adhesin induced under conditions normally found in the intestine, such as high osmolarity. Hence, this is an example of a locus that might be designated a pseudogene by computational approaches but not by direct biological assays.

  15. Long term ex vivo culturing of Drosophila brain as a method to live image pupal brains: insights into the cellular mechanisms of neuronal remodeling.

    Rabinovich, Dana; Mayseless, Oded; Schuldiner, Oren


    Holometabolous insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, undergo complete metamorphosis that includes a pupal stage. During metamorphosis, the Drosophila nervous system undergoes massive remodeling and growth, that include cell death and large-scale axon and synapse elimination as well as neurogenesis, developmental axon regrowth, and formation of new connections. Neuronal remodeling is an essential step in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Research on the stereotypic remodeling of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) γ neurons has contributed to our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of remodeling but our knowledge of the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. A major hurdle in understanding various dynamic processes that occur during metamorphosis is the lack of time-lapse resolution. The pupal case and opaque fat bodies that enwrap the central nervous system (CNS) make live-imaging of the central brain in-vivo impossible. We have established an ex vivo long-term brain culture system that supports the development and neuronal remodeling of pupal brains. By optimizing culture conditions and dissection protocols, we have observed development in culture at kinetics similar to what occurs in vivo. Using this new method, we have obtained the first time-lapse sequence of MB γ neurons undergoing remodeling in up to a single cell resolution. We found that axon pruning is initiated by blebbing, followed by one-two nicks that seem to initiate a more widely spread axon fragmentation. As such, we have set up some of the tools and methodologies needed for further exploration of the cellular mechanisms of neuronal remodeling, not limited to the MB. The long-term ex vivo brain culture system that we report here could be used to study dynamic aspects of neurodevelopment of any Drosophila neuron.

  16. Ancient Jing De Zhen Dong He River Basin Kiln and Farmland Land-use Change Based on Cellular Automata and Cultural Algorithm Model

    Liu Tao


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand how farmland has transformed kiln in ancient Jing De Zhen Dong He River Basin; we created ancient virtual maps of study area and conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from the Yuan Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty. The results of the spatial analysis show that kiln can evolve from farmland, shrub, idle land etc. To simulate land-use change we developed a novel cellular automata model. Model parameters and neighborhood rules were obtained with the cellular automata model melt modified cultural algorithm. Virtual land-use maps from the Yuan Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty were used to implement the model with a time step of one year. Model performance was evaluated using Moran’s I index estimation for selected landscape pattern indices. The optimized parameter set using Particle Swarm Optimization poorly simulated land-use change as compared to the optimized parameter set using Cultural Algorithm. In summary, our results proved that the model is also effective and feasible in simulating farmland and kiln land-use evolution in ancient times when Geographic Information and System information were lacking.

  17. Amyloid beta protein inhibits cellular MTT reduction not by suppression of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase but by acceleration of MTT formazan exocytosis in cultured rat cortical astrocytes.

    Abe, K; Saito, H


    Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta protein (Abeta) inhibits cellular reduction of the dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Kaneko et al. have previously hypothesized that Abeta works by suppressing mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), but Liu and Schubert have recently demonstrated that Abeta decreases cellular MTT reduction by accelerating the exocytosis of MTT formazan in neuronal cells. To ask which is the case in astrocytes, we compared the effects of Abeta and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a specific SDH inhibitor, on MTT reduction in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Treatment with 3-NP (10 mM) decreased cellular activity of MTT reduction, regardless of the time of incubation with MTT. On the other hand. Abeta-induced inhibition of cellular MTT reduction was dependent on the time of incubation with MTT. The cells treated with Abeta (0.1-1000 nM) exhibited normal capacity for MTT reduction at an early stage of incubation ( 1 h). Microscopic examination revealed that Abeta treatment accelerated the appearance of needle-like MTT formazan crystals at the cell surface. These observations support that Abeta accelerates the exocytosis of MTT formazan in astrocytes. In addition to inhibition of MTT reduction, Abeta is known to induce morphological changes in astrocytes. Following addition of Abeta (20 microM), polygonal astrocytes changed into process-bearing stellate cells. To explore a possible linkage between these two effects of Abeta, we tested if astrocyte stellation is induced by agents that mimic the effect of Abeta on MTT reduction. Cholesterol (5 5000 nM) and lysophosphatidic acid (0.2-20 microg/ml) were found to accelerate the exocytosis of MTT formazan in a similar manner to Abeta, but failed to induce astrocyte stellation. Therefore, Abeta-induced inhibition of MTT reduction is unlikely to be directly linked to its effect on astrocyte morphology.

  18. Real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics using a microfluidic cell culture system with integrated electrode array and potentiostat

    Zor, Kinga; Vergani, M.; Heiskanen, Arto


    A versatile microfluidic, multichamber cell culture and analysis system with an integrated electrode array and potentiostat suitable for electrochemical detection and microscopic imaging is presented in this paper. The system, which allows on-line electrode cleaning and modification, was developed...

  19. A Selective and Purification-Free Strategy for Labeling Adherent Cells with Inorganic Nanoparticles.

    Gao, Yu; Lim, Jing; Yeo, David Chen Loong; Liao, Shanshan; Lans, Malin; Wang, Yaqi; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Goh, Bee Tin; Xu, Chenjie


    Cellular labeling with inorganic nanoparticles such as magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, and fluorescent silica nanoparticles is an important method for the noninvasive visualization of cells using various imaging modalities. Currently, this is mainly achieved through the incubation of cultured cells with the nanoparticles that eventually reach the intracellular compartment through specific or nonspecific internalization. This classic method is advantageous in terms of simplicity and convenience, but it suffers from issues such as difficulties in fully removing free nanoparticles (suspended in solution) and the lack of selectivity on cell types. This article reports an innovative strategy for the specific labeling of adherent cells without the concern of freely suspended nanoparticles. This method relies on a nanocomposite film that is prepared by homogeneously dispersing nanoparticles within a biodegradable polymeric film. When adherent cells are seeded on the film, they adhere, spread, and filtrate into the film through the micropores formed during the film fabrication. The pre-embedded nanoparticles are thus internalized by the cells during this infiltration process. As an example, fluorescent silica nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed within a polycaprolactone film by utilizing cryomilling and heat pressing. Upon incubation within physiological buffer, no silica nanoparticles were released from the nanocomposite film even after 20 d of incubation. However, when adherent cells (e.g., human mesenchymal stem cells) were grown on the film, they became fluorescent after 3 d, which suggests internalization of silica nanoparticles by cells. In comparison, the suspension cells (e.g., monocytes) in the medium remained nonfluorescent no matter whether there was the presence of adherent cells or not. This strategy eventually allowed the selective and concomitant labeling of mesenchymal stem cells during their harvest from bone marrow aspiration.

  20. Adherence measured by microtiter assay as a virulence marker for Staphylococcus epidermidis infections.

    Deighton, M A; Balkau, B


    Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from clinical sources showed a wide range of abilities to adhere to glass and plastic materials. The degree of adherence depended on a number of factors, most notably, the composition of the growth medium. Adherence was enhanced by the addition of glucose or oleic acid to the growth medium and inhibited by serum. We have demonstrated a statistically significant association between the quantitative assessment of adherence to polystyrene tissue culture plates and clinical relevance. No such association was found when adherence was assessed by the qualitative adherence assay. Possible new approaches for assessing the clinical relevance of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates are discussed.

  1. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.


    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 μg SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 μg SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more

  2. Cellular growth under hydrostatic pressure using bovine aortic EC-SMC co-cultured ePTFE vascular graft

    SUN Lei; NIWA Koichi; LIN Jian-zhong; KARINO Takeshi


    High blood pressure (hypertension) is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Blood vessels are constantly subjected to stretch due to blood pressure and changes in stretch usually instigate adaptive vascular remodeling, including abnormal growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as extracellular matrix (ECM). In this experiment, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (EC-SMC) co-cultured ePTFE vascular grafts subjected to normal atmospheric pressure (as a control), and 100 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 7 d. The increase of cell layer thickness was observed. When measured, the cell layer thickness increased by 116.2%. The increase of collagen (Type Ⅳ)synthesis was also observed in the immunohistochemistry assay. When stained with toluidine blue, the cells showed metachromatic phenomenon.



    This paper presents a development of the extended Cellular Automata (CA), based on relational databases(RDB), to model dynamic interactions among spatial objects. The integration of Geographical Information System (GIS)and CA has the great advantage of simulating geographical processes. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellularshape and neighbourhood and neighbour rules, which restrict the CA's ability to simulate complex, real world environ-ments. This paper discusses a cell's spatial relation based on the spatial object's geometrical and non-geometrical characteris-tics, and extends the cell' s neighbour definition, and considers that the cell' s neighbour lies in the forms of not only spa-tial adjacency but also attribute correlation. This paper then puts forward that spatial relations between two different cellscan be divided into three types, including spatial adjacency, neighbourhood and complicated separation. Based on tradition-al ideas, it is impossible to settle CA's restrictions completely. RDB-based CA is an academic experiment, in whichsome fields are designed to describe the essential information needed to define and select a cell's neighbour. The cultureinnovation diffusion system has multiple forms of space diffusion and inherited characteristics that the RDB-based CA iscapable of simulating more effectively. Finally this paper details a successful case study on the diffusion of fashion weartrends. Compared to the original CA, the RDB-based CA is a more natural and efficient representation of human knowl-edge over space, and is an effective tool in simulating complex systems that have multiple forms of spatial diffusion.

  4. Cellular responses to stress: comparison of a family of 71--73-kilodalton proteins rapidly synthesized in rat tissue slices and canavanine-treated cells in culture.

    Hightower, L E; White, F P


    Cultured rat embryo cells exposed to the L-arginine analogue L-canavanine rapidly accumulated a major 71 kilodalton polypeptide and several minor ones (110, 95, 88, and 78 kilodaltons). Canavanine-treated cultures contained elevated levels of translatable mRNA encoding P71, and the stimulated synthesis of this protein was blocked by actinomycin D, suggesting that P71 is inducible. Rat embryo cells maintained under routine culture conditions synthesized only trace amounts of P71; however, they accumulated an abundant 73 kilodalton protein that was closely related to P71. No kinetic evidence of a precursor-product relationship between P73 and P71 was found. The peptide map of P71 from cultured cells was identical to the map of proteins with the same electrophoretic mobility isolated from incubated slices of rat telencephalon. Previous studies (White, '80a, b, c) have shown that the latter proteins are rapidly synthesized by cells associated with cerebral microvessels in incubated brain slices, but are not detectable in vivo. Herein we present evidence that the synthesis of P71 is not unique to brain slices. Incubated slices of heart, lung, thymus, kidney, spleen, and liver all accumulated an abundant 71 kilodalton size class. The peptide maps of P71 obtained from brain, heart, lung and thymus tissue were similar. The stimulated synthesis of P71 in brain, heart, and lung slices was inhibited strongly by the addition of actinomycin D at the start of incubation. The 71-73 kilodalton proteins of canavanine-treated rat embryo cells and incubated slices from seven different organs were compared in detail on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Eight charge variants were detected in extracts of lung, spleen, and thymus tissue, four in liver and heart, three in kidney, and two different pairs of variants in extracts of brain tissue and cultured cells. The possible significance of the rapid synthesis of a similar small set of proteins in tissue slices and cultured cells in

  5. Monitoring of adherent live cells morphology using the undecimated wavelet transform multivariate image analysis (UWT-MIA).

    Juneau, Pierre-Marc; Garnier, Alain; Duchesne, Carl


    Cell morphology is an important macroscopic indicator of cellular physiology and is increasingly used as a mean of probing culture state in vitro. Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a valuable tool for observing live cells morphology over long periods of time with minimal culture artifact. Two general approaches are commonly used to analyze images: individual object segmentation and characterization by pattern recognition. Single-cell segmentation is difficult to achieve in PCM images of adherent cells since their contour is often irregular and blurry, and the cells bundle together when the culture reaches confluence. Alternatively, pattern recognition approaches such as the undecimated wavelet transform multivariate image analysis (UWT-MIA), allow extracting textural features from PCM images that are correlated with cellular morphology. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model built using textural features from a set of 200 ground truth images was shown to predict the distribution of cellular morphological features (major and minor axes length, orientation, and roundness) with good accuracy for most images. The PLS models were then applied on a large dataset of 631,136 images collected from live myoblast cell cultures acquired under different conditions and grown in two different culture media. The method was found sensitive to morphological changes due to cell growth (culture time) and those introduced by the use of different culture media, and was able to distinguish both sources of variations. The proposed approach is promising for application on large datasets of PCM live-cell images to assess cellular morphology and growth kinetics in real-time which could be beneficial for high-throughput screening as well as automated cell culture kinetics assessment and control applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 141-153. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cellular interactions and biological responses to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B cells: role of cell culture media.

    Prasad, Raju Y; Simmons, Steven O; Killius, Micaela G; Zucker, Robert M; Kligerman, Andrew D; Blackman, Carl F; Fry, Rebecca C; Demarini, David M


    We showed previously that exposure of human lung cells (BEAS-2B) to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) produced micronuclei (MN) only when the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%. Nanoparticles localize in the liver; thus, we exposed human liver cells (HepG2) to nano-TiO2 and found the same requirement for MN induction. Nano-TiO2 also formed small agglomerates in medium containing as little as 1% protein and caused cellular interaction as measured by side scatter by flow cytometry and DNA damage (comet assay) in HepG2 cells. Nano-TiO2 also increased the activity of the inflammatory factor NFkB but not of AP1 in a reporter-gene HepG2 cell line. Suspension of nano-TiO2 in medium containing 0.1% protein was sufficient for induction of MN by the nanoparticles in either BEAS-2B or HepG2 cells as long the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%.

  7. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

    Freed, J.J.


    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  8. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

    Silvia Dragoni


    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7 family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI. Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors.

  9. Store-operated Ca2+ entry does not control proliferation in primary cultures of human metastatic renal cellular carcinoma.

    Dragoni, Silvia; Turin, Ilaria; Laforenza, Umberto; Potenza, Duilio Michele; Bottino, Cinzia; Glasnov, Toma N; Prestia, Martina; Ferulli, Federica; Saitta, Anna; Mosca, Alessandra; Guerra, Germano; Rosti, Vittorio; Luinetti, Ombretta; Ganini, Carlo; Porta, Camillo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Tanzi, Franco; Montagna, Daniela; Moccia, Francesco


    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive Ca(2+) pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca(2+) levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) reservoir, and a number of a Ca(2+)-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1-7) family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca(2+) store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca(2+) release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1-3, and TRPC1-7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd(3+) and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd(3+), 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI). Neither Gd(3+) nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca(2+) signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors.

  10. Piracy of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) signal transduction by the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845 promotes cytoskeletal F-actin rearrangements in cultured human intestinal INT407 cells.

    Peiffer, I; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F


    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry.

  11. Characterization of cellular uptake and toxicity of aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges in central nervous system-relevant cell culture models

    Sun Z


    Full Text Available Zhizhi Sun,1 Vinith Yathindranath,2 Matthew Worden,3 James A Thliveris,4 Stephanie Chu,1 Fiona E Parkinson,1 Torsten Hegmann,1–3 Donald W Miller1 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA; 4Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada  Background: Aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (AmS-IONPs have been widely used in constructing complex and multifunctional drug delivery systems. However, the biocompatibility and uptake characteristics of AmS-IONPs in central nervous system (CNS-relevant cells are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of surface charge and magnetic field on toxicity and uptake of AmS-IONPs in CNS-relevant cell types. Methods: The toxicity and uptake profile of positively charged AmS-IONPs and negatively charged COOH-AmS-IONPs of similar size were examined using a mouse brain microvessel endothelial cell line (bEnd.3 and primary cultured mouse astrocytes and neurons. Cell accumulation of IONPs was examined using the ferrozine assay, and cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: No toxicity was observed in bEnd.3 cells at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL for either AmS-IONPs or COOH-AmS-IONPs. AmS-IONPs at concentrations above 200 µg/mL reduced neuron viability by 50% in the presence or absence of a magnetic field, while only 20% reductions in viability were observed with COOH-AmS-IONPs. Similar concentrations of AmS-IONPs in astrocyte cultures reduced viability to 75% but only in the presence of a magnetic field, while exposure to COOH-AmS-IONPs reduced viability to 65% and 35% in the absence and presence of a magnetic field, respectively. Cellular accumulation of AmS-IONPs was greater

  12. Saul Bellow’s Adherence and Breakthrough to Jewish Tradition



    As one of the most significant American Jewish writers in the 20th century, Saul Bellow was influenced by the Jewish tradition and American mainstream thoughts in his writing creations. The conflicts and amalgamation between these two different cultures in his novels indicate that Bellow not only adheres to the Jewish traditional culture, but also breaks through the narrow-mindedness of it.

  13. Coating with luminal gut-constituents alters adherence of nanoparticles to intestinal epithelial cells

    Heike Sinnecker


    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic nanoparticles (NPs have found their way into many goods of everyday life. Inhalation, ingestion and skin contact are potential routes for NPs to enter the body. In particular the digestive tract with its huge absorptive surface area provides a prime gateway for NP uptake. Considering that NPs are covered by luminal gut-constituents en route through the gastrointestinal tract, we wanted to know if such modifications have an influence on the interaction between NPs and enterocytes.Results: We investigated the consequences of a treatment with various luminal gut-constituents on the adherence of nanoparticles to intestinal epithelial cells. Carboxylated polystyrene particles 20, 100 and 200 nm in size represented our anthropogenic NPs, and differentiated Caco-2 cells served as model for mature enterocytes of the small intestine. Pretreatment with the proteins BSA and casein consistently reduced the adherence of all NPs to the cultured enterocytes, while incubation of NPs with meat extract had no obvious effect on particle adherence. In contrast, contact with intestinal fluid appeared to increase the particle-cell interaction of 20 and 100 nm NPs.Conclusion: Luminal gut-constituents may both attenuate and augment the adherence of NPs to cell surfaces. These effects appear to be dependent on the particle size as well as on the type of interacting protein. While some proteins will rather passivate particles towards cell attachment, possibly by increasing colloid stability or camouflaging attachment sites, certain components of intestinal fluid are capable to modify particle surfaces in such a way that interactions with cellular surface structures result in an increased binding.

  14. Adherence as a language game.

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein


    Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order.

  15. [Adherence to psychopharmacological treatment: Psychotherapeutic strategies to enhance adherence].

    Lencer, R; Korn, D


    Effective psychopharmacological medication with good tolerability represents the cornerstone of treatment for severe mental illness; however, the 1-year adherence rates are only approximately 50%. The term adherence emphasizes the collaborative responsibility of the clinician and the patient for a positive treatment outcome. Reasons for non-adherence are manifold and include patient-specific factors, such as self-stigmatization, lack of social and familial support, cognitive impairment and substance use besides insufficient effectiveness and the occurrence of side effects of the psychotropic drugs. To enhance adherence, both clinician and patient have to fully understand all the reasons for and against adherence to medication before a collaborative decision is made on future long-term treatment. A positive attitude towards medication critically depends on whether patients feel that the medication supports the attainment of the individual goals.

  16. Cellular automata

    Codd, E F


    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  17. Pinpointing differences in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent cancer cells

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Holm, Jacob Bak; Poulsen, Kristian Arild


    Platinum compounds are used in the treatment of cancer. We demonstrate that cisplatin-induced (10 µM) apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) is pronounced within 18 hours in non-adherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC), whereas there is no increase in caspase-3 activity in the adherent Ehrlich Lettré...... ascites tumour cells (ELA). Loss of KCl and cell shrinkage are hallmarks in apoptosis and has been shown in EATC. However, we find no reduction in cell volume and only a minor loss of K(+) which is accompanied by net uptake of Na(+) following 18 hours cisplatin exposure in ELA. Glutathione and taurine...... have previously been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptosis. We find, however, that increase or decrease in the cellular content of glutathione and taurine has no effect on cisplatin-induced cell death in EATC and ELA. Nevertheless, knock-down of the taurine transporter TauT leads...

  18. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    Dishman, Rod K.


    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  19. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides

    Judy D. Wall


    Our findings demonstrated that D. vulgaris surface-adhered populations produce extracellular structures, and that that the cells have altered carbon and energy flux compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms did not have greatly increased carbohydrate accumulation. Interestingly genes present on the native plasmid found in D. vulgaris Hildenborough were necessary for wild type biofilm formation. In addition, extracellular appendages dependent on functions or proteins encoded by flaG or fliA also contributed to biofilm formation. Studies with SRB biofilms have indicated that the reduction and precipitation of metals can occur within the biofilm matrix; however, little work has been done to elucidate the physiological state of surface-adhered cells during metal reduction (Cr6+, U6+) and how this process is affected by nutrient feed levels (i.e., the stimulant).

  20. Application of the Accurate Mass and Time Tag Approach to the Proteome Analysis of Sub-cellular Fractions Obtained from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 Aerobic and Photosynthetic Cell Cultures

    Callister, Stephen J.; Dominguez, Migual; Nicora, Carrie D.; Zeng, Xiaohua; Tavano, Christine; Kaplan, Samuel; Donohue, Timothy; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.


    Abstract The high-throughput accurate mass and time tag (AMT) proteomic approach was utilized to characterize the proteomes for cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm, and outer membrane fractions from aerobic and photosynthetic cultures of the gram-nagtive bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. In addition, we analyzed the proteins within purified chromatophore fractions that house the photosynthetic apparatus from photosynthetically grown cells. In total, 8300 peptides were identified with high confidence from at least one sub-cellular fraction from either cell culture. These peptides were derived from 1514 genes or 35% percent of proteins predicted to be encoded by the genome. A significant number of these proteins were detected within a single sub-cellular fraction and their localization was compared to in-silico predictions. However, the majority of proteins were observed in multiple sub-cellular fractions, and the most likely sub-cellular localization for these proteins was investigated using a Z-score analysis of peptide abundance along with clustering techniques. Good (81%) agreement was observed between the experimental results and in-silico predictions. The AMT tag approach provides localization evidence for those proteins that have no predicted localization information, those annotated as putative proteins, and/or for those proteins annotated as hypothetical and conserved hypothetical.

  1. Novel Aggregative Adherence Fimbria Variant of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boisen, Nadia


    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) organisms belong to a diarrheagenic pathotype known to cause diarrhea and can be characterized by distinct aggregative adherence (AA) in a stacked-brick pattern to cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated 118 EAEC strains isolated from...

  2. Cellular and molecular investigations of the adhesion and mechanics of Listeria monocytogenes

    Eskhan, Asma Omar

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to quantify the adherence and mechanical properties of an array of L. monocytogenes strains and their surface biopolymers. First, eight L. monocytogenes strains that represented the two major lineages of the species were compared for their adherence and mechanics at cellular and molecular levels. Our results indicated that strains of lineage' II were characterized by higher adhesion and Young's moduli, longer and more rigid surface biopolymers and lower specific and nonspecific forces when compared to lineage' I strains. Additionally, adherence and mechanical properties of eight L. monocytogenes epidemic and environmental strains were probed. Our results pointed to that environmental and epidemic strains representative of a given lineage were similar in their adherence and mechanical properties when investigated at a cellular level. However, when the molecular properties of the strains were considered, epidemic strains were characterized by higher specific and nonspecific forces, shorter, denser and more flexible biopolymers compared to environmental strains. Second, the role of environmental pH conditions of growth on the adhesion and mechanics of a pathogenic L. monocytogenes EGDe was investigated. Our results pointed to a transition in the adhesion energies for cells cultured at pH 7. In addition, when the types of molecular forces that govern the adhesion were quantified using Poisson statistical approach and using a new proposed method, specific hydrogen-bond energies dominated the bacterial adhesion process. Such a finding is instrumental to researchers designing methods to control bacterial adhesion. Similarly, bacterial cells underwent a transition in their mechanical properties. We have shown that cells cultured at pH 7 were the most rigid compared to those cultured in lower or higher pH conditions of growth. Due to transitions observed in adherence and mechanics when cells were cultured at pH 7, we hypothesized that

  3. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in Romanian young adults

    A.L. Dima; A.M. Schweitzer; K.R. Amico; R.S. Wanless


    Developing theory-driven and culturally appropriate support for treatment adherence is critical to positive health outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults living with HIV/AIDS. Romanian young long-time HIV survivors represent a special population requiring urgent assessment of specific adherence

  4. Characterization of Adherent Nonhematopoietic Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    安小惠; 蔡国平


    To confirm and characterize the adherent fibroblast-like progenitors in human umbilical cord blood, we isolated mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Hypaque.Two main morphologically different kinds of cells were formed by culturing the cells in collagen-coated 24-well plastic dishes and flasks.One type was the adherent fibroblast-like cells, while the other was loosely adherent clonally expanded round cells.Our experiments demonstrate that the adherent fibroblast-like cells possess multilineage potential, including the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and to express the mesenchymal cell marker.

  5. Variação da composição química do meio de cultura e da bioquímica celular de Phaeodactylum tricomutum (Bohlin, em cultivos estanques Long term changes in the culture medium composition and cellular biochemistry of Phacodactylum tricomutum (Bohlin, in batch cultures

    Elizabeth Aidar


    Full Text Available P. tricornutum was grown in batch cultures under 21ºC temperature and continuous irradiance of 183 µE.m-2 . s-1, provided by fluorescent light tubes. Cultures growth were followed by cell countings, "in vivo" fluorescence and cellular protein, carbohydrate and chlorophyll-α content. The maximum value of protein/carbohydrate ratio was found at the exponential phase and the minimum value at the stationary phase. This ratio characterizes the physiological stage of the culture. Cell uptake rates for nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from the media were higher during the lag-phase. Nitrite excretion by the cells were detected following nitrate uptake.

  6. cultural

    Irene Kreutz


    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  7. Cellular Telephone



    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  8. Cellular mechanotransduction

    Wolfgang H. Goldmann


    Full Text Available Cell adhesion and cell–cell contacts are pre-requisites for proper metabolism, protein synthesis, cell survival, and cancer metastasis. Major transmembrane receptors are the integrins, which are responsible for cell matrix adhesions, and the cadherins, which are important for cell-cell adhesions.  Adherent cells are anchored via focal adhesions (FAs to the extracellular matrix, while cell-cell contacts are connected via focal adherens junctions (FAJs. Force transmission over considerable distances and stress focusing at these adhesion sites make them prime candidates for mechanosensors. Exactly which protein(s within FAs and FAJs or which membrane component of ion channels sense, transmit, and respond to mechano-chemical signaling is currently strongly debated and numerous candidates have been proposed.

  9. Adherence to Treatment of Phenylketonuria

    Tatiane Alves Vieira


    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU is caused by the deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Aim: To identify the factors associated with treatment adherence among patients with PKU seen at a southern Brazil reference center. Methodology: A cross-sectional, outpatient-based study including 56 patients with PKU (median age, 12 years for whom a Phe-restrict diet plus specific metabolic formula have been prescribed. Patients were considered adherent or nonadherent depending on the median phenylalanine concentration for the 12 months prior to study and target levels of phenylalanine for each age range (<13 years = ≤360 µmol/L; ≥13 years = ≤900 µmol/L. Data were collected through a review of patient’s medical records and a set of interviews with patients and their relatives. Results: Eighteen patients (32.1%; ≥13 years, 11 were classified as treatment adherent. Among all factors analyzed, only mental retardation, living with parents, and level of maternal education were associated with adherence to treatment. Conclusion: Our findings reinforce the importance of the family as promoting factor for treatment adherence.

  10. Cellular Interactions and Biological Responses to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B Cells: Role of Cell Culture Media

    ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the composition of the biological medium used in vitro can affect the cellular interaction and biological response of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in human lung epithelial cells. However, it is unclear if these effects are co...

  11. Study of Adherent Oxide Scales


    The bond between alumina and NiCrAl substrate is intrinsically strong. The segregation of sulfur to the interface reduces bond strength, sulfur is...which laser-processing and minor element additions improve oxide scale adherence of a NiCrAl turbine coating composition. However, it was shown at the...adherence. However, significant observations were made with respect to the morphology of the oxide scale that forms on NiCrAl and NiCrAlY and these are

  12. Adherence with Preventive Medication in Childhood Asthma

    Scott Burgess


    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.

  13. [Effects of medium-weight molecules isolated from plasma of healthy and burnt animals on the cellular composition of cultured bone marrow erythroblastic islets].

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Tishevskaia, N V; Kuznetsov, D A


    The so-called median-weight molecular fractions (M, B = 0.5-1.5 kDa) exerting a marked hemopoietic effect in the cultured bone marrow erythroblastic islets were isolated from the plasma deproteinates of healthy dogs and animals with acute inflammation (thermal skin burn) by Sephadex G-15 gel chromatography. Acute inflammation is attended by the occurrence of blood medium-weight molecular components that suppress erythropiesis and by the concurrent high rate of granulocytopoiesis in the cultured bone marrow erythroblastic islets. Medium-weight molecular fractions from the blood of healthy dogs substantially were found to suppress erythropoiesis and to stimulate granulocytopoiesis in the cultured erythroblastic islets.

  14. 密度梯度离心结合贴壁法培养成年大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特性%Biological characteristics of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured by density gradient centrifugation combined with adherence in adult rats

    杨玉霞; 郑健樑; 张平; 林健贤; 张文忻


    BACKGROUND: It is important to study the methods of culturing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to obtain a great amount of high purity MSCs for applying ocular tissues constructed by tissue engineering technique to treat eye diseases.OBJECTTVE: To separate and culture in vitro MSCs from bone marrow of the adult rats by density gradient centrifugation combined with adherence culture, and observe the growing characteristics and the possibility of mass multiplication.DESIGN: A completely randomized grouping design/repetitive measuring experiment.SETTING: Pathological laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: Four six-week-old SD rats about 250 g, grade Ⅱ of cleaning, were provided by the Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University [certificate number: SCSK(Yue)2004/0011], about 250 g each rat and there was no limit to the sex. The main reagents and instruments included low sugar Dulbecco modified Eagle culture medium (DMEM/F12, American Gibco Corporation), trypsin (fetal bovine serum (FBS, Hangzhou Sijiqing Bio-Engineering Material Research Institute), American Gibco Corporation), disodium edetate, lymphocyte separating medium, fibronectin, CD44, CD34, CD31 monoclonal antibodies, two-step-method kit for immunohistochemistry (Beijing Zhong shan Biotechnology Corporation).METHODS: This experiment was conducted at the Key laboratory of Ophthalmology (Sun Yat-sen University), Ministry of ethanol (750 g/L) for 10 minutes. Under aseptic condition, the medullaris cavitas was exposed, the syringe containing application m edium was directly punctured into the femoral cavity, the cells in the medullaris cavitas were washed out with the culture medium containing heparin and taken as the cell suspension. The bone marrow-derived MSCs were separated and purified by density gradient centrifugation combined with adherence culture, and the growing conditions of the wells. When the cells had generally connected with each other, they were

  15. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas


    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies.

  16. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells isolated from rats by whole bone marrow adherent culture in vitro and PKH26 labeling%全骨髓法体外培养分离大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞及PKH26标记

    叶小凤; 何援利; 王雪峰; 付霞霏


    背景:要获得动物实验需要的标记大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,体外培养、扩增和示踪已成为实验的关键环节.目的:采用全骨髓培养分离大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,以及PKH26对其体外标记,建立一种方便、实用的分离培养并示踪骨髓间充质干细胞的方法.方法:通过全骨髓培养分离法纯化大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞.经传代扩增,细胞进一步纯化.取第3代大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞按PKH26标记程序进行标记后培养,荧光显微镜下观察标记后细胞生长状态、萤光强度变化和传代培养效果.利用四唑盐比色法测定标记后骨髓间充质干细胞的生长曲线.结果与结论:全骨髓培养分离法能成功获得纯度高的骨髓间充质干细胞,用PKH26标记后的骨髓间充质干细胞呈红色荧光,体外连续传代培养3代后,细胞荧光强度逐渐减弱.PKH26标记骨髓间充质干细胞的生长形态、生长活力不发生改变.结果证实全骨髓培养分离法简便易行,能获取较高纯度的生长增殖状态良好的骨髓间充质干细胞,PKH26荧光标记大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞是一种有效、实用的方法.%BACKGROUND: In vitro culturing, amplification and labeling are important links to harvest labeled rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) that are satisfactory to animal experiment.OBJECTIVE: To explore a convenient and practical method for separating and labeling BMSCs using whole bone marrow adherent culture, and labeling with PKH26 in vitro.METHODS: BMSCs were isolated and cultivated from the bone marrow of rats by whole bone marrow adherent culture. Further purification was achieved by expansion at serial passages. The passage 3 BMSCs were cultu red and labeled with PKH26. The growth, fluorescence intensity and serial subcuhivation of labeled BMSCs were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. The proliferation ability of these labeled cells was tested by MTT.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: BMSCs were

  17. Adherence to the Treatment in Psychiatric Patients

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol


    Conclusion: Although medical treatments and drug industry develop day by day, there have been no changes in the treatment adherence ratios in the past years. To generate possible solutions, treatment adherence should be assessed in all clinical interviews and if patient is non-adherent this issue should be handled seriously. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 555-568

  18. Adherence and health care costs

    Iuga AO


    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  19. High-throughput microcavitation bubble induced cellular mechanotransduction

    Compton, Jonathan Lee

    Focused pulsed laser irradiation allows for the deposition of energy with high spatial and temporal resolution. These attributes provide an optimal tool for non-contact manipulation in cellular biology such as laser microsurgery, cell membrane permeabilization, as well as targeted cell death. In this thesis we investigate the direct physical effects produced by laser- generated microcavitation bubbles in adherent cell cultures. We examine how variation in pulse durations (180 ps - 6ns) and pulse energy (0.5 - 40 mu;J) affect microcavitation bubble (mu;CB) generated cell lysis, necrosis, and molecular delivery. To compare the effects of pulse duration we employ classical fluid dynamics modeling to quantify the perturbation caused on cell populations from mu;CB generated microTsunamis (a transient microscale burst of hydrodynamic shear stress). Through time-resolved imaging we capture the mu;CB dynamics at various energies and pulse durations. Moreover, the mathematical modeling provides information regarding the cellular exposure to time varying shear stress and impulse as a function of radial location from the mu;CB center. We demonstrate that the resultant cellular effect can be predicted based on the total impulse across a two order of magnitude span of pulse duration and pulse energy. We also examine the region of cells beyond the zone of molecular delivery to investigate possible cellular reactions to mu;Tsunami exposure. Our studies have shown that cellular mechanotransduction occurs within cell populations spanning an area of up to 1 mm2 surrounding the mu;CB. Visualization of mechanotransduction is achieved through the visualization of intracellular calcium signaling via fluorescence microscopy that occurs due to the ability of the muTsunami generated shear stresses to stimulate G-protein coupled receptors at the apical cell surface. Moreover, we have shown that the observed signaling can be attenuated in a dose-dependent manner using 2-APB which is a known

  20. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein promotes bacterial internalization by keratinocytes independent of fibronectin-binding proteins.

