WorldWideScience

Sample records for adherence distribution evolution

  1. On World Religion Adherence Distribution Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Petroni, Filippo

    Religious adherence can be considered as a degree of freedom, in a statistical physics sense, for a human agent belonging to a population. The distribution, performance and life time of religions can thus be studied having in mind heterogeneous interacting agent modeling. We present a comprehensive analysis of 58 so-called religions (to be better defined in the main text) as measured through their number of adherents evolutions, between 1900 and 2000, - data taken from the World Christian Trends (Barrett and Johnson, "World Christian Trends AD 30 - AD 2200: Interpreting the Annual Christian Megacensus", William Carey Library, 2001): 40 are considered to be "presently growing" cases, including 11 turn overs in the twentieth century; 18 are "presently decaying", among which 12 are found to have had a recent maximum, in the nineteenth or the twentieth century. The Avrami-Kolmogorov differential equation which usually describes solid state transformations, like crystal growth, is used in each case in order to obtain the preferential attachment parameter introduced previously (Europhys Lett 77:38002, 2007). It is not often found close to unity, though often corresponding to a smooth evolution. However large values suggest the occurrence of extreme cases which we conjecture are controlled by so-called external fields. A few cases indicate the likeliness of a detachment process. We discuss a few growing and decaying religions, and illustrate various fits. Some cases seem to indicate the lack of reliability of the data, but others some marked departure from Avrami law. Whence the Avrami evolution equation might be surely improved, in particular, and somewhat obviously, for the decaying religion cases. We point out two major difficulties in such an analysis: (1) the "precise" original time of apparition of a religion, (2) the time at which there is a maximum number of adherents, both information being necessary for integrating reliably any evolution equation.

  2. Predictors and Evolution of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, José; Delmas, Philippe; de Menezes Succi, Regina Célia; Galano, Eliana; Auger, Patricia; Sylvain, Hélène; Colson, Sebastien; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2016-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy medication adherence is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple factors. This study examines its evolution and predictors among perinatally HIV-infected youths in São Paulo, Brazil. During a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, perinatally HIV-infected youths aged 13-21 years taking antiretroviral therapy were recruited in hospitals and HIV/AIDS reference centers. Data were collected at baseline and after 12 months. Variables assessed were adherence, self-efficacy regarding medication intake, social support, stress level, depression, CD4 cell count, viral load, and symptoms. Adherence was defined as taking ≥95% of prescribed HIV medication in the past 7 days. Generalized estimating equation and analysis of variance methods were used. A total of 268 adolescents participated in the study (59% female; mean age of 16 years). At baseline, 63.06% of the sample was adherent to their HIV medication, and 52.99% had an undetectable viral load. All participants, regardless of adherence, reported: low levels of stress and symptoms of depression; high perception of medication self-efficacy and social support; and a mean of 6.8 symptoms related to their HIV medication. Predictors of adherence were: high perception of medication self-efficacy (odds ratio = 2.81; 95% confidence interval: 1.94-4.05) and low number of reported medication side effects (odds ratio = .97; 95% confidence interval: .95-.99]. Between baseline and follow-up, 49.6% remained adherent, 22.3% remained nonadherent, and the adherence level changed over time for 28.2%. These findings suggest the need to develop interventions to enhance self-efficacy toward medication and to help youth better manage HIV medication symptoms. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  4. Time evolution of distribution functions in dissipative environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Li-Yun; Chen Fei; Wang Zi-Sheng; Fan Hong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    By introducing the thermal entangled state representation, we investigate the time evolution of distribution functions in the dissipative channels by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time distribution function. We find that most of them are expressed as such integrations over the Laguerre—Gaussian function. Furthermore, as applications, we derive the time evolution of photon-counting distribution by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time photon-counting distribution, and the time evolution of R-function characteristic of nonclassicality depth. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Regge behaviour of distribution functions and evolution of gluon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    work we solved DGLAP evolution equation for gluon distribution function at low-x in next-to-leading order (NLO) and the t and x-evolutions of gluon distribution function thus obtained have been compared with global MRST2004 and GRV98 parametrizations. In PQCD, since the higher-order terms in the leading logarithmic.

  6. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  7. Correlations in double parton distributions. Effects of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Keane, Shane; Kasemets, Tomas; Vrije Univ., Amsterdam

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact of scale evolution on double parton distributions, which are needed to compute multiple hard scattering processes. Assuming correlations between longitudinal and transverse variables or between the parton spins to be present at a low scale, we study how they are affected by evolution to higher scales, i.e. by repeated parton emission. We find that generically evolution tends to wash out correlations, but with a speed that may be slow or fast depending on kinematics and on the type of correlation. Nontrivial parton correlations may hence persist in double parton distributions at the high scales relevant for hard scattering processes.