    Bur, Stephanie; Preissner, Klaus T; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus


    Staphylococcus aureus, the leading causal pathogen of skin infections, is strongly associated with skin atopy, and a number of bacterial adhesins allow the microbe to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells. One of these adhesive molecules is the multifunctional extracellular adherence protein (Eap), which is overexpressed in situ in authentic human wounds and was shown to delay wound healing in experimental models. Yet, its role during invasion of keratinocytes is not clearly defined. By using a gentamicin/lysostaphin protection assay we demonstrate here that preincubation of HaCaT cells or primary keratinocytes with Eap results in a concentration-dependent significant increase in staphylococcal adhesion, followed by an even more pronounced internalization of bacteria by eukaryotic cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Eap increased both the number of infected eukaryotic cells and the bacterial load per infected cell. Moreover, treatment of keratinocytes with Eap strongly enhanced the internalization of coagulase-negative staphylococci, as well as of E. coli, and markedly promoted staphylococcal invasion into extended-culture keratinocytes, displaying expression of keratin 10 and involucrin as differentiation markers. Thus, wound-related staphylococcal Eap may provide a major cellular invasin function, thereby enhancing the pathogen's ability to hide from the host immune system during acute and chronic skin infection.

  1. pna - assisted cellular migration on patterned surfaces


    ABSTRACT - The ability to control the cellular microenvironment, such as cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions at the micro- and nanoscale, is important for advances in several fields such as medicine and immunology, biochemistry, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. In order to undergo fundamental biological processes, most mammalian cells must adhere to the underlying extracellular matrix (ECM), eliciting cell adhesion and migration processes that are critical to embryogenesis, angioge...

  2. Inhibition of MMP-2-mediated cellular invasion by NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ in 3D culture of breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells: A model for early phase of metastasis.

    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo


    The three-dimensional (3D) culture of cancer cells provides an environmental condition closely related to the condition in vivo. It would especially be an ideal model for the early phase of metastasis, including the detachment and invasion of cancer cells from the primary tumor. In one hand, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an NF-κB inhibitor, is known to inhibit cancer progression and late phase metastasis in animal experiments. In the present research, we studied the inhibitory activity on the 3D invasion of breast carcinoma cells. Breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells showed the most active invasion from spheroid among the cell lines tested. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of cells at the 3D-nontoxic concentrations. The PCR array analysis using RNA isolated from the 3D on-top cultured cells indicated that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression is lowered by DHMEQ. Knockdown of MMP-2 and an MMP inhibitor, GM6001, both inhibited the invasion. DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the promoter activity of MMP-2 in the reporter assay. Thus, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit NF-κB/MMP-2-dependent cellular invasion in 3D-cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that DHMEQ would inhibit the early phase of metastasis.

  3. Fetal hemoglobin accumulation in vitro. Effect of adherent mononuclear cells.

    Javid, J; Pettis, P K


    In clonal cultures of erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) obtained from blood, the accumulation of fetal and adult hemoglobins (Hb F and Hb A) was measured by radioligand immunoassay. Inclusion of adherent mononuclear cells in the culture promoted a striking increase in the relative amount of Hb F in each of 44 experiments with 14 donors. In two-thirds of the instances, this was accounted for by a selective increase in the absolute amount of Hb F. The differential effect on Hb F and Hb A ac...

  4. The adhering junctions of valvular interstitial cells: molecular composition in fetal and adult hearts and the comings and goings of plakophilin-2 in situ, in cell culture and upon re-association with scaffolds.

    Barth, Mareike; Rickelt, Steffen; Noffz, Edeltraut; Winter-Simanowski, Stefanie; Niemann, Heiner; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur; Franke, Werner Wilhelm


    The interstitial cells of cardiac valves represent one of the most frequent cell types in the mammalian heart. In order to provide a cell and molecular biological basis for the growth of isolated valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in cell culture and for the use in re-implantation surgery we have examined VICs in situ and in culture, in fetal, postnatal and adult hearts, in re-associations with scaffolds of extracellular matrix (ECM) material and decellularized heart valves. In all four mammalian species examined (human, bovine, porcine and ovine), the typical mesenchymal-type cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs) connecting VICs appear as normal N-cadherin based puncta adhaerentia. Their molecular ensemble, however, changes under various growth conditions insofar as plakophilin-2 (Pkp2), known as a major cytoplasmic plaque component of epithelial desmosomes, is recruited to and integrated in the plaques of VIC-AJs as a major component under growth conditions characterized by enhanced proliferation, i.e., in fetal heart valves and in cell cultures. Upon re-seeding onto decellularized heart valves or in stages of growth in association with artificial scaffolds, Pkp2 is - for the most part - lost from the AJs. As Pkp2 has recently also been detected in AJs of cardiac myxomata and diverse other mesenchymal tumors, the demonstrated return to the normal Pkp2-negative state upon re-association with ECM scaffolds and decellularized heart valves may now provide a safe basis for the use of cultured VICs in valve replacement surgery. Even more surprising, this type of transient acquisition of Pkp2 has also been observed in distinct groups of endothelial cells of the endocardium, where it seems to correspond to the cell type ready for endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

  5. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal: a mixed-methods study.

    Sharada P Wasti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. RESULTS: A total of 282 (85.5% respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014; alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035. Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription, followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. CONCLUSION: Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients' lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop

  6. Glutamate receptor activation in cultured cerebellar granule cells increases cytosolic free Ca2+ by mobilization of cellular Ca2+ and activation of Ca2+ influx

    Bouchelouche, P; Belhage, B; Frandsen, A;


    The Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent probe, fura-2 has been used to monitor cytosolic free calcium levels in mature primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells during exposure to L-glutamate and other excitatory amino acids: quisqualate (QA) kainate (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Glutamate...... at micromolar concentrations produced a prompt and dose-related increase in the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+, ([Ca2+]i), whereas QA, KA and NMDA had no effect. This increase was also seen in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that L-glutamate promotes mobilization of Ca2+ from...

  7. Future directions in research on consumer-provider communication and adherence to cancer prevention and treatment.

    DiMatteo, M Robin


    The goal of this paper is to examine emerging issues in consumer-provider communication and patient adherence to cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and coping with survivorship. Many factors that have been shown to affect adherence can be supported or hindered by provider-patient communication, including the provider-patient relationship, patients' beliefs, social and cultural norms, family and social support, mood, and behavioral management. Six research questions are posed, and substantive and methodological recommendations are offered for empirical research on the measurement and achievement of patient adherence.

  8. An antagonist of the platelet-activating factor receptor inhibits adherence of both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae to cultured human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Shukla SD


    Full Text Available Shakti D Shukla,1,* Rory L Fairbairn,1,* David A Gell,1 Roger D Latham,1 Sukhwinder S Sohal,1,2 Eugene H Walters,1 Ronan F O’Toole11Breathe Well Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: COPD is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. Tobacco smoking, the primary risk factor for the development of COPD, induces increased expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr in the lung epithelium. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae adhere to PAFr on the luminal surface of human respiratory tract epithelial cells.Objective: To investigate PAFr as a potential drug target for the prevention of infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of acute exacerbations in COPD patients, NTHi and S. pneumoniae.Methods: Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. PAFr expression levels were determined using immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The epithelial cells were challenged with either NTHi or S. pneumoniae labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and bacterial adhesion was measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of a well-evaluated antagonist of PAFr, WEB-2086, on binding of the bacterial pathogens to BEAS-2B cells was then assessed. In silico studies of the tertiary structure of PAFr and the binding pocket for PAF and its antagonist WEB-2086 were undertaken.Results: PAFr expression by bronchial epithelial cells was upregulated by CSE, and significantly associated with increased bacterial adhesion. WEB-2086 reduced the epithelial adhesion by both NTHi and S. pneumoniae to levels observed for non-CSE-exposed cells. Furthermore, it was nontoxic toward the bronchial epithelial

  9. Cellular and molecular toxicology of lead. I. Effect of lead on cultured cell proliferation. [Comparison of toxicity to rat liver, glioma, and neuroblastoma cell lives

    Kusell, M.; O' Cheskey, S.; Gerschenson, L.E.


    Growth studies were done on a cultured rat liver cell line (RLC-GAI) grown in a chemically defined medium in the presence of lead nitrate. Lead reversibly inhibited the growth of these cells even after 6 d of exposure to the heavy metal. To compare lead sensitivity in various cell lines, G150 and LD50 values were determined in the RLC-GAI cells as well as two glioma cell lines (B82 and C/sub 6/) and a neuroblastoma cell line (N18). The LD50 values paralleled but were consistently lower than the G150 values. Since lead is known to affect heme synthesis, hemin was added to test the possibility of preventing the growth-inhibitory effect of the lead. The growth capacity of lead-treated cells did not change with the addition of hemin. It is thought that differential cultured cell lines such as these could be useful in examining the molecular mechanism of lead toxicity.

  10. Spontaneously differentiated GATA6-positive human embryonic stem cells represent an important cellular step in human embryonic development; they are not just an artifact of in vitro culture.

    Lee, Jun Ho; Hong, Ki Sung; Mantel, Charlie; Broxmeyer, Hal E; Lee, Man Ryul; Kim, Kye-Seong


    In this study, we isolated and characterized spontaneously differentiated human embryonic stem cells (SD-hESCs) found in hESC colonies in comparison to the morphologically premature ESCs in the colonies to investigate the potential role of SD-hESCs in embryogenesis. SD-hESCs were distinguished from undifferentiated hESCs by their higher expression of GATA6, a marker for primitive endoderm and transthyretin, a marker visceral endoderm in embryoid bodies (EBs). SD-hESCs expressed OCT4 and NANOG, markers for pluripotent stem cells, at significantly lower levels than undifferentiated hESCs. EBs derived from isolated SD-hESCs were morphologically distinct from cells directly derived from the undifferentiated hESCs; they contained higher number of cysts compared to EBs from undifferentiated hESC-derived EBs (42% vs. 20%). Furthermore, the extracellular signal molecule, BMP2/4, induced a higher GATA4/6 expression and cystic EB formation than control and noggin-treated EBs. Since cystic formation in EBs play a role in primitive endoderm formation during embryogenesis, the SD-hESC may be a relevant cell type equipped to differentiate into primitive endoderm. Our results suggest that SD-ESCs generated during routine hESC culture are not just an artifact of in vitro culture and these cells could serve as a useful model to study the process of embryogenesis.

  11. Natural variability of in vitro adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin does not correlate with in vivo infectivity of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Ythier, Mathilde; Entenza, Jose M; Bille, Jacques; Vandenesch, François; Bes, Michèle; Moreillon, Philippe; Sakwinska, Olga


    Adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin plays a crucial role in Staphylococcus aureus experimental endocarditis. Previous genetic studies have shown that infection and carriage isolates do not systematically differ in their virulence-related genes, including genes conferring adherence, such as clfA and fnbA. We set out to determine the range of adherence phenotypes in carriage isolates of S. aureus, to compare the adherence of these isolates to the adherence of infection isolates, and to determine the relationship between adherence and infectivity in a rat model of experimental endocarditis. A total of 133 healthy carriage isolates were screened for in vitro adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin, and 30 isolates were randomly chosen for further investigation. These 30 isolates were compared to 30 infective endocarditis isolates and 30 blood culture isolates. The infectivities of the carriage isolates, which displayed either extremely low or high adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin, were tested using a rat model of experimental endocarditis. The levels of adherence to both fibrinogen and fibronectin were very similar for isolates from healthy carriers and members of the two groups of infection isolates. All three groups of isolates showed a wide range of adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin. Moreover, the carriage isolates that showed minimal adherence and the carriage isolates that showed strong adherence had the same infectivity in experimental endocarditis. Adherence was proven to be important for pathogenesis in experimental endocarditis, but even the least adherent carriage strains had the ability to induce infection. We discuss the roles of differential gene expression, human host factors, and gene redundancy in resolving this apparent paradox.

  12. Cellular uptake and cell-to-cell transfer of polyelectrolyte microcapsules within a triple co-culture system representing parts of the respiratory tract

    Kuhn, Dagmar A.; Hartmann, Raimo; Fytianos, Kleanthis; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Parak, Wolfgang J.


    Polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules around 3.4 micrometers in diameter were added to epithelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells in vitro and their uptake kinetics were quantified. All three cell types were combined in a triple co-culture model, mimicking the human epithelial alveolar barrier. Hereby, macrophages were separated in a three-dimensional model from dendritic cells by a monolayer of epithelial cells. While passing of small nanoparticles has been demonstrated from macrophages to dendritic cells across the epithelial barrier in previous studies, for the micrometer-sized capsules, this process could not be observed in a significant amount. Thus, this barrier is a limiting factor for cell-to-cell transfer of micrometer-sized particles.

  13. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    Faden, H.; Hong, J.J.; Ogra, P.L.


    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced by prior RSV infection. The degree of adherence was directly related to the amount of viral antigen expressed on the cell surface. The adherence was temperature dependent, with maximal adherence observed at 37/sup 0/C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP.

  14. Control and adherence: living with diabetes in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Naemiratch, Bhensri; Manderson, Lenore


    Diabetes is managed via a regimen of control. Physicians advise adults living with type 2 diabetes to control blood sugar levels by controlling diet, maintaining regular exercise, and complying with medication. The extent to which individuals are able to adhere to such recommendations varies. In this article, we explore lay perceptions of diabetes and its control, drawing on data from an ethnographic study conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Between August 2001 and February 2003 the first author spent time with twelve man and women living with type 2 diabetes, their spouses, children and health providers. An additional 21 people were interviewed to extend the data and test for generalisibility. It was found that individual explanations of control, and adherence or resistance to medical advice, are interpreted and adapted in ways consistent with Buddhist philosophy and Thai norms that govern everyday life. Notions of moderation and cultural values of being and behaving, and ideals of interaction, provide a philosophical basis and practical guidelines for control.

  15. Intent-to-adhere and adherence to malaria prevention recommendations in two travel clinics.

    Goldstein, Irit; Grefat, Rami; Ephros, Moshe; Rishpon, Shmuel


    Malaria infects 30,000 travelers annually worldwide. At greatest risk are those who travel for long duration. Prevention of malaria includes chemoprophylaxis. This prospective study on 121 travelers who visited two travel clinics shows that adherence to prophylactic treatment was low, especially in long duration trips, and that adherence rate could be predicted by the much more available intent-to-adhere rate.

  16. Non-invasive, label-free cell counting and quantitative analysis of adherent cells using digital holography.

    Mölder, A; Sebesta, M; Gustafsson, M; Gisselson, L; Wingren, A Gjörloff; Alm, K


    Manual cell counting is time consuming and requires a high degree of skill on behalf of the person performing the count. Here we use a technique that utilizes digital holography, allowing label-free and completely non-invasive cell counting directly in cell culture vessels with adherent viable cells. The images produced can provide both quantitative and qualitative phase information from a single hologram. The recently constructed microscope Holomonitor (Phase Holographic Imaging AB, Lund, Sweden) combines the commonly used phase contrast microscope with digital holography, the latter giving us the possibility of achieving quantitative information on cellular shape, area, confluence and optical thickness. This project aimed at determining the accuracy and repeatability of cell counting measurements using digital holography compared to the conventional manual cell counting method using a haemocytometer. The collected data were also used to determine cell size and cellular optical thickness. The results show that digital holography can be used for non-invasive automatic cell counting as precisely as conventional manual cell counting.


    WANG Min-feng; LI De-yi; LI Zong-lin


    Objective To study the adherence activity of six representative periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria to hydroxyapatite disks. Methods Six periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria of P. gingivalis, A.actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, S. sanguis, A. viscosus and S. mutans were cultured in modified MD-300 chemostat according to total fifteen experimental groups of single-specie and each pair of periodontal pathogens and cariogenic bacteria, respectively. After 1h attached live bacteria on removable hydroxyapatite disks was analyzed by culture technologies to evaluate the adherence level. Results The adherence activity of periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria to HA was in the following order: S. sanguis > A. viscosus > S. mutans > A. actinomycetemcomitans > F. nucleatum > P. gingivalis. The number of periodontopathic bacteria to HA was enhanced by S.sanguis and A. viscosus, respectively. When mix-cultivated with S. mutans, the colonization of P. gingivalis was reduced significantly( P<0.001 ). Periodontopathic bacteria had no effect on the adherence activity of S. mutans and A. viscosus, except S. sanguis. Conclusion It was showed that the adherence activity of periodontal pathogens was weaker than that of cariogenic bacteria and emphasized the importance of bacterial adherence in determining the level of bacterial colonization on tooth surfaces. It was suggested that periodontopathic bacteria can utilize initial colonizers to become those predominant bacteria in periodontal ecosystem, which maybe have close relation to the periodontopathic mechanism.

  18. Measurement of oxide adherence to PFM alloys.

    Mackert, J R; Parry, E E; Hashinger, D T; Fairhurst, C W


    A method has been reported for evaluating adherence of an oxide to its substrate metal to a maximum value of about 40 MPa. Oxidized alloy plates were cemented between two aluminum cylinders with a high-strength cyanoacrylate cement and loaded in tension until failure occurred either at the oxide/metal interface, within the oxide layer, or in the cement itself. Significant differences were found among the oxide adherence values obtained from different PFM alloys. The oxides formed on five of the alloys exhibited adherence strengths in excess of the published value for cohesive strength of dental opaque porcelain, indicating that they possess sufficient adherence to act as the transition zone between the porcelain and the alloy. In addition, a correspondence was found between the quality of porcelain bond for a given alloy and its oxide adherence strength. These results remove the principal objection to the oxide-layer theory of porcelain bonding in dental alloy systems and emphasize the importance of oxide adherence in the establishment of a bond. It is therefore suggested that future work devoted to porcelain-metal bonding should seek to elucidate the mechanism of oxide adherence to PFM alloys and explore the development of new alloys which form adherent oxides.

  19. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  20. Transient improvement of urticaria induces poor adherence as assessed by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Kaneko, Sakae; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Inomata, Naoko; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Morisky, Donald E; Katoh, Norito


    Poor adherence to medication is a major public health challenge. Here, we aimed to determine the adherence to oral and topical medications and to analyze underlying associated factors using the translated Japanese version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 regarding urticaria treatment. Web-based questionnaires were performed for 3096 registered dermatological patients, along with a subanalysis of 751 registered urticaria patients in this study. The adherence to oral medication was significantly associated with the frequency of hospital visits. Variables that affected the adherence to topical medication included age and experience of drug effectiveness. The rate of responses that "It felt like the symptoms had improved" varied significantly among the dermatological diseases treated with oral medications. Dermatologists should be aware that adherence to the treatment of urticaria is quite low. Regular visits and active education for patients with urticaria are mandatory in order to achieve a good therapeutic outcome by increasing the adherence.

  1. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Pettey, Christina M.; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Cleves, Mario A.; Price, Elvin T.; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine


    More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN), and African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years). Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group. PMID:27148469

  2. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Christina M. Pettey


    Full Text Available More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN, and African Americans (AAs are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years. Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group.

  3. Psychosocial predictors of patient adherence to disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; AlMulhem, Alaa; AlShalan, Hanan; Alqazlan, Mohammad; Aldaif, Abdulgader; Kowgier, Matthew; Balasundaram, Janooshsheya; Sockalingam, Sanjeev


    Objectives Our aim was to identify the impact of psychosocial predictors, specifically relationship style, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, cognitive impairment, and culture-specific disease beliefs, on treatment adherence for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, patients from two MS clinics in Saudi Arabia completed self-reported questionnaires focused on MS treatment adherence, physical symptom burden, relationship style, cultural beliefs, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Results A total of 163 MS patients participated, 81.6% of them were female, and the mean age of the patients was 31.6 years. Mean patient-reported adherence to their MS treatment regimen was 79.47%±25.26%. Multivariate linear regression analysis only identified patients’ belief that their MS was due to “supernatural” forces as being significantly negatively associated with MS medication adherence. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of cultural interpretations to MS medication adherence in comparison to psychosocial factors. Education and family involvement in the treatment planning may address this issue and warrant further research.

  4. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Mysore Venkataram


    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  5. 细胞培养中珍贵贴壁细胞污染挽救方法的评价%Evaluation of Methods for Rescuing Novel Adherent Cell Line Contaminated bv Bacteria in Cell Culture

    王鸿; 张伟; 孟娜


    Objective To compare the methods for rescuing the cell line contaminated by bacteria. Methods Antibiotics or antibiotic combined with macrophage or animal inoculation were used to eliminate the bacteria in laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line LSC-1. Then cytokeratin( CK AE1/AE3 ) and DNA ploidy in LSC-1 cells were detected by immunohistochemical and flow cytometer analysis. Results ① Cefoperazone/Sulbactam at a dose of 32 mg/L was the best one in three sensitive antibiotics and made LSC-1 cells to survive three passages. Cefoperazone/Sulbactam combined with macrophage made LSC-1 cells to survive 5 ~ 6 passages. But in the two methods, bacteria appeared again when Cefoperazone/Sulbactam was eliminated and the cells gradually died. LSC-1 cells that experienced animal inoculation survived over 8 passages with well growth, and bacterial culture was negative. ② The positive rate of CK AE1/AE3 in the cells undergone animal inoculation was higher than that of the other two groups and the same as that of the third passage of LSC-1 largely. ③ DNA ploidy analysis showed that LSC-1 cells undergone animal inoculation had diploid and aneuploid karyotypes and were consistent with the third passage of LSC - 1 . However LSC - 1 treated with Cefoperazone / Sulbactam only expressed diploid. Conclusion Using animal inoculation to eliminate contaminating bacteria in cell line is a useful method. Not only the bacteria can be cleared thoroughly but also the original characteristics and malignancy of the cell may be reserved.%目的 细菌污染在细胞培养工作中在所难免,特别是珍稀细胞系受到细菌污染,污染后能否逆转,哪种方法可以挽救污染细胞既有效又对细胞生物学特性影响小,是本文探讨的目的 .方法 分别采用抗生素除菌法、抗生素联合巨噬细胞吞噬法和裸鼠体内接种除菌法清除人喉鳞状细胞癌细胞系(laryngeal squamous carcinoma-1,LSC-1)的污染细菌, 并对除菌效果做无菌检

  6. Improving adherence with inhaler therapy in COPD

    Suzanne C Lareau


    Full Text Available Suzanne C Lareau1, Barbara P Yawn21College of Nursing, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado; 2Department of Research, Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota, USAAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major public health problem, associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. The global burden of COPD morbidity is predicted to rise substantially in the coming decade, but could be moderated by better use of existing management strategies. Smoking cessation, medication therapy, and pulmonary rehabilitation have all been shown to diminish morbidity and improve patient outcomes. But each of these strategies requires adherence. Adherence is crucial for optimizing clinical outcomes in COPD, with nonadherence resulting in a significant health and economic burden. Suboptimal medication adherence is common among COPD patients, due to a number of factors that involve the medication, the delivery device, the patient, and the health professionals caring for the patient. Lack of medication adherence needs to be identified and addressed by using simplified treatment regimens, increasing patient knowledge about self-management, and enhancing provider skills in patient education, communication, and adherence counseling. This article reports some of the challenges of medication nonadherence faced by the clinician in the management of COPD, and suggests ways to evaluate and improve adherence effectively in primary care.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, adherence, clinician

  7. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

    Azin Behnood-Rod


    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88. About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6% showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6. There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r=-0.231, P<0.001 as well as diastolic BP (r=-0.280, P<0.001. In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B=-0.52, P=0.02, previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B=-0.79, P=0.001, and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B=-0.51, P=0.04 were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.

  8. Early cellular responses of BMSCs genetically modified with bFGF/BMP2 co-cultured with ligament fibroblasts in a three-dimensional model in vitro.

    Li, Bin; Jha, Ramesh Kumar; Qi, Yong-Jian; Ni, Qu-Bo; Wang, Hui; Chen, Biao; Chen, Liao-Bin


    Currently, a number of strategies including the implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and growth factors have been developed to regenerate the tendon-to-bone interface after performing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, the mechanisms behind the interactions of the implanted BMSCs and tendon cells remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early cellular responses of BMSCs genetically modified with basic growth factor growth factor (bFGF)/bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and ligament fibroblasts in a three-dimensional co-culture model. BMSCs and ligament fibroblasts were both isolated from male Wistar rats. The BMSCs were then transfected with an adenoviral vector carrying bFGF or BMP2. The transfected BMSCs and ligament fibroblasts both encapsulated in alginate beads were co-cultured for 6 days in three-dimensional model. On days 0, 3 and 6, cell proliferation was assayed. On day 6, the expression of several tendon-bone related markers was evaluated. In the co-culture system, bFGF and BMP2 were highly expressed at the mRNA and protein level. During the process, bFGF significantly promoted cell proliferation, as well as the expression of scleraxis (SCX) and collagen (COL) type Ⅰ (COL1) in the BMSCs; however, it markedly decreased the expression of phenotype markers in the ligament fibroblasts, including COL1 and COL3. BMP2 markedly increased the expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in the BMSCs and ligament fibroblasts, whereas it had no obvious effect on cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in the ligament fibroblasts. The combination of bFGF and BMP2 resulted in the similarly enhanced proliferation of BMSCs and ligament fibroblasts as observed with bFGF alone; however, this combination more potently promoted osteogenic differentiation than did BMP2 alone. The findings of our study demonstrate the superiority of the combined use of growth factors in inducing

  9. Psychosocial predictors of patient adherence to disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis

    Alosaimi FD


    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Alaa AlMulhem,2 Hanan AlShalan,2 Mohammad Alqazlan,3 Abdulgader Aldaif,4 Matthew Kowgier,5 Janooshsheya Balasundaram,6 Sanjeev Sockalingam6,7 1Department of Psychiatry, 2College of Medicine, King Saud University, 3Department of Mental Health, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, 4Department of Neurology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 6Centre for Mental Health, University Health Network, 7Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Objectives: Our aim was to identify the impact of psychosocial predictors, specifically relationship style, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, cognitive impairment, and culture-specific disease beliefs, on treatment adherence for multiple sclerosis (MS patients.Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, patients from two MS clinics in Saudi Arabia completed self-reported questionnaires focused on MS treatment adherence, physical symptom burden, relationship style, cultural beliefs, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.Results: A total of 163 MS patients participated, 81.6% of them were female, and the mean age of the patients was 31.6 years. Mean patient-reported adherence to their MS treatment regimen was 79.47%±25.26%. Multivariate linear regression analysis only identified patients’ belief that their MS was due to “supernatural” forces as being significantly negatively associated with MS medication adherence.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of cultural interpretations to MS medication adherence in comparison to psychosocial factors. Education and family involvement in the treatment planning may address this issue and warrant further research. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, adherence, depression, attachment style, culture

  10. A magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool for quantitative analysis of strain induced cellular reorientation and actin alignment

    Khademolhosseini, F.; Liu, C.-C.; Lim, C. J.; Chiao, M.


    Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells.

  11. Patient Adherence to Biologic Agents in Psoriasis

    Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert


    BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... adverse effects, and positive attitudes to the treatment. CONCLUSION: Adherence to biologic therapies is very high in patients with psoriasis, which is consistent with a positive attitude to the treatment....... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...

  12. Adherence to anti-depressant medication

    Buus, Niels


    The study of medicine taking is controversial as it often reveals a discrepancy between healthcare professionals' advice and patients' actual behaviour. Qualitative researchers have examined depressed people's adherence to prescriptions of antidepressants by exploring the meaning they impute to t...

  13. In vitro osteoblastic differentiation and identification of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by whole bone marrow adherent culture%全骨髓贴壁培养大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞体外成骨的定向诱导及鉴定

    刘斌钰; 李宁毅; 樊功为; 袁荣涛; 金晓明; 陈立强


    淀,茜素红染色为橙红色结节状,对照组未见钙结节形成.③诱导分化组诱导2周细胞碱性磷酸酶活性明显增高,对照组活性较弱.④诱导分化组经诱导后成骨细胞转录因子、骨钙素、成骨细胞特异性基因mRNA的表达均较强.结论:大鼠的骨髓间充质干细胞经全骨髓培养法体外诱导和分化,表现出与典型的成骨细胞相似的形态特征和生物学特性.%BACKGROUND: Many operations for isolating, purifying and identifying bone marrow mesenchymal stem calls (BMSCs) are complicated and cost much. Also they have great effect on cell activity. Whether whole bone marrow adherent culture can avoid above-mentioned disadvantages remains unclear. At present, many studies huve been done to confirm an effective and low cost method for isolating, purifying and identifying such cells.OBJECTIVE: This study is to in vitro induce and differentiate rat BMSCs by whole bone marrow adherent culture,and to identify the cells.DESIGN: A controlled observational experiment.SETTING: Qingdao University Medical College.MATERIALS: This study was carried out in the Laboratory of Oral Cavity and Laboratory of Molecular Biology (provincial level) Qingdao University Medical College between November 2005 and March 2007. Twenty Wistar rats of either gender, aged 3 to 4 weeks, of SPF grade, weighing 120-150 g, were provided by the Qingdao Laboratory Center. The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals. Fetal bovine serum (FBS, Hangzhou Sijiqing Bioengineering Material Research Institute), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) kit (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Research Institute), reverse transcription kit (American Promega Corporation) and primer (Shanghai Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.) were used in this study.METHODS: Adult rat BMSCs were isolated and cultured by whole bone marrow adherent culture. They were digested with 2.5 g/L trypse and inoculated at a density of 5

  14. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (Keystone Sym)

    Our goal is to establish an in vitro model system to evaluate chemical effects using a single stem cell culture technique that would improve throughput and provide quantitative markers of differentiation and cell number. To this end, we have used an adherent cell differentiation ...

  15. Mobile Applications to Improve Medication Adherence.

    Haase, Jamie; Farris, Karen B; Dorsch, Michael P


    Background and Introduction: Mobile applications are useful tools to improve medication adherence. As developers continue to improve the features of existing mobile applications, pharmacists should be aware of the current features that are available to patients. There are limited studies available that discuss which applications have the most desirable features. The aim of this study was to compare available mobile applications and identify ideal application features used to improve medication adherence.

  16. Being as an iceberg: hypertensive treatment adherence experiences in southeast of Iran

    Nahid Dehghan Nayeri


    Full Text Available Background: Treatment adherence is often an important issue in the management of hypertension. Deep understanding of adherence behavior as well as its influential factors can expand knowledge about treatment adherence among hypertensives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore patients, their families, and healthcare providers’ experiences about hypertension treatment adherence in southeast of Iran. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of patients, family members, and healthcare providers (n=18 by using a conventional content analysis. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through semi-structured and deep interviews. Results: Data analysis showed that hypertensive treatment adherence in an Iranian context is like an iceberg with two subthemes. The first subtheme relates to the upper and clear part of this iceberg and it consists of two categories, including 1 healthy and 2 unhealthy regimens. The second subtheme associates with under-water and unanticipated part and it consists of four categories, including 1 the nature of disease and treatment, 2 the individual resources, 3 the healthcare organization, and 4 the socio-cultural environment. Conclusions: The treatment adherence features emerged in this study can be useful in designing and developing context-based hypertension interventions. Further qualitative and quantitative studies with a closer collaboration between the social, natural, and medical sciences in other Iranian populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  17. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction

    Cynthia Woodsong


    Full Text Available After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1 Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2 Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3 Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4 Partner influence on use, (5 Retention and continuation and (6 Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  18. Microstructured multi-well plate for three-dimensional packed cell seeding and hepatocyte cell culture.

    Goral, Vasiliy N; Au, Sam H; Faris, Ronald A; Yuen, Po Ki


    In this article, we present a microstructured multi-well plate for enabling three-dimensional (3D) high density seeding and culture of cells through the use of a standard laboratory centrifuge to promote and maintain 3D tissue-like cellular morphology and cell-specific functionality in vitro without the addition of animal derived or synthetic matrices or coagulants. Each well has microfeatures on the bottom that are comprised of a series of ditches/open microchannels. The dimensions of the microchannels promote and maintain 3D tissue-like cellular morphology and cell-specific functionality in vitro. After cell seeding with a standard pipette, the microstructured multi-well plates were centrifuged to tightly pack cells inside the ditches in order to enhance cell-cell interactions and induce formation of 3D cellular structures during cell culture. Cell-cell interactions were optimized based on cell packing by considering dimensions of the ditches/open microchannels, orientation of the microstructured multi-well plate during centrifugation, cell seeding density, and the centrifugal force and time. With the optimized cell packing conditions, we demonstrated that after 7 days of cell culture, primary human hepatocytes adhered tightly together to form cord-like structures that resembled 3D tissue-like cellular architecture. Importantly, cell membrane polarity was restored without the addition of animal derived or synthetic matrices or coagulants.

  19. Factors that influence adherence to antiretroviral treatment in an urban population, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Emma Rosamond Nony Weaver

    Full Text Available Although the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Indonesia has increased in recent years, little is known about the specific characteristics affecting adherence in this population. Indonesia is different from most of its neighbors given that it is a geographically and culturally diverse country, with a large Muslim population. We aimed to identify the current rate of adherence and explore factors that influence ART adherence.Data were collected from ART-prescribed outpatients on an HIV registry at a North Jakarta hospital in 2012. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were explored as factors associated with adherence using logistics regression analyses. Chi squared test was used to compare the difference between proportions. Reasons for missing medication were analyzed descriptively.Two hundred and sixty-one patients participated, of whom 77% reported ART adherence in the last 3 months. The level of social support experienced was independently associated with adherence where some social support (p = 0.018 and good social support (p = 0.039 improved adherence compared to poor social support. Frequently cited reasons for not taking ART medication included forgetting to take medication (67%, busy with something else (63% and asleep at medication time (60%.This study identified that an increase in the level of social support experienced by ART-prescribed patients was positively associated with adherence. Social support may minimize the impact of stigma among ART prescribed patients. Based on these findings, if social support is not available, alternative support through community-based organizations is recommended to maximize treatment success.

  20. Apa is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae responsible for autoagglutination and host cell adherence.

    Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng


    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain.

  1. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F. [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Martínez-Castañón, G.A., E-mail: [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Téllez-Déctor, E.J. [Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Veracruzana campus Río Blanco, Mariano Abasolo S/N. Col. Centro. Río Blanco, Veracruz (Mexico); and others


    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans.

  2. Cellular models for Parkinson's disease.

    Falkenburger, Björn H; Saridaki, Theodora; Dinter, Elisabeth


    Developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease requires cellular models. Current models reproduce the two most salient changes found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease: The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of protein aggregates consisting mainly of α-synuclein. Cultured cells offer many advantages over studying Parkinson's disease directly in patients or in animal models. At the same time, the choice of a specific cellular model entails the requirement to focus on one aspect of the disease while ignoring others. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. It might also be helpful for researchers from other fields consulting literature on cellular models of Parkinson's disease. Important models for the study of dopaminergic neuron degeneration include Lund human mesencephalic cells and primary neurons, and a case is made for the use of non-dopaminergic cells to model pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. With regard to α-synuclein aggregates, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. Cellular models reproduce the two most salient changes of Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of α-synuclein aggregates. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types and treatments the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.

  3. Screening ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay

    An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

  4. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, S.J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.


    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective i

  5. Adherence in patients with chronic treatment: data of “adherence day 2013”

    Olatz Ibarra Barrueta


    Full Text Available Objetive: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the adherence level in chronic conditions patients during “The Adherence Day” celebrated on November 15, 2013. Methods: We performed a transversal, observational and multicenter study at 43 Spanish hospitals, in order to estimate adherence in chronic treatments. We used the validated questionnaires Haynes- Sackett and Morisky- Green to measure medication adherence; but also a visual analogue scale and questions related with treatment complexity and selective adherence were applied. We performed a descriptive analysis and the closeness of agreement between questionnaires results. Results: A total of 723 surveys were collected especially among outpatients. 43% of the participants were women, with a median age of 51 and taking 3 drugs per day. 10.8% of the patients reported to have difficulty taking their pills according to Haynes- Sackett test. However, depending on Morisky- Green questionnaire, 56.4% of the participants were totally compliant; but considering only the question about forgetfulness, more were adherents (77%. 71% of the patients considered their compliance level as good (more than 8 according to visual analogue scale. And 11% presented a selective adherence, no taking equally well all the medications. The closeness of agreement between questionnaires and Morisky- Green test, as gold standard, was poor for Haynes- Sackett and weak for visual analogue scale. Conclusions: In our study only 56% of the patients with chronic treatment had a perfect adherence

  6. Assessing adherence factors in patients under topical treatment: development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ).