  8. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method of analytic evolution of distribution amplitudes (DA) that have singularities, such as non-zero values at the end-points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a flat (constant) DA, anti-symmetric at DA and then use it for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials, which requires infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points, and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. The latter produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration, while in our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve, with only one or two iterations needed afterwards in order to get rather precise results.

  9. Galactic distribution and evolution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.H.; Manchester, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of pulsars with respect to period, z-distance, luminosity, and galactocentric radius has been investigated using data from three extensive pulsar surveys. It is shown that selection effects only slightly modify the observed period and z-distributions but strongly affect the observed luminosity function and galactic distribution. These latter two distributions are computed from the Jodrell Bank and Arecibo data, using an iterative procedure. The largest uncertainties in our results are the result of uncertainty in the adopted distance scale. Therefore, where relevant, separate calculations have been made for two values of the average interstellar electron density, , 0.02 cm -3 and 0.03 cm -3 .The derived luminosity function is closely represented by a power law with index (for logarithmic luminosity intervals) close to -1. For =0.03 cm -3 , the density of potentially observable pulsars is about 90 kpc -2 in the local region and increases with decreasing galactocentric radius. These distributions imply that the total number of pulsars in the Galaxy is about 10 5 . If only a fraction of all pulsars are observable because of beaming effects, then the total number in the Galaxy is correspondingly greater.Recent observations of pulsar proper motions show that pulsars are generally high-velocity objects. The observed z-distribution of pulsars implies that the mean age of observable pulsars does not exceed 2 x 10 6 years. With this mean age the pulsar birthrate required to maintain the observed galactic distribution is 10 -4 yr -1 kpc -2 in the local region and one pulsar birth every 6 years in the Galaxy as a whole. For =0.02 cm -3 , the corresponding rate is one birth every 40 years. These rates exceed most estimates of supernova occurrence rates and may require that all stars with mass greater than approx.2.5 Msun form pulsars at the end of their evolutionary life

  10. The evolution of a distributed operating system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Renesse, Robbert; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.; Mullender, Sape J.; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Wolfgang

    AMOEBA is a research project to build a true distributed operating system using the object model. Under the COST11-ter MANDIS project this work was extended to cover wide-area networks. Besides describing the system, this paper discusses the successive versions in the implementation of its model,

  11. ATLAS Distributed Computing: Experience and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nairz, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has just concluded its first running period which commenced in 2010. After two years of remarkable performance from the LHC and ATLAS, the experiment has accumulated more than 25 fb-1 of data. The total volume of beam and simulated data products exceeds 100 PB distributed across more than 150 computing centers around the world, managed by the experiment's distributed data management system. These sites have provided up to 150,000 computing cores to ATLAS's global production and analysis processing system, enabling a rich physics program including the discovery of the Higgs-like boson in 2012. The wealth of accumulated experience in global data-intensive computing at this massive scale, and the considerably more challenging requirements of LHC computing from 2014 when the LHC resumes operation, are driving a comprehensive design and development cycle to prepare a revised computing model together with data processing and management systems able to meet the demands of higher trigger rates, e...

  12. ATLAS distributed computing: experience and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nairz, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has just concluded its first running period which commenced in 2010. After two years of remarkable performance from the LHC and ATLAS, the experiment has accumulated more than 25/fb of data. The total volume of beam and simulated data products exceeds 100~PB distributed across more than 150 computing centres around the world, managed by the experiment's distributed data management system. These sites have provided up to 150,000 computing cores to ATLAS's global production and analysis processing system, enabling a rich physics programme including the discovery of the Higgs-like boson in 2012. The wealth of accumulated experience in global data-intensive computing at this massive scale, and the considerably more challenging requirements of LHC computing from 2015 when the LHC resumes operation, are driving a comprehensive design and development cycle to prepare a revised computing model together with data processing and management systems able to meet the demands of higher trigger rates, e...

  13. ATLAS distributed computing: experience and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairz, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has just concluded its first running period which commenced in 2010. After two years of remarkable performance from the LHC and ATLAS, the experiment has accumulated more than 25 fb −1 of data. The total volume of beam and simulated data products exceeds 100 PB distributed across more than 150 computing centres around the world, managed by the experiment's distributed data management system. These sites have provided up to 150,000 computing cores to ATLAS's global production and analysis processing system, enabling a rich physics programme including the discovery of the Higgs-like boson in 2012. The wealth of accumulated experience in global data-intensive computing at this massive scale, and the considerably more challenging requirements of LHC computing from 2015 when the LHC resumes operation, are driving a comprehensive design and development cycle to prepare a revised computing model together with data processing and management systems able to meet the demands of higher trigger rates, energies and event complexities. An essential requirement will be the efficient utilisation of current and future processor technologies as well as a broad range of computing platforms, including supercomputing and cloud resources. We will report on experience gained thus far and our progress in preparing ATLAS computing for the future

  14. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Distribution amplitudes (DAs) are the basic functions that contain information about the quark momentum. DAs are necessary to describe hard exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics. We describe a method of analytic evolution of DAs that have singularities such as nonzero values at the end points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a at (constant) DA, antisymmetric at DA, and then use the method for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach to DA evolution has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials [1, 2] and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. Expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials requires an infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points. Straightforward iteration of an initial distribution produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration. In our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve. Afterwards, in order to get precise results, only one or two iterations are needed.

  15. Probability evolution method for exit location distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Xianbin

    2018-03-01

    The exit problem in the framework of the large deviation theory has been a hot topic in the past few decades. The most probable escape path in the weak-noise limit has been clarified by the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional. However, noise in real physical systems cannot be arbitrarily small while noise with finite strength may induce nontrivial phenomena, such as noise-induced shift and noise-induced saddle-point avoidance. Traditional Monte Carlo simulation of noise-induced escape will take exponentially large time as noise approaches zero. The majority of the time is wasted on the uninteresting wandering around the attractors. In this paper, a new method is proposed to decrease the escape simulation time by an exponentially large factor by introducing a series of interfaces and by applying the reinjection on them. This method can be used to calculate the exit location distribution. It is verified by examining two classical examples and is compared with theoretical predictions. The results show that the method performs well for weak noise while may induce certain deviations for large noise. Finally, some possible ways to improve our method are discussed.

  16. Q2 evolution of a soft gluon distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkovskij, L.L.; Kotikov, A.V.; Pakkanoni, F.

    1992-01-01

    Model parameter dependence refferring to the function of gluon distribution linked with the exchange of a dipole pomeron from Q 2 is calculated within the framework of the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation (GLAP) both in the leading logarithm approximation and in the double logarithmic approximation. The behaviour of logarithmic parametrization ∼ (ln(1/x)) b appears to be unstable in relation to perturbative calculations

  17. Evolution of longitudinal equilibrium distribution in the adiabatic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    Evolution of longitudinal equilibrium distribution of a hadron bunch under the beam-environment interaction is investigated based on a self-consistent solution of the Vlasov equation. The effect of this interaction on the distribution can be characterized by a dimensionless quantity in analogy to the one describing the microwave-instability criterion. In the case that the coupling impedance (Z/n) is reactive and frequency independent, the change in the distribution results in a stabilization that keeps the bunch below the instability threshold; microwave instability is thus eliminated. Monte Carlo simulation for the microwave instability agrees with analytic solution of the Vlasov equation provided that bunch shape distortion due to the coupling is taken into account

  18. Evolution of truncated moments of singlet parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, S.; Magnea, L.; Piccione, A.; Ridolfi, G.

    2001-01-01

    We define truncated Mellin moments of parton distributions by restricting the integration range over the Bjorken variable to the experimentally accessible subset x 0 ≤x≤1 of the allowed kinematic range 0≤x≤1. We derive the evolution equations satisfied by truncated moments in the general (singlet) case in terms of an infinite triangular matrix of anomalous dimensions which couple each truncated moment to all higher moments with orders differing by integers. We show that the evolution of any moment can be determined to arbitrarily good accuracy by truncating the system of coupled moments to a sufficiently large but finite size, and show how the equations can be solved in a way suitable for numerical applications. We discuss in detail the accuracy of the method in view of applications to precision phenomenology

  19. From evolution theory to parallel and distributed genetic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Lecture #1: From Evolution Theory to Evolutionary Computation. Evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems, which are based to some degree on the evolution of biological life in the natural world. In this tutorial we will review the source of inspiration for this metaheuristic and its capability for solving problems. We will show the main flavours within the field, and different problems that have been successfully solved employing this kind of techniques. Lecture #2: Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming. The successful application of Genetic Programming (GP, one of the available Evolutionary Algorithms) to optimization problems has encouraged an increasing number of researchers to apply these techniques to a large set of problems. Given the difficulty of some problems, much effort has been applied to improving the efficiency of GP during the last few years. Among the available proposals,...

  20. A Distributed Snow Evolution Modeling System (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, G. E.; Elder, K.