    Zschocke, Ina; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Lotzin, Annett; Karakasili, Eleni; Reich, Kristian


    Medication adherence rates strongly depend on favorable disease outcomes. It is known that medication adherence rates are lower for topical treatment than for systemic treatment. However, to date no validated instrument for the assessment of adherence factors in topical treatment is available. The aim of this study was to develop a new questionnaire to assess adherence risk factors in topical treatment. The development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ) was based on a systematic literature review, and qualitative patient focus interviews and expert focus groups' input. The psychometric properties and comprehensibility of the TTAQ and PPQ were assessed in a feasibility study with 59 psoriasis patients. Our first preliminary results indicate that the TTAQ and PPQ are psychometrically sound and reliable measures for the assessment of factors influencing topical treatment adherence. The questionnaires are currently being further developed and various parameters (e.g., time point of assessment) are currently being tested in an exploratory pilot study with ca. 2,000 psoriasis patients receiving topical treatment in a European clinical trial. The use of the final versions of TTAQ and PPQ in clinical practice may facilitate the early identification of specific non-adherence factors in patients under topical treatment, which could enable designing and applying adherence-enhancing interventions according to the patient's individual needs.

  7. Structural barriers to ART adherence in Southern Africa: Challenges and potential ways forward.

    Kagee, A; Remien, R H; Berkman, A; Hoffman, S; Campos, L; Swartz, L


    Structural barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence are economic, institutional, political and cultural factors, that collectively influence the extent to which persons living with HIV follow their medication regimens. We identify three sets of structural barriers to ART adherence that are salient in Southern Africa: poverty-related, institutional, and political and cultural. Examples of poverty-related barriers are competing demands in the context of resource-constrained settings, the lack of transport infrastructure, food insecurity, the role of disability grants and poor social support. Examples of institutional factors are logistical barriers, overburdened health care facilities, limited access to mental health services and difficulties in ensuring adequate counselling. Examples of political and cultural barriers are controversies in the provision of treatment for AIDS, migration, traditional beliefs about HIV and AIDS, poor health literacy and gender inequalities. In forging a way forward, we identify ways in which individuals, communities and health care systems may overcome some of these structural barriers. Finally, we make recommendations for further research on structural barriers to ART adherence. In all likelihood, enhancing adherence to ART requires the efforts of a variety of disciplines, including public health, psychology, anthropology, sociology and medicine.

  8. Cellular contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis.

    Yuval Cinnamon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular contractility, essential for cell movement and proliferation, is regulated by microtubules, RhoA and actomyosin. The RhoA dependent kinase ROCK ensures the phosphorylation of the regulatory Myosin II Light Chain (MLC Ser19, thereby activating actomyosin contractions. Microtubules are upstream inhibitors of contractility and their depolymerization or depletion cause cells to contract by activating RhoA. How microtubule dynamics regulates RhoA remains, a major missing link in understanding contractility. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that contractility is inhibited by microtubules not only, as previously reported, in adherent cells, but also in non-adhering interphase and mitotic cells. Strikingly we observed that contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis by a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase. Inhibition of proteolysis, ubiquitination and neddylation all led to complete cessation of contractility and considerably reduced MLC Ser19 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that cells express a contractility inhibitor that is degraded by ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, either constitutively or in response to microtubule depolymerization. This degradation seems to depend on a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase and is required for cellular contractions.

  9. Conceptualisations of masculinity and self-reported medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men in Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Galvan, Frank H; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J; Chen, Ying-Tung


    HIV-positive Latino men have been found to have poorer medication adherence compared to Whites. This study sought to identify how cultural conceptualisations of masculinity are associated with self-reported medication adherence among Latino men. A total of 208 HIV-positive men reported the number of doses of antiretroviral medication missed in the previous seven days (dichotomised at 100% adherence versus less). Conceptualisations of masculinity consisted of traditional machismo (e.g., power and aggressive attitudes, which are normally associated with negative stereotypes of machismo) and caballerismo (e.g., fairness, respect for elders and the importance of family). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. The mean adherence was 97% (SD = 6.5%; range = 57-100%). In all, 77% of the participants reported 100% adherence in the previous seven days. Caballerismo was associated with a greater likelihood (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; p = 0.03) and machismo with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.95; p = 0.03) of medication adherence. In addition, higher medication side-effects were found to be associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81; p = 0.001) of medication adherence. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying cultural factors that may affect medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men resident in the USA.

  10. Improving medication adherence in patients with hypertension

    Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton


    BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve...... medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review......, tailored adherence counselling including motivational interviewing and telephone follow-ups. The primary outcome was composite medication possession ratio (MPR) to antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents, at one-year follow-up, assessed by analyzing pharmacy records. Secondary outcomes at 12 months...

  11. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco


    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  12. Adherence to diabetes medication in individuals with schizophrenia:a systematic review of rates and determinants of adherence

    Gorczynski, Paul; Patel, Hiren; Ganguli, Rohan


    Introduction: Despite the importance of medication adherence for the effective treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), little research has examined adherence with diabetes medication treatment in schizophrenia. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1) evaluate rates of adherence and determinants of adherence with medication for T2DM in individuals with schizophrenia, and, where possible, 2) examine the relationship between medication adherence and glycemic control. Methods: Stud...

  13. The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma

    Axelsson M


    Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior

  14. Engineering cell-compatible paper chips for cell culturing, drug screening, and mass spectrometric sensing.

    Chen, Qiushui; He, Ziyi; Liu, Wu; Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming


    Paper-supported cell culture is an unprecedented development for advanced bioassays. This study reports a strategy for in vitro engineering of cell-compatible paper chips that allow for adherent cell culture, quantitative assessment of drug efficiency, and label-free sensing of intracellular molecules via paper spray mass spectrometry. The polycarbonate paper is employed as an excellent alternative bioscaffold for cell distribution, adhesion, and growth, as well as allowing for fluorescence imaging without light scattering. The cell-cultured paper chips are thus amenable to fabricate 3D tissue construction and cocultures by flexible deformation, stacks and assembly by layers of cells. As a result, the successful development of cell-compatible paper chips subsequently offers a uniquely flexible approach for in situ sensing of live cell components by paper spray mass spectrometry, allowing profiling the cellular lipids and quantitative measurement of drug metabolism with minimum sample pretreatment. Consequently, the developed paper chips for adherent cell culture are inexpensive for one-time use, compatible with high throughputs, and amenable to label-free and rapid analysis.

  15. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Jin HK


    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  16. Adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis

    Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin;


    Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis/contact, with ......Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis...

  17. Enhanced adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 to canine and human corneocytes.

    Latronico, Francesca; Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Guardabassi, Luca


    The recent worldwide spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs is a reason for concern due to the typical multidrug resistance patterns displayed by some MRSP lineages such as sequence type (ST) 71. The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro adherence properties between MRSP and methicillin-susceptible (MSSP) strains. Four MRSP, including a human and a canine strain belonging to ST71 and two canine non-ST71 strains, and three genetically unrelated MSSP were tested on corneocytes collected from five dogs and six humans. All strains were fully characterized with respect to genetic background and cell wall-anchored protein (CWAP) gene content. Seventy-seven strain-corneocyte combinations were tested using both exponential- and stationary-phase cultures. Negative binomial regression analysis of counts of bacterial cells adhering to corneocytes revealed that adherence was significantly influenced by host and strain genotype regardless of bacterial growth phase. The two MRSP ST71 strains showed greater adherence than MRSP non-ST71 (p pseudintermedius adherence to canine corneocytes was significantly higher compared to human corneocytes (p < 0.0001), but the MRSP ST71 strain of human origin adhered equally well to canine and human corneocytes, suggesting that MRSP ST71 may be able to adapt to human skin. The genetic basis of the enhanced in vitro adherence of ST71 needs to be elucidated as this phenotypic trait may be associated to the epidemiological success and zoonotic potential of this epidemic MRSP clone.

  18. 单生卵囊藻(Oocystis solitaria)和月牙藻(Selenastrumsp.)的培养条件及其细胞组成%Culture condition and cellular biochemical composition of two microalgae Oocystis solitaria and Selenastrum sp

    严佳琦; 黄旭雄; 马坤俊; 黄征征; 吕为群


    Microalgae are the potential resources for producing biological and renewable energy. In this study, two microalgae Oocystis solitaria and Selenastrum sp. Were collected from a coastal freshwater pond, and a culture experiment was conducted to determine the optimum water temperature, light intensity, and water salinity for the growth and reproduction of the two microalgae. The cellular biochemical composition of the two microalgae was analyzed, and the effects of water salinity on the lipid content of these microalgae were investigated. The suitable water temperature and light intensity for the growth of 0. Solitaria and Selenastrum, sp. Were 35. 9-40.5 ℃ and 29.7-32. 8 ℃, and 46-70 μmol · M-2 · S-1 and 17-54 μmol · M-2 · S-1, respectively. O. Solitaria grew best in fresh water, while Selenastrum sp. Flourished in brackish water at salinity 2. Under suitable culture conditions, the cell protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents of O. Solitaria were 27.61% , 22. 00% , and 3. 84% , respectively, and those of Selenastrum sp. Were 28.06% , 21. 99% and 12. 53% , respectively. In the fatty acid of O. Solitaria, 18:3n3 was abundant; while in that of Selenastrum sp. , DHA presented. Water salinity affected the total lipid content of the two microalgae. At salinity 4 and 10, O. Solitaria and Selenastrum sp. Had the highest lipid content, being 8.29% and 18.21% , respectively.%从海滨的淡水池沼中分离得到单生卵囊藻(Oocystis solitaria)和月牙藻(Selenastrum sp.),分别研究了温度、光照强度、盐度对2种微藻生长繁殖的影响,分析了2种微藻的细胞组成、脂肪酸组成及盐度对2种微藻脂肪积累的影响.结果表明:单生卵囊藻和月牙藻的适宜生长温度分别为35.9℃~40.5℃和29.7℃~32.8℃;单生卵囊藻和月牙藻的适宜光照强度分别为46~70μmol · m-2·s-1和17 ~54 μmol·m-2·s-1;单生卵囊藻在淡水培养液中生长最好,月牙藻在盐度为2的半成水培养

  19. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna


    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells. Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.

  20. Barriers and successful strategies to antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected monolingual Spanish-speaking patients.

    Murphy, D A; Roberts, K Johnston; Hoffman, D; Molina, A; Lu, M C


    Focus groups were conducted with HIV-infected, monolingual Spanish-speaking patients (N = 81) taking antiretrovirals in order to: (1) determine what barriers impede medication adherence; (2) determine what strategies facilitate adherence; and (3) investigate the health care provider-patient relationship and whether it impacts adherence. Both quantitative and qualitative information was gathered. Participants were prescribed an average of 11 pills per day (M = 11.4, SD = 7.0, range = 1-30). Only 32% of participants were consistently adherent when self-report of medication taking (yesterday, the day before yesterday, and last Saturday) was compared to prescribed regimen. The most frequently reported strategies were: learning more about the medications (77%), accepting the need to take them (75%) and refilling prescriptions early or on time (70%). Barriers most often reported were: feeling depressed or overwhelmed (21%), simply forgetting (19%) and sleeping through a dose (17%). From the qualitative data, four main issues emerged: patient characteristics, the health care professional-patient relationship, language and cultural barriers within the health care system, and the medication regimen. Among this Latino sample, having someone to live for was extremely important in terms of patient adherence. Language barriers were reported, and the use of translators was not always seen as a sufficient remedy. Differences between monolingual Spanish-speaking patients' and English-speaking patients' strategies and barriers are discussed.

  1. Verifying quantitative stigma and medication adherence scales using qualitative methods among Thai youth living with HIV/AIDS.

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Viseskul, Nongkran; Suksatit, Benjamas; Settheekul, Saowaluck; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Grimes, Richard M; Grimes, Deanna E


    HIV/AIDS-related stigma has been linked to poor adherence resulting in drug resistance and the failure to control HIV. This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to examine stigma and its relationship to adherence in 30 HIV-infected Thai youth aged 14 to 21 years. Stigma was measured using the HIV stigma scale and its 4 subscales, and adherence was measured using a visual analog scale. Stigma and adherence were also examined by in-depth interviews. The interviews were to determine whether verbal responses would match the scale's results. The mean score of stigma perception from the overall scale and its 4 subscales ranged from 2.14 to 2.45 on a scale of 1 to 4, indicating moderate levels of stigma. The mean adherence score was .74. The stigma scale and its subscales did not correlate with the adherence. Totally, 17 of the respondents were interviewed. Contrary to the quantitative results, the interviewees reported that the stigma led to poor adherence because the fear of disclosure often caused them to miss medication doses. The differences between the quantitative and the qualitative results highlight the importance of validating psychometric scales when they are translated and used in other cultures.

  2. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.


    Background: Patients performing self-care in the unsupervised setting do not always adhere to the instructions they were initially provided with. As a consequence, a patient’s ability to successfully comply with the treatment plan cannot be verified by the treating healthcare professional, possib...

  3. Community health workers adherence to referral guidelines

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy


    Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and trea......Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs......) and treatment guidelines, there is limited evidence whether CHWs adhere to the referral guidelines and refer severely ill children for further management. In southwest Uganda, this study examined whether CHWs referred children according to training guidelines and described factors associated with adherence...... to the referral guideline. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of data collected during two cluster-randomized trials conducted between January 2010 and July 2011, one in a moderate-to-high malaria transmission setting and the other in a low malaria transmission setting. All CHWs were trained to prescribe...

  4. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf


    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In spite of any number of medicines will not be of use unless patient takes’ them. After diagnosing the disease, the next most i mportant step is to follow the instructions of physician in terms of treatment. The doctor’s respons ibility does not end with writing prescription, assuming patient will adhere to it. He/ she should cross check the behavior of patient for drug compliance and see that patient follo ws it and get the benefit. Non compliance is the main barrier for the effective delivery of the medical care. This will have greater implications on the economic burde n on the country in terms of frequent hospitalization, use of expensive medicines in case o f relapse due to non adherence.Though the terms compliance and adherence are used synonymously , they differ in the delivery of quality of the medicare as the former implicates the passive fol lowing of the physician instruction, while in the later, patient actively participates in the dev elopment of the treatment plan, which will improves outcome of the treatment. Adherence is the preferred term over compliance by WHO.

  6. Psoriasis: improving adherence to topical therapy.

    Feldman, S.R.; Horn, E.J.; Balkrishnan, R.; Basra, M.K.; Finlay, A.Y.; McCoy, D.; Menter, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    Topical therapy has an important role in psoriasis treatment. It is efficacious and has a favorable safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials. However, poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of the medication. The Internati

  7. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.


    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  8. Non-adherence in difficult asthma and advances in detection.

    Lindsay, John T; Heaney, Liam G


    Non-adherence to anti-inflammatory therapies is common in patients referred for specialist assessment at difficult-to-treat asthma services. In the difficult asthma setting, non-adherence to treatment is associated with poor baseline asthma control, increased frequency of exacerbations and asthma-related hospitalizations, as well as increased risk of death. Here, we present a review of the current literature surrounding the prevalence and risks of non-adherence in difficult asthma and we report on current methods of measuring treatment adherence and advances in the detection of non-adherence. We will also explore methods by which non-adherence in difficult asthma can be addressed.

  9. Optimizing seeding and culture methods to engineer smooth muscle tissue on biodegradable polymer matrices.

    Kim, B S; Putnam, A J; Kulik, T J; Mooney, D J


    The engineering of functional smooth muscle (SM) tissue is critical if one hopes to successfully replace the large number of tissues containing an SM component with engineered equivalents. This study reports on the effects of SM cell (SMC) seeding and culture conditions on the cellularity and composition of SM tissues engineered using biodegradable matrices (5 x 5 mm, 2-mm thick) of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers. Cells were seeded by injecting a cell suspension into polymer matrices in tissue culture dishes (static seeding), by stirring polymer matrices and a cell suspension in spinner flasks (stirred seeding), or by agitating polymer matrices and a cell suspension in tubes with an orbital shaker (agitated seeding). The density of SMCs adherent to these matrices was a function of cell concentration in the seeding solution, but under all conditions a larger number (approximately 1 order of magnitude) and more uniform distribution of SMCs adherent to the matrices were obtained with dynamic versus static seeding methods. The dynamic seeding methods, as compared to the static method, also ultimately resulted in new tissues that had a higher cellularity, more uniform cell distribution, and greater elastin deposition. The effects of culture conditions were next studied by culturing cell-polymer constructs in a stirred bioreactor versus static culture conditions. The stirred culture of SMC-seeded polymer matrices resulted in tissues with a cell density of 6.4 +/- 0.8 x 10(8) cells/cm3 after 5 weeks, compared to 2.0 +/- 1.1 x 10(8) cells/cm3 with static culture. The elastin and collagen synthesis rates and deposition within the engineered tissues were also increased by culture in the bioreactors. The elastin content after 5-week culture in the stirred bioreactor was 24 +/- 3%, and both the elastin content and the cellularity of these tissues are comparable to those of native SM tissue. New tissues were also created in vivo when dynamically seeded polymer matrices were

  10. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M


    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  11. Participation of integrin α5β1 in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to intestinal cells.

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Alvestegui, Alejandra; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Farfan, Mauricio J


    Adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key feature in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection. The aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs) are involved in EAEC interaction with receptors at the surface of intestinal cells. We and others have demonstrated that fibronectin is a receptor for AAF/II fimbriae. Considering that the major cellular receptor of fibronectin is integrin α5β1, in this study we evaluated the participation of this receptor in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 to intestinal cells. We found that EAEC strain 042 has the ability to bind directly and indirectly to integrin α5β1; direct binding was not mediated by AAF/II fimbriae and indirect binding was mediated by AAF/II and fibronectin. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the formation of the complex AafA/fibronectin/integrin α5β1. To evaluate EAEC adherence to intestinal cells, T84 cells were incubated with fibronectin and an antibody that blocks the interaction region of integrin α5β1 to fibronectin, the RGD site. Under these conditions, we found the number of adherent bacteria to epithelial cells significantly reduced. Additionally, fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 was abolished in HEp-2 cells transfected with integrin α5 shRNA. Altogether, our data support the involvement of integrin α5β1 in the fibronectin-mediated EAEC binding to intestinal cells.

  12. Participation of Integrin α5β1 in the Fibronectin-Mediated Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to Intestinal Cells

    Mariana Izquierdo


    Full Text Available Adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key feature in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC infection. The aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs are involved in EAEC interaction with receptors at the surface of intestinal cells. We and others have demonstrated that fibronectin is a receptor for AAF/II fimbriae. Considering that the major cellular receptor of fibronectin is integrin α5β1, in this study we evaluated the participation of this receptor in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 to intestinal cells. We found that EAEC strain 042 has the ability to bind directly and indirectly to integrin α5β1; direct binding was not mediated by AAF/II fimbriae and indirect binding was mediated by AAF/II and fibronectin. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the formation of the complex AafA/fibronectin/integrin α5β1. To evaluate EAEC adherence to intestinal cells, T84 cells were incubated with fibronectin and an antibody that blocks the interaction region of integrin α5β1 to fibronectin, the RGD site. Under these conditions, we found the number of adherent bacteria to epithelial cells significantly reduced. Additionally, fibronectin-mediated adherence of EAEC strain 042 was abolished in HEp-2 cells transfected with integrin α5 shRNA. Altogether, our data support the involvement of integrin α5β1 in the fibronectin-mediated EAEC binding to intestinal cells.

  13. Ion channels involved in cell volume regulation: effects on migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death in non adherent EAT cells and adherent ELA cells.

    Hoffmann, Else Kay


    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death.

  14. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J, E-mail:


    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  15. Hydrodynamic determinants of cell necrosis and molecular delivery produced by pulsed laser microbeam irradiation of adherent cells.

    Compton, Jonathan L; Hellman, Amy N; Venugopalan, Vasan


    Time-resolved imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and hydrodynamic modeling were used to examine cell lysis and molecular delivery produced by picosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser microbeam irradiation in adherent cell cultures. Pulsed laser microbeam radiation at λ = 532 nm was delivered to confluent monolayers of PtK2 cells via a 40×, 0.8 NA microscope objective. Using laser microbeam pulse durations of 180-1100 ps and pulse energies of 0.5-10.5 μJ, we examined the resulting plasma formation and cavitation bubble dynamics that lead to laser-induced cell lysis, necrosis, and molecular delivery. The cavitation bubble dynamics are imaged at times of 0.5 ns to 50 μs after the pulsed laser microbeam irradiation, and fluorescence assays assess the resulting cell viability and molecular delivery of 3 kDa dextran molecules. Reductions in both the threshold laser microbeam pulse energy for plasma formation and the cavitation bubble energy are observed with decreasing pulse duration. These energy reductions provide for increased precision of laser-based cellular manipulation including cell lysis, cell necrosis, and molecular delivery. Hydrodynamic analysis reveals critical values for the shear-stress impulse generated by the cavitation bubble dynamics governs the location and spatial extent of cell necrosis and molecular delivery independent of pulse duration and pulse energy. Specifically, cellular exposure to a shear-stress impulse J≳0.1 Pa s ensures cell lysis or necrosis, whereas exposures in the range of 0.035≲J≲0.1 Pa s preserve cell viability while also enabling molecular delivery of 3 kDa dextran. Exposure to shear-stress impulses of J≲0.035 Pa s leaves the cells unaffected. Hydrodynamic analysis of these data, combined with data from studies of 6 ns microbeam irradiation, demonstrates the primacy of shear-stress impulse in determining cellular outcome resulting from pulsed laser microbeam irradiation spanning a nearly two-orders-of-magnitude range of

  16. Experiencing antiretroviral adherence: helping healthcare staff better understand adherence to paediatric antiretrovirals

    Phelps Benjamin R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of adherence to antiretroviral medications is one of the key challenges for paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes. There are few hands-on opportunities for healthcare workers to gain awareness of the psychosocial and logistic challenges that caregivers face when administering daily antiretroviral therapy to children. This article describes an educational activity that allows healthcare workers to simulate this caregiver role. Methods Paediatric formulations of several antiretroviral medications were dispensed to a convenience sample of staff at the Baylor College of Medicine-Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Clinical Center of Excellence in Mbabane, Swaziland. The amounts of the medications remaining were collected and measured one week later. Adherence rates were calculated. Following the exercise, a brief questionnaire was administered to all staff participants. Results The 27 clinic staff involved in the exercise had varying and low adherence rates over the week during which the exercise was conducted. Leading perceived barriers to adherence included: "family friends don't help me remember/tell me I shouldn't take it" and "forgot". Participants reported that the exercise was useful as it allowed them to better address the challenges faced by paediatric patients and caregivers. Conclusions Promoting good adherence practices among caregivers of children on antiretrovirals is challenging but essential in the treatment of paediatric HIV. Participants in this exercise achieved poor adherence rates, but identified with many of the barriers commonly reported by caregivers. Simulations such as this have the potential to promote awareness of paediatric ARV adherence issues among healthcare staff and ultimately improve adherence support and patient outcomes.

  17. Ensuring medication adherence with direct oral anticoagulant drugs: lessons from adherence with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs).

    Di Minno, Alessandro; Spadarella, Gaia; Tufano, Antonella; Prisco, Domenico; Di Minno, Giovanni


    Medication adherence (taking drugs properly) is uncommon among patients on warfarin. Poor adherence to warfarin leads to an increase in adverse medical events, including stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF). Factors related to patients, physicians and the health system account for poor adherence. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are easier to use than warfarin, with fewer drug and food interactions and no need for routine blood monitoring. A proper use of DOACs may reduce the risk of stroke in AF. However, in clinical settings where no laboratory monitoring is needed, a poor medication adherence is common and may impact clinical outcomes. In the management of chronic disorders, careful knowledge of the individual patient's attitudes and behaviors is a pre-requisite for a successful doctor-patient communication. To increase patient's awareness of the risks and benefits of DOACs and, in turn, increase medication adherence, at each follow-up visit physicians should screen for priorities and motivational problems; check for the lack of understanding and/or knowledge; assess any health system or personal barriers to medication adherence; identify appropriate interventions and provide tailored support to patient needs. Dissemination of guidelines to the health care chain (prescribing physician, general practitioners, caregivers, nurses, pharmacists) further encourages medication adherence. However, the long-term effect of some of these strategies is unknown; one tool may not fit all patients, and the prescribing physician should consider individualization of these aids to ensure medication adherence and persistence (continuing to take drugs properly in long-term treatments) for DOACs in every day practice.

  18. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    Schumacher, B


    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  19. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A


    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  20. Indicators of adherence to physiotherapy attendance among Saudi female patients with mechanical low back pain: a clinical audit

    Al-Eisa Einas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among current musculoskeletal interventions used to treat low back pain (LBP, physiotherapy exercise has the highest evidence of effectiveness in avoiding recurrence and chronic disability. However, effectiveness of physiotherapy is thought to be directly related to the patients' adherence to physiotherapy. Since adherence is reported to be directly influenced by socio-cultural factors, this study was conducted to investigate factors related to patients' adherence in a group of Saudi female patients with LBP. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on female LBP patients referred to the department of physiotherapy at a local tertiary hospital over a 12 month period. A total of 98 charts were reviewed. Two physiotherapists specialized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation collected information from the medical files. Data were classified in three categories: patients' personal demographics, patients' medical condition and history, and type of physiotherapy administered. Contingency tables and chi-square test were computed to test for differences in proportions. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. Results Subjects who attended their scheduled appointments were classified as adherent (40%, and those who failed to attend 2 consecutive scheduled appointments and got discharged were classified as non-adherent (60%. Factors that significantly correlated with adherence included: age (r = 0.7, p Conclusion This study reveals an alarming level of non-adherence to physiotherapy among patients with LBP. It remains unclear as to what level of adherence is required to achieve beneficial effect of treatment. It is quite evident however, that early withdrawal from treatment would not allow the therapeutic benefits of the treatment to be realized. Future research should be directed toward developing strategies to improve adherence.

  1. Surface design of antibody-immobilized thermoresponsive cell culture dishes for recovering intact cells by low-temperature treatment.

    Kobayashi, Jun; Hayashi, Masaki; Ohno, Takahiro; Nishi, Masanori; Arisaka, Yoshinori; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Kakidachi, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Yoshikatsu; Yamato, Masayuki; Horii, Akihiro; Okano, Teruo


    Antibody-immobilized thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide) [poly(IPAAm-co-CIPAAm)]-grafted cell culture surfaces were designed to enhance both the initial adhesion of weakly adhering cells and the ability of cells to detach in response to low temperature through the regulation of affinity binding between immobilized antibodies and antigens on the cellular surface. Ty-82 cells and neonatal normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs), which express CD90 on the cell surface, adhered to anti-CD90 antibody-immobilized thermoresponsive surfaces at 37°C, a condition at which the grafted thermoresponsive polymer chains shrank. Adherent Ty-82 cells were detached from the surfaces by lowering the temperature to 20°C and applying external forces, such as pipetting, whereas cultured NHDF sheets spontaneously detached themselves from the surface in response to reduced temperature alone. When the temperature was decreased to 20°C, the swelling of grafted thermoresponsive polymer chains weakened the affinity binding between immobilized antibody and antigen on the cells due to the increasing steric hindrance of the polymer chains around the antigen-recognition site of the immobilized antibodies. No contamination was detected on cells harvested from covalently immobilized antibodies on the culture surfaces by low-temperature treatment, whereas a carryover of the antibody and avidin from the avidin-biotin binding surface was observed. Furthermore, the initial adhesion of adipose tissue-derived cells, which adhere weakly to PIPAAm-grafted surfaces, was enhanced on the antibody-immobilized thermoresponsive surfaces.

  2. Improving adherence to medical regimens for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Lindsley Carol B


    Full Text Available Abstract Poor adherence to medical regimens can compromise the efficacy of treatments for children and adolescents with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA. The purpose of this review is to describe medical regimens for the treatment of JRA and the rates of adherence to these regimens. We also summarize and critically the few research studies aimed at improving adherence to regimens for JRA. Finally, we summarize strategies for enhancing adherence in clinical practice.

  3. Iron Chelation Adherence to Deferoxamine and Deferasirox in Thalassemia

    Trachtenberg, Felicia; Vichinsky, Elliott; Haines, Dru; Pakbaz, Zahra; Mednick, Lauren; Sobota, Amy; Kwiatkowski, Janet; Thompson, Alexis A.; Porter, John; Coates, Thomas; Giardina, Patricia J.; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert; Neufeld, Ellis J.


    The Thalassemia Clinical Research Network collected adherence information from 79 patients on deferoxamine and 186 on deferasirox from 2007 to 2009. Chelation adherence was defined as percent of doses administered in the last 4 weeks (patient report) out of those prescribed (chart review). Chelation history since 2002 was available for 97 patients currently on deferoxamine and 217 on deferasirox, with crude estimates of adherence from chart review. Self-reported adherence to both deferoxamine...

  4. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV


    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the U.S. report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transg...

  5. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Jones Gareth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  6. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan


    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  7. Adhesion Forces and Composition of Planktonic and Adhering Oral Microbiomes

    Wessel, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Maitra, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Slomp, A. M.; Busscher, H. J.; van der Mei, H. C.


    The oral microbiome consists of a planktonic microbiome residing in saliva and an adhering microbiome (the biofilm adhering to oral hard and soft tissues). Here we hypothesized that possible differences in microbial composition of the planktonic and adhering oral microbiome on teeth can be related t

  8. Measuring adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Naar-King, S; Frey, M; Harris, M; Arfken, C


    Parent, child, physician report and pill counts were used to measure adherence in paediatric HIV. Relationships to viral load were assessed. Pill counts were considered invalid. Adherence measures did not correlate with one another. Physicians reported lower adherence than parents, but parent and physician report correlated with viral load. The clinical and research utility of the various measures are discussed.

  9. 78 FR 34109 - ``Script Your Future'' Medication Adherence Campaign


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration ``Script Your Future'' Medication Adherence Campaign AGENCY... importance of medication adherence to enhance the health of Americans. Medication adherence is taking... each patient. Nearly three out of four Americans report that they do not take their medication...

  10. A Matter of Trust: Patient Barriers to Primary Medication Adherence

    Polinski, J. M.; Kesselheim, A. S.; Frolkis, J. P.; Wescott, P.; Allen-Coleman, C.; Fischer, M. A.


    Primary medication adherence occurs when a patient properly fills the first prescription for a new medication. Primary adherence only occurs about three-quarters of the time for antihypertensive medications. We assessed patients' barriers to primary adherence and attributes of patient-provider discussions that might improve primary adherence…

  11. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    Hu, Rose Qingyang


    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  12. Medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia.

    Leutwyler, Heather C; Fox, Patrick J; Wallhagen, Margaret


    Older adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the population, yet their physical and mental health status is extremely poor. This article presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the understanding older adults with schizophrenia have of their physical health status. The study was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia from a variety of settings using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Self-management of psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications and its effect on participants' health status was one of the central themes that emerged from the study. Different styles of medication adherence were identified and factors associated with each style are presented. The findings provide insights into the design of clinical interventions aimed at promoting medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia.

  13. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions

    Zullig LL


    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research

  14. A Study of Adherent Oxide Formation


    improve oxide scale adherence to NiCrAl were investigated. Laser-processed materials were isothermally and cyclically oxidized and oxide scale...modified NiCrAl altered the morphology of the alumina scale and promoted the formation of a thinner, dense protective layer. • Thin aluminum oxide films...6 A. Materials. ........................... 6 B. Oxidation Studies. ....................... 7 1. NiCrAl .. .......................... 7a2

  15. Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Strains Induce Attaching and Effacing Phenotypes and Secrete Homologs of Esp Proteins

    Beinke, Christina; Laarmann, Sven; Wachter, Clemens; Karch, Helge; Greune, Lilo; Schmidt, M. Alexander


    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that Escherichia coli strains which exhibit the diffuse-adherence phenotype (DAEC strains) represent a potential cause of diarrhea in infants. We investigated the interaction of DAEC strains isolated from diarrhea patients in Brazil and in Germany with epithelial cells in tissue culture. The investigated strains were identified as DAEC strains by (i) their attachment pattern, (ii) presence of genes associated with the Dr family of adhesins, and (iii) la...

  16. Localized adherence and attaching-effacing properties of nonenteropathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli.

    Albert, M J; Alam, K; Ansaruzzaman, M.; Montanaro, J; Islam, M.; Faruque, S. M.; Haider, K; Bettelheim, K; Tzipori, S.


    Traditional enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes demonstrate a plasmid-mediated localized adherence in cultured HeLa or HEp-2 cells and induce an attaching-effacing intestinal lesion, both of which are considered pathognomonic and causes of diarrhea. This study describes three E. coli strains from infantile diarrhea which share these properties but belong to serotypes (O2:H2, O2:H25 and O15:H2) not considered enteropathogenic.

  17. Pharmacy Adherence Measures to Assess Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: Review of the Literature and Implications for Treatment Monitoring

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; McMahon, James H.; Jordan, Michael R.; Kelley, Karen; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y.; Wanke, Christine A.; Sharon R Lewin; Elliott, Julian H.


    Prescription or pill-based methods for estimating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), pharmacy adherence measures (PAMs), are objective estimates calculated from routinely collected pharmacy data. We conducted a literature review to evaluate PAMs, including their association with virological and other clinical outcomes, their efficacy compared with other adherence measures, and factors to consider when selecting a PAM to monitor adherence. PAMs were classified into 3 categories: medica...