    2004-12-01

    A spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) has been specifically designed to be applicable over a wide range of snow landscapes, climates, and conditions. To reach this goal, SnowModel is composed of four sub-models: MicroMet defines the meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowMass simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D accounts for snow redistribution by wind. While other distributed snow models exist, SnowModel is unique in that it includes a well-tested blowing-snow sub-model (SnowTran-3D) for application in windy arctic, alpine, and prairie environments where snowdrifts are common. These environments comprise 68% of the seasonally snow-covered Northern Hemisphere land surface. SnowModel also accounts for snow processes occurring in forested environments (e.g., canopy interception related processes). SnowModel is designed to simulate snow-related physical processes occurring at spatial scales of 5-m and greater, and temporal scales of 1-hour and greater. These include: accumulation from precipitation; wind redistribution and sublimation; loading, unloading, and sublimation within forest canopies; snow-density evolution; and snowpack ripening and melt. To enhance its wide applicability, SnowModel includes the physical calculations required to simulate snow evolution within each of the global snow classes defined by Sturm et al. (1995), e.g., tundra, taiga, alpine, prairie, maritime, and ephemeral snow covers. The three, 25-km by 25-km, Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) mesoscale study areas (MSAs: Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears) are used as SnowModel simulation examples to highlight model strengths, weaknesses, and features in forested, semi-forested, alpine, and shrubland environments.

  1. Impact of a pharmaceutical care program on clinical evolution and antiretroviral treatment adherence: a 5-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Arroyo MJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available María Jesús Hernández Arroyo,1 Salvador Enrique Cabrera Figueroa,2 Rosa Sepúlveda Correa,3 María de la Paz Valverde Merino,1 Alicia Iglesias Gómez,4 Alfonso Domínguez-Gil Hurlé5 On behalf of the Tormes Team 1Pharmacy Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 2Pharmacy Institute, University Austral of Chile, Valdivia, Chile; 3Department of Statistics, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 4Infectious Disease Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 5Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain Background: Antiretroviral treatments (ART form the basis of adequate clinical control in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and adherence plays a primary role in the grade and duration of the antiviral response. The objectives of this study are: (1 to determine the impact of the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program on improvement of ART adherence and on the immunovirological response of the patients; and (2 to detect possible correlations between different adherence evaluation measurements. Methods: A 60-month long retrospective study was conducted. Adherence measures used were: therapeutic drug monitoring, a simplified medication adherence questionnaire, and antiretroviral dispensation records (DR. The number of interviews and interventions related to adherence made for each patient in yearly periods was related to the changes in the adherence variable (measured with DR in these same yearly periods. The dates when the laboratory tests were drawn were grouped according to proximity with the study assessment periods (February–May, 2005–2010. Results: A total of 528 patients were included in the study. A significant relationship was observed between the simplified medication adherence questionnaire and DR over the 60-month study period (P < 0.01. Improvement was observed in the mean adherence level (P < 0.001, and there was a

  2. AGIS: Evolution of Distributed Computing information system for ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisenkov, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Alandes, M.; Karavakis, E.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS, a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, produces petabytes of data annually through simulation production and tens of petabytes of data per year from the detector itself. The ATLAS computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization of computing resources in order to meet the ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. It has been evolved after the first period of LHC data taking (Run-1) in order to cope with new challenges of the upcoming Run- 2. In this paper we describe the evolution and recent developments of the ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), developed in order to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by the ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  3. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetill S. Jakobsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin.

  4. The spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of North Atlantic cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Gray, S.

    2009-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones play a large role in determining the day-to-day weather conditions in western Europe through their associated wind and precipitation patterns. Thus, their typical spatial and evolution characteristics are of great interest to meteorologists, insurance and risk management companies. In this study a feature tracking algorithm is applied to a cyclone database produced using the Hewson-method of cyclone identification, based on low-level gradients of wet-bulb potential temperature, to produce a climatology of mid-latitude cyclones. The aim of this work is to compare the cyclone track and density statistics found in this study with previous climatologies and to determine reasons for any differences. This method is found to compare well with other cyclone identification methods; the north Atlantic storm track is reproduced along with the major regions of genesis. Differences are attributed to cyclone lifetime and strength thresholds, dataset resolution and cyclone identification and tracking methods. Previous work on cyclone development has been largely limited to case studies as opposed to analysis of climatological data, and does not distinguish between the different stages of cyclone evolution. The cyclone database used in this study allows cyclone characteristics to be tracked throughout the cyclone lifecycle. This enables the evaluation of the characteristics of cyclone evolution for systems forming in different genesis regions and a calculation of the spatial distribution and evolution of these characteristics in composite cyclones. It was found that most of the cyclones that cross western Europe originate in the east Atlantic where the baroclinicity and sea surface temperature gradients are weak compared to the west Atlantic. East Atlantic cyclones also have higher low-level relative vorticity and lower mean sea level pressure at their genesis point than west Atlantic cyclones. This is consistent with the hypothesis that they are secondary

  5. Spatial distribution, luminosity function and cosmological evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathez, G.

    1981-01-01

    The different ways of studying quasars statistics and evolution are reviewed. Attempt is given to deduce, from the observed evolution, some constraints on physical models of energy sources in quasars [fr

  6. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John, E-mail: jkissel@uw.edu

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions < 63 {mu}m, 63-150 {mu}m, 150-250 {mu}m, and 250 {mu}m-2 mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in

  7. Distribution and Evolution of Peroxisomes in Alveolates (Apicomplexa, Dinoflagellates, Ciliates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig-Klingner, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria; Jarek, Michael; Brinkmann, Henner

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The peroxisome was the last organelle to be discovered and five decades later it is still the Cinderella of eukaryotic compartments. Peroxisomes have a crucial role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and the biosynthesis of etherphospholipids, and they are assumed to be present in virtually all aerobic eukaryotes. Apicomplexan parasites including the malaria and toxoplasmosis agents were described as the first group of mitochondriate protists devoid of peroxisomes. This study was initiated to reassess the distribution and evolution of peroxisomes in the superensemble Alveolata (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, ciliates). We established transcriptome data from two chromerid algae (Chromera velia, Vitrella brassicaformis), and two dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum minimum, Perkinsus olseni) and identified the complete set of essential peroxins in all four reference species. Our comparative genome analysis provides unequivocal evidence for the presence of peroxisomes in Toxoplasma gondii and related genera. Our working hypothesis of a common peroxisomal origin of all alveolates is supported by phylogenetic analyses of essential markers such as the import receptor Pex5. Vitrella harbors the most comprehensive set of peroxisomal proteins including the catalase and the glyoxylate cycle and it is thus a promising model organism to investigate the functional role of this organelle in Apicomplexa. PMID:29202176

  8. Distribution and molecular evolution of bacillus anthracis genotypes in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Beyer

    Full Text Available The recent development of genetic markers for Bacillus anthracis has made it possible to monitor the spread and distribution of this pathogen during and between anthrax outbreaks. In Namibia, anthrax outbreaks occur annually in the Etosha National Park (ENP and on private game and livestock farms. We genotyped 384 B. anthracis isolates collected between 1983-2010 to identify the possible epidemiological correlations of anthrax outbreaks within and outside the ENP and to analyze genetic relationships between isolates from domestic and wild animals. The isolates came from 20 animal species and from the environment and were genotyped using a 31-marker multi-locus-VNTR-analysis (MLVA and, in part, by twelve single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and four single nucleotide repeat (SNR markers. A total of 37 genotypes (GT were identified by MLVA, belonging to four SNP-groups. All GTs belonged to the A-branch in the cluster- and SNP-analyses. Thirteen GTs were found only outside the ENP, 18 only within the ENP and 6 both inside and outside. Genetic distances between isolates increased with increasing time between isolations. However, genetic distance between isolates at the beginning and end of the study period was relatively small, indicating that while the majority of GTs were only found sporadically, three genetically close GTs, accounting for more than four fifths of all the ENP isolates, appeared dominant throughout the study period. Genetic distances among isolates were significantly greater for isolates from different host species, but this effect was small, suggesting that while species-specific ecological factors may affect exposure processes, transmission cycles in different host species are still highly interrelated. The MLVA data were further used to establish a model of the probable evolution of GTs within the endemic region of the ENP. SNR-analysis was helpful in correlating an isolate with its source but did not elucidate

  9. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  10. Early-stage evolution of particle size distribution with Johnson's SB function due to Brownian coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    The moment method can be used to determine the time evolution of particle size distribution due to Brownian coagulation based on the general dynamic equation (GDE). But the function form of the initial particle size distribution must be determined beforehand for the moment method. If the assumed function type of the initial particle size distribution has an obvious deviation from the true particle population, the evolution of particle size distribution may be different from the real evolution tendency. Thus, a simple and general method is proposed based on the moment method. In this method, the Johnson's S B function is chosen as a general distribution function to fit the initial distributions including the log normal (L-N), Rosin–Rammler (R-R), normal (N-N) and gamma distribution functions, respectively. Meanwhile, using the modified beta function to fit the L-N, R-R, N-N and gamma functions is also conducted as a comparison in order to present the advantage of the Johnson's S B function as the general distribution function. And then, the time evolution of particle size distributions using the Johnson's S B function as the initial distribution can be obtained by several lower order moment equations of the Johnson's S B function in conjunction with the GDE during the Brownian coagulation process. Simulation experiments indicate that fairly reasonable results of the time evolution of particle size distribution can be obtained with this proposed method in the free molecule regime, transition regime and continuum plus near continuum regime, respectively, at the early time stage of evolution. The Johnson's S B function has the ability of describing the early time evolution of different initial particle size distributions. (paper)