  18. Concordance of adherence measurement using self-reported adherence questionnaires and medication monitoring devices.

    Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan; Koleva, Yordanka; Fonseca, Vivian; Kalsekar, Anupama; Pawaskar, Manjiri


    The primary objective of this review was to identify and examine the literature on the association between medication adherence self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and medication monitoring devices. The primary literature search was performed for 1980-2009 using PubMed, PubMed In Process and Non-Indexed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Ovid HealthStar, EMBASE (Elsevier) and Cochrane Databases and using the following search terms: 'patient compliance', 'medication adherence', 'treatment compliance', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'drugs', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance' and 'medications'. We identified studies that included SRQs and electronic monitoring devices to measure adherence and focused on the SRQs that were found to be moderately to highly correlated with the monitoring devices. Of the 1679 citations found via the primary search, 41 full-text articles were reviewed for correlation between monitoring devices and SRQs. A majority (68%) of articles reported high (27%), moderate (29%) or significant (12%) correlation between monitoring devices (37 using Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS®] and four using other devices) and SRQs (11 identified and numerous other unnamed SRQs). The most commonly used SRQs were the Adult/Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG/PACTG; 24.4%, 10/41) followed by the 4-item Morisky (9.8%, 4/41), Brief Medication Questionnaire (9.8%, 4/41) and visual analogue scale (VAS; 7.3%, 3/41). Although study designs differed across the articles, SRQs appeared to report a higher rate of medication adherence (+14.9%) than monitoring devices. In conclusion, several medication adherence SRQs were validated using electronic monitoring devices. A majority of them showed high or moderate correlation with medication adherence measured using monitoring devices, and could be considered for measuring patient

  19. Can adherence to antihypertensive therapy be used to promote adherence to statin therapy?

    Richard H Chapman


    Full Text Available Richard H Chapman1, Elise M Pelletier1, Paula J Smith1, Craig S Roberts21US Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Global Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAObjective: To compare adherence with statin therapy in patients switching to single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium with patients adding a separate statin to their amlodipine regimen.Methods: We identified hypertensive patients prescribed amlodipine who switched to amlodipine/atorvastatin (switch or added a statin to their amlodipine regimen (add-on from July 2004 to June 2007. Propensity score matching (1 switch:3 add-on was applied based on ‘nearest neighbor’ approach. The primary adherence measure was patients with proportion of days covered (PDC ≥0.80 at 180 days; secondary measures included mean PDC and persistence. A sensitivity analysis was performed, accounting for total statin/amlodipine exposure.Results: Among 4556 matched patients (n = 1139 switch; n = 3417 add-on, mean age was 53.9 years and 52.1% were male. After 180 days, adherence with statin therapy was higher for the switch vs add-on cohort (50.8% vs 44.3%; P < 0.001. After adjusting for pre-index amlodipine adherence, the switch cohort was more likely to be adherent than the add-on cohort (odds ratio: 1.64 [95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 1.89]. Persistence was higher in the switch than the add-on cohort (127.6 vs 117 days; P < 0.001.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients taking amlodipine who initiated statin therapy via single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin were more likely to remain adherent to their statin than patients adding a separate statin to their antihypertensive regimen.Keywords: adherence, amlodipine, atorvastatin, cardiovascular disease, persistence, single-pill

  20. Architectural organization and functional features of early endothelial progenitor cells cultured in a hyaluronan-based polymer scaffold.

    Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Gamberini, Chiara; Orrico, Catia; Foroni, Laura; Guarnieri, Carlo; Parenti, Astrid; Gargiulo, Mauro; Ledda, Fabrizio; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Muscari, Claudio


    Neovascularization can be improved using polymer scaffolds supporting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether human early EPCs (eEPCs) could be efficiently cultured in a hyaluronan-based non-woven mesh (HYAFF-11). eEPCs were seeded on HYAFF-11 at the density of 1 x 10(6)/cm(2) and cultured with endothelial differentiating factors for 3 weeks. After 24 h, nearly 90% of EPCs were adherent. Cell viability, evaluated by methyltetrazolium test, was greater in HYAFF-11 than on the most commonly used fibronectin-coated dishes, even if a progressive decline in viability was observed starting from approximately the second week of culture. eEPCs easily migrated to and aggregated on the scaffold. Evidence of active protein synthesis and features of endothelial differentiation, including cellular transcytotic channels and micropinocytotic vesicles, was revealed using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. eEPCs cultured in the scaffold also showed a certain angiogenic activity, as demonstrated by hepatocyte growth factor transcription and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. In conclusion, eEPCs can migrate and adhere inside HYAFF-11, maintain their pre-endothelial phenotype, and express angiogenic factors, especially within the first week of growth. These results indicate that non-woven HYAFF-11 could be a promising candidate as a vehicle for eEPCs for regenerative medicine applications.

  1. Adherence to asthma guidelines in general practices.

    Roghmann, M C; Sexton, M


    Adherence to asthma practice guidelines is low. Improved compliance could potentially improve care of patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients managed in a general practice with an associated asthma clinic are more likely to use asthma medications according to clinical practice guidelines than patients managed in the general surgery of the practice. A cross-sectional study of adult asthmatics, aged 18-55 years, was conducted in six British general practices. Prescription data on all asthma medication was collected for a 6-month period. Information on asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, and how patients used their inhaled beta2-agonist was collected through questionnaire. The prescription data for asthma medication and patient use of inhaled beta2-agonist were compared to the British Thoracic Society's (BTS) Guidelines for Management of Asthma in Adults to determine if the patient's asthma medication regimen was appropriate. There was no significant association found between appropriate asthma medication and asthma clinic attendance or other patient characteristics. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low. Fifty-eight percent of the asthma patients used asthma medication regimens that were not consistent with the BTS guidelines published 1 year earlier. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low regardless of patient characteristics, including asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, or individual practice. These findings underscore the need to document the utility of clinical practice guidelines which may improve physician compliance.

  2. Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator.

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.


    Objective. Adherence to behavioural intervention programmes is a necessary condition for beneficial outcomes to be achieved. This study tested whether social cognitive variables and coping plans predict adherence. Design and methods. Adherence was examined in a randomized controlled trial with healt

  3. Aragonite crystallization in primary cell cultures of multicellular isolates from a hard coral, Pocillopora damicornis.

    Domart-Coulon, I J; Elbert, D C; Scully, E P; Calimlim, P S; Ostrander, G K


    The foundation of marine coral reef ecosystems is calcium carbonate accumulated primarily by the action of hard corals (Coelenterata: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Colonial hard coral polyps cover the surface of the reef and deposit calcium carbonate as the aragonite polymorph, stabilized into a continuous calcareous skeleton. Scleractinian coral skeleton composition and architecture are well documented; however, the cellular mechanisms of calcification are poorly understood. There is little information on the nature of the coral cell types involved or their cooperation in biocalcification. We report aragonite crystallization in primary cell cultures of a hard coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Cells of apical coral colony fragments were isolated by spontaneous in vitro dissociation. Single dissociated cell types were separated by density in a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Primary cell cultures displayed a transient increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, to the level observed in intact corals. In adherent multicellular isolate cultures, enzyme activation was followed by precipitation of aragonite. Modification of the ionic formulation of the medium prolonged maintenance of isolates, delayed ALP activation, and delayed aragonite precipitation. These results demonstrate that in vitro crystallization of aragonite in coral cell cultures is possible, and provides an innovative approach to investigate reef-building coral calcification at the cellular level.

  4. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M


    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  5. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Marguerite Clyne


    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  6. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud


    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  7. Activation of adherent vascular neutrophils in the lung during acute endotoxemia

    Laskin Jeffrey D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophils constitute the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Whereas these cells readily undergo apoptosis under homeostatic conditions, their survival is prolonged during inflammatory reactions and they become biochemically and functionally activated. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of acute endotoxemia on the response of a unique subpopulation of neutrophils tightly adhered to the lung vasculature. Methods Rats were treated with 5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (i.v. to induce acute endotoxemia. Adherent neutrophils were isolated from the lung vasculature by collagenase digestion and sequential filtering. Agarose gel electrophoresis, RT-PCR, western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to evaluate neutrophil activity. Results Adherent vascular neutrophils isolated from endotoxemic animals exhibited decreased apoptosis when compared to cells from control animals. This was associated with a marked increase in expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Mcl-1. Cells isolated 0.5–2 hours after endotoxin administration were more chemotactic than cells from control animals and expressed increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein, demonstrating that they are functionally activated. Endotoxin treatment of the animals also induced p38 and p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinases in the adherent lung neutrophils, as well as nuclear binding activity of the transcription factors, NF-κB and cAMP response element binding protein. Conclusion These data demonstrate that adherent vascular lung neutrophils are highly responsive to endotoxin and that pathways regulating apoptosis and cellular activation are upregulated in these cells.

  8. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

    Mordechai Kedar


    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  9. Iron Chelation Adherence to Deferoxamine and Deferasirox in Thalassemia

    Trachtenberg, Felicia; Vichinsky, Elliott; Haines, Dru; Pakbaz, Zahra; Mednick, Lauren; Sobota, Amy; Kwiatkowski, Janet; Thompson, Alexis A.; Porter, John; Coates, Thomas; Giardina, Patricia J.; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert; Neufeld, Ellis J.


    The Thalassemia Clinical Research Network collected adherence information from 79 patients on deferoxamine and 186 on deferasirox from 2007 to 2009. Chelation adherence was defined as percent of doses administered in the last 4 weeks (patient report) out of those prescribed (chart review). Chelation history since 2002 was available for 97 patients currently on deferoxamine and 217 on deferasirox, with crude estimates of adherence from chart review. Self-reported adherence to both deferoxamine and deferasirox were quite high, with slightly higher adherence to the oral chelator (97 vs. 92%). Ninety percent of patients on deferasirox reported at least 90% adherence, compared with 75% of patients on deferoxamine. Adherence to both chelators was highest in children, followed by adolescents and older adults. Predictors of lower deferoxamine adherence were smoking in the past year, problems sticking themselves (adults only), problems wearing their pump, and fewer transfusions in the past year. Predictors of lower deferasirox adherence were bodily pain and depression. Switching chelators resulted in increased adherence, regardless of the direction of the switch, although switching from deferoxamine to deferasirox was far more common. As adherence to deferoxamine is higher than previously reported, it appears beneficial for patients to have a choice in chelators. PMID:21523808

  10. Iron chelation adherence to deferoxamine and deferasirox in thalassemia.

    Trachtenberg, Felicia; Vichinsky, Elliott; Haines, Dru; Pakbaz, Zahra; Mednick, Lauren; Sobota, Amy; Kwiatkowski, Janet; Thompson, Alexis A; Porter, John; Coates, Thomas; Giardina, Patricia J; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert; Neufeld, Ellis J


    The Thalassemia Clinical Research Network collected adherence information from 79 patients on deferoxamine and 186 on deferasirox from 2007 to 2009. Chelation adherence was defined as percent of doses administered in the last 4 weeks (patient report) out of those prescribed(chart review). Chelation history since 2002 was available for 97 patients currently on deferoxamine and 217 on deferasirox, with crude estimates of adherence from chart review. Self-reported adherence to both deferoxamine and deferasirox were quite high, with slightly higher adherence to the oral chelator (97 vs. 92%). Ninety percent of patients on deferasirox reported at least 90% adherence, compared with 75% of patients on deferoxamine. Adherence to both chelators was highest in children, followed by adolescents and older adults.Predictors of lower deferoxamine adherence were smoking in the past year, problems sticking themselves (adults only), problems wearing their pump, and fewer transfusions in the past year. Predictors of lower deferasirox adherence were bodily pain and depression. Switching chelators resulted in increased adherence, regardless of the direction of the switch, although switching from deferoxamine to deferasirox was far more common. As adherence to deferoxamine is higher than previously reported, it appears beneficial for patients to have a choice in chelators.

  11. Diet and Exercise Adherence and Practices among Medically Underserved Patients with Chronic Disease: Variation across Four Ethnic Groups

    Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.


    Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative ("n" = 71) and quantitative ("n" = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study…

  12. Psychosocial factors affecting medication adherence among HIV-1 infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Botswana.

    Do, Natalie T; Phiri, Kelesitse; Bussmann, Hermann; Gaolathe, Tendani; Marlink, Richard G; Wester, C William


    As increasing numbers of persons are placed on potentially life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa, it is imperative to identify the psychosocial and social factors that may influence antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Using an 87 question survey, the following data were collected from patients on cART in Botswana: demographics, performance (Karnofsky) score, perceived stigma and level of HIV disclosure, attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV/AIDS, substance and/or drug use, depression, and pharmacy and healthcare provider-related factors. Overall adherence rates were determined by patient self-report, institutional adherence, and a culturally modified Morisky scale. Three hundred adult patients were recruited between April and May 2005. The overall cART adherence rate was 81.3% based on 4 day and 1 month patient recall and on clinic attendance for ARV medication refills during the previous 3 months. Adults receiving cART for 1-6 months were the least adherent (77%) followed by those receiving cART for greater than 12 months (79%). Alcohol use, depression, and nondisclosure of positive HIV status to their partner were predictive of poor adherence rates (p value HIV disclosure to "at-risk" partners and provide ongoing counseling and education to help patients recognize and overcome HIV-associated stigma, alcohol abuse, and depression.

  13. Understanding Patterns of Social Support and Their Relationship to an ART Adherence Intervention Among Adults in Rural Southwestern Uganda.

    Atukunda, Esther C; Musiimenta, Angella; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Wyatt, Monique A; Ashaba, Justus; Ware, Norma C; Haberer, Jessica E


    SMS is a widely used technology globally and may also improve ART adherence, yet SMS notifications to social supporters following real-time detection of missed doses showed no clear benefit in a recent pilot trial. We examine the demographic and social-cultural dynamics that may explain this finding. In the trial, 63 HIV-positive individuals initiating ART received a real-time adherence monitor and were randomized to two types of SMS reminder interventions versus a control (no SMS). SMS notifications were also sent to 45 patient-identified social supporters for sustained adherence lapses. Like participants, social supporters were interviewed at enrollment, following their matched participant's adherence lapse and at exit. Social supporters with regular income (RR = 0.27, P = 0.001) were significantly associated with fewer adherence lapses. Instrumental support was associated with fewer adherence lapses only among social supporters who were food secure (RR = 0.58, P = 0.003). Qualitative interview data revealed diverse and complex economic and relationship dynamics, affecting social support. Resource availability in emotionally positive relationships seemingly facilitated helpful support, while limited resources prevented active provision of support for many. Effective social support appeared subject to social supporters' food security, economic stability and a well-functioning social network dependent on trust and supportive disclosure.

  14. Glucose significantly enhances enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adherence to intestinal epithelial cells through its effects on heat-labile enterotoxin production.

    Prageeth Wijemanne

    Full Text Available The present study tested whether exposure of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC to glucose at different concentrations in the media results in increased bacterial adherence to host cells through increased heat-labile enterotoxin (LT production, thereby suggesting the effects are physiological. Porcine-origin ETEC strains grown in Casamino acid yeast extract medium containing different concentrations of glucose were washed and inoculated onto IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells to test for effects on adherence and host cell cAMP concentrations. Consistent with previous studies, all LT+ strains had higher ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells than did LT- strains. Adherence of the LT- but not the LT+ strains was increased by pre-incubating the IPEC-J2 cells with LT and decreased by co-incubation with GM1 ganglioside in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05. To determine whether the glucose concentration of the cell culture media has an effect on adherence, IPEC-J2 cells were inoculated with LT+ or LT- strains in cell culture media containing a final glucose concentration of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0%, and incubated for 4 h. Only media containing 0.25% glucose resulted in increased adherence and cAMP levels, and this was limited to IPEC-J2 cells inoculated with LT+ strains. This study supports the hypothesis that glucose, at a concentration optimal for LT expression, enhances bacterial adherence through the promotion of LT production. Hence, these results establish the physiological relevance of the effects of glucose on LT production and provide a basis for how glucose intake may influence the severity of ETEC infection.

  15. Adherence ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis on prosthetic biomaterials: an in vitro study

    Shida T


    Full Text Available Takayuki Shida,1 Hironobu Koseki,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Hideyuki Sakoda,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Bacterial adhesion to the surface of biomaterials is an essential step in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to the surface of solid biomaterials, including oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy (Oxinium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium alloy, commercially pure titanium, and stainless steel, and performed a biomaterial-to-biomaterial comparison. The test specimens were physically analyzed to quantitatively determine the viable adherent density of the S. epidermidis strain RP62A (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 35984. Field emission scanning electron microscope and laser microscope examination revealed a featureless, smooth surface in all specimens (average roughness <10 nm. The amounts of S. epidermidis that adhered to the biomaterial were significantly lower for Oxinium and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy than for commercially pure titanium. These results suggest that Oxinium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are less susceptible to bacterial adherence and are less inclined to infection than other materials of a similar degree of smoothness.Keyword: bacterial adhesion, implant, infection, surface character

  16. Distinct mechanical behavior of HEK293 cells in adherent and suspended states.

    Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Kihara, Takanori; Miyake, Jun


    The mechanical features of individual animal cells have been regarded as indicators of cell type and state. Previously, we investigated the surface mechanics of cancer and normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states using atomic force microscopy. Cancer cells possessed specific mechanical and actin cytoskeleton features that were distinct from normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states. In this paper, we report the unique mechanical and actin cytoskeletal features of human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Unlike normal stromal and cancer cells, the surface stiffness of adherent HEK293 cells was very low, but increased after cell detachment from the culture surface. Induced actin filament depolymerization revealed that the actin cytoskeleton was the underlying source of the stiffness in suspended HEK293 cells. The exclusive mechanical response of HEK293 cells to perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton resembled that of adherent cancer cells and suspended normal stromal cells. Thus, with respect to their special cell-surface mechanical features, HEK293 cells could be categorized into a new class distinct from normal stromal and cancer cells.

  17. Validation of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale among women with breast and cervical cancer

    Paula Renata Amorim Lessa


    Full Text Available Objectives: the aim was to translate and culturally adapt the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale for the Portuguese language in the Brazilian context, and to check its reliability and validity to analyze the elements of the adherence of patients to the clinical treatment for breast and cervical cancer.Method: this was a methodological study, carried out in two oncology reference centers. The sample consisted of 198 participants, with 152 being treated for breast cancer and 46 being treated for cervical cancer. The content validation was performed by a committee of experts. The construct validation was demonstrated through factor analysis and the reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha.Results: the committee of experts made the necessary adjustments so that the scale was adapted to the Brazilian context. The factor analysis suggested a reduction from seven to five factors and the maintenance of 38 items similar to those of the original scale. The reliability, investigated through Cronbach's alpha, was .829, showing high internal consistency.Conclusion: it was concluded that the Brazilian version of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale is a valid and reliable instrument that is able to measure the elements of adherence to the treatment for breast and cervical cancer.

  18. Empirical study on entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems

    Zhifeng Zhang; Renbin Xiao


    From the theoretical point of view,the states of manufacturing resources can be monitored and assessed through the amount of information needed to describe their technological structure and operational state.The amount of information needed to describe cellular manufacturing systems is investigated by two measures:the structural entropy and the operational entropy.Based on the Shannon entropy,the models of the structural entropy and the operational entropy of cellular manufacturing systems are developed,and the cognizance of the states of manufacturing resources is also illustrated.Scheduling is introduced to measure the entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems,and the feasible concepts of maximum schedule horizon and schedule adherence are advanced to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of schedules.Finally,an example is used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodology.

  19. Pharmacy adherence measures to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy: review of the literature and implications for treatment monitoring.

    McMahon, James H; Jordan, Michael R; Kelley, Karen; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Wanke, Christine A; Lewin, Sharon R; Elliott, Julian H


    Prescription or pill-based methods for estimating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), pharmacy adherence measures (PAMs), are objective estimates calculated from routinely collected pharmacy data. We conducted a literature review to evaluate PAMs, including their association with virological and other clinical outcomes, their efficacy compared with other adherence measures, and factors to consider when selecting a PAM to monitor adherence. PAMs were classified into 3 categories: medication possession ratio (MPR), pill count (PC), and pill pick-up (PPU). Data exist to recommend PAMs over self-reported adherence. PAMs consistently predicted patient outcomes, but additional studies are needed to determine the most predictive PAM parameters. Current evidence suggests that shorter duration of adherence assessment (≤ 6 months) and use of PAMs to predict future outcomes may be less accurate. PAMs which incorporate the number of days for which ART was prescribed without the counting of remnant pills, are reasonable minimum-resource methods to assess adherence to ART.

  20. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and bone health

    Antonio Romero Pérez


    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have concluded that incidences of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures vary across the European Union, the lowest incidence being reported in the Mediterranean area. The beneficial effect is mainly attributed to a specific eating pattern. The Mediterranean diet contain a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive molecules with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and alkalinising properties that may contribute to the bone-sparing effect of the Mediterranean diet. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of Mediterranean diet on bone health. Methods: The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol", "bone", "osteoporosis", "fracture", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and bone" or "Mediterranean diet and fracture". Results: A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between Mediterranean Diet and bone health, and they have reported conflicting results. On the one hand, adherence to a traditional MeDi has been associated with higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. The results of these studies could be attributed to the combined beneficial effects of individual components of the Mediterranean diet. On the contrary, several studies failed to show any association between adherence to the MeDi and indices of bone mass. Conclusions: Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on bone health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of osteoporosis.

  1. On World Religion Adherence Distribution Evolution

    Ausloos, Marcel; Petroni, Filippo

    Religious adherence can be considered as a degree of freedom, in a statistical physics sense, for a human agent belonging to a population. The distribution, performance and life time of religions can thus be studied having in mind heterogeneous interacting agent modeling. We present a comprehensive analysis of 58 so-called religions (to be better defined in the main text) as measured through their number of adherents evolutions, between 1900 and 2000, - data taken from the World Christian Trends (Barrett and Johnson, "World Christian Trends AD 30 - AD 2200: Interpreting the Annual Christian Megacensus", William Carey Library, 2001): 40 are considered to be "presently growing" cases, including 11 turn overs in the twentieth century; 18 are "presently decaying", among which 12 are found to have had a recent maximum, in the nineteenth or the twentieth century. The Avrami-Kolmogorov differential equation which usually describes solid state transformations, like crystal growth, is used in each case in order to obtain the preferential attachment parameter introduced previously (Europhys Lett 77:38002, 2007). It is not often found close to unity, though often corresponding to a smooth evolution. However large values suggest the occurrence of extreme cases which we conjecture are controlled by so-called external fields. A few cases indicate the likeliness of a detachment process. We discuss a few growing and decaying religions, and illustrate various fits. Some cases seem to indicate the lack of reliability of the data, but others some marked departure from Avrami law. Whence the Avrami evolution equation might be surely improved, in particular, and somewhat obviously, for the decaying religion cases. We point out two major difficulties in such an analysis: (1) the "precise" original time of apparition of a religion, (2) the time at which there is a maximum number of adherents, both information being necessary for integrating reliably any evolution equation.

  2. Community health workers adherence to referral guidelines

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy;


    Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...... artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs...

  3. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao


    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  4. Architected Cellular Materials

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.


    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  5. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV

    Basavaprabhu Achappa


    Full Text Available Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is now considered as a manageable chronic illness. There has been a dramatic reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV related morbidity and mortality due to antiretroviral therapy. A high level of adherence (>95% is required for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. There are many barriers to adherence in both developed and developing countries. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine adherence levels and factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, 116 HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS version 11.5. Chi-square test was done. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 116 participants, 63.7% reported adherence ≥ 95%. Mean adherence index was 91.25%. Financial constraints, forgetting to take medication, lack of family care, depression, alcohol use, social stigma and side effects to antiretroviral therapy were barriers for adherence in our study. Conclusion: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in south India is suboptimal. Intensive adherence counseling should be provided to all patients before initiation ofantiretroviral therapy. Health care providers must identify possible barriers to adherence at the earliest and provide appropriate solutions.

  6. Patient adherence to medical treatment: a review of reviews

    Heerdink Rob


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the existing reviews of adherence to interventions and identify the underlying theories for effective interventions. That is the aim of our study. Methods The study is a review of 38 systematic reviews of the effectiveness of adherence interventions published between 1990 and 2005. Electronic literature searches were conducted in Medline, Psychinfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The scope of the study is patient adherence to medical treatment in the cure and care sector. Results Significant differences in the effectiveness of adherence interventions were found in 23 of the 38 systematic reviews. Effective interventions were found in each of four theoretical approaches to adherence interventions: technical, behavioural, educational and multi-faceted or complex interventions. Technical solutions, such as a simplification of the regimen, were often found to be effective, although that does not count for every therapeutic regimen. Overall, our results show that, firstly, there are effective adherence interventions without an explicit theoretical explanation of the operating mechanisms, for example technical solutions. Secondly, there are effective adherence interventions, which clearly stem from the behavioural theories, for example incentives and reminders. Thirdly, there are other theoretical models that seem plausible for explaining non-adherence, but not very effective in improving adherence behaviour. Fourthly, effective components within promising theories could not be identified because of the complexity of many adherence interventions and the lack of studies that explicitly compare

  7. Cellular blue naevus

    Mittal R


    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  8. Using communication skills to improve adherence in children with chronic disease : The adherence equation

    Brand, Paul L. P.; Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A.


    Nonadherence to maintenance medication is common in paediatric chronic conditions. Despite the common belief that nonadherence is therapy-resistant, and the apparent lack of evidence for successful interventions to improve adherence, there is, in fact, a considerable body of evidence suggesting that

  9. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Hoo ZH


    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  10. Statistical Dynamics of Religions and Adherents

    Ausloos, M; Ausloos, Marcel; Petroni, Filippo


    Religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. All religions may evolve in their beliefs and adapt to the society developments. A religion is a social variable, like a language or wealth, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. Several questions can be raised, as considered in this study: e.g. (i) from a ``macroscopic'' point of view : How many religions exist at a given time? (ii) from a ``microscopic'' view point: How many adherents belong to one religion? Does the number of adherents increase or not, and how? No need to say that if quantitative answers and mathematical laws are found, agent based models can be imagined to describe such non-equilibrium processes. It is found that empirical laws can be deduced and related to preferential attachment processes, like on evolving network; we propose two different algorithmic models reproducing as well the data. Moreover, a population growth-death equation is shown to be a plausible modeling of evolution dynamics in a...

  11. Automated microinjection system for adherent cells

    Youoku, Sachihiro; Suto, Yoshinori; Ando, Moritoshi; Ito, Akio


    We have developed an automated microinjection system that can handle more than 500 cells an hour. Microinjection injects foreign agents directly into cells using a micro-capillary. It can randomly introduce agents such as DNA, proteins and drugs into various types of cells. However, conventional methods require a skilled operator and suffer from low throughput. The new automated microinjection techniques we have developed consist of a Petri dish height measuring method and a capillary apex position measuring method. The dish surface height is measured by analyzing the images of cells that adhere to the dish surface. The contrast between the cell images is minimized when the focus plane of an object lens coincides with the dish surface. We have developed an optimized focus searching method with a height accuracy of +/-0.2 um. The capillary apex position detection method consists of three steps: rough, middle, and precise. These steps are employed sequentially to cover capillary displacements of up to +/-2 mm, and to ultimately accomplish an alignment accuracy of less than one micron. Experimental results using this system we developed show that it can introduce fluorescent material (Alexa488) into adherent cells, HEK293, with a success rate of 88.5%.

  12. Statistical dynamics of religions and adherents

    Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.


    Religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. All religions may evolve in their beliefs and adapt to the society developments. A religion is a social variable, like a language or wealth, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. Several questions can be raised, as considered in this study; e.g.: i) From a "macroscopic" point of view: How many religions exist at a given time? ii) From a "microscopic" viewpoint: How many adherents belong to one religion? Does the number of adherents increase or not, and how? No need to say that if quantitative answers and mathematical laws are found, agent-based models can be imagined to describe such non-equilibrium processes. It is found that empirical laws can be deduced and related to preferential attachment processes, like on an evolving network; we propose two different algorithmic models reproducing as well the data. Moreover, a population growth-death equation is shown to be a plausible modeling of evolution dynamics in a continuous-time framework. Differences with language dynamic competition are emphasized.

  13. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita


    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  14. Stability of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy over time among clients enrolled in the treatment adherence demonstration project.

    Tesoriero, James; French, Tyler; Weiss, Linda; Waters, Mark; Finkelstein, Ruth; Agins, Bruce


    Adherence to antiretroviral medications is essential to therapeutic success. Many published studies have investigated the degree of adherence or nonadherence, but sample sizes have generally been small, and adherence has seldom been viewed as a longitudinal process. This paper investigates the stability of adherence over time among HIV-infected individuals attending adherence support programs in New York State. The study cohort consists of 435 clients who were on HAART at baseline and who completed at least 2 follow-up interviews. Although cross-sectional nonadherence did not exceed 35%, nonadherence reached 54% when considered across all 3 interviews. Analysis of transition matricies revealed moderate stability in adherence over time (e.g., first follow-up adherence was 81.0% for clients adherent at baseline, compared with 58.3% for clients nonadherent at baseline). Second-order transition matricies offered additional predictive utility. Multivariate results indicated that, for some, it was the transition from a desirable to an undesirable state (e.g., from no illicit drug use to illicit drug use) that increased the likelihood of nonadherence, rather than the presence of these characteristics over time. Findings illustrate the importance of multiple, periodic assessments of adherence and the need to consider strategies to increase stability in the factors affecting adherence to HAART.

  15. Cellular rehabilitation of photobiomodulation

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Qin; Wang, Yan-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Song-Hao


    Homeostasis is a term that refers to constancy in a system. A cell in homeostasis normally functions. There are two kinds of processes in the internal environment and external environment of a cell, the pathogenic processes (PP) which disrupts the old homeostasis (OH), and the sanogenetic processes (SP) which restores OH or establishes a new homeostasis (NH). Photobiomodualtion (PBM), the cell-specific effects of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems, is a kind of modulation on PP or SP so that there is no PBM on a cell in homeostasis. There are two kinds of pathways mediating PBM, the membrane endogenetic chromophores mediating pathways which often act through reactive oxygen species, and membrane proteins mediating pathways which often enhance cellular SP so that it might be called cellular rehabilitation. The cellular rehabilitation of PBM will be discussed in this paper. It is concluded that PBM might modulate the disruption of cellular homeostasis induced by pathogenic factors such as toxin until OH has been restored or NH has been established, but can not change homeostatic processes from one to another one.

  16. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei


    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  17. [e-Health interventions and improvement in treatment adherence].

    Sieben, Angelien; Bredie, S J H Bas; van Laarhoven, C J H M Kees; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Burger, David M; van Onzenoort, Hein A W


    Poor adherence to medication is one of the most important determinants in the treatment of patients with chronic disorders. e-Health-based interventions may be able to improve treatment adherence. This article gives an overview of the available e-Health interventions and the extent to which they can improve adherence. We searched in the PubMed, Cinahl, PsycInfo, and Embase databases for e-Health interventions that aimed at improving adherence to treatment. Of the 16 included studies, 15 used a website and one used an app. Ten studies showed a significant improvement in treatment adherence by using the intervention. e-Health interventions were generally complex. Simple interventions were the most successful in improving treatment adherence.

  18. Measuring insulin adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Gonzalez, Jeffery S


    Non-adherence to insulin is common and associated with suboptimal health. We adapted the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale to specify insulin adherence (MIAS) and compared it to the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale for Diabetes (ARMS-D) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities medications subscale (SDSCA-MS) and an insulin-specific (SDSCA-IS) version. A sample of 144 insulin-treated adults (58 % African American/Black, 34 % Caucasian/White, 8 % Other/Mixed race; 6.9 % Hispanic) completed these measures along with a HbA1C test. The internal consistency and factor structure of the MIAS were adequate; 59 % of participants forgot to take insulin and 46 % reported non-adherence. The MIAS was associated with the ARMS-D, SDSCA-MS, and SDSCA-IS (p insulin adherence assessment tool for practice and research applications.

  19. Dynamics of active cellular response under stress

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel


    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitive nature of cells and the elastic response of the matrix, we predict the dynamics of orientation of cells. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the forces generated by cells in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material can be used to distinguish systems in which cell activity is controlled by stress from those where cell activity is controlled by strain. Reference: Nature Physics, vol. 3, pp 655 (2007).

  20. Adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis



    Human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis was established to investigate the adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to this cell line, in which the primary cell culture was performed by using cultivation of the normal epithelium of renal pelvis in keratinocyte serum free medium (K-SFM)with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE). Both UPEC132 obtained from urine specimen of patients with pyelonephritis and the pilus-free representative strain E. coli K-12p678-54 were used to study the adherence of these strains on human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis.The UPEC adherence was performed with observation on the morphological changes of the adhered cells,while the adhesion rates and indices were calculated in different times of experiment. In addition, the virulence genes hly and cnf1 of UPEC132 were detected by multiplex PCR assay. In this study, the human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis was found to exhibit the character of the transitional epithelial cells. Compared with the control group, the adhesion rates and indices began to increase from 15 min of the experiment time and reached its peak in 120 min. The adhesion rate and index of UPEC132 to human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis were 74.4% and 34.0 respectively. Many microscopic changes in the primary cells adhered with UPEC132 could be detected, such as rounding or irregularity in shape,unevenness in staining and the cytoplasmic and nuclear changes. It suggests that human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis can be used for the experiment on UPEC adhesion, thus providing a basis for the further study on the pathogenesis of UPEC.

  1. Adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto- chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering

    Sidnei MARCACCI


    Full Text Available Introduction: The capacity of Candida albicans adherence is one ofits main factors of virulence. Surfaces of different materials canpropitiate conditions for higher or lower adherence and greater virulence of the microorganisms. Objective: Evaluate the adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto-chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering. Material and methods: Twenty-four cylindrical samples have been constructed, 12 of titanium and 12 of cobalt-chromium, divided in 4 groups of six. All have been polished in the habitual form by the same technician. Samples have been sandpapered at about high rotation for 15 seconds each sandpaper, on all its surface. A group of each metal was sandpapered only with sandpaper for metal number 80. The two other groups have been sandpapered in agreement with the sequence (decreasing granulation: 80, 150 and 220. Samples have been sterilized and located in plates of cells culture. In each well of the plate was added standardized amount of Sabouraud broth and suspension containing 106 cells per milliliter of C. albicans (ATCC 18804. After incubation, the number of adhered cells per mm2 was obtained by the method of sowing in plate of Petri. The obtained values have been tabulated and submitted to the tests of ANOVA and Tukey,with level of significance of 5%. Results: There was statistical difference for the granulation of sandpapers, what not occurred when considering metals.Conclusion: The bigger the final granulation of sandpaper, the greater the adherence and the type of metal did not influence in the result.

  2. What strategies do ulcerative colitis patients employ to facilitate adherence?

    Kawakami, Aki; Tanaka, Makoto; Naganuma, Makoto; Maeda, Shin; Kunisaki, Reiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko


    Background Overall, 30%–45% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are non-adherent and have difficulties taking their medications; this non-adherence increases the risk of clinical relapse 1.4- to 5.5-fold. This study aimed to clarify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and determine whether the strategies had an impact on good adherence. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. Patients diagnosed as having UC and attending one of the outpatient clinics of four urban hospitals from June 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled. A questionnaire was developed to identify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and then administered to patients with UC. Adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid was calculated, and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the strategies that were associated with good adherence. Results The final analyses included 671 participants (mean age 40.2 years; 54.3% males). The valid response rate was 96.9%; 186 (27.7%) participants were classified as non-adherent, the mean adherence rate being 86.1% (standard deviation [SD] 17.9). Seven strategies that patients employ to facilitate adherence were identified, the following two being significantly associated with good adherence: “I keep my medicines where I eat meals” and “I keep each day’s medicine in a pill case or something similar to make sure I have taken them”. Conclusion The identified strategies might be used to develop a program to improve medication adherence in patients with UC. PMID:28203059

  3. Concern between medication non-adherence and diabetes associated depression

    Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary; Porchelvan Swaminathan


    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the health disorders that acquire mankind immensely. An ominous twin of diabetes mellitus is diabetes associated depression which is often unrecognised in routine diabetic care. The objective of this study was to find the prevalence and correlation between medication adherence and diabetes associated depression. Methods: It is a conducted as cross sectional study using Morisky medication adherence scale to evaluate treatment adherence of type II diab...

  4. Cultural Capital Today

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart


    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...