  11. Evolution of the sedimentation technique for particle size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, R.

    1998-01-01

    After an introduction on the significance of particle size measurements, sedimentation methods are described, with emphasis on the evolution of the gravitational approach. The gravitational technique based on mass determination by X-ray adsorption allows fast analysis by automation and easy data handling, in addition to providing the accuracy required by quality control and research applications [it

  12. The effect of particle size distributions on the microstructural evolution during sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Tikare, V.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural evolution and sintering behavior of powder compacts composed of spherical particles with different particle size distributions (PSDs) were simulated using a kinetic Monte Carlo model of solid state sintering. Compacts of monosized particles, normal PSDs with fixed mean particle...

  13. Evolution equations for connected and disconnected sea parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2017-08-01

    It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. We discuss its consequences and implications vis-á-vis lattice calculations.

  14. Space distribution of extragalactic sources - Cosmology versus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, A.; Maccacaro, T.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative cosmologies have been recurrently invoked to explain in terms of global spacetime structure the apparent large increase, with increasing redshift, in the average luminosity of active galactic nuclei. These models interestingly seek to avoid the complexities of the canonical interpretation in terms of intrinsic population evolutions in a Friedmann universe. However, a problem of consistency for these cosmologies is pointed out, since they have to include also other classes of extragalactic sources, such as clusters of galaxies and BL Lac objects, for which there is preliminary evidence of a different behavior. 40 refs

  15. The Evolution of a distributed operating system (Amoeba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Renesse, Robbert; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.; Mullender, Sape J.

    1989-01-01

    AMOEBA is a research project to build a true distributed operating system using the object model. Under the COST11-ter MANDIS project this work was extended to cover wide-area networks. Besides describing the system, this paper discusses the successive versions in the implementation of its model,

  16. AGIS: Evolution of Distributed Computing Information system for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, Alexey; The ATLAS collaboration; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Karavakis, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The variety of the ATLAS Computing Infrastructure requires a central information system to define the topology of computing resources and to store the different parameters and configuration data which are needed by the various ATLAS software components. The ATLAS Grid Information System is the system designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of the computing infrastructure used by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  17. Regge behaviour of distribution functions and t and x-evolutions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also discuss the limitations of Taylor series expansion method used earlier to solve DGLAP evolution .... F s. 2 (x/ω, t). ] , and Af = 36/(33 − 2Nf ). As the gluons are expected to be dominant at low-x, we can neglect the quark contribution to the evolution equation of gluon distribution function and we get the amount of ...

  18. Modelling rate distributions using character compatibility: implications for morphological evolution among fossil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J

    2012-02-23

    Rate distributions are important considerations when testing hypotheses about morphological evolution or phylogeny. They also have implications about general processes underlying character evolution. Molecular systematists often assume that rates are Poisson processes with gamma distributions. However, morphological change is the product of multiple probabilistic processes and should theoretically be affected by hierarchical integration of characters. Both factors predict lognormal rate distributions. Here, a simple inverse modelling approach assesses the best single-rate, gamma and lognormal models given observed character compatibility for 115 invertebrate groups. Tests reject the single-rate model for nearly all cases. Moreover, the lognormal outperforms the gamma for character change rates and (especially) state derivation rates. The latter in particular is consistent with integration affecting morphological character evolution.

  19. Research on social communication network evolution based on topology potential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongjie; Jiang, Jian; Li, Deyi; Zhang, Haisu; Chen, Guisheng

    2011-12-01

    Aiming at the problem of social communication network evolution, first, topology potential is introduced to measure the local influence among nodes in networks. Second, from the perspective of topology potential distribution the method of network evolution description based on topology potential distribution is presented, which takes the artificial intelligence with uncertainty as basic theory and local influence among nodes as essentiality. Then, a social communication network is constructed by enron email dataset, the method presented is used to analyze the characteristic of the social communication network evolution and some useful conclusions are got, implying that the method is effective, which shows that topology potential distribution can effectively describe the characteristic of sociology and detect the local changes in social communication network.