  5. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    Lisa Mohamet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/- or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb, allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are

  6. Infection with human coronavirus NL63 enhances streptococcal adherence to epithelial cells

    Golda, Anna; Malek, Natalia; Dudek, Bartosz; Zeglen, Slawomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Kucewicz, Ewa; Zembala, Marian


    Understanding the mechanisms of augmented bacterial pathogenicity in post-viral infections is the first step in the development of an effective therapy. This study assessed the effect of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) on the adherence of bacterial pathogens associated with respiratory tract illnesses. It was shown that HCoV-NL63 infection resulted in an increased adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to virus-infected cell lines and fully differentiated primary human airway epithelium cultures. The enhanced binding of bacteria correlated with an increased expression level of the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R), but detailed evaluation of the bacterium–PAF-R interaction revealed a limited relevance of this process. PMID:21325482

  7. The role of family caregivers in HIV medication adherence.

    Beals, K P; Wight, R G; Aneshensel, C S; Murphy, D A; Miller-Martinez, D


    This study examines the role that mid-life and older wives and mothers play in promoting medication adherence among their HIV-infected husbands or adult sons who require daily living assistance. Interviews were conducted with 112 caregiving dyads, with caregivers reporting on their own behaviours and attitudes towards medications, and care-recipients (persons living with HIV [PLH]) providing information about their own adherence practices. By examining how caregiver characteristics, behaviours, and attitudes may influence PLH adherence it is explicitly recognized that caregivers and PLH are linked within a caregiving dyad. Findings indicate that caregivers often remind PLH to take medications, but these reminders are not significantly associated with adherence. Caregivers also report strong attitudes about medication hassles, concerns over treatment failure and general concerns about adherence. Controlling for background characteristics, high perceived adherence hassles on the part of the caregiver were associated with low PLH adherence, providing evidence of shared influence within the caregiving dyad. Adherence interventions may maximize their effectiveness if they consider the role of the family caregiver because these data suggest that caregiver attitudes are linked with PLH adherence behaviours.

  8. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A


    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  9. The effect of reminder systems on patients' adherence to treatment

    Fenerty SD


    Full Text Available Sarah D Fenerty1, Cameron West1, Scott A Davis1, Sebastian G Kaplan3, Steven R Feldman1,2,41Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USABackground: Patient adherence is an important component of the treatment of chronic disease. An understanding of patient adherence and its modulating factors is necessary to correctly interpret treatment efficacy and barriers to therapeutic success.Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to systematically review published randomized controlled trials of reminder interventions to assist patient adherence to prescribed medications.Methods: A Medline search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1968 and June 2011, which studied the effect of reminder-based interventions on adherence to self-administered daily medications.Results: Eleven published randomized controlled trials were found between 1999 and 2009 which measured adherence to a daily medication in a group receiving reminder interventions compared to controls receiving no reminders. Medication adherence was measured as the number of doses taken compared to the number prescribed within a set period of time. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant increase in adherence in groups receiving a reminder intervention compared to controls (66.61% versus 54.71%, 95% CI for mean: 0.8% to 22.4%. Self-reported and electronically monitored adherence rates did not significantly differ (68.04% versus 63.67%, P = 1.0. Eight of eleven studies showed a statistically significant increase in adherence for at least one of the reminder group arms compared to the control groups receiving no reminder intervention.Limitations: The data are limited by imperfect measures of adherence due to variability in data collection methods. It is also likely

  10. Impact of prescription size on statin adherence and cholesterol levels

    Mehler Phillip S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapy with 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins improve outcomes in a broad spectrum of patients with hyperlipidemia. However, effective therapy requires ongoing medication adherence; restrictive pharmacy policies may represent a barrier to successful adherence, particularly among vulnerable patients. In this study we sought to assess the relationship between the quantity of statin dispensed by the pharmacy with patient adherence and total cholesterol. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 3,386 patients receiving more than one fill of statin medications through an integrated, inner-city health care system between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2002. Our measure of adherence was days of drug acquisition divided by days in the study for each patient, with adequate adherence defined as ≥ 80%. Log-binomial regression was used to determine the relative risk of various factors, including prescription size, on adherence. We also assessed the relationship between adherence and total cholesterol using multiple linear regression. Results After controlling for age, gender, race, co-payment, comorbidities, and insurance status, patients who obtained a majority of fills as 60-day supply compared with 30-day supply were more likely to be adherent to their statin medications (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.28–1.55, P Conclusion In a healthcare system serving predominantly indigent patients, the provision of a greater quantity of statin medication at each prescription fill contributes to improved adherence and greater drug effectiveness.

  11. Hematopoietic effects of benzene inhalation assessed by long-term bone marrow culture.

    Abraham, N G


    The strong and long-lasting hematotoxic effect after benzene exposure in vivo (300 ppm, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) was assessed in mice with bone marrow cells grown in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). Bone marrow cultures initiated 1 day after the last benzene exposure did not produce adequate numbers of hematopoietic cells over 3 weeks, and, in most cases, no erythroid or myeloid clonogenic cells could be recovered. The adherent cell layer of these cultures had a lowered capacity for supporting in vitro hematopoiesis after the second seeding with normal bone marrow cells compared with control cultures. Two weeks after the last benzene exposure, body weight, hematocrit, bone marrow cellularity, and committed hematopoietic progenitor content (BFU-E and CFU-GM) were regenerated to normal or subnormal values, whereas hematopoiesis in LTBMC was very poor. Over 8 weeks, little or no significant committed progenitor production was observed. Treatment of mice exposed to benzene with hemin (three doses of 3 micrograms/g bw i.v. over 2 weeks for a total dose of 9 micrograms/g) partially overcame the toxic effect of benzene on the hematopoietic system as measured by the LTBMC method. Cultures from mice treated with hemin had a modest recovery of BFU-E and CFU-GM clonogenic potential after 5 to 6 weeks in LTBMC. In contrast, little or no recovery was obtained for the adherent cell layer clonogenic capacity, even after hemin treatment. These results clearly indicate a strong, long-lasting toxic effect on the bone marrow stroma and a limited recovery of hematopoietic potential by clonogenic cells of the nonadherent population after in vivo hemin treatment.

  12. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale

    Rafaela Batista dos Santos Pedrosa


    Full Text Available Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients.

  13. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus


    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417

  14. Tuberculosis treatment adherence and fatality in Spain

    Vidal Rafael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adherence to long tuberculosis (TB treatment is a key factor in TB control programs. Always some patients abandon the treatment or die. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with defaulting from or dying during antituberculosis treatment. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of TB cases diagnosed during 2006-2007 by 61 members of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR. Predictive factors of completion outcome (cured plus completed treatment vs. defaulters plus lost to follow-up and fatality (died vs. the rest of patients were based on logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Of the 1490 patients included, 29.7% were foreign-born. The treatment outcomes were: cured 792 (53.2%, completed treatment 540 (36.2%, failure 2 (0.1%, transfer-out 33 (2.2%, default 27 (1.8%, death 27 (1.8%, lost to follow-up 65 (4.4%, other 4 (0.3%. Completion outcome reached 93.5% and poor adherence was associated with: being an immigrant (OR = 2.03; CI:1.06-3.88, living alone (OR = 2.35; CI:1.05-5.26, residents of confined institutions (OR = 4.79; CI:1.74-13.14, previous treatment (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98, being an injecting drug user (IDU (OR = 9.51; CI:2.70-33.47 and treatment comprehension difficulties (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98. Case fatality was 1.8% and it was associated with the following variables: age 50 or over (OR = 10.88; CI:1.12-105.01, retired (OR = 12.26;CI:1.74-86.04, HIV-infected (OR = 9.93; CI:1.48-66.34, comprehension difficulties (OR = 4.07; CI:1.24-13.29, IDU (OR = 23.59; CI:2.46-225.99 and Directly Observed Therapy (DOT (OR = 3.54; CI:1.07-11.77. Conclusion Immigrants, those living alone, residents of confined institutions, patients treated previously, those with treatment comprehension difficulties, and IDU patients have poor adherence and should be targeted for DOT. To reduce fatality rates, stricter monitoring is required

  15. Adherence and viability of intestinal bacteria to differentiated Caco-2 cells quantified by flow cytometry.

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Boon, Nico; Zeka, Fjoralba; Vanhoecke, Barbara; Bracke, Marc; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom


    Recent developments in host-microbe research give rise to a growing demand for rapid and accurate methods to quantify bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. Here, we describe a new flow cytometric method to determine the amount and viability of gut bacteria, adhered to a monolayer of differentiated cells. The latter is a more relevant epithelium model than the suspended eukaryotic cells currently used in flow cytometric protocols. During the development of the method, we monitored the adhesion potential of six bacterial species and an intestinal microbial community to Caco-2 cells. The combination of SYBR Green I/propidium iodide was more efficient than carboxyfluorescein diacetate to stain the bacterial cells. In addition, a better separation between the Caco-2 background signal and viable and dead bacteria was obtained. A precise amount of Triton X-100 was used to detach adhered bacteria from Caco-2 cells and cell debris. Yet, a limited decrease in viability was observed for the intestinal microbial community treated with Triton X-100. The flow cytometric lower detection limit for pure bacterial cultures was 3.0-4.0log/mL, whereas a 5.0-5.5log/mL detection limit was obtained in the presence of Caco-2 cell background. The latter was sufficient to quantify adhered bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a flow cytometric protocol that quantifies adhesion of both pure and mixed gut microbial cultures to a differentiated monolayer of Caco-2 cells and that allows to distinguish between viable and dead adhered bacteria.

  16. Adherence to COPD guidelines in general practice

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse


    BACKGROUND: The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIMS: To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD...... guidelines. METHODS: A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted...... were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. RESULTS: Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed...

  17. Sister Carrie, an Adherent of Desires



    Sister Carrie is one of the most controversial characters in American literature.Thought as a "fallen woman" firstly,she was defined as a "new woman" by some critics later. However, by digging into the motivaton behind the whole process of Carrie's "success", the relationship between Carrie and her creator (the author), the social conditions of then American, it can be found that Carrie has never been free-standing on her thought and she has never found her real-sdf even after becoming a famous actress. In a society dominated by mass consumerism Carrie is only an adherent of her own desires. She also is a representative of all those country girls flooded into cities, a symbol and a sacrifice of the urbanization of America in a time countryside was overcome by cities.

  18. Stable cellular senescence is associated with persistent DDR activation.

    Fumagalli, Marzia; Rossiello, Francesca; Mondello, Chiara; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio


    The DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon DNA damage generation to promote DNA repair and inhibit cell cycle progression in the presence of a lesion. Cellular senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest characterized by persistent DDR activation. However, some reports suggest that DDR activation is a feature only of early cellular senescence that is then lost with time. This challenges the hypothesis that cellular senescence is caused by persistent DDR activation. To address this issue, we studied DDR activation dynamics in senescent cells. Here we show that normal human fibroblasts retain DDR markers months after replicative senescence establishment. Consistently, human fibroblasts from healthy aged donors display markers of DDR activation even three years in culture after entry into replicative cellular senescence. However, by extending our analyses to different human cell strains, we also observed an apparent DDR loss with time following entry into cellular senescence. This though correlates with the inability of these cell strains to survive in culture upon replicative or irradiation-induced cellular senescence. We propose a model to reconcile these results. Cell strains not suffering the prolonged in vitro culture stress retain robust DDR activation that persists for years, indicating that under physiological conditions persistent DDR is causally involved in senescence establishment and maintenance. However, cell strains unable to maintain cell viability in vitro, due to their inability to cope with prolonged cell culture-associated stress, show an only-apparent reduction in DDR foci which is in fact due to selective loss of the most damaged cells.

  19. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    Beckerman, Martin


    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  20. Associations between patients' adherence and GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence

    Barfoed, Benedicte L; Paulsen, Maja S; Christensen, Palle M;


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that doctors' personal lifestyle, risk taking personality and beliefs about risk reducing therapies may affect their clinical decision-making. Whether such factors are further associated with patients' adherence with medication is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE......: To estimate associations between GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence and their patients' adherence, and to identify subgroups of GPs with poor patient adherence. METHODS: All Danish GPs were invited to participate in an online survey. We asked whether they regarded...

  1. A fully automated system for adherent cells microinjection.

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G


    This paper proposes an automated robotic system to perform cell microinjections to relieve human operators from this highly difficult and tedious manual procedure. The system, which uses commercial equipment currently found on most biomanipulation laboratories, consists of a multitask software framework combining computer vision and robotic control elements. The vision part features an injection pipette tracker and an automatic cell targeting system that is responsible for defining injection points within the contours of adherent cells in culture. The main challenge is the use of bright-field microscopy only, without the need for chemical markers normally employed to highlight the cells. Here, cells are identified and segmented using a threshold-based image processing technique working on defocused images. Fast and precise microinjection pipette positioning over the automatically defined targets is performed by a two-stage robotic system which achieves an average injection rate of 7.6 cells/min with a pipette positioning precision of 0.23 μm. The consistency of these microinjections and the performance of the visual targeting framework were experimentally evaluated using two cell lines (CHO-K1 and HEK) and over 500 cells. In these trials, the cells were automatically targeted and injected with a fluorescent marker, resulting in a correct cell detection rate of 87% and a successful marker delivery rate of 67.5%. These results demonstrate that the new system is capable of better performances than expert operators, highlighting its benefits and potential for large-scale application.

  2. Modelling imperfect adherence to HIV induction therapy

    Smith? Robert J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induction-maintenance therapy is a treatment regime where patients are prescribed an intense course of treatment for a short period of time (the induction phase, followed by a simplified long-term regimen (maintenance. Since induction therapy has a significantly higher chance of pill fatigue than maintenance therapy, patients might take drug holidays during this period. Without guidance, patients who choose to stop therapy will each be making individual decisions, with no scientific basis. Methods We use mathematical modelling to investigate the effect of imperfect adherence during the inductive phase. We address the following research questions: 1. Can we theoretically determine the maximal length of a possible drug holiday and the minimal number of doses that must subsequently be taken while still avoiding resistance? 2. How many drug holidays can be taken during the induction phase? Results For a 180 day therapeutic program, a patient can take several drug holidays, but then has to follow each drug holiday with a strict, but fairly straightforward, drug-taking regimen. Since the results are dependent upon the drug regimen, we calculated the length and number of drug holidays for all fifteen protease-sparing triple-drug cocktails that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusions Induction therapy with partial adherence is tolerable, but the outcome depends on the drug cocktail. Our theoretical predictions are in line with recent results from pilot studies of short-cycle treatment interruption strategies and may be useful in guiding the design of future clinical trials.

  3. Barriers and facilitators of interventions for improving antiretroviral therapy adherence: a systematic review of global qualitative evidence

    Qingyan Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction: Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. Methods: We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers. We used thematic synthesis to synthesize qualitative evidence and the CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research approach to assess the confidence of review findings. Results: Of 2982 references identified, a total of 31 studies from 17 countries were included. Twelve studies were conducted in high-income countries, 13 in middle-income countries and six in low-income countries. Study populations focused on adults living with HIV (21 studies, n=1025, children living with HIV (two studies, n=46, adolescents living with HIV (four studies, n=70 and pregnant women living with HIV (one study, n=79. Twenty-three studies examined PLHIV perspectives and 13 studies examined healthcare provider perspectives. We identified six themes related to types of interventions, including task shifting, education, mobile phone text messaging, directly observed therapy, medical professional outreach and complex interventions. We also identified five cross-cutting themes, including strengthening social relationships, ensuring confidentiality, empowerment of PLHIV, compensation and integrating religious beliefs into interventions. Our qualitative evidence suggests that strengthening PLHIV social relationships, PLHIV empowerment and developing culturally appropriate interventions may facilitate adherence interventions. Our study indicates that potential barriers are inadequate training and compensation for lay

  4. Treatment adherence in multiple sclerosis: a survey of Belgian neurologists

    Decoo D


    Full Text Available Danny Decoo,1 Mathieu Vokaer2 1Department of Neurology and Neurorehab, AZ Alma, Sijsele, Belgium; 2Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Edith Cavell Hospital, CHIREC group, Brussels, Belgium Background: Poor treatment adherence is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. This survey evaluated neurologists’ perception of treatment adherence among MS patients.Materials and methods: This questionnaire-based survey of Belgian neurologists treating MS patients was conducted between June and July 2014. Face-to-face interviews with the neurologists were based on a semistructured questionnaire containing questions regarding the perception of the treatment-adherence level.Results: A total of 41 neurologists participated in the survey. Of these, 88% indicated frequent discussions about treatment adherence as beneficial for treatment efficacy. The mean time spent on the treatment-adherence discussion during the initial consultation was 11 minutes, with 24% of doctors spending 5 minutes and 24% of doctors spending 10 minutes discussing this issue. The majority of neurologists (56% perceived the adherence level in MS as good, and 12% perceived it as excellent. The majority of neurologists (64% indicated intolerance as a main cause of poor adherence, and all neurologists reported insufficient efficacy as a consequence of nonadherence. The importance of adherence in the neurologists’ practice was evaluated on a scale of 1–10, with 1= “not very important” and 10= “very important”: 44% of doctors indicated a score of 10, and the mean score was 9.0.Conclusion: Belgian neurologists consider treatment adherence in MS as essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of nonadherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment adherence, physician survey

  5. Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis

    Shergill, Bav; Zokaie, Simon; Carr, Alison J


    Background There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK). Objectives To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305) of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01): 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05). Conclusion This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved adherence rates. PMID:24379656

  6. Establishment of primary bovine intestinal epithelial cell culture and clone method.

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, Ming-Mei; Sui, Yang-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qi


    The aim of this study was to establish bovine intestinal epithelial cell (BIEC) line and provide a novel clone cell method. Although various strategies of bovine cell culture and clone techniques have been reported, these methods remain not established. Here, we culture successfully primary BIECs and establish a novel clone cell method. Our result showed that BIECs could be successfully cultured and passaged about generation 5. These cellular aggregates and clusters were adherent loosely at day 2 of culture. Cell aggregates and clusters start to proliferate after approximately 4 d. The BIECs showed positive reaction against cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and characteristics of epithelial-like morphology. In addition, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), villin, and intestinal peptidase (IP) band were positive in BIECs. Our results suggest that the establishment of culturing and clone BIEC methods will apply to isolate and clone other primary cells. These BIECs could therefore contribute to the study of bovine intestinal nutrient absorption and regulation, immune regulation, and the pathogenesis of the bovine intestinal disease, which will provide intestinal cell model in vitro.

  7. Nematic order by elastic interactions and cellular rigidity sensing

    Friedrich, B. M.; Safran, S. A.


    We predict spontaneous nematic order in an ensemble of active force generators with elastic interactions as a minimal model for early nematic alignment of short stress fibers in non-motile, adhered cells. Mean-field theory is formally equivalent to Maier-Saupe theory for a nematic liquid. However, the elastic interactions are long-ranged (and thus depend on cell shape and matrix elasticity) and originate in cell activity. Depending on the density of force generators, we find two regimes of cellular rigidity sensing for which orientational, nematic order of stress fibers depends on matrix rigidity either in a step-like manner or with a maximum at an optimal rigidity.

  8. Social Support and the Mediating Roles of Alcohol Use and Adherence Self-Efficacy on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence Among ART Recipients in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Jordaan, Esmé; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Morojele, Neo K


    We sought to (a) replicate and (b) extend (via the addition of alcohol use) Cha et al.'s cross-sectional multi-component model of ART adherence on the relationship between social support, depression, self-efficacy beliefs, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, among HIV patients in Tshwane, South Africa. Using purposive sampling, 304 male and female ART recipients were recruited. ART adherence was assessed using three manifest indicators: total adherence ratio, the CASE adherence index and 1-month adherence measure. Data were analysed using structural equation modeling. In our replicated model, social support had both direct and indirect relationships with ART adherence, and inclusion of alcohol use improved prediction of ART adherence. Direct and indirect effects of alcohol use on ART adherence emerged: adherence self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the latter path. Findings highlight the importance of integrating into ART promotion interventions, the reduction of alcohol use, provision of social support, and enhancement of adherence self-efficacy beliefs.

  9. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells*

    Yuxin Wu; Jinghan Zhang; Xiaoming Ben


    Non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s from C57BL/6J mice were sepa-rated and cultured using the “pour-off” method. Non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesen-chymal stem cel s developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supple-mentation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor expressed the neuron specific markers, neurofilament-200 and NeuN, in vitro. Non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s fromβ-galactosidase transgenic mice were also transplanted into focal ischemic brain (right corpus striatum) of C57BL/6J mice. At 8 weeks, cel s positive for LacZ andβ-galactosidase staining were observed in the ischemic tissues, and cel s co-labeled with both β-galactosidase and NeuN were seen by double immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggest that the non-adherent bone marrow cel-derived mesenchymal stem cel s could differentiate into neuronal-like cel s in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L


    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  11. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    Ghazzai, Hakim


    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  12. Comparison of gene expression of mitogenic kinin path in adherent and non-adherent CD 34-stem cells using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    Krzysztof Machaj


    Full Text Available One of the more interesting cells present in the umbilical cord blood - as far as their potential clinical use is concerned - are stem cells not presenting the CD34 antigen. These are the pluripotential cells with their biological properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells, with the ability to differentiate into such tissue types as bone, cartilage, nervous (to some extent, glia and muscle. The authors compared the activity of genes coding the proteins in mitogenic signal paths activated by kinin receptors using oligonucleotide microarrays in adherent and non-adherent CD 34- cells derived from umbilical cord blood. In the linear regression model with a 95% prognosis area for differentiating genes outside this area, the following genes were selected: c-jun (present in 3 isoforms and c-fos. The fos and jun genes create the AP-1 transcriptive factor which regulates the expression of genes taking part in numerous cellular processes, including the cell cycle and mitosis. The obtained results shed some light on the molecular processes behind the MSC proliferation and are a starting point for further studies on the mesenchymal stem cell biology.

  13. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  14. Concern between medication non-adherence and diabetes associated depression

    Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary


    Conclusions: Unnoticed depression among diabetic individuals reduces treatment adherence and must be addressed in any patient showing poor response to the treatment. Improving treatment adherence helps to combat diabetes as well as depression. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 523-527

  15. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie


    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  16. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark


    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  17. Associations between patient factors and medication adherence: A Jordanian experience

    Basheti IA


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of patient characteristics and health beliefs on their medication adherence. Methods: Patients (n=167 with chronic conditions (mean age 58.9; SD=13.54, 53% males were recruited from March 2009- to March 2010 using a cross sectional study design. Data collected included patients’ demographics, medical conditions, medications therapeutic regimen, frequency of physician visits and health beliefs. Patient self-reported adherence to medications was assessed by the researcher using a validated and published scale. Treatment related problems (TRPs were evaluated for each patient by competent clinical pharmacists. Associations between patient characteristics/health beliefs with adherence were explored. Results: About half of the patients (46.1% were non-adherent. A significant association was found between lower adherence and higher number of disease states (p<0.001, higher number of medications (p=0.001, and higher number of identified TRPs (p = 0.003. Patient adherence was positively affected by older age, higher educational level, and higher number of physician visits per month, while it was negatively affected by reporting difficulties with getting prescription refills on time. Conclusion: This study identified different factors that may negatively affect adherence, including higher number of medications and disease states, higher number of identified TRPs and inability to getting prescription refills on time. Hence, more care needs to be provided to patients with complex therapeutic regimens in order to enhance adherence.

  18. Method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object

    Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.


    A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface. 3 figs.

  19. Reliability of assessment of adherence to an antimicrobial treatment guideline

    Mol, PGM; Gans, ROB; Panday, PVN; Degener, JE; Laseur, M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM


    Assessment procedures for adherence to a guideline must be reliable and credible. The aim of this study was to explore the reliability of assessment of adherence, taking account of the professional backgrounds of the observers. A secondary analysis explored the impact of case characteristics on asse

  20. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia : A patients' perspective

    Schrijvers, L. H.; Kars, M. C.; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M.; Peters, M.; Schuurmans, M. J.; Fischer, K.


    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to proph

  1. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447... Noninstitutional Services § 447.304 Adherence to upper limits; FFP. (a) The Medicaid agency must not pay more than... payments may be made only up to the reasonable charge under Medicare. (c) FFP is not available for a...

  2. Genetic factors in exercise adoption, adherence and obesity.

    Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S


    Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.


    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  4. Adherence to Pharmacological Treatment for Juvenile Bipolar Disorder

    Drotar, Dennis; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Demeter, Christine A.; McNamara, Nora K.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Stange, Jonathan; Vijay, Priya; Findling, Robert L.


    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and correlates of adherence to divalproex sodium (DVPX) and lithium carbonate (Li) combination treatment during the initial stabilization treatment phase. Method: Adherence to Li/DVPX combination therapy was measured by the presence or absence of minimum serum concentrations of…

  5. Psychosocial factors and treatment adherence in paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Naar-King, S; Arfken, C; Frey, M; Harris, M; Secord, E; Ellis, D


    A social ecological model provides a promising framework for understanding the individual, family, and societal factors contributing to non-adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV. This study explored which factors relevant to this model are associated with caregivers' adherence and child health outcomes. A cross-sectional design was utilized to assess relationships among current individual, familial, extra-familial factors, caregiver adherence, and viral load. Data were collected from 43 caregivers, and viral load data were obtained from the medical records of their HIV+ children. Caregiver drug and alcohol use and HIV+ status were associated with non-adherence and elevated viral load. Negative outcome expectancy was associated with lower adherence but was not significant in the multivariate analyses. Family factors were not significant, but these measures had low reliability in this sample. Extra-familial factors such as dissatisfaction with medical specialty care and more stressful life events were not directly associated with adherence but were related to increased caregiver substance use. Results of this first study to explore multiple predictors of adherence and health outcomes in paediatric HIV require replication with larger samples, but findings suggest caregiver characteristics that place children at risk for disease progression due to poor adherence to treatment.

  6. Towards tailored and targeted adherence assessment to optimise asthma management

    van Boven, Job F. M.; Trappenburg, Jaap C. A.; van der Molen, Thys; Chavannes, Niels H.


    In this paper, we aim to emphasise the need for a more comprehensive and tailored approach to manage the broad nature of non-adherence, to personalise current asthma management. Although currently several methods are available to measure the extent of asthma patients' adherence, the vast majority do

  7. 77 FR 20637 - Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence AGENCY: Department of Health... potential solutions associated with the public health problem of prescription medication non-adherence in..., health care providers, and industry and private organizations in efforts to improve medication...

  8. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie


    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  9. Medication Adherence in a Comparative Effectiveness Trial for Bipolar Disorder

    Sylvia, Louisa G.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Kansky, Christine I.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ketter, Terence A.; Friedman, Edward S.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Thase, Michael E.; Ostacher, Michael J.; Keyes, Michelle; Rabideau, Dustin; Nierenberg, Andrew A.


    Objective Psychopharmacology remains the foundation of treatment for bipolar disorder, but medication adherence in this population is low (Range = 20% to 64%). We examined medication adherence in a multi-site, comparative effectiveness study of lithium. Method The Lithium Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS) was a six-month, six-site, randomized effectiveness trial of adjunctive moderate dose lithium therapy compared to optimized treatment in adult outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder (N=283). Medication adherence was measured at each study visit with the Tablet Routine Questionnaire. Results We found that 4.50% of participants reported missing at least 30% of their medications in the past week at baseline and non-adherence remained low throughout the trial (< 7%). Poor medication adherence was associated with more manic symptoms and side effects as well as lower lithium serum levels at mid- and post-treatment, but not with poor quality of life, overall severity of illness, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion Participants in LiTMUS were highly adherent with taking their medications. The lack of association with possible predictors of adherence, such as depression and quality of life, could be explained by the limited variance or other factors as well as by not using an objective measure of adherence. PMID:24117232

  10. Patient adherence to medical treatment. A review of reviews.

    Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Dijk, L. van; Ridder, D. de; Heerdink, R.; Bensing, J.


    BACKGROUND: Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the e

  11. Rotating cell culture systems for human cell culture: human trophoblast cells as a model.

    Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Warner, Jessica A; Machado, Heather L; Morris, Cindy A; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin


    The field of human trophoblast research aids in understanding the complex environment established during placentation. Due to the nature of these studies, human in vivo experimentation is impossible. A combination of primary cultures, explant cultures and trophoblast cell lines support our understanding of invasion of the uterine wall and remodeling of uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs), which is required for successful establishment of pregnancy. Despite the wealth of knowledge gleaned from such models, it is accepted that in vitro cell culture models using EVT-like cell lines display altered cellular properties when compared to their in vivo counterparts. Cells cultured in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) display morphological, phenotypic, and functional properties of EVT-like cell lines that more closely mimic differentiating in utero EVTs, with increased expression of genes mediating invasion (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)) and trophoblast differentiation. The Saint Georges Hospital Placental cell Line-4 (SGHPL-4) (kindly donated by Dr. Guy Whitley and Dr. Judith Cartwright) is an EVT-like cell line that was used for testing in the RCCS. The design of the RCCS culture vessel is based on the principle that organs and tissues function in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment. Due to the dynamic culture conditions in the vessel, including conditions of physiologically relevant shear, cells grown in three dimensions form aggregates based on natural cellular affinities and differentiate into organotypic tissue-like assemblies. The maintenance of a fluid orbit provides a low-shear, low-turbulence environment similar to conditions found in vivo. Sedimentation of the cultured cells is countered by adjusting the rotation speed of the RCCS to ensure a constant free-fall of cells. Gas exchange occurs through a permeable hydrophobic membrane located on the back of the bioreactor. Like their parental tissue in vivo, RCCS

  12. Acquired resistance to auranofin in cultured human cells.

    Glennås, A; Rugstad, H E


    A substrain (HEAF) of cultured human epithelial cells, grown as monolayers, was selected for resistance to auranofin (AF), a gold-containing anti-arthritic drug, by growing the parental HE cells with stepwise increased concentrations of AF in the medium. HEAF cells acquired resistance to 2 mumol AF/l, twice the concentration tolerated by the sensitive HE cells. Resistance to AF was also demonstrated in another substrain (HE100) originally selected for by its cadmium resistance, and characterized by a high cytosolic metallothionein (MT) content. Following continuous exposure to 2 mumol AF/l for 4 days, 58% of the HEAF cells, 67% of the HE100 cells, and 16% of the HE cells remained adherent to the flasks, compared with non-treated controls. Following 24 h AF exposure to living cells, HEAF cells had one-half and HE100 cells twice the cellular and cytosolic gold concentration per mg protein, as compared with HE cells. Gel filtration of cell cytosols revealed gold-binding proteins with a mol. wt. of about 10 000 apparently occurring on AF exposure in HEAF and HE cells. They bound 10-15% of cytosolic gold. MT in HE100 cells bound AF-gold to about the same extent. We suggest that the ability of cells to maintain the gold concentration at a low level (HEAF) and trapping of gold by MT (HE100) or low molecular weight proteins occurring on AF treatment (HEAF) may be mechanisms contributing to the observed cellular resistance to AF.

  13. Factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension

    Silvana Maria Coelho Leite Fava


    Full Text Available This study aimed to seek the evidence available in the literature regarding the factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension. It used the method of integrative review in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and LILACS, using the keywords: hypertension, compliance, non-compliance, adherence, non-adherence, patient compliance, in the period 2004 – 2008, and articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with the use of a validated instrument and content analysis. 28 studies were selected, 64.3% of which had level of evidence VI. The following were identified as factors related to adherence to treatment: treatment costs, educational activities, sex, physician-patient relationship, physiological and behavioral aspects, drug therapy, attending checkups and lifestyle. The use of combined strategies is suggested in order to increase the individuals’ adherence to the treatment. Gaps point to the valorization of dialogic relationships for integrated and more efficacious health practices.

  14. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature

    Costa, Elísio; Giardini, Anna; Savin, Magda; Menditto, Enrica; Lehane, Elaine; Laosa, Olga; Pecorelli, Sergio; Monaco, Alessandro; Marengoni, Alessandra


    Medication adherence and persistence is recognized as a worldwide public health problem, particularly important in the management of chronic diseases. Nonadherence to medical plans affects every level of the population, but particularly older adults due to the high number of coexisting diseases they are affected by and the consequent polypharmacy. Chronic disease management requires a continuous psychological adaptation and behavioral reorganization. In literature, many interventions to improve medication adherence have been described for different clinical conditions, however, most interventions seem to fail in their aims. Moreover, most interventions associated with adherence improvements are not associated with improvements in other outcomes. Indeed, in the last decades, the degree of nonadherence remained unchanged. In this work, we review the most frequent interventions employed to increase the degree of medication adherence, the measured outcomes, and the improvements achieved, as well as the main limitations of the available studies on adherence, with a particular focus on older persons. PMID:26396502

  15. Quantification of the Forgiveness of Drugs to Imperfect Adherence.

    Assawasuwannakit, P; Braund, R; Duffull, S B


    The circumstance of how sensitive therapeutic success is under imperfect adherence is driven by the property known as forgiveness. To date, no studies have considered variability in the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic process in conjunction with imperfect adherence patterns in order to develop a comparative criterion to determine the forgiveness of a drug. In this study, we have proposed a criterion to quantify forgiveness; illustrated the criterion for a theoretical example and evaluated the forgiveness of a motivating example, namely warfarin. A forgiveness criterion, relative forgiveness, is defined as the number of times more likely that a target is successfully attained under perfect adherence compared to imperfect adherence; or when comparing two drugs under a standard setting of imperfect adherence. The relative forgiveness criterion may have important implications for both drug development and clinical practice since the choice of drug can account for the likely influence of its forgiveness.

  16. Forgiveness of non-adherence to HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy.

    Shuter, Jonathan


    Superior adherence to HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy is a mainstay of successful HIV management. Studies performed in the early era of highly active antiretroviral therapy demonstrated the need for > or =95% adherence in order to achieve and sustain viral suppression. High rates of viral suppression have been observed at more moderate levels of adherence with newer antiretroviral regimens. The term 'forgiveness' is being used to describe the ability of a regimen to achieve and sustain viral suppression, despite suboptimal adherence. A variety of pharmacological, viral and host properties determine the level of forgiveness of any specific regimen. As the choice of treatment options continues to expand, forgiveness of non-adherence is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor in therapeutic decision-making.

  17. Control of Entamoeba histolytica adherence involves metallosurface protease 1, an M8 family surface metalloprotease with homology to leishmanolysin.

    Teixeira, Jose E; Sateriale, Adam; Bessoff, Kovi E; Huston, Christopher D


    Invasive amebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica infection is an important cause of morbidity in developing countries. The E. histolytica genome contains two homologues to the metalloprotease leishmanolysin gene, Entamoeba histolytica MSP-1 (EhMSP-1) and EhMSP-2, while the commensal ameba Entamoeba dispar has lost EhMSP-1. In this study, we sought to characterize E. histolytica metallosurface protease 1 (EhMSP-1). Using immunoprecipitation and a model substrate, we found that EhMSP-1 was a functional metalloprotease. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that EhMSP-1 localized to the cell surface and revealed the existence of distinct, nonclonal trophozoite populations with high and low EhMSP-1 surface abundance that became synchronized following serum starvation. Phenotypic assays were performed after silencing EhMSP-1. Adherence of EhMSP-1-deficient trophozoites to tissue culture cell monolayers was more than five times greater than that of control amebas, but surface staining of several antigens, including the galactose adherence lectin, was unchanged. EhMSP-1 silencing similarly increased adherence to both viable and apoptotic Jurkat lymphocytes. Tissue culture cell monolayer destruction was reduced by EhMSP-1 silencing, although it was blocked almost completely by inhibiting cysteine proteases. Consistent with a primary defect in regulation of amebic adherence, EhMSP-1 silencing also resulted in reduced mobility on tissue culture cell monolayers and in increased phagocytosis. In conclusion, EhMSP-1 was shown to be a surface metalloprotease involved in regulation of amebic adherence, with additional effects on cell motility, cell monolayer destruction, and phagocytosis.