  20. Cloud Computing as Evolution of Distributed Computing – A Case Study for SlapOS Distributed Cloud Computing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloud computing paradigm has been defined from several points of view, the main two directions being either as an evolution of the grid and distributed computing paradigm, or, on the contrary, as a disruptive revolution in the classical paradigms of operating systems, network layers and web applications. This paper presents a distributed cloud computing platform called SlapOS, which unifies technologies and communication protocols into a new technology model for offering any application as a service. Both cloud and distributed computing can be efficient methods for optimizing resources that are aggregated from a grid of standard PCs hosted in homes, offices and small data centers. The paper fills a gap in the existing distributed computing literature by providing a distributed cloud computing model which can be applied for deploying various applications.

  1. CHILDREN'S ADHERENCE TO HAART ADHERENCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    han or equal IQ 2 log" and in 64% of children wirh smaller man 2 log,o decrease in viral load. Secondly, i caregivers are not well prepared for adherence issues before starting HAART, or if regimens are too onerous to follow, treatment is likely to fail. Every effort should be made to see the burden of adherence from the.

  2. Evolution of drop size distribution in natural rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adderio, Leo Pio; Porcù, Federico; Tokay, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Both numerical modeling and laboratory experiments document the possibility of a raindrop size distribution (DSD) to evolve to an equilibrium stage (EDSD), where all the principal processes occur at steady rates. The aim of this work is to observe the temporal behavior of the DSD and to directly investigate the conditions favorable to the onset of the EDSD in natural rain. We exploited a large disdrometer dataset collected in the framework of the Ground Validation activities related to the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission. More than 200,000 one-minute data of two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) are collected over USA to represent a wide range of precipitation types. The original data are averaged over 2 min and an automatic algorithm is used on a selected subset to identify samples with EDSD. Results show that the EDSD occurs mainly in convective events and lasts for very short time intervals (2 to 4 min). It is more frequent for rain rate between 20 and 40 mm h- 1 and it mostly occurs during sharp increase of precipitation rates.

  3. Academic training: From Evolution Theory to Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 15, 16 March From 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 From Evolution Theory to Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming F. FERNANDEZ DE VEGA / Univ. of Extremadura, SP Lecture No. 1: From Evolution Theory to Evolutionary Computation Evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems, which are based to some degree on the evolution of biological life in the natural world. In this tutorial we will review the source of inspiration for this metaheuristic and its capability for solving problems. We will show the main flavours within the field, and different problems that have been successfully solved employing this kind of techniques. Lecture No. 2: Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming The successful application of Genetic Programming (GP, one of the available Evolutionary Algorithms) to optimization problems has encouraged an ...

  4. Time evolution of the drop size distribution for liquid-liquid dispersion in an agitated tank

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, R.; Kysela, Bohuš; Ditl, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2018), s. 543-553 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-20175S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : liquid–liquid dispersion * drop breakup * drop size distribution * time evolution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  5. A century of shocks : The evolution of the German city size distribution 1925-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc

    This paper uses empirical evidence on the evolution and structure of the West-German city size distribution to assess the relevance of three different theories of urban growth. The West-German case is of particular interest as Germany's urban system has been subject to some of history's largest

  6. Distribution and evolution of genes responsible for biosynthesis of mycotoxins in Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium secondary metabolites (SMs) include some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. In fungi, genes directly involved in synthesis of the same SM are typically located adjacent to one another in gene clusters. To better understand the distribution and evolution of mycoto...

  7. Time evolution of a Gaussian class of quasi-distribution functions under quadratic Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, D; Mann, A

    2014-03-10

    A Lie algebraic method for propagation of the Wigner quasi-distribution function (QDF) under quadratic Hamiltonian was presented by Zoubi and Ben-Aryeh. We show that the same method can be used in order to propagate a rather general class of QDFs, which we call the "Gaussian class." This class contains as special cases the well-known Wigner, Husimi, Glauber, and Kirkwood-Rihaczek QDFs. We present some examples of the calculation of the time evolution of those functions.

  8. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed

  9. Distribution, movement, and evolution of the volatile elements in the lunar regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, E.K. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The abundances and distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in lunar soils are reviewed. Carbon and nitrogen have a predominantly extra-lunar origin in lunar soils and breccias, while sulfur is mostly indigeneous to the Moon. The lunar processes which effect the movement, distribution, and evolution of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, along with the volatile alkali elements sodium, potassium, and rubidium during regolith processes are discussed. Possible mechanisms which may result in the addition to or loss from the Moon of these volatile elements are considered. (Auth.)

  10. Distribution, movement, and evolution of the volatile elements in the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The abundances and distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in lunar soils are reviewed. Carbon and nitrogen have a predominantly extra-lunar origin in lunar soils and breccias, while sulfur is mostly indigeneous to the moon. The lunar processes which effect the movement, distribution, and evolution of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, along with the volatile alkali elements sodium, potassium, and rubidium during regolith processes are discussed. Possible mechanisms which may result in the addition to or loss from the moon of these volatile elements are considered.