  18. Explant culture of mouse embryonic whole lung, isolated epithelium, or mesenchyme under chemically defined conditions as a system to evaluate the molecular mechanism of branching morphogenesis and cellular differentiation.

    Del Moral, Pierre-Marie; Warburton, David


    Lung primordial specification as well as branching morphogenesis, and the formation of various pulmonary cell lineages, requires a specific interaction of the lung endoderm with its surrounding mesenchyme and mesothelium. Lung mesenchyme has been shown to be the source of inductive signals for lung branching morphogenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal-mesothelial interactions are also critical to embryonic lung morphogenesis. Early embryonic lung organ culture is a very useful system to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Both epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis proceed under specific conditions that can be readily manipulated in this system (in the absence of maternal influence and blood flow). More importantly this technique can be readily done in a serumless, chemically defined culture media. Gain and loss of function can be achieved using expressed proteins, recombinant viral vectors, and/or analysis of transgenic mouse strains, antisense RNA, as well as RNA interference gene knockdown. Additionally, to further study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, the relative roles of epithelium versus mesenchyme signaling can also be determined using tissue recombination (e.g., epithelial and mesenchymal separation) and microbead studies.

  19. Cellular communication through light.

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  20. Cellular automata: structures

    Ollinger, Nicolas


    Jury : François Blanchard (Rapporteur), Marianne Delorme (Directeur), Jarkko Kari (Président), Jacques Mazoyer (Directeur), Dominique Perrin, Géraud Sénizergues (Rapporteur); Cellular automata provide a uniform framework to study an important problem of "complex systems" theory: how and why do system with a easily understandable -- local -- microscopic behavior can generate a more complicated -- global -- macroscopic behavior? Since its introduction in the 40s, a lot of work has been done to ...

  1. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay


    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  2. Failover in cellular automata

    Kumar, Shailesh


    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  3. Active elastic thin shell theory for cellular deformations

    Berthoumieux, Hélène; Maître, Jean-Léon; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Paluch, Ewa K.; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume


    We derive the equations for a thin, axisymmetric elastic shell subjected to an internal active stress giving rise to active tension and moments within the shell. We discuss the stability of a cylindrical elastic shell and its response to a localized change in internal active stress. This description is relevant to describe the cellular actomyosin cortex, a thin shell at the cell surface behaving elastically at a short timescale and subjected to active internal forces arising from myosin molecular motor activity. We show that the recent observations of cell deformation following detachment of adherent cells (Maître J-L et al 2012 Science 338 253-6) are well accounted for by this mechanical description. The actin cortex elastic and bending moduli can be obtained from a quantitative analysis of cell shapes observed in these experiments. Our approach thus provides a non-invasive, imaging-based method for the extraction of cellular physical parameters.

  4. DMSO-Free Programmed Cryopreservation of Fully Dissociated and Adherent Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Igor I. Katkov


    Full Text Available Three modes for cryopreservation (CP of human iPSC cells have been compared: STD: standard CP of small clumps with 10% of CPA in cryovials, ACC: dissociation of the cells with Accutase and freezing in cryovials, and PLT: programmed freezing of adherent cells in plastic multiwell dishes in a programmable freezer using one- and multistep cooling protocols. Four CPAs were tesetd: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, ethylene glycol (EG, propylene glycol (PG, and glycerol (GLY. The cells in ACC and PLT were frozen and recovered after thawing in the presence of a ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 (RI. EG was less toxic w/o CP cryopreservation than DMSO and allowed much better maintenance of pluripotency after CP than PG or GLY. The cells were cryopreserved very efficiently as adherent cultures (+RI in plates (5-6-fold higher than STD using EG and a 6-step freezing protocol. Recovery under these conditions is comparable or even higher than ACC+RI. Conclusions. Maintenance of cell-substratum adherence is a favorable environment that mitigates freezing and thawing stresses (ComfortFreeze® concept developed by CELLTRONIX. CP of cells directly in plates in ready-to-go after thawing format for HT/HC screening can be beneficial in many SC-related scientific and commercial applications such as drug discovery and toxicity tests.

  5. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L


    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children.

  6. Fibrinogen-Induced Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Endothelial Cells

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran


    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the predominant bacterial species associated with dental caries, can enter the bloodstream and cause infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells induced by human fibrinogen. The putative mechanism by which biofilm formation is induced as well as the impact of fibrinogen on S. mutans resistance to penicillin was also evaluated. Bovine plasma dose dependently induced biofilm formation by S. mutans. Of the various plasma proteins tested, only fibrinogen promoted the formation of biofilm in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of complex aggregates of bacterial cells firmly attached to the polystyrene support. S. mutans in biofilms induced by the presence of fibrinogen was markedly resistant to the bactericidal effect of penicillin. Fibrinogen also significantly increased the adherence of S. mutans to endothelial cells. Neither S. mutans cells nor culture supernatants converted fibrinogen into fibrin. However, fibrinogen is specifically bound to the cell surface of S. mutans and may act as a bridging molecule to mediate biofilm formation. In conclusion, our study identified a new mechanism promoting S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells which may contribute to infective endocarditis.

  7. Enhanced adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 to canine and human corneocytes

    Latronico, Francesca; Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;


    The recent worldwide spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs is a reason for concern due to the typical multidrug resistance patterns displayed by some MRSP lineages such as sequence type (ST) 71. The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro...... characterized with respect to genetic background and cell wall-anchored protein (CWAP) gene content. Seventy-seven strain-corneocyte combinations were tested using both exponential- and stationary-phase cultures. Negative binomial regression analysis of counts of bacterial cells adhering to corneocytes revealed...

  8. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia: a patients' perspective.

    Schrijvers, L H; Kars, M C; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M; Peters, M; Schuurmans, M J; Fischer, K


    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to prophylactic treatment, from a patients' perspective. To develop a grounded theory, a qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was performed to understand experiences, perceptions and beliefs concerning adherence to prophylaxis. From two Dutch treatment centres, 21 adults with haemophilia using prophylaxis were interviewed. Patients were asked how they experience their task to administer prophylaxis and how they adhere to this. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed in an iterative process, leading to the development of the grounded theory. Adherence was determined by the position of prophylaxis in life. The position of prophylaxis was determined by the perception of prophylaxis and the ability to exert prophylaxis. Patients' perception was influenced by two main factors: acceptance of haemophilia and feeling/fearing symptoms. The ability to exert prophylaxis was influenced by understanding haemophilia and prophylaxis and planning/infusion skills. The combination of different perceptions and skills led to four main positions of prophylaxis in life: (i) prophylaxis integrated in life, (ii) prophylaxis according to doctors' advice, struggling with irregular situations, (iii) prophylaxis is too much to handle, (iv) prophylaxis is a confrontation with illness. The adherence level gradually decreased from position 1 to 4. This information can be used to design tailored interventions to promote adherence.

  9. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  10. Spillover adherence effects of fixed-dose combination HIV therapy

    Kauf TL


    Full Text Available Teresa L Kauf1, Keith L Davis2, Stephanie R Earnshaw2, E Anne Davis31Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3Independent consultant, Pittsboro, NC, USAAbstract: The impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC products on adherence to other, non-fixed regimen components has not been examined. We compared adherence to a third antiretroviral (ART component among patients receiving a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone consisting of the FDC Epzicom®, GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC (abacavir sulfate 600 mg + lamivudine 300 mg; FDC group versus NRTI combinations taken as two separate pills (NRTI Combo group using data from a national sample of 30 health plans covering approximately 38 million lives from 1997 to 2005. Adherence was measured as the medication possession ratio (MPR. Multivariate logistic regression compared treatment groups based on the likelihood of achieving ≥95% adherence, with sensitivity analyses using alternative thresholds. MPR was assessed as a continuous variable using multivariate linear regression. Covariates included age, gender, insurance payer type, year of study drug initiation, presence of mental health and substance abuse disorders, and third agent class. The study sample consisted of 650 FDC and 1947 NRTI Combo patients. Unadjusted mean adherence to the third agent was higher in the FDC group than the NRTI Combo group (0.92 vs 0.85; P < 0.0001. In regression analyses, FDC patients were 48% and 39% more likely to achieve 95% and 90% third agent adherence, respectively (P ≤ 0.03. None of the other MPR specifications achieved comparable results. Among managed care patients, use of an FDC appears to substantially improve adherence to a third regimen component and thus the likelihood of achieving the accepted standard for adherence to HIV therapy of 95%.Keywords

  11. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Masoomeh Aslanimehr


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103 comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103 were statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis.

  12. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh


    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (pcandida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  13. The cultural divide

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn


    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...... that they are dramatically different. Results: Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved...... amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary: We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance....

  14. Adherence to diabetes regimens: empirical status and clinical applications.

    Kurtz, S M


    Adherence to diabetes treatment regimens has proved to be a conceptual and empirical enigma. Consequently, reliable and valid applications to the clinical practice of diabetes care and education have been wanting. Rates of nonadherence are staggeringly high, regardless of the methodology employed, and verification of self-reports is complicated by social desirability to appear compliant. Low intertask correlations further complicate our understanding of adherence-metabolic control relationships. Studies relating to the Health Belief Model, social learning theory, and the psychology of interpersonal relationships that have sought to identify determinants of adherence behaviors have specific relevance to the clinical practice of diabetes education.

  15. Primary non-adherence to prescribed medication in general practice

    Linnet, Kristján; Halldórsson, Matthías; Thengilsdóttir, Gudrún


    prescriptions issued electronically by 140 physicians at 16 primary health care centres in the Reykjavik capital area during two periods before and after increases in copayment were matched with those dispensed in pharmacies, the difference constituting primary non-adherence (population: 200&emsp14......;000; patients: 21 571; prescriptions: 22 991). Eight drug classes were selected to reflect symptom relief and degree of copayment. Two-tailed chi-square test and odds ratios for non-adherence by patient copayment groups were calculated. RESULTS: The rate of primary non-adherence was 6...

  16. Cellular image classification

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng


    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  17. Multiuser Cellular Network

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming


    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  18. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D


    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.

  19. Fewer Bacteria Adhere to Softer Hydrogels.

    Kolewe, Kristopher W; Peyton, Shelly R; Schiffman, Jessica D


    Clinically, biofilm-associated infections commonly form on intravascular catheters and other hydrogel surfaces. The overuse of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance and underscores the importance of developing alternative strategies that delay the onset of biofilm formation. Previously, it has been reported that during surface contact, bacteria can detect surfaces through subtle changes in the function of their motors. However, how the stiffness of a polymer hydrogel influences the initial attachment of bacteria is unknown. Systematically, we investigated poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and agar hydrogels that were 20 times thicker than the cumulative size of bacterial cell appendages, as a function of Young's moduli. Soft (44.05-308.5 kPa), intermediate (1495-2877 kPa), and stiff (5152-6489 kPa) hydrogels were synthesized. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus attachment onto the hydrogels was analyzed using confocal microscopy after 2 and 24 h incubation periods. Independent of hydrogel chemistry and incubation time, E. coli and S. aureus attachment correlated positively to increasing hydrogel stiffness. For example, after a 24 h incubation period, there were 52 and 82% fewer E. coli adhered to soft PEGDMA hydrogels than to the intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels, respectively. A 62 and 79% reduction in the area coverage by the Gram-positive microbe S. aureus occurred after 24 h incubation on the soft versus intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels. We suggest that hydrogel stiffness is an easily tunable variable that could potentially be used synergistically with traditional antimicrobial strategies to reduce early bacterial adhesion and therefore the occurrence of biofilm-associated infections.

  20. Fewer Bacteria Adhere to Softer Hydrogels

    Kolewe, Kristopher W.; Peyton, Shelly R.; Schiffman, Jessica D.


    Clinically, biofilm-associated infections commonly form on intravascular catheters and other hydrogel surfaces. The overuse of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance and underscores the importance of developing alternative strategies that delay the onset of biofilm formation. Previously, it has been reported that during surface contact, bacteria can detect surfaces through subtle changes in the function of their motors. However, how the stiffness of a polymer hydrogel influences the initial attachment of bacteria is unknown. Systematically, we investigated poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and agar hydrogels that were twenty times thicker than the cumulative size of bacterial cell appendages, as a function of Young’s moduli. Soft (44.05 – 308.5 kPa), intermediate (1495 – 2877 kPa), and stiff (5152 – 6489 kPa) hydrogels were synthesized. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus attachment onto the hydrogels was analyzed using confocal microscopy after 2 and 24 hr incubation periods. Independent of hydrogel chemistry and incubation time, E. coli and S. aureus attachment correlated positively to increasing hydrogel stiffness. For example, after a 24 hr incubation period, there were 52% and 82% less E. coli adhered to soft PEGDMA hydrogels, than to the intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels, respectively. A 62% and 79% reduction in the area coverage by the Gram-positive microbe S. aureus occurred after 24 hr incubation on the soft versus intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels. We suggest that hydrogel stiffness is an easily tunable variable that, potentially, could be used synergistically with traditional antimicrobial strategies to reduce early bacterial adhesion, and therefore the occurrence of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26291308

  1. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.

    García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón


    The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals cellular targets of celastrol.

    Jakob Hansen

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a natural substance isolated from plant extracts used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively investigated as a possible drug for treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and protein misfolding disorders. Although studies focusing on celastrol's effects in specific cellular pathways have revealed a considerable number of targets in a diverse array of in vitro models there is an essential need for investigations that can provide a global view of its effects. To assess cellular effects of celastrol and to identify target proteins as biomarkers for monitoring treatment regimes, we performed large-scale quantitative proteomics in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells, a cell type that can be readily prepared from human blood samples. Celastrol substantially modified the proteome composition and 158 of the close to 1800 proteins with robust quantitation showed at least a 1.5 fold change in protein levels. Up-regulated proteins play key roles in cytoprotection with a prominent group involved in quality control and processing of proteins traversing the endoplasmic reticulum. Increased levels of proteins essential for the cellular protection against oxidative stress including heme oxygenase 1, several peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins as well as proteins involved in the control of iron homeostasis were also observed. Specific analysis of the mitochondrial proteome strongly indicated that the mitochondrial association of certain antioxidant defense and apoptosis-regulating proteins increased in cells exposed to celastrol. Analysis of selected mRNA transcripts showed that celastrol activated several different stress response pathways and dose response studies furthermore showed that continuous exposure to sub-micromolar concentrations of celastrol is associated with reduced cellular viability and proliferation. The extensive catalog of regulated proteins presented here identifies numerous cellular effects of celastrol and constitutes

  3. Cellular regulation of the dopamine transporter

    Eriksen, Jacob


    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft and is a target for widely abused psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Nonetheless, little is known about the cellular distribution and trafficking of natively expressed DAT. DAT and its trafficking...... in heterologous cells and in cultured DA neurons. DAT has been shown to be regulated by the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), the primary target foranti-psychotics, through a direct interaction. D2R is among other places expressed as an autoreceptor in DA neurons. Transient over-expression of DAT with D2R in HEK293...

  4. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K


    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  5. Older Adults' Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors' Perspectives.

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris


    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and 'solutions' included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults' attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults' uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors' perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.

  6. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    Kaur, Mandeep


    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  7. In vitro adherence of Moraxella bovis to intact corneal epithelium.

    Jackman, S H; Rosenbusch, R F


    An in vitro assay is described using radiolabeled Moraxella bovis for studying adherence to intact bovine corneal epithelial surfaces. The assay was optimized for time (45 min) and for the ratio of epithelial cells to bacteria (1:1000) that demonstrated a significant difference in adherence between M. bovis strain 118F, a piliated organism and a nonpiliated variant, strain 118F/4-2. Adherence of these organisms correlated with previous pathogenicity studies involving experimental infection of calves. Scanning electron microscopy of tissues treated in the assay revealed a predilection of M. bovis for dark epithelial cells and for association with depressions in the tissue surface. This assay technique is discussed in comparison with other in vitro adherence assay methods.

  8. Predictors of duloxetine adherence and persistence in patients with fibromyalgia

    Cui Z


    Full Text Available Zhanglin Cui, Yang Zhao, Diego Novick, Douglas FariesEli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjectives: Adherence to medication for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM is predictive of lower overall health-care costs, and thus a lower burden on both patients and providers. The objectives of this study were to examine the predictors of adherence to and persistence with duloxetine therapy among commercially insured FM patients, and to identify subgroups of patients with high duloxetine persistence and adherence.Study design: This cross-sectional, retrospective study analyzed medical and pharmacy records over 1 year for patients in the US aged 18–64 years with FM who initiated (no prior 90-day use duloxetine treatment in 2008.Methods: Adherence to duloxetine was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR, with high adherence defined as MPR ≥ 0.8. Persistence was defined as the duration of therapy from the index date to the earliest of: the ending date of the last prescription, the date of the first gap of >15 days between prescriptions, or the end of the study period (12 months. Demographic and clinical predictors of adherence were examined via multiple logistic regression (MLR, and subgroups of duloxetine-persistent and -adherent patients were identified using classification and regression trees (CART.Results: Among 4660 duloxetine patients, 33% achieved high adherence. Factors associated with high adherence from MLR included older age, North Central and Northeast regions, prior venlafaxine, pregabalin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, or other antidepressant use, or comorbid dyslipidemia or osteoarthritis (all P < 0.05. CART analysis revealed that patients with prior antidepressant use, aged ≥46, or prior osteoarthritis had higher MPR (all P < 0.05, and patients aged ≥45 with a history of SSRI, venlafaxine, or anticonvulsant use had longer duration of therapy (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: Patients with high adherence to and

  9. Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis

    Shergill B


    Full Text Available Bav Shergill,1 Simon Zokaie,2 Alison J Carr3 1Department of Dermatology, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Elm Grove, Brighton, UK; 2Leo Pharma, Princes Risborough, 3Hamell, London, UK Background: There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK. Objectives: To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results: This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305 of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01: 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved

  10. Attempts to Reach the Oldest and Frailest: Recruitment, Adherence, and Retention of Urban Elderly Persons to a Falls Reduction Exercise Program

    Stineman, Margaret G.; Strumpf, Neville; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Charles, Jeremy; Grisso, Jeane Ann; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar


    Purpose of the study: To assess the recruitment, adherence, and retention of urban elderly, predominantly African Americans to a falls reduction exercise program. Design and methods: The randomized controlled trial was designed as an intervention development pilot study. The goal was to develop a culturally sensitive intervention for elderly…

  11. Older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes: Instructors' perspectives.

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris


    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, ...

  12. Elderly adherence to hypertension treatment and nursing interventions

    Jênifa Cavalcante dos Santos; Raquel Sampaio Florêncio; Célida Juliana de Oliveira; Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira


    Adherence to the treatment of arterial hypertension is a challenge to health professionals. Thus, this study aimed at verifying adherence to treatment of hypertension of elderly patients followed in a group and describe the possible nursing interventions on the clientele. The descriptive research was developed in two phases: between December/2008 and January/2009, we used data collection instrument to assess compliance to treatment; from February to April/2009, we used the technique Focus Gro...

  13. Engineering adherent bacteria by creating a single synthetic curli operon.

    Drogue, Benoît; Thomas, Philippe; Balvay, Laurent; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Dorel, Corinne


    The method described here consists in redesigning E. coli adherence properties by assembling the minimum number of curli genes under the control of a strong and metal-overinducible promoter, and in visualizing and quantifying the resulting gain of bacterial adherence. This method applies appropriate engineering principles of abstraction and standardization of synthetic biology, and results in the BBa_K540000 Biobrick (Best new Biobrick device, engineered, iGEM 2011). The first step consists in the design of the synthetic operon devoted to curli overproduction in response to metal, and therefore in increasing the adherence abilities of the wild type strain. The original curli operon was modified in silico in order to optimize transcriptional and translational signals and escape the "natural" regulation of curli. This approach allowed to test with success our current understanding of curli production. Moreover, simplifying the curli regulation by switching the endogenous complex promoter (more than 10 transcriptional regulators identified) to a simple metal-regulated promoter makes adherence much easier to control. The second step includes qualitative and quantitative assessment of adherence abilities by implementation of simple methods. These methods are applicable to a large range of adherent bacteria regardless of biological structures involved in biofilm formation. Adherence test in 24-well polystyrene plates provides a quick preliminary visualization of the bacterial biofilm after crystal violet staining. This qualitative test can be sharpened by the quantification of the percentage of adherence. Such a method is very simple but more accurate than only crystal violet staining as described previously with both a good repeatability and reproducibility. Visualization of GFP-tagged bacteria on glass slides by fluorescence or laser confocal microscopy allows to strengthen the results obtained with the 24-well plate test by direct observation of the phenomenon.

  14. Medication adherence: the critical step towards better patient outcome

    Anish Desai


    Full Text Available Medication adherence is defined as patient's adherence to take their medications as prescribed and continue to take the prescribed medication for stipulated time frame. Medication non-adherence is a growing concern to physicians, healthcare systems, and other stakeholders (e.g., payers and there is an increasing evidence of its prevalence and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes eventually resulting into higher costs of care. The cost of non-adherence has been estimated at $100 billion to $300 billion annually, including costs from avoidable hospitalizations, nursing home admissions, and premature deaths. Improving adherence to medication is critical to improve the quality of health care, to encourage better chronic care management, and promote better health outcomes. Reasons for non-adherence are multiple and complex. Studies have reported that poor adherence to drug dosage is due to patient perception that the disease is non-significant, adverse drug effects, lack of treatment effectiveness, and the patient's poor or incomplete knowledge of the disease and (cost. A multifactorial approach is required to tackle this complex problem as a single approach will be ineffective for all patients. The most effective intervention is to use a combination of approaches and address literacy, behavior, and organizational issues. There are challenges as well as opportunities in addressing the public health issue of medication adherence. Changing healthcare reforms, advances in digital health media, social media and modern technologies can now provide alternatives to tackle this issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 748-754

  15. Treatment non-adherence in pseudo-refractory epilepsy.

    Brodtkorb, Eylert; Samsonsen, Christian; Sund, Janne Kutschera; Bråthen, Geir; Helde, Grethe; Reimers, Arne


    Non-adherence to antiepileptic drug treatment strongly affects the outcome of epilepsy and is frequently clinically unrecognized. This review addresses current knowledge on medication-taking behavior in people with epilepsy, as well as the importance of tailoring interventions to the individual patterns of non-adherence. Non-adherence can be categorized as non-initiation, poor execution (accidental or intentional) or non-persistence and are related to clinical characteristics and health care barriers. All available methods to assess adherence are hampered by shortcomings. Self-reports are indirect and subjective. Pill-counts, electronic bottle-tops and pharmacy records are objective, but indirect measures of drug ingestion. Therapeutic drug monitoring is both direct and objective, but pharmacokinetic and diurnal variability must be taken into account. Young adults with generalized epilepsy may be particularly vulnerable to non-adherence. The drug burden in the form of polytherapy, multiple dosing and side effects are obvious obstacles. Poor understanding of the principles of prophylactic treatment as well as drug costs may be important in people with low socioeconomic status. Depression is also associated with low adherence. In people with multihandicaps, failed oral intake may be due to behavioral or physical problems, as well as insufficient education of the caregivers. Non-adherence often results in seizure breakthrough and hospital admissions, but the consequences may be more dramatic. It is the leading cause of status epilepticus in people with epilepsy, and the association with sudden death (SUDEP) is clear. The management of poor drug-taking behavior should be based on the identification of the specific causes in each individual and corresponding multiprofessional interventions. Non-adherence to antiepileptic drugs needs more clinical and scientific attention.


    Ramona DUMITRIU


    Full Text Available This paper explores the monetary expectations induced to the managers of Romanian firms by adheration. It is based on an investigation among twenty Romanian executives regarding the impact on adheration over monetary aspects: inflation, exchange rates and adoption of euro. We conclude that the results of the monetary policy in the last years made the executives confident that the Romanian authorities could maintain the monetary stability after theadheration.

  17. Glia maturation factor gamma regulates the migration and adherence of human T lymphocytes

    Lippert Dustin ND


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte migration and chemotaxis are essential for effective immune surveillance. A critical aspect of migration is cell polarization and the extension of pseudopodia in the direction of movement. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these events is incomplete. Proteomic analysis of the isolated leading edges of CXCL12 stimulated human T cell lines was used to identify glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG as a component of the pseudopodia. This protein is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and it has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal branching. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of GMFG in lymphocyte migration. Results Microscopic analysis of migrating T-cells demonstrated that GMFG was distributed along the axis of movement with enrichment in the leading edge and behind the nucleus of these cells. Inhibition of GMFG expression in T cell lines and IL-2 dependent human peripheral blood T cells with shRNAmir reduced cellular basal and chemokine induced migration responses. The failure of the cells with reduced GMFG to migrate was associated with an apparent inability to detach from the substrates that they were moving on. It was also noted that these cells had an increased adherence to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin. These changes in adherence were associated with altered patterns of β1 integrin expression and increased levels of activated integrins as detected with the activation specific antibody HUTS4. GMFG loss was also shown to increase the expression of the β2 integrin LFA-1 and to increase the adhesion of these cells to ICAM-1. Conclusions The present studies demonstrate that GMFG is a component of human T cell pseudopodia required for migration. The reduction in migration and increased adherence properties associated with inhibition of GMFG expression suggest that GMFG activity influences the regulation of integrin mediated

  18. Antimicrobial and anti-adherence activity of various combinations of coffee-chicory solutions on Streptococcus mutans: An in-vitro study

    Rama Sharma


    Full Text Available Context: Several studies have demonstrated the activity of natural plants on the dental biofilm and caries development. But few studies on the antimicrobial activity of coffee-based solutions were found in the literature. Further there was no study available to check the antimicrobial effect of coffee solutions with different percentages of chicory in it. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different combinations of coffee-chicory solutions and their anti-adherence effect on Streptococcus mutans to glass surface. Materials and Methods: Test solutions were prepared. For antimicrobial activity testing, tubes containing test solution and culture medium were inoculated with a suspension of S. mutans followed by plating on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI agar. S. mutans adherence to glass in presence of the different test solutions was also tested. The number of adhered bacteria (CFU/mL was determined by plating method. Statistical Analysis: Statistical significance was measured using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey′s post hoc test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Pure chicory had shown significantly less bacterial count compared to all other groups. Groups IV and V had shown significant reduction in bacterial counts over the period of 4 hrs. Regarding anti-adherence effect, group I-IV had shown significantly less adherence of bacteria to glass surface. Conclusions: Chicory exerted antibacterial effect against S. mutans while coffee reduced significantly the adherence of S. mutans to the glass surface.

  19. Common mental health problems and antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    Nel, Adriaan; Kagee, Ashraf


    This paper reviews the literature on various mental health problems and their impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders related to substance abuse were identified as key role-players influencing adherence. The severity of symptoms related to these disorders was found to be inversely related to ART adherence, with the possible exception of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD was found to have both positive and negative implications for adherence, with severity of symptoms ranging from health-protective concern to disabling distress. Possible solutions aimed at addressing the adverse effects of mental health problems on adherence are discussed. Routine screening in ART settings is suggested in settings where follow-up of positive screen scores are possible, along with the necessary interventions to resolve the disorder of concern. Suggested interventions include utilising psychotherapeutic treatment, both in isolation and in conjunction with medication, to address mental health problems. Furthermore, finding effective ways of marshalling social support is recommended for ensuring optimal adherence, and possibly mitigating the adverse effects of mental health problems. Further research is needed to find feasible ways of identifying, assessing and treating patients with mental health problems in resource-constrained settings where HIV prevalence is highest.

  20. Fucoidans Disrupt Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to AGS Cells In Vitro

    Eng-Guan Chua


    Full Text Available Fucoidans are complex sulphated polysaccharides derived from abundant and edible marine algae. Helicobacter pylori is a stomach pathogen that persists in the hostile milieu of the human stomach unless treated with antibiotics. This study aims to provide preliminary data to determine, in vitro, if fucoidans can inhibit the growth of H. pylori and its ability to adhere to gastric epithelial cells (AGS. We analysed the activity of three different fucoidan preparations (Fucus A, Fucus B, and Undaria extracts. Bacterial growth was not arrested or inhibited by the fucoidan preparations supplemented into culture media. All fucoidans, when supplemented into tissue culture media at 1000 µg mL−1, were toxic to AGS cells and reduced the viable cell count significantly. Fucoidan preparations at 100 µg mL−1 were shown to significantly reduce the number of adherent H. pylori. These in vitro findings provide the basis for further studies on the clinical use of sulphated polysaccharides as complementary therapeutic agents.

  1. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako


    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  2. Cellular neurothekeoma with melanocytosis.

    Wu, Ren-Chin; Hsieh, Yi-Yueh; Chang, Yi-Chin; Kuo, Tseng-Tong


    Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is a benign dermal tumor mainly affecting the head and neck and the upper extremities. It is characterized histologically by interconnecting fascicles of plump spindle or epithelioid cells with ample cytoplasm infiltrating in the reticular dermis. The histogenesis of CNT has been controversial, although it is generally regarded as an immature counterpart of classic/myxoid neurothekeoma, a tumor with nerve sheath differentiation. Two rare cases of CNT containing melanin-laden cells were described. Immunohistochemical study with NKI/C3, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle antigen, CD34, factor XIIIa, collagen type IV, S100 protein and HMB-45 was performed. Both cases showed typical growth pattern of CNT with interconnecting fascicles of epithelioid cells infiltrating in collagenous stroma. One of the nodules contained areas exhibiting atypical cytological features. Melanin-laden epithelioid or dendritic cells were diffusely scattered throughout one nodule, and focally present in the peripheral portion of the other nodule. Both nodules were strongly immunoreactive to NKI/C3 and vimentin, but negative to all the other markers employed. CNT harboring melanin-laden cells may pose diagnostic problems because of their close resemblance to nevomelanocytic lesions and other dermal mesenchymal tumors. These peculiar cases may also provide further clues to the histogenesis of CNT.

  3. Comparison of adherent and non-adherent staphylococci in the induction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in vitro

    Riber, U; Espersen, F; Kharazmi, A


    The ability to consume complement and activate neutrophils was investigated for staphylococci adherent to silicone surfaces and non-adherent staphylococci. Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC 14990 and Staphylococcus aureus strain E 2371 were used in this study. The bacteria were allowed...... at 37 degrees C. The bacteria consumed complement to approximately the same extent when adherent to the catheter segments, but more slowly in comparison with planktonic bacteria. When planktonic bacteria were compared, complement was consumed more quickly by S. epidermidis than by S. aureus. Measuring...... the induction of chemiluminescence by planktonic bacteria, S. epidermidis induced a lower response than S. aureus, while when adherent to the catheter segments the bacteria induced similar responses. These responses were only 15 to 20% of those induced by planktonic bacteria and only slightly higher than...

  4. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    Rafaela Batista dos Santos Pedrosa; Roberta Cunha Matheus Rodrigues


    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical charact...

  5. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A


    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  6. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Kekwaletswe CT


    Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an

  7. Treatment adherence and quality of life in patients on antihypertensive medications in a Middle Eastern population: adherence

    Alhaddad IA


    Full Text Available Imad A Alhaddad,1 Omar Hamoui,2 Ayman Hammoudeh,3 Samir Mallat4 1Cardiovascular Department, Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 2Cardiology Department, Clemenceau Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Cardiology Department, Istishari Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Division, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment remains a clinical challenge worldwide. The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence level to antihypertensive treatment and to identify its associated factors in a sample of hypertensive patients in Lebanon and Jordan. Methods: We conducted an observational study between May 2011 and September 2012. A total of 1,470 eligible hypertensive patients were enrolled in our study and followed up for a period of 6 months. Data were collected regarding sociodemographic, health behavior, and hypertension-related characteristics. The adherence to treatment and the quality of life were self-reported using the Morisky, Green & Levine Scale and the Hypertension Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: Our results revealed that 55.9 % of the patients were adherent to their antihypertensive medication. Older age was associated with better adherence, whereas being divorced or widowed, having a poorer quality of life, and being classified as having stage 1 or 2 hypertension at the end of the study were all associated with poorer adherence. Conclusion: Efforts should be exerted on all levels in order to increase the adherence to antihypertensive treatment through the implementation of educational campaigns. Keywords: adherence, NC 7 guidelines, Morisky, Green & Levine Scale, Hypertension Quality of Life Questionnaire, Lebanon, Jordan

  8. Sub-cellular structure studied by combined atomic force-fluorescence microscopy

    Trache, Andreea


    A novel experimental technique that integrates atomic force microscopy (AFM) with fluorescence imaging was used to study the role of extracellular matrix proteins in cellular organization. To understand the mechanism by which living cells sense mechanical forces, and how they respond and adapt to their environment, we developed a new technology able to investigate cellular behavior at sub-cellular level that integrates an AFM with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fast-spinning disk (FSD) confocal microscopy. Live smooth muscle cells exhibited differences in focal adhesions and actin pattern depending on the extracellular matrix used for substrate coating. Data obtained by using the AFM-optical imaging integrated technique offer novel quantitative information that allows understanding the fundamental processes of cellular reorganization in response to extracellular matrix modulation. The integrated microscope presented here is broadly applicable across a wide range of molecular dynamic studies in any adherent live cells.

  9. Evaluating adherence to ocular hypotensives using the Travatan dosing aid

    O'Dell L


    Full Text Available Leslie O'Dell1, Amy L Hennessy2,3, Alan L Robin2–41May Eye Care Center, Hanover, PA, USA; 2Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Glaucoma Specialists, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: The Travatan™ Dosing Aid (TDA is the first commercially available device designed to aid in patients' adherence to their glaucoma therapies and to record patients' eyedrop administration, so that doctors can better assess adherence. No prior studies have objectively evaluated adherence to glaucoma medications and its relationship to the severity of glaucoma or the use of multiple systemic medications.Methods: We enrolled 100 consecutive subjects from a private glaucoma practice, all currently using topical travoprost 0.004%. Each subject was issued a TDA to record the time and date of each drop instilled. Informed consents were signed and the subjects were aware that their medication use was being monitored. Patients returned for follow-up 30–60 days after their initial exam.Results: 89 subjects completed the study: 44 were male, with a mean age of 67 years, and 69.7% were Caucasian. Overall, patient adherence was 74.8% (range 22%–100% improving to 85.4% on the day prior to follow-up. The mean number of missed doses per month was 6.24 ± 5.9. Only 7.9% of the study population never missed a dose and 23.6% ± 4.3% missed more than ten drops per month. No marked association was observed between the severity of glaucoma, race, or the number of systemic medications and adherence. A marked improvement in adherence was noted in patients using travoprost 0.004% as monocular therapy rather than binocular therapy, 84.0% ± 17.1% vs 67.4% ± 23.5% (P < 0.005.Conclusion: Patient adherence to glaucoma medical therapy is a major barrier in the management and treatment of glaucoma patients given the chronic nature and asymptomatic course of the disease. Until recently

  10. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    William C. W. Chen


    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  11. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg


    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are still considered as gold standard for investigation of in vitro metabolism and hepatotoxicity in pharmaceutical research. It has been shown that the three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of PHH in a sandwich configuration between two layers of extracellular matrix (ECM) enables the hepatocytes to adhere three dimensionally leading to formation of in vivo like cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different ECM compositions on morphology, cellular arrangement and bile canaliculi formation as well as bile excretion processes in PHH sandwich cultures systematically. Freshly isolated PHH were cultured for 6 days between two ECM layers made of collagen and/or Matrigel in four different combinations. The cultures were investigated by phase contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis with respect to cell-cell connections, repolarization as well as bile canaliculi formation. The influence of the ECM composition on cell activity and viability was measured using the XTT assay and a fluorescent dead or alive assay. Finally, the bile canalicular transport was analyzed by live cell imaging to monitor the secretion and accumulation of the fluorescent substance CDF in bile canaliculi. Using collagen and Matrigel in different compositions in sandwich cultures of hepatocytes, we observed differences in morphology, cellular arrangement and cell activity of PHH in dependence of the ECM composition. Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes with an underlay of collagen seem to represent the best in vivo tissue architecture in terms of formation of trabecular cell arrangement. Cultures overlaid with collagen were characterized by the formation of abundant bile canaliculi, while the bile canaliculi network in hepatocytes cultured on a layer of Matrigel and overlaid with collagen showed the most branched and stable canalicular network. All cultures showed a time-dependent leakage of

  12. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Growth

    Eftekhari, Beheshte; Wilson, James; Masood, Samina


    The interaction of organisms with environmental magnetic fields at the cellular level is well documented, yet not fully understood. We review the existing experimental results to understand the physics behind the effects of ambient magnetic fields on the growth, metabolism, and proliferation of in vitro cell cultures. Emphasis is placed on identifying the underlying physical principles responsible for alterations to cell structure and behavior.

  13. Caveolar vesicles generate DNA damage and perpetuate cellular aging

    Keith Wheaton


    @@ The replicative limit of human fibroblasts has long provided a model to assess the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular aging [1].In culture, fibroblasts which reach the end of their proliferative lifespan acquire profound molecular changes that limit their response to growth factors, and cause permanent exit from the cell cycle [2].

  14. An exploration of factors influencing ambulance and emergency nurses protocol adherence in the Netherlands

    Ebben, Remco; Vloet, Lilian; Mintjes, Joke; Achterberg, Theo van


    Adherence to ambulance and ED protocols is often suboptimal. Insight into factors influencing adherence is a requisite for improvement of adherence. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of factors that influence ambulance and emergency nurses’ adherence to protocols.

  15. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines

    A.M. Knops; M.N. Storm-Versloot; A.P.M. Mank; D.T. Ubbink; H. Vermeulen; P.M.M. Bossuyt; A. Goossens


    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature gu

  16. The relationship between clinical outcomes and medication adherence in difficult-to-control asthma.

    Murphy, Anna C; Proeschal, Amandine; Brightling, Christopher E; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H


    Medication non-adherence and the clinical implications in difficult-to-control asthma were audited. Prescription issue data from 115 patients identified sub-optimal adherence (asthma (p=0.008). The majority of patients with difficult-to-control asthma are non-adherent with their asthma medication. Non-adherence is correlated with poor clinical outcomes.

  17. 76 FR 12969 - Campaign To Improve Poor Medication Adherence (U18)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Campaign To Improve Poor Medication Adherence (U18) AGENCY... ] importance of good medication adherence, a vital first step toward improved adherence behavior and better...' awareness of the importance of good medication adherence and provide tools to prescribers to help...

  18. Free fall and cellular automata

    Pablo Arrighi


    Full Text Available Three reasonable hypotheses lead to the thesis that physical phenomena can be described and simulated with cellular automata. In this work, we attempt to describe the motion of a particle upon which a constant force is applied, with a cellular automaton, in Newtonian physics, in Special Relativity, and in General Relativity. The results are very different for these three theories.

  19. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Maurice Margenstern


    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  20. Reactive Programming of Cellular Automata

    Boussinot, Frédéric


    Implementation of cellular automata using reactive programming gives a way to code cell behaviors in an abstract and modular way. Multiprocessing also becomes possible. The paper describes the implementation of cellular automata with the reactive programming language LOFT, a thread-based extension of C. Self replicating loops considered in artificial life are coded to show the interest of the approach.

  1. Impact of an exercise program on adherence and fitness indicators.

    Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana


    Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to those exercising.

  2. Perceived barriers to guideline adherence: A survey among general practitioners

    Besters Casper F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable efforts to promote and support guideline use, adherence is often suboptimal. Barriers to adherence vary not only across guidelines but also across recommendations within guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to guideline adherence among GPs by focusing on key recommendations within guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey among 703 GPs in the Netherlands. Sixteen key recommendations were derived from four national guidelines. Six statements were included to address the attitudes towards guidelines in general. In addition, GPs were asked to rate their perceived adherence (one statement and the perceived barriers (fourteen statements for each of the key recommendations, based on an existing framework. Results 264 GPs (38% completed the questionnaire. Although 35% of the GPs reported difficulties in changing routines and habits to follow guidelines, 89% believed that following guidelines leads to improved patient care. Perceived adherence varied between 52 and 95% across recommendations (mean: 77%. The most perceived barriers were related to external factors, in particular patient ability and behaviour (mean: 30% and patient preferences (mean: 23%. Lack of applicability of recommendations in general (mean: 22% and more specifically to individual patients (mean: 25% were also frequently perceived as barriers. The scores on perceived barriers differed largely between recommendations [minimum range 14%; maximum range 67%]. Conclusions Dutch GPs have a positive attitude towards the NHG guidelines, report high adherence rates and low levels of perceived barriers. However, the perceived adherence and perceived barriers varied largely across recommendations. The most perceived barriers across recommendations are patient related, suggesting that current guidelines do not always adequately incorporate patient preferences, needs and abilities. It may be

  3. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern among Balearic Islands adolescents.

    Martínez, Elisa; Llull, Rosa; Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A


    The aim of the present work was to assess the prevalence of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) in Balearic Islands adolescents, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors that might determine adherence to the MDP. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands between 2007 and 2008. A random sample (n 1231) of the adolescent population (12-17 years old) was interviewed. Dietary questionnaires and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-economic status, parental education level and lifestyle factors were used. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h recalls and a quantitative FFQ. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high MUFA:SFA ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Then, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health status variables that could determine a higher or ower adherence were assessed. The mean adherence was 57.9 (sd 8.9) % and the median adherence was 57.3 %. Half of the Balearic Islands adolescents (50.5 %) showed an adherence to the MDP comprised between 52.7 and 62.8 %. By multivariate analyses, a high maternal level of education, increased physical activity, reduced alcohol intake and abstinence from smoking were independent associations of better adherence to the MDP. The promotion of not only the MDP but also the Mediterranean lifestyle, including greater physical activity, should be reinforced among the Balearic younger generations.

  4. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

    Achmad Zaki


    Full Text Available Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I. The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II. Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: In group I, there were 2.6 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p = 0.34. In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:70-5Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells

  5. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama


    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  6. Assessment of the biocompatibility, stability, and suitability of novel thermoresponsive films for the rapid generation of cellular constructs

    Reed, Jamie A.


    Stimuli responsive polymers (SRP) are of great interest in the bioengineering community due to their use in applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. One example of an SRP is poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) or pNIPAM. This SRP has the capability of changing its conformation with a slight temperature change: adherent mammalian cells spontaneously release as a confluent cell sheet, which can be harvested for cell sheet engineering purposes. Since its initial use in 1968, many researchers have used pNIPAM to obtain a cell sheet composed of their cell type of interest. The differing protocols used for these diverse cell types, such as the conditions used for cell detachment, and the varying methods used for derivatizing substrates with pNIPAM have all led to conflicting reports on the utility of pNIPAM for cell sheet engineering purposes, as well as the relative cytotoxicity of the polymer. In this work, some of the key inconsistencies in the literature and previously unaddressed challenges when utilizing pNIPAM films are overcome for the purpose of rapid generation of cellular constructs, specifically spheroids. Pertinent characteristics of low temperature detachment are investigated for their effect on the kinetics of cell detachment. In addition, a novel, inexpensive method for obtaining pNIPAM films for mammalian cell detachment, combining pNIPAM with a sol-gel, was optimized and compared to plasma polymerization deposition. Furthermore, proper storage conditions (e.g. temperature and relative humidity) for these films were investigated to increase stability of the films for using tissue culture conditions. To increase the speed of generation of cell sheets, electrospun mats and hydrogels with a high surface area-to-volume ratio were developed. The result is a platform appropriate for the rapid formation of cellular constructs, such as engineered tissues and spheroids for cancer cell research.

  7. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Awachana Jiamsakul


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods: As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI (0.55 to 0.90, p=0.006, compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00, p=0.004 and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71, p<0.001. Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67, p=0.001 compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001. Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions: We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  8. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    Shuler KM


    Full Text Available Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an

  9. Value-based insurance design yields near- and long-term improvements in medication adherence.

    Collado, Megan


    Key findings. (1) Value-based insurance design (VBID) improves medication adherence by 1 to 3 percent in the first year after implementation; (2) Improvements in adherence were sustained and amplified in the second year post-implementation, ranging from 2 to 5 percent; (3) Adherence improvements varied ac­cording to VBID participants' baseline adherence, with greatest improve­ments evident in those with poorer baseline adherence

  10. Adherence with tobramycin inhaled solution and health care utilization

    Sacco Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence with tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS during routine cystic fibrosis (CF care may differ from recommended guidelines and affect health care utilization. Methods We analyzed 2001-2006 healthcare claims data from 45 large employers. Study subjects had diagnoses of CF and at least 1 prescription for TIS. We measured adherence as the number of TIS therapy cycles completed during the year and categorized overall adherence as: low ≤ 2 cycles, medium >2 to Results Among 804 individuals identified with CF and a prescription for TIS, only 7% (n = 54 received ≥ 4 cycles of TIS per year. High adherence with TIS was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization when compared to individuals receiving ≤ 2 cycles (adjusted odds ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.84. High adherence with TIS was also associated with lower outpatient service costs (IQR: $2,159-$8444 vs. $2,410-$14,423 and higher outpatient prescription drug costs (IQR: $35,125-$60,969 vs. $10,353-$46,768. Conclusions Use of TIS did not reflect recommended guidelines and may impact other health care utilization.

  11. Determinants of CPAP Adherence in Hispanics with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Montserrat Diaz-Abad


    Full Text Available Purpose. We hypothesized that socioeconomic factors and a language barrier would impact adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP among Hispanics with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Methods. Patients with OSA who were prescribed CPAP for at least 1 year and completed a questionnaire evaluating demographic data, socioeconomic status, and CPAP knowledge and adherence participated in the study. Results. Seventy-nine patients (26 males; 53±11 yrs; body mass index (BMI=45±9 kg/m2 with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI 33±30 events/hr completed the study. Included were 25 Hispanics, 39 African Americans, and 15 Caucasians, with no difference in age, AHI, CPAP use, or BMI between the groups. While there was a difference in educational level (P=0.006, income level (P<0.001, and employment status (P=0.03 between the groups, these did not influence CPAP adherence. Instead, overall improvement in quality of life and health status and perceived benefit from CPAP influenced adherence, both for the group as a whole (P=0.03, P=0.004, and P=0.001, resp., as well as in Hispanics (P=0.02, P=0.02, P=0.03, resp.. Conclusion. In Hispanic patients with OSA, perceived benefit with therapy, rather than socioeconomic status or a language barrier, appears to be the most important factor in determining CPAP adherence.

  12. Bacterial adherence to SiO2-based multifunctional bioceramics.

    Kinnari, Teemu J; Esteban, Jaime; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; Zamora, Nieves; Fernandez-Roblas, Ricardo; Nieto, Alejandra; Doadrio, Juan C; López-Noriega, Adolfo; Ruiz-Hernández, Eduardo; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María


    The bacterial adherence onto different multifunctional silica-based bioceramics has been evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were chosen, as they cause the majority of the implant-related infections in this field. Two SiO2 mesoporous materials (MCM-41, SBA-15), an ordered SiO2-CaO-P2O5 mesoporous glass (OMG), and a biphasic magnetic bioceramic (BMB), were incubated with S. aureus and S. epidermidis for 90 min, and subsequently sonicated to quantify the number of adhered bacteria on each material. It was found that S. aureus and S. epidermidis (10(8) CFU/mL) adhered significantly less to BMB samples when compared to MCM-41, SBA-15, or OMG. However, when the material pores accessible for bacteria in each material were taken into account, the lowest bacterial adherence was found in MCM-41, and the highest in SBA-15. The results show that bacterial adherence is higher on mesoporous bioceramics, although this higher microbial attachment is mainly due to the intergranular porosity and grain size morphology rather than to the mesoporous structure.

  13. Improving patient outcomes in psoriasis: strategies to ensure treatment adherence

    Yélamos O


    Full Text Available Oriol Yélamos, Sandra Ros, Lluís Puig Department of Dermatology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau – Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Psoriasis is a frequent inflammatory disease with a chronic and relapsing course. Therefore, patients with psoriasis are likely to undergo different treatments for long periods of time. Traditionally, therapies used in psoriasis have been associated with poor levels of adherence due to the complexity of the regimens and the poor results obtained with the topical therapies. These poor outcomes are associated with high levels of frustration and anxiety, which decrease adherence and worsen the disease. With the recent introduction of highly efficacious biologic therapies, patients can achieve very good and prolonged responses. However, most patients with psoriasis have mild disease and may be treated with skin-directed therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to improve adherence in order to achieve better outcomes, and to improve the overall quality of life. Hence, acknowledging the causes of nonadherence is crucial for implementing these strategies. In this summary, we review the causes of nonadherence, and we provide behavioral strategies in order to improve adherence and, ultimately, the outcome of patients with psoriasis. Keywords: psoriasis, adherence, outcome, drug therapy, psychotherapy

  14. The therapeutic relationship and adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.

    Rosemarie McCabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that a better therapeutic relationship (TR predicts more positive attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, but did not address whether it is also linked with actual adherence. This study investigated whether the TR is associated with adherence to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: 134 clinicians and 507 of their patients with schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder participated in a European multi-centre study. A logistic regression model examined how the TR as rated by patients and by clinicians is associated with medication adherence, adjusting for clinician clustering and symptom severity. RESULTS: Patient and clinician ratings of the TR were weakly inter-correlated (r(s = 0.13, p = 0.004, but each was independently linked with better adherence. After adjusting for patient rated TR and symptom severity, each unit increase in clinician rated TR was associated with an increase of the odds ratio of good compliance by 65.9% (95% CI: 34.6% to 104.5%. After adjusting for clinician rated TR and symptom severity, for each unit increase in patient rated TR the odds ratio of good compliance was increased by 20.8% (95% CI: 4.4% to 39.8%. CONCLUSIONS: A better TR is associated with better adherence to medication among patients with schizophrenia. Patients' and clinicians' perspectives of the TR are both important, but may reflect distinct aspects.

  15. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): hitherto unrecognized pathogens.

    Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Servin, Alain L


    Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are currently considered to constitute a putative sixth group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, on the basis of their diffuse adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, the detection of afa/dra/daa-related operons encoding this adherence phenotype, and the mobilization of decay-accelerating factor, both commensal and pathogenic strains can be classified as Afa/Dr DAEC isolates. Furthermore, strains associated with diarrheal diseases and strains causing extra-intestinal infections can also be identified as Afa/Dr DAEC strains. Although several cell signaling events that occur after epithelial cells have been infected by Afa/Dr DAEC have been reported, the pathophysiological processes that allow intestinal and extra-intestinal infections to develop are not fully understood. This review focuses on the genetic organization of the afa/dra/daa-related operons and on the virulence factors that trigger cellular responses, some of which are deleterious for the host cells. Finally, this review suggests future lines of research that could help to elucidate these questions.

  16. Analysis of Endothelial Adherence of Bartonella henselae and Acinetobacter baumannii Using a Dynamic Human Ex Vivo Infection Model.

    Weidensdorfer, Marko; Chae, Ju Ik; Makobe, Celestine; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Müller, Volker; Schürmann, Christoph; Brandes, Ralf P; Wilharm, Gottfried; Ballhorn, Wibke; Christ, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Fischer, Doris; Göttig, Stephan; Kempf, Volkhard A J


    Bacterial adherence determines the virulence of many human-pathogenic bacteria. Experimental approaches elucidating this early infection event in greater detail have been performed using mainly methods of cellular microbiology. However, in vitro infections of cell monolayers reflect the in vivo situation only partially, and animal infection models are not available for many human-pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, ex vivo infection of human organs might represent an attractive method to overcome these limitations. We infected whole human umbilical cords ex vivo with Bartonella henselae or Acinetobacter baumannii under dynamic flow conditions mimicking the in vivo infection situation of human endothelium. For this purpose, methods for quantifying endothelium-adherent wild-type and trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA)-deficient bacteria were set up. Data revealed that (i) A. baumannii binds in a TAA-dependent manner to endothelial cells, (ii) this organ infection model led to highly reproducible adherence rates, and furthermore, (iii) this model allowed to dissect the biological function of TAAs in the natural course of human infections. These findings indicate that infection models using ex vivo human tissue samples ("organ microbiology") might be a valuable tool in analyzing bacterial pathogenicity with the capacity to replace animal infection models at least partially.

  17. Characteristics of Cellular Structures and Growth Properties of Palmellococcus sp.Using Water Culture in Green House%不同生长发育期土壤绿藻——集球藻细胞形态结构研究

    饶本强; 吴沛沛; 李敦海; 刘永定


    Palmellococcus Chod. Is a kind of green algae widely distributing in biological soil crusts and is able to accumulate red pigment (astaxanthin) and oil drops. So the alga has displayed especial physiological nature and potential value of application. Currently, studies on cellular structures and pigment accumulations of. Palmellococcus sp. Are relatively scarce. In this study, the morphology and structures of Palmellococcus sp. Are investigated by means of photo microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM) under liquid culture in green house. The results show that the nutritive cells of Palmellococcus sp. Are able to turn into genital cells, and yield filial cells by means of cell discerption. The cellular structures of Palmellococcus sp. Present gradual changes during development process and the algae own typical structure characteristics of chlorophyta and chlorococcales. However, it indicated that cellular organs of Palmellococcus sp. Disintegrated and disappear at anaphase and senescence phase. Moreover, the nutritive cells of Palmellococcus sp. Are found to turn into reddish-brown thick-wall cells, and there are large quantity accumulations of lipid bodies and starches in cells of Palmellococcus sp. At anaphase of development. This means that lipid bodies are in special structure lying in the cells of Palmellococcus sp. The research maybe provid a significative finding for better understanding morphological changes and pigment accumulation of Palmellococcus sp. In normal culture condition, and simultaneously provid some experimental data for based and applied researches on the green alga.%集球藻是一种广泛分布于生物结皮中的土壤绿藻,能够积累红色素(如虾青素)和油滴,显示出其独特的生理特性和潜在的应用价值.目前对集球藻的细胞结构以及色素积累研究非常匮乏.本文报道应用光学显微镜和透射电境观察集球藻在温室液体培养条件下,细胞形态与超微结构变化.结

  18. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing


    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  19. Sonoporation of adherent cells under regulated ultrasound cavitation conditions.

    Muleki Seya, Pauline; Fouqueray, Manuela; Ngo, Jacqueline; Poizat, Adrien; Inserra, Claude; Béra, Jean-Christophe


    A sonoporation device dedicated to the adherent cell monolayer has been implemented with a regulation process allowing the real-time monitoring and control of inertial cavitation activity. Use of the cavitation-regulated device revealed first that adherent cell sonoporation efficiency is related to inertial cavitation activity, without inducing additional cell mortality. Reproducibility is enhanced for the highest sonoporation rates (up to 17%); sonoporation efficiency can reach 26% when advantage is taken of the standing wave acoustic configuration by applying a frequency sweep with ultrasound frequency tuned to the modal acoustic modes of the cavity. This device allows sonoporation of adherent and suspended cells, and the use of regulation allows some environmental parameters such as the temperature of the medium to be overcome, resulting in the possibility of cell sonoporation even at ambient temperature.

  20. Decisional capacity and medication adherence among youth with HIV.

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Clutter, Michiko Otsuki; Hintz, Stephanie; Walsh, Audra; Emmanuel, Patricia; Lujan-Zilberman, Jorge; Rodriguez, Carina


    This exploratory study examined the degree to which decisional capacity (DC) is associated with measures of self-reported medication adherence. We hypothesized that youth with higher levels of DC would report greater levels of antiretroviral medication adherence. Seventy-two (72) youth with HIV aged 13-24 participated in this study. Data collection included administration of the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment and measures of adherence (i.e., seven-day self-report interview, visual analog scale, and biological indicators). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, intercorrelations, and multiple and Poisson regression analyses. Youth with HIV who exhibited greater understanding of their disease were more likely to report fewer missed doses in the last seven days. Findings build upon literature in the areas of DC and health literacy and highlight the potential utility of enhancing HIV disease understanding among youth with HIV.

  1. Bridging the gap between antiretroviral access and adherence in Mexico.

    Campero, Lourdes; Herrera, Cristina; Kendall, Tamil; Caballero, Marta


    The goal in this article is to examine social problems associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence in Mexico and the related challenges for Mexican persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). The study was conducted from the perspective of infected and affected individuals. The authors completed 64 in-depth interviews with heterosexual male and female PLWHAs, as well as with some key individuals from their social network. Following the principles of grounded theory, they carried out inductive analysis to create codes and organize central themes. The authors identified problems related to accessing HAART and found that conditions for implementing recommendations made in the international literature to improve adherence are poor. The findings highlight the importance of social factors, such as health care system irregularities, ineffective physician-patient communication, and availability of family and other sources of social support such as self-help groups for PLWHAs' access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Mexico.

  2. Stick to your gums: mechanisms of oral microbial adherence.

    Nobbs, A H; Jenkinson, H F; Jakubovics, N S


    Studies on the adherence properties of oral bacteria have been a major focus in microbiology research for several decades. The ability of bacteria to adhere to the variety of surfaces present in the oral cavity, and to become integrated within the resident microbial communities, confers growth and survival properties. Molecular analyses have revealed several families of Gram-positive bacterial surface proteins, including serine-rich repeat, antigen I/II, and pilus families, that mediate adherence to a variety of salivary and oral bacterial receptors. In Gram-negative bacteria, pili, auto-transporters, and extracellular matrix-binding proteins provide components for host tissue recognition and building of complex microbial communities. Future studies will reveal in greater detail the binding pockets for these adhesin families and their receptors. This information will be crucial for the development of new inhibitors or vaccines that target the functional regions of bacterial proteins that are involved in colonization and pathogenesis.

  3. Reciprocal Interference between Lactobacillus spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis on Initial Adherence to Epithelial Cells

    Castro, Joana; Henriques, Ana; Machado, António; Henriques, Mariana; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Cerca, Nuno


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder in women of child-bearing age. It is widely accepted that the microbial switch from normal microflora to the flora commonly associated with BV is characterized by a decrease in vaginal colonization by specific Lactobacillus species together with an increase of G. vaginalis and other anaerobes. However, the order of events leading to the development of BV remains poorly characterized and it is unclear whether the decrease in lactobacilli is a cause or a consequence of the increase in the population density of anaerobes. Our goal was to characterize the interaction between two Gardnerella vaginalis strains, one of which was isolated from a healthy woman (strain 5-1) and the other from a woman diagnosed with BV (strain 101), and vaginal lactobacilli on the adherence to cervical epithelial cells. In order to simulate the transition from vaginal health to BV, the lactobacilli were cultured with the epithelial cells first, and then the G. vaginalis strain was introduced. We quantified the inhibition of G. vaginalis adherence by the lactobacilli and displacement of adherent lactobacilli by G. vaginalis. Our results confirmed that pathogenic G vaginalis 101 had a higher capacity for adhesion to the cervical epithelial cells than strain 5-1. Interestingly, strain 101 displaced L. crispatus but not L. iners whereas strain 5-1 had less of an effect and did not affect the two species differently. Furthermore, L. iners actually enhanced adhesion of strain 101 but not of strain 5-1. These results suggest that BV-causing G. vaginalis and L. iners do not interfere with one another, which may help to explain previous reports that women who are colonized with L. iners are more likely to develop BV. PMID:23935396

  4. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜


    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells Adhering to Adipocytes in Canine Bone Marrow.

    Lin, Hsing-Yi; Fujita, Naoki; Endo, Kentaro; Morita, Maresuke; Takeda, Tae; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei


    The ceiling culture method has been used to isolate mature adipocytes from adipose tissue that can be dedifferentiated into fibroblastic cells, also known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that self-renew and are multipotent, with much higher homogeneity and colony-forming efficiency than those of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We cultured adipocytes from canine bone marrow using this technique, with the expectation of obtaining DFAT cells. However, contrary to our expectations, continuous monitoring of ceiling cultures by time-lapse microscopy revealed many small cells adhering to adipocytes that proliferated rapidly into cells with a fibroblastic morphology and without any dedifferentiation from adipocytes. We named these cells bone marrow peri-adipocyte cells (BM-PACs) and demonstrated the multipotent properties of BM-PACs compared to that of conventionally cultured canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). BM-PACs showed significantly greater clonogenicity and proliferation ability than BMMSCs. An in vitro trilineage differentiation assay revealed that BM-PACs possess adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic capacities superior to those of BMMSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of CD73, which plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation, was significantly higher in BM-PACs than in BMMSCs. These results indicate that canine BM-PACs have stem cell characteristics that are superior to those of BMMSCs, and that these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to be a feasible source for cell-based therapies in dogs.

  6. Need for improving quality of operating structures and processes for better ARV adherence for patients with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania and other African countries:an experi-ence from Tanzania

    Irunde H; Nsimba SED; Comoro CJ


    Objective:The study was carried out in order to determine the following objectives:(1)To determine the pro-portion of patients who state achieving or not achieving optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)in selected Care and Treatment Sites in Arusha and Dares Salaam regions in Tanzania.(2)To identify factors such as structural,cultural or disease related contributing to sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARVs). (3)To assess quality of operating structures and processes for provision of antiretroviral (ARVs)in the select-ed healthcare facilities.(4)To document suggestions and proposals for improving ART adherence among ARV users.Methods:Data from 7 studied facilities (3 public and 4 private /or faith based)includes 207 interviews from ARV users,28 staff interview staff,26 observations during consultations,8 focus group discussions,10 key informant interviews,and stock checks in 6 facilities.The study design was a cross-sectional using both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.Quantitative data were collected by using an adherence tool check list,while qualitative data were obtained using a consultation observation checklist,semi-structured interviews,focus group discussions (FGDs)and key informant interviews.Results:There were slight varia-tions in the quality of operating structures and processes in the two studied regions.However results indicate that ARV adherence in Arusha region was comparatively similar to that of Dares Salaam.The composite adher-ence for one month in seven facilities was 90 % and only 21 % of ARV users achieved optimal adherence. Conclusion:The overall mean composite adherence rate of 90 % in the two areas surveyed is encouraging. More efforts to improve the quality and processes of operating structures in our study facilities and others in Tanzania are needed to ensure optimal adherence among the larger group (79 %)of ARV users who are cur-rently taking less than the critical 95 % of their medications.

  7. Association of Continuity of Primary Care and Statin Adherence.

    James R Warren

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medication adherence are a major barrier to effectiveness of chronic condition management. Continuity of primary care may promote adherence. We assessed the association of continuity of primary care with adherence to long-term medication as exemplified by statins.We linked data from a prospective study of 267,091 Australians aged 45 years and over to national data sets on prescription reimbursements, general practice claims, hospitalisations and deaths. For participants having a statin dispense within 90 days of study entry, we computed medication possession ratio (MPR and usual provider continuity index (UPI for the subsequent two years. We used multivariate Poisson regression to calculate the relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the association between tertiles of UPI and MPR adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related patient factors, including age, gender, remoteness of residence, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, prior heart disease and speaking a language other than English at home. We performed a comparison approach using propensity score matching on a subset of the sample.36,144 participants were eligible and included in the analysis among whom 58% had UPI greater than 75%. UPI was significantly associated with 5% increased MPR for statin adherence (95% CI 1.04-1.06 for highest versus lowest tertile. Dichotomised analysis using a cut-off of UPI at 75% showed a similar effect size. The association between UPI and statin adherence was independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors. Stratification analyses further showed a stronger association among those who were new to statins (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54.Greater continuity of care has a positive association with medication adherence for statins which is independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors.

  8. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira


    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  9. Cellular lysis in Bacillus subtilis; the affect of multiple extracellular protease deficiencies

    Stephenson, K; Bron, S; Harwood, CR


    Cellular lysis properties of strains of Bacillus subtilis deficient in the synthesis of extracellular proteases was investigated. In all cases, extracellular protease deficiency was found to increase the extent of cellular lysis of batch cultured strains following the transition to stationary phase,

  10. Culture-General and Culture-Specific Factors in the Discrimination of Melodies.

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.


    Two experiments examined the effects of a culture-general factor, pattern redundancy, on the discrimination of five-tone melodies that differed in their adherence to Western tonal conventions, among 9-month olds, 5-year olds, and adults. Increasing exposure seemed to attenuate the effects of the pattern redundancy while amplifying the influence of…

  11. Adherence and neurocognitive screening in Romanian HIV patients

    M Arbune


    Full Text Available Background: Adherence is critical for the effectiveness of antiretroviral HIV therapy (ART, accordingly decreasing the opportunistic diseases and increasing the quality of life. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD are still frequent in ART era and could impair the adherence, but how ethical is to refer ART in patients with NCD? Objective: To assess the relation between NCD and adherence in HIV Romanian patients. Material and methods: Cross-sectional screening study on 151 patients under ART, no drug users, from HIV Clinic - Galati, assessed by HIV-Associated Dementia Scale (HDS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS [1], ART CNS-effectiveness Letendre scores [2] and adherence assessment questionnaire CNLAS- Romania. Normal values: HDS >10; anxiety/ depression <8. Statistical analysis performed: Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test, with 5% significance level. Results: Characteristics of the patients: median age 22 [20; 56] years old; sex ratio F/M 1.17; median educational level 8 [0; >12] years; HBV co-infection 27.8%; AIDS stage 85.3%; current median CD4 526/mm3 [8; 1605] and 65% undetectable HIV-RNA levels. 49.6% (75/151 patients attain HDS scores <10 and imply probable NCD. Scores below 8 for anxiety are more frequent than for depression: 24% vs 13%. The median ART CNS penetration score is 8 [5; 12]. Adherence is considered for 66% patients and is correlating with CD4 number (p=0.001, educational level >4 years (p=0.001; OR=4.2, HDS >10 (p=0.01; OR=2.4 and ART-CNS penetration score >7 (p=0.023; OR=2.4. Low HDS are influenced by old age (p=0.003, depression (p=0.02 and ART-CNS penetration scores <7 (p=0.01. Anxiety is related neither with adherence nor with NCD by HDS, but females are obvious anxious than males (p<0.001. Conclusions: Basic educational level is sufficient for developing ART adherence. High scores of HDS screening should be predictors for ART adherence. Referring ART as well to patients with low HDS scores is rational and

  12. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    M Y H Moosa


    Full Text Available Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD were performed on all subjects at entry to and at the end of the study. Participants found to be depressed were randomly assigned antidepressant treatment (20 mg citalopram or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT (5 sessions. Medication was dispensed at each visit and patients were asked to return all unused medication to determine ART adherence. The study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand. Results. Sixty-two HIV-positive persons receiving ART participated; 30 were not depressed (control group and 32 were depressed (patient group. No significant differences in demographic characteristics existed between the control and patient groups. Mean ART adherence at the start of the study was 99.5% (standard error (SE ±0.46 and 92.1% (SE ±1.69 in the control and patients groups, respectively. Mean ART adherence at the end of the study changed marginally in the control group (99.7%; SE ±0.46 and increased significantly in the patient group (99.5%; SE± 0.13 (p>0.05. The mean ART adherence rate of patients who received pharmacotherapy increased from 92.8% to 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased from 91.1% to 99.6% (p>0.05. There was no significant association between the increased adherence in the patient group and baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, irrespective of antidepressant therapy or IPT (p>0.05. Conclusion. Successful treatment of depression with an antidepressant or psychotherapy was associated with improved ART adherence, independent of the type

  13. The trouble with memes : Inference versus imitation in cultural creation.

    Atran, S


    Memes are hypothetical cultural units passed on by imitation; although nonbiological, they undergo Darwinian selection like genes. Cognitive study of multimodular human minds undermines memetics: unlike in genetic replication, high-fidelity transmission of cultural information is the exception, not the rule. Constant, rapid "mutation" of information during communication generates endlessly varied creations that nevertheless adhere to modular input conditions. The sort of cultural information most susceptible to modular processing is that most readily acquired by children, most easily transmitted across individuals, most apt to survive within a culture, most likely to recur in different cultures, and most disposed to cultural variation and elaboration.

  14. Arrayed cellular environments for stem cells and regenerative medicine.

    Titmarsh, Drew M; Chen, Huaying; Wolvetang, Ernst J; Cooper-White, Justin J


    The behavior and composition of both multipotent and pluripotent stem cell populations are exquisitely controlled by a complex, spatiotemporally variable interplay of physico-chemical, extracellular matrix, cell-cell interaction, and soluble factor cues that collectively define the stem cell niche. The push for stem cell-based regenerative medicine models and therapies has fuelled demands for increasingly accurate cellular environmental control and enhanced experimental throughput, driving an evolution of cell culture platforms away from conventional culture formats toward integrated systems. Arrayed cellular environments typically provide a set of discrete experimental elements with variation of one or several classes of stimuli across elements of the array. These are based on high-content/high-throughput detection, small sample volumes, and multiplexing of environments to increase experimental parameter space, and can be used to address a range of biological processes at the cell population, single-cell, or subcellular level. Arrayed cellular environments have the capability to provide an unprecedented understanding of the molecular and cellular events that underlie expansion and specification of stem cell and therapeutic cell populations, and thus generate successful regenerative medicine outcomes. This review focuses on recent key developments of arrayed cellular environments and their contribution and potential in stem cells and regenerative medicine.

  15. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.


    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  16. Energy Landscape of Cellular Networks

    Wang, Jin


    Cellular Networks are in general quite robust and perform their biological functions against the environmental perturbations. Progresses have been made from experimental global screenings, topological and engineering studies. However, there are so far few studies of why the network should be robust and perform biological functions from global physical perspectives. In this work, we will explore the global properties of the network from physical perspectives. The aim of this work is to develop a conceptual framework and quantitative physical methods to study the global nature of the cellular network. The main conclusion of this presentation is that we uncovered the underlying energy landscape for several small cellular networks such as MAPK signal transduction network and gene regulatory networks, from the experimentally measured or inferred inherent chemical reaction rates. The underlying dynamics of these networks can show bi-stable as well as oscillatory behavior. The global shapes of the energy landscapes of the underlying cellular networks we have studied are robust against perturbations of the kinetic rates and environmental disturbances through noise. We derived a quantitative criterion for robustness of the network function from the underlying landscape. It provides a natural explanation of the robustness and stability of the network for performing biological functions. We believe the robust landscape is a global universal property for cellular networks. We believe the robust landscape is a quantitative realization of Darwinian principle of natural selection at the cellular network level. It may provide a novel algorithm for optimizing the network connections, which is crucial for the cellular network design and synthetic biology. Our approach is general and can be applied to other cellular networks.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg


    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  18. The Long Term Effects of Cellular-Telephone-Delivered Telephone Intervention Problem Solving (TIPS) For Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSDs).

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Smith, Kathlene; Phillips, Chad; Velligan, Dawn; Tavakoli, Abbas


    Introduction. Although an extensive body of literature suggests that face-to-face problem-solving interventions are an effective means of fostering psychiatric medication adherence for persons with SSDs, the majority of outpatients with SSDs lack access to this proven intervention. There is a need for exploration of alternate delivery methods for problem solving. Design. This randomized controlled trial will examine the effectiveness of cellular telephone delivered Telephone Intervention - Problem Solving (TIPS) upon medication adherence, medication self efficacy and symptom management in outpatients with SSDs over 9 monthsMethods. To ensure consistent telephone access, all one hundred twenty eight participants will be provided a basic cellular telephone with unlimited local calling for 9 months. Participants will be randomly assigned to treatment as usual plus weekly TIPS or treatment as usual only (TAU). Assessment of serum medication levels, pill count medication adherence, medication attitudes and psychiatric symptoms will be conducted at baseline and every 3 months on all participants. Summary.In addition to testing the long term effect of TIPS, this study will provide information on the responses to our cellular telephone delivery method. We believe this information will be critical as we continue to explore a variety of cellular telephone technologies to provide needed interventions to persons with SSDs in a feasible, economical way.

  19. Do Arabic weight-loss apps adhere to evidence-informed practices?

    Alnasser, Aroub A; Amalraj, Raja E; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman S; Marais, Debbi


    Mobile technology has been used successfully for promoting health and weight loss and for treating obesity. There is a high prevalence of smartphone and tablet users among the Saudi population. This study aimed to identify whether current Arabic weight-loss apps had features that adhered to evidence-informed practices. The six most relevant app stores were systematically searched using the Arabic words for weight and diet (n = 298). All apps that met the inclusion criteria (n = 65) were downloaded and examined for adherence to 13 evidence-informed practices. Latent class analysis identified two subgroups of apps: self-monitoring (15 % of apps) and advice-giving apps (85 %). The median number of evidence-informed practices was 1 (1, 2), with no apps having more than six and only nine apps including four to six. Meal planning was the most common feature (38 % of apps). These findings identify serious weaknesses in the currently available Arabic weight-loss apps. Thus, existing and future apps should include more features based on the best available evidence in the context of Arab culture.

  20. A visual targeting system for the microinjection of unstained adherent cells.

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G


    Automatic localization and targeting are critical steps in automating the process of microinjecting adherent cells. This process is currently performed manually by highly trained operators and is characterized as a laborious task with low success rate. Therefore, automation is desired to increase the efficiency and consistency of the operations. This research offers a contribution to this procedure through the development of a vision system for a robotic microinjection setup. Its goals are to automatically locate adherent cells in a culture dish and target them for a microinjection. Here the major concern was the achievement of an error-free targeting system to guarantee high consistency in microinjection experiments. To accomplish this, a novel visual targeting algorithm integrating different image processing techniques was proposed. This framework employed defocusing microscopy to highlight cell features and improve cell segmentation and targeting reliability. Three main image processing techniques, operating at three different focus levels in a bright field (BF) microscope, were used: an anisotropic contour completion (ACC) method, a local intensity variation background-foreground classifier, and a grayscale threshold-based segmentation. The proposed framework combined information gathered by each of these methods using a validation map and this was shown to provide reliable cell targeting results. Experiments conducted with sets of real images from two different cell lines (CHO-K1 and HEK), which contained a total of more than 650 cells, yielded flawless targeting results along with a cell detection ratio greater than 50%.

  1. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza


    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  2. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    Jones S


    Full Text Available Stephen Jones,1 Nathan Babiker,2 Emma Gardner,2,3 Jane Royle,2 Rachael Curley,3,4 Zhe Hui Hoo,3,4 Martin J Wildman3,4 1Psychology Department, University of Sheffield, 2Psychological Services, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 3Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Northern General Hospital, 4School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods: The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results: People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion: People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. Keywords: behavior change, social marketing, patient participation, nebulizers, medication adherence

  3. Identification of cell surface-exposed proteins involved in the fimbria-mediated adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to intestinal cells.

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Nava-Acosta, Raul; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Farfan, Mauricio J


    Fimbria-mediated adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key step in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis. To date, four fimbriae have been described for EAEC; aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor for EAEC prototype strain 042. Previously, we described results showing that extracellular matrix (ECM) components might be involved in the recognition of AAF/II fimbriae by intestinal cells. In this study, we sought to identify novel potential receptors on intestinal epithelial cells recognized by the AAF/II fimbriae. Purified AafA-dsc protein, the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae, was incubated with a monolayer of T84 cells, cross-linked to the surface-exposed T84 cell proteins, and immunoprecipitated by using anti-AafA antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of cellular proteins bound to AafA-dsc protein identified laminin (previously recognized as a potential receptor for AAF/II) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Involvement of the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae (AafA protein) in the binding to recombinant CK8 was confirmed by adherence assays with purified AAF/II fimbriae, AafA-dsc protein, and strain 042. Moreover, HEp-2 cells transfected with CK8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed reduced 042 adherence compared with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA as a control. Adherence of 042 to HEp-2 cells preincubated with antibodies against ECM proteins or CK8 was substantially reduced. Altogether, our results supported the idea of a role of CK8 as a potential receptor for EAEC.

  4. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki


    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  5. A systematic review of medication non-adherence in persons with dementia or cognitive impairment

    Weller, Carolina; Kennedy, Briohny; Winbolt, Margaret; Young, Carmel


    Background Adherence to medication is vital for disease management while simultaneously reducing healthcare expenditure. Older persons with cognitive impairment (CI) are at risk for non-adherence as cognitive processes are needed to manage medications. This systematic review focuses on the relationship between medication non-adherence and specific cognitive domains in persons with CI, and explores determinants of medication non-adherence. When available, relationships and factors are compared with cognitively intact populations. Methods A seven database systematic search of studies published between 1 January 1949–31 December 2015 examining medication non-adherence in community dwelling persons with CI or dementia was conducted. Articles reporting medication non-adherence in people with CI or dementia in the community, with or without caregiver supports were eligible for inclusion. Papers reporting adherence to treatments in cognitively intact populations, populations from hospital or institutional settings, for non-prescribed medication or those describing dementia as a factor predicting medication non-adherence were excluded. Data on study and population characteristics, research design, data sources and analysis, specific cognitive domains, non-adherence prevalence, measurement of adherence, salient findings, factors associated with adherence and strategies to improve medication adherence were extracted. Study limitations included inconsistencies between data sources and definitions, resulting in a loss of fidelity in the value and comprehensiveness of data, as well as exclusion of non-pharmacological treatments and regimens. Findings Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Adherence among CI subjects ranged from 10.7%-38% with better rates of adherence in non-CI individuals. Medication non-adherence definitions varied considerably. New-learning, memory and executive functioning were associated with improved adherence and formed the focus of most studies

  6. Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee


    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (NPs have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.

  7. Medication adherence in schizophrenia: Exploring patients', carers' and professionals' views

    M.J. Kikkert; A.H. Schene; M.W.J. Koeter; D. Robson; A. Born; H. Helm; M. Nose; C. Goss; G. Thornicroft; R.J. Gray


    One of the major clinical problems in the treatment of people with schizophrenia is suboptimal medication adherence. Most research focusing on determinants of nonadherence use quantitative research methods. These studies have some important limitations in exploring the decision-making process of pat

  8. Adherence of paclitaxel drug in magnetite chitosan nanoparticles

    Escobar Zapata, Edna V.; Martinez Perez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Claudia A.; Castro Carmona, Javier S. [Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Del Charro 610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez Chihuahua (Mexico); Quevedo Lopez, Manuel A. [Departamento de Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Garcia-Casillas, Perla E., E-mail: [Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Del Charro 610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez Chihuahua (Mexico)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan silica magnetite adsorbs antineoplastic drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica coating improve the drug adherence. - Abstract: Cancer treatment is a big challenge in medicine where chemotherapies and radiotherapies are aggressive and poorly effective having side effects as delirium, fatigue, insomnia, nausea and vomiting which are common problems for cancer patients. For this reason, during the last two decades, many researchers have developed several techniques to improve the current therapies; one of them is the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles with an average crystallite size 21.8 nm were covered in a core/shell type; magnetite/silica, magnetite/chitosan, and a double shell magnetite/silica/chitosan were developed for attaching an antineoplastic drug. The mechanism for the functionalization of the nanoparticles with a single and double shell was studied with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adherence of an antineoplastic drug, paclitaxel, onto functionalized nanoparticles was analyzed with a UV-Visible spectroscopy at a wavelength of 253 nm. It was found that the adherence of the drug is improved up to 18% when magnetite nanoparticles are coated with a single chitosan shell, and when the nanoparticles are coated with a silica/chitosan shell the adherence increases up to 29%.

  9. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van


    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  10. Adherence to preventive statin therapy according to socioeconomic position

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Andersen, Morten; Diderichsen, Finn;


    AIM: To explore whether long-term adherence to preventive statin therapy depends on socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: A cohort of individuals without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes initiating preventive statin therapy during 2002-2005 was followed in the individual...

  11. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination 1

    Lima, Thais Marques; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra


    ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283) with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001), with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%). Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:28177055

  12. Interaction of adhered metallic dust with transient plasma heat loads

    Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.; I. Bykov,; Rudakov, D.; de Angeli, M.; Vignitchouk, L.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bardin, S.; van der Meiden, H.; Vernimmen, J.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.


    The first study of the interaction of metallic dust (tungsten, aluminum) adhered on tungsten substrates with transient plasma heat loads is presented. Experiments were carried out in the Pilot-PSI linear device with transient heat fluxes up to 550 MW m −2 and in the DIII-D divertor tokamak. The cent

  13. Generic substitution of antihypertensive drugs : does it affect adherence?

    Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius


    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution is an important opportunity to reduce the costs of pharmaceutical care. However, pharmacists and physicians often find that patients and brand-name manufacturers have doubt about the equivalence of the substituted drug. This may be reflected by decreased adherence to

  14. Adherence Process Research on Developmental Interventions: Filling in the Middle.

    Hogue, Aaron


    Presents a framework and some practical examples for using rigorous implementation research to inform program outcomes and foster program development for developmental interventions. Focuses on: (1) role of process research, specifically developing developmental interventions; (2) characteristics of adherence process research; and (3)…

  15. Intervention Adherence for Research and Practice: Necessity or Triage Outcome?

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; Lentz, F. Edward, Jr.


    Intervention integrity or adherence describes qualities of carrying out an intervention plan and in research is fundamentally linked to experimental validity questions addressed by measurement of independent and dependent variables. Integrity has been well described in conceptual writing but has been a continuing thorny subject in research and…

  16. Adherence with Universal Precautions after Immediate, Personalized Performance Feedback

    Luke, Molli M.; Alavosius, Mark


    We evaluated the effects of immediate, personalized performance feedback on adherence with hand hygiene by health-care staff in the context of a multiple baseline design across participants. Target behaviors reached mastery levels and were maintained near 100% throughout 2 months of maintenance probes. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  17. Noninfectious uveitis: strategies to optimize treatment compliance and adherence

    Dolz-Marco R


    Full Text Available Rosa Dolz-Marco,1 Roberto Gallego-Pinazo,1 Manuel Díaz-Llopis,2 Emmett T Cunningham Jr,3–6 J Fernando Arévalo7,8 1Unit of Macula, Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 5The Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco Medical Center, 6West Coast Retina Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 7Vitreoretina Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 8Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Noninfectious uveitis includes a heterogenous group of sight-threatening ocular and systemic disorders. Significant progress has been made in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis in recent years, particularly with regard to the effective use of corticosteroids and non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs, including biologic agents. All of these therapeutic approaches are limited, however, by any given patient’s ability to comply with and adhere to their prescribed treatment. In fact, compliance and adherence are among the most important patient-related determinants of treatment success. We discuss strategies to optimize compliance and adherence. Keywords: noninfectious uveitis, intraocular inflammation, immunosuppressive treatment, adherence, compliance, therapeutic failure

  18. Elder and Caregiver Solutions to Improve Medication Adherence

    O'Quin, K. E.; Semalulu, T.; Orom, H.


    Medication mismanagement is a growing public health concern, especially among elders. Annually, it is a major contributor to emergency hospitalization and nursing home placement. Elders and their caregivers, as healthcare consumers and stakeholders in this issue, are uniquely qualified to inform strategies to improve medication adherence. We…

  19. Adherence to Infliximab Treatment in a Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort.

    Vitale, David S; Greenley, Rachel N; Lerner, Diana G; Mavis, Alisha M; Werlin, Steven L


    The aims of the study were to describe infliximab adherence in a pediatric inflammatory bowel disease cohort, to identify demographic and disease factors associated with adherence, and to examine differences in acute care use among adherent and nonadherent patients. Charts of patients who received infliximab at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin (CHW) between October 2010 and October 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 151 patients met the inclusion criteria; 91.4% of the patients were adherent. Nonadherent patients had more emergency room visits and hospitalizations than adherent patients. The study is the first to show high adherence rates to infliximab in a pediatric cohort.

  20. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K


    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  1. Cellular regulation of the dopamine transporter

    Eriksen, Jacob


    -membrane spanning protein Tac, thereby creating an extracellular antibody epitope. Upon expression in HEK293 cells this TacDAT fusion protein displayed functional properties similar to the wild type transporter. In an ELISA based internalization assay, TacDAT intracellular accumulation was increased by inhibitors......The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft and is a target for widely abused psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Nonetheless, little is known about the cellular distribution and trafficking of natively expressed DAT. DAT and its trafficking...... to natively expressed transporter, DAT was visualized directly in cultured DA neurons using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC 1-64. These data showed pronounced colocalization upon constitutive internalization with Lysotracker, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker; however only little cololization was observed...

  2. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai


    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Bioceramics for osteogenesis, molecular and cellular advances.

    Demirkiran, Hande


    The remarkable need for bone tissue replacement in clinical situations, its limited availability and some major drawbacks of autologous (from the patient) and allogeneic (from a donor) bone grafts are driving researchers to search for alternative approaches for bone repair. In order to develop an appropriate bone substitute, one should understand bone structure and properties and its growth, which will guide researchers to select the optimal conditions for tissue culture and implantation. It's well accepted that bioceramics are excellent candidates as bone replacement with osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction capacity. Therefore, the molecular and cellular interactions that take place at the surface of bioceramics and their relevance in osteogenesis excites many researchers to delve deeper into this line of research.

  4. Surface structures and adherence properties of diverse strains of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

    St Geme, J W; Gilsdorf, J R; Falkow, S


    Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius is an important cause of conjunctivitis and has recently been associated with Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF), a fulminant systemic disease of children. To gain insight into the bacterial factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, we investigated the surface structures and adherence properties of eight different strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius, including both BPF and non-BPF isolates. All eight strains were able to express long peritrichous pili similar to those observed in H. influenzae. As in H. influenzae, piliation correlated with colony binding of human erythrocytes. However, two strains were capable of hemagglutination in the absence of pili; in these strains, hemagglutination was insensitive to protease treatment, suggesting a nonproteinaceous hemagglutinin. All strains possessed short, thin, surface fibers distinct from long pili and demonstrated efficient attachment to cultured human conjunctival cells. Attachment to conjunctival cells occurred independently of long pili or a capacity for hemagglutination.

  5. Interventions for enhancing medication compliance/adherence with benefits in treatment outcomes

    Hagen, Anja


    counseling in problem cases for diabetics, different family based interventions including repeated family counseling, education and "culturally modified family therapy" in patients with schizophrenia, repeated "compliance therapy" sessions for patients with acute psychosis. For other interventions the results should be viewed with more concern (because of the poor methodical quality of the underlying studies. The effect size of the interventions can not be estimated from the available data. From the available data, no reliable results can be provided concerning the cost-benefit relation of these strategies. Discussion: Many of the reported studies had a poor reporting and methodological quality. The reliability of the conclusions of the studies is restricted because of methodical shortcomings. Efficacy and cost estimates determined in the health economic studies are not transferable to the current situation in Germany. It has been discussed recently that the compliance or adherence enhancing interventions can restrict the autonomy and the privacy of the patients. Conclusions: In drug therapy some compliance or adherence enhancing interventions with concomitant positive effect on the treatment outcome may be used. The cost-benefit relation of these interventions is to be estimated. Using these interventions the patient’s autonomy and privacy are to be restricted as few as possible.

  6. Developing a generic, individualised adherence programme for chronic medication users

    Herborg H


    Full Text Available Objective: The scope of this article is to describe the background for and content of an adherence counselling programme with a specific focus on an individualised, multi-dimensional adherence model for patients with a potential adherence problem (a so-called ‘individualised systems model’.Methods: An intervention programme based on WHO’s systems model for adherence was developed for implementation in primary health care and tested in a development project in Danish pharmacies in 2004-2005 in three pharmacies and 4 GP practices by 27 patients. Data were collected from the participants by registration forms, questionnaires, and focus groups. Since the programme was to support patients in the self-management process regarding choice and implementation of medication treatment, various strategies were used and different theoretical assumptions and choices made prior to setting up the study. These strategies include distinguishing between different types of non-adherence, a model for stages of change, self-efficacy, narratives, motivating interviewing strategies and coaching techniques. These strategic and theoretical choices are described in the article. Results: The strategies and theoretical reflections formed the platform for the creation of a counselling programme, which was tested in two forms, a basic and an extended version - provided by either a pharmaconomist or a pharmacist. The result section also describes a toolbox of instruments to enable pharmacy staff and GPs to tailor a counselling programme for patients individually called ‘Safe and effective use of medicines’. Besides, the results include a description of how the WHO-model is transformed into an individualised counselling model.

  7. Cellular interactions with tissue-engineered microenvironments and nanoparticles

    Pan, Zhi

    Tissue-engineered hydrogels composed of intermolecularlly crosslinked hyaluronan (HA-DTPH) and fibronectin functional domains (FNfds) were applied as a physiological relevant ECM mimic with controlled mechanical and biochemical properties. Cellular interactions with this tissue-engineered environment, especially physical interactions (cellular traction forces), were quantitatively measured by using the digital image speckle correlation (DISC) technique and finite element method (FEM). By correlating with other cell functions such as cell morphology and migration, a comprehensive structure-function relationship between cells and their environments was identified. Furthermore, spatiotemporal redistribution of cellular traction stresses was time-lapse measured during cell migration to better understand the dynamics of cell mobility. The results suggest that the reinforcement of the traction stresses around the nucleus, as well as the relaxation of nuclear deformation, are critical steps during cell migration, serving as a speed regulator, which must be considered in any dynamic molecular reconstruction model of tissue cell migration. Besides single cell migration, en masse cell migration was studied by using agarose droplet migration assay. Cell density was demonstrated to be another important parameter to influence cell behaviors besides substrate properties. Findings from these studies will provide fundamental design criteria to develop novel and effective tissue-engineered constructs. Cellular interactions with rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were also studied. These particles can penetrate easily through the cell membrane and impair cell function, with the latter being more damaging. The exposure to nanoparticles was found to decrease cell area, cell proliferation, motility, and contractility. To prevent this, a dense grafted polymer brush coating was applied onto the nanoparticle surface. These modified nanoparticles failed to adhere to and penetrate

  8. Classifying cellular automata using grossone

    D'Alotto, Louis


    This paper proposes an application of the Infinite Unit Axiom and grossone, introduced by Yaroslav Sergeyev (see [7] - [12]), to the development and classification of one and two-dimensional cellular automata. By the application of grossone, new and more precise nonarchimedean metrics on the space of definition for one and two-dimensional cellular automata are established. These new metrics allow us to do computations with infinitesimals. Hence configurations in the domain space of cellular automata can be infinitesimally close (but not equal). That is, they can agree at infinitely many places. Using the new metrics, open disks are defined and the number of points in each disk computed. The forward dynamics of a cellular automaton map are also studied by defined sets. It is also shown that using the Infinite Unit Axiom, the number of configurations that follow a given configuration, under the forward iterations of cellular automaton maps, can now be computed and hence a classification scheme developed based on this computation.

  9. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Preetish Ranjan


    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  10. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  11. Monitoring changes in proteome during stepwise adaptation of a MDCK cell line from adherence to growth in suspension.

    Kluge, Sabine; Benndorf, Dirk; Genzel, Yvonne; Scharfenberg, Klaus; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo


    Adaptation of continuous cell lines to growth in suspension in a chemically defined medium has significant advantages for design and optimization in manufacturing of biologicals. In this work, changes in the protein expression level during a step-wise adaptation of an adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to suspension growth were analyzed. Therefore, three cell line adaptations were performed independently. Two adaptations were monitored closely to characterize short term changes in protein expression levels after serum deprivation. In addition, initial stages of suspension growth were analyzed for both adaptations. The third adaptation involved MDCK suspension cells (MDCKSUS2) grown over an extended time period to achieve robust growth characteristics. Here, cells of the final stage of adaptation were compared with their parental cell line (MDCKADH). A combination of two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis for relative protein quantification and tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification enabled insights into cellular physiology. The two closely monitored cell line adaptations followed different routes regarding specific changes in protein expression but resulted in similar proteome profiles at the initial stages of suspension growth analyzed. Compared to the MDCKADH cells more than 90% of all changes in the protein expression level were identified after serum deprivation and were related to cytoskeletal structure, genetic information processing and cellular metabolism. Myosin proteins, involved in cellular detachment by actin-myosin contractile mechanisms were also differentially expressed. Interestingly, for both of the two adaptations, proteins linked for tumorigenicity, like lactoylglutathione lyase and sulfotransferase 1A1 were differentially expressed. In contrast, none of these proteins were differentially expressed for the MDCKSUS2 cell line. Overall, proteomic monitoring allowed identification of key proteins involved in

  12. Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells

    Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W.; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Sims, Christopher E.; Venugopalan, Vasan


    We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass–pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s−1 through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s−1 and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining

  13. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD.

  14. Urine culture

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  15. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria


    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins.

  16. ART adherence changes among patients in community substance use treatment: a preliminary analysis from MACH14

    Rosen Marc I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiate substitution treatment has been associated with better adherence to lifesaving antiretroviral medications, but the impact of other substance abuse treatment on adherence is unknown. Findings In this study, 215 patients who had been in adherence-focused research studies provided electronically-measured adherence data and a measure of whether the patient had recently been in substance abuse treatment. Recent engagement in substance abuse treatment was independently associated with significantly higher adherence, after covarying for recent substance use and other factors potentially affecting adherence. Conclusions The findings suggest that substance abuse treatment is associated with better adherence. Potential mechanisms by which substance abuse treatment improves adherence, such as more stability or more future-orientation, require further study.

  17. Development of new concepts of non-adherence measurements among users of antihypertensives medicines

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Bjerrum, Lars; Herborg, Hanne;


    nonadherence (associated with aspects of self-regulation and effect concerns, respectively) and one measure of non-intentional non-adherence. Prevalence of the developed measures of behaviour related non-adherence ranged from 10.3 to 34.9% depending on which type of non-adherence measure was used. Established...... measures of non-adherence resulted in prevalence between 2.2 and 39.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that concepts of non-adherence measurements could be determined including self-efficacy aspects, unintentional non-adherence and intentional non-adherence related to self-regulation and effect concerns......: Users of antihypertensive medication were included in the study. 2,914 medication users received questionnaires by mail. Participating patients were asked to fill in two questionnaire regarding demographics, self-reported blood pressure, and various adherence measures. Two factor analyses were conducted...

  18. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis.

    Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara


    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behaviour in chronically ill patients. Correlations from the included articles were meta-analysed using a random-size effect model. A moderation analysis was conducted for the type of adherence behaviour. The effect sizes for the different mental representations and adherence constructs ranged from -0.02 to 0.12. Further analyses showed that the relationship between the mental representations and adherence did not differ by the type of adherence behaviour. The low-effect sizes indicate that the relationships between the different mental representations of the CSM and adherence are very weak. Therefore, the CSM may not be the most appropriate model to use in predictive studies of adherence.

  19. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A


    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections.

  20. Adherence to inhaled therapies, health outcomes and costs in patients with asthma and COPD

    Mäkelä, Mika J; Backer, Vibeke; Hedegaard, Morten;


    Suboptimal adherence to pharmacological treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has adverse effects on disease control and treatment costs. The reasons behind non-adherence revolve around patient knowledge/education, inhaler device convenience and satisfaction, age...

  1. Adherence to a Yoga Program in Older Women with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Savik, Kay


    Yoga is beneficial for osteoarthritis (OA) management in older adults; however, adherence to yoga practice is unknown. The purposes of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) yoga adherence during the intervention and follow-up periods; (2) the relationship between social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs and adherence; and (3) the impact of adherence on OA-related symptoms in 36 community-dwelling older women with knee OA. SCT was used as a framework to promote adherence to a yoga intervention program that included both group/homebased practices. Adherence to yoga was high during the intervention period but decreased over time. Although SCT was a useful framework for reducing attrition during the intervention, self-efficacy was the only construct that correlated with class attendance. Higher yoga adherence was correlated with improved symptoms, physical function, sleep quality, and quality of life. Yoga adherers were likely to be older, less educated, and had a lower body mass index than nonadherers.

  2. Safeguards Culture

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.


    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  3. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature

    Costa E


    Full Text Available Elísio Costa,1 Anna Giardini,2 Magda Savin,3 Enrica Menditto,4 Elaine Lehane,5 Olga Laosa,6 Sergio Pecorelli,7,8 Alessandro Monaco,7 Alessandra Marengoni9On behalf of the A1 Action group “Prescription and Adherence to Medical Plans”, European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing1UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 2Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Montescano (PV, Pavia, Italy; 3European Association of Pharmaceutical Full-line Wholesalers, Brussels, Belgium; 4CIRFF/Center of Pharmacoeconomics, School of Pharmacy, University of Naples FedericoII, Nápoles, Italy; 5Catherine McAuley School of Nursing and Midwifery, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 6Centro de Investigación Clínica del Anciano Fundación para la Investigación Biomédica, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Spain; 7Italian Medicines Agency – AIFA, Rome, Italy; 8University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 9Department of Clinical and Experimental Science, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: Medication adherence and persistence is recognized as a worldwide public health problem, particularly important in the management of chronic diseases. Nonadherence to medical plans affects every level of the population, but particularly older adults due to the high number of coexisting diseases they are affected by and the consequent polypharmacy. Chronic disease management requires a continuous psychological adaptation and behavioral reorganization. In literature, many interventions to improve medication adherence have been described for different clinical conditions, however, most interventions seem to fail in their aims. Moreover, most interventions associated with adherence improvements are not associated with improvements in other outcomes. Indeed, in the last decades, the degree of nonadherence remained unchanged. In this work, we

  4. Modeling the impact of increased adherence to asthma therapy.

    Amory Schlender

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medications occurs in up to 70% of patients with asthma. The effect of improving adherence is not well quantified. We developed a mathematical model with which to assess the population-level effects of improving medication prescribing and adherence for asthma. METHODS: A mathematical model, calibrated to clinical trial data from the U.S. NHLBI-funded SOCS trial and validated using data from the NHLBI SLIC trial, was used to model the effects of increased prescribing and adherence to asthma controllers. The simulated population consisted of 4,930 individuals with asthma, derived from a sample the National Asthma Survey. Main outcomes were controller use, reliever use, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency department (ED visits, and hospitalizations. RESULTS: For the calibration, simulated outcomes agreed closely with SOCS trial outcomes, with treatment failure hazard ratios [95% confidence interval] of 0.92 [0.58-1.26], 0.97 [0.49-1.45], and 1.01 [0-1.87] for simulation vs. trial in the in placebo, salmeterol, and triamcinolone arms, respectively. For validation, simulated outcomes predicted mid- and end-point treatment failure rates, hazard ratios 1.21 [0.08-2.34] and 0.83 [0.60-1.07], respectively, for patients treated with salmeterol/triamcinolone during the first half of the SLIC study and salmeterol monotherapy during the second half. The model performed less well for patients treated with salmeterol/triamcinolone during the entire study duration, with mid- and end-point hazard ratios 0.83 [0.00-2.12] and 0.37 [0.10-0.65], respectively. Simulation of optimal adherence and prescribing indicated that closing adherence and prescription gaps could prevent as many as nine million unscheduled doctor visits, four million emergency department visits, and one million asthma-related hospitalizations each year in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in medication adherence and prescribing could have a substantial impact on

  5. Effect of tylosin tartrate (Tylan Soluble) on cellular immune responses in chickens.

    Baba, T; Yamashita, N; Kodama, H; Mukamoto, M; Asada, M; Nakamoto, K; Nose, Y; McGruder, E D


    Although many antimicrobial agents have been reported to cause immunosuppression in animals, macrolide antibiotics enhance immune function. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic approved for the control of mycoplasmosis in poultry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of tylosin on cellular immune functions in chickens. There was no significant difference in adherent splenocyte chemotaxis between tylosin-treated and untreated (control) chickens. Tylosin increased splenocyte proliferation and splenocyte conditioned medium (CM) proliferative activity above control levels. Removal of adherent splenocytes before preparation of CM caused a reduction in CM proliferative activity. Tylosin also increased antitumor activity of splenocytes. These data are the first to suggest that the macrolide antibiotic, tylosin tartrate, has a modulatory effect in chickens on the immune parameters studied.

  6. Organizational Culture

    Adrian HUDREA


    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  7. Significant improvement in statin adherence and cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction

    Brogaard, Hilde Vaiva Tonstad; Køhn, Morten Ganderup; Berget, Oline Sofie


    Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time.......Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time....

  8. Factors influencing adherence to paediatric antiretroviral therapy in Portharcourt, South- South Nigeria

    Ugwu, Rosemary; Eneh, Augusta


    Introduction The efficiency of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on a near-perfect level of patient's adherence. Adherence in children poses peculiar challenges. The aim of the study was to determine the adherence level and factors influencing adherence among HIV-infected children and adolescents in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected children and adolescents on ART using self-report by the caregiver/child in the past one...

  9. Cognitive functioning, depression, and HIV medication adherence in India: a randomized pilot trial

    Cook, Ryan; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Sharma, Aman; Vamos, Szonja; Mahajan, Biraaj; Weiss, Stephen M.; Kumar, Mahendra; Nehra, Ritu; Jones, Deborah L


    Objective: India is home to the third-largest number of people living with HIV in the world, and no-cost antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available across the country since 2004. However, rates of adherence to ART are often subpar in India, and interventions to increase adherence are warranted. Cognitive impairment and depression have been associated with ART non-adherence, and may also limit the impact of behavioral interventions designed to improve adherence. Studies have not evaluated...

  10. Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women.

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S


    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.

  11. Flexible substrata for the detection of cellular traction forces

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-Li


    By modulating adhesion signaling and cytoskeletal organization, mechanical forces play an important role in various cellular functions, from propelling cell migration to mediating communication between cells. Recent developments have resulted in several new approaches for the detection, analysis and visualization of mechanical forces generated by cultured cells. Combining these methods with other approaches, such as green-fluorescent protein (GFP) imaging and gene manipulation, proves to be particularly powerful for analyzing the interplay between extracellular physical forces and intracellular chemical events.

  12. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  13. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    Tran, MQT; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian H.;


    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-...

  14. An exploration of patient perceptions of adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Tanzania.

    Boogaard, J. van den; Msoka, E.; Homfray, M.; Kibiki, G.S.; Heldens, J.J.; Felling, A.J.; Aarnoutse, R.E.


    In this study, we aimed to explore patient perceptions of adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment and construct a theoretical model of treatment adherence behavior. We conducted semistructured interviews with 11 adherent patients from Tanzania whom we recruited by purposive sampling. The interview

  15. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

    Okopi, Fidel O.


    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  16. It's the adherence, stupid (that determines asthma control in preschool children)!

    Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L.


    Although guideline-based asthma care and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids are predictors of asthma control, the role of adherence in maintaining long-term asthma control is largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and long-

  17. Refill adherence and polypharmacy among patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice

    van Bruggen, Rykel; Gorter, Kees; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zuithoff, Peter; Klungel, Olaf H.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.


    Background and Aims Non-adherence is considered a major barrier to better outcomes of diabetes care. A relationship has been established between polypharmacy and patients' adherence. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of polypharmacy and non-adherence in general practice, their mutual rel

  18. Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids and Patient Perception : Towards a better understanding and individualised care

    Menckeberg, T.T.


    In this thesis we aimed to further deepen knowledge on factors associated with nonadherence to provide means to improve adherence. We evaluated several methods of assessing adherence. At first, we evaluated the accuracy of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS), a structured method for eliciti

  19. Factors Associated with the Accuracy of Physicians’ Predictions of Patient Adherence

    Phillips, L. Alison; Leventhal, Elaine A.; Leventhal, Howard


    Objective Physicians are inaccurate in predicting non-adherence in patients, a problem that interferes with physicians’: 1) appropriate prescribing decisions and 2) effective prevention/intervention of non-adherence. The purpose of the current study is to investigate potential reasons for the poor accuracy of physicians’ adherence-predictions and conditions under which their predictions may be more accurate. Methods After the medical encounter, predictions of patient-adherence and other ratings from primary-care physicians (n=24) regarding patient-factors that may have influenced their predictions were collected. Patients (n=288) rated their agreement regarding the prescribed treatment after the encounter and reported adherence one month later. Results Several factors were related to physicians’ adherence-predictions, including physicians’ perceptions of patient-agreement regarding treatment. However, some factors were not related to adherence and agreement-perceptions were inaccurate overall, potentially contributing to the poor accuracy of adherence-predictions. The degree to which physicians discussed treatment-specifics with the patient moderated agreement-perception accuracy but not adherence-prediction accuracy. Conclusions Training providers to discuss certain treatment-specifics with patients may improve their ability to perceive patient-agreement regarding treatment and may directly improve patient-adherence. Practice Implications Discussing treatment-specifics with patients may directly improve adherence, but providers should not rely on these discussions to give them accurate estimates of the patients’ likely adherence. PMID:21501943

  20. Porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines as a new in vitro model for studying adherence and pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Koh, Seung Y; George, Sajan; Brözel, Volker; Moxley, Rodney; Francis, David; Kaushik, Radhey S


    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections result in large economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The organism causes diarrhea by adhering to and colonizing enterocytes in the small intestines. While much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ETEC, no homologous intestinal epithelial cultures suitable for studying porcine ETEC pathogenesis have been described prior to this report. In the current study, we investigated the adherence of various porcine ETEC strains to two porcine (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) and one human (INT-407) small intestinal epithelial cell lines. Each cell line was assessed for its ability to support the adherence of E. coli expressing fimbrial adhesins K88ab, K88ac, K88ad, K99, F41, 987P, and F18. Wild-type ETEC expressing K88ab, K88ac, and K88ad efficiently bound to both IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells. An ETEC strain expressing both K99 and F41 bound heavily to both porcine cell lines but an E. coli strain expressing only K99 bound very poorly to these cells. E. coli expressing F18 adhesin strongly bound to IPEC-1 cells but did not adhere to IPEC-J2 cells. The E. coli strains G58-1 and 711 which express no fimbrial adhesins and those that express 987P fimbriae failed to bind to either porcine cell line. Only strains B41 and K12:K99 bound in abundance to INT-407 cells. The binding of porcine ETEC to IPEC-J2, IPEC-1 and INT-407 with varying affinities, together with lack of binding of 987P ETEC and non-fimbriated E. coli strains, suggests strain-specific E. coli binding to these cell lines. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of porcine intestinal cell lines for studying ETEC pathogenesis.