  11. DSTATCOM allocation in distribution networks considering reconfiguration using differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazebi, S.; Hosseinian, S.H.; Vahidi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Reconfiguration and DSTATCOM allocation are implemented for RDS planning. → Differential evolution algorithm is applied to solve the nonlinear problem. → Optimal status of tie switches, DSTATCOM size and location are determined. → The goal is to minimize network losses and to improve voltage profile. → The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method to satisfy objectives. -- Abstract: The main idea in distribution network reconfiguration is usually to reduce loss by changing the status of sectionalizing switches and determining appropriate tie switches. Recently Distribution FACTS (DFACTS) devices such as DSTATCOM also have been planned for loss reduction and voltage profile improvement in steady state conditions. This paper implements a combinatorial process based on reconfiguration and DSTATCOM allocation in order to mitigate losses and improve voltage profile in power distribution networks. The distribution system tie switches, DSTATCOM location and size have been optimally determined to obtain an appropriate operational condition. Differential evolution algorithm (DEA) has been used to solve and overcome the complicity of this combinatorial nonlinear optimization problem. To validate the accuracy of results a comparison with particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been made. Simulations have been applied on 69 and 83 busses distribution test systems. All optimization results show the effectiveness of the combinatorial approach in loss reduction and voltage profile improvement.

  12. Size Evolution and Stochastic Models: Explaining Ostracod Size through Probabilistic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M.; Decker, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biovolume of animals has functioned as an important benchmark for measuring evolution throughout geologic time. In our project, we examined the observed average body size of ostracods over time in order to understand the mechanism of size evolution in these marine organisms. The body size of ostracods has varied since the beginning of the Ordovician, where the first true ostracods appeared. We created a stochastic branching model to create possible evolutionary trees of ostracod size. Using stratigraphic ranges for ostracods compiled from over 750 genera in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, we calculated overall speciation and extinction rates for our model. At each timestep in our model, new lineages can evolve or existing lineages can become extinct. Newly evolved lineages are assigned sizes based on their parent genera. We parameterized our model to generate neutral and directional changes in ostracod size to compare with the observed data. New sizes were chosen via a normal distribution, and the neutral model selected new sizes differentials centered on zero, allowing for an equal chance of larger or smaller ostracods at each speciation. Conversely, the directional model centered the distribution on a negative value, giving a larger chance of smaller ostracods. Our data strongly suggests that the overall direction of ostracod evolution has been following a model that directionally pushes mean ostracod size down, shying away from a neutral model. Our model was able to match the magnitude of size decrease. Our models had a constant linear decrease while the actual data had a much more rapid initial rate followed by a constant size. The nuance of the observed trends ultimately suggests a more complex method of size evolution. In conclusion, probabilistic methods can provide valuable insight into possible evolutionary mechanisms determining size evolution in ostracods.

  13. Evolution of α-particle distribution in burning plasmas including energy dependent α-transport effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelander, G.; Sigmar, D.; Woloch, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report resumes the essential results of a common OEFZS/MIT (Plasma Fusion Center) project to investigate fusion alpha transport. A computer code has been developed going beyond standard FOKKER-PLANCK-codes assuming that the fusion products give their energy to the plasma on the place of their birth. The present transport code admits the calculation of the α-distribution function. By means of the distribution function the energy deposition rates are calculated. The time-evolution of the α-distribution function has been evaluated for an ignited plasma. A description of the transport code, of the subroutines and of the input data as well as a listing is enclosed to this report. (Authors)

  14. Evolution of the distribution of baryons in a simulated Local Group Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirani, S.

    2012-12-01

    Using hydrodynamical zoom simulations in the standard ΛCDM cosmology, we have investigated the evolution of the distribution of baryons (gas and stars) in a local group-type universe. We found that physical mechanisms able to drive the gas out of the virial radius at high redshifts (such as AGN) will have a stronger impact on the deficit of baryons in the mass budget of Milky Way type-galaxies at present times than those that expel the gas in the longer, late phases of galaxy formation.

  15. Optimal Location and Sizing of UPQC in Distribution Networks Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Taher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE algorithm is used to determine optimal location of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC considering its size in the radial distribution systems. The problem is formulated to find the optimum location of UPQC based on an objective function (OF defined for improving of voltage and current profiles, reducing power loss and minimizing the investment costs considering the OF's weighting factors. Hence, a steady-state model of UPQC is derived to set in forward/backward sweep load flow. Studies are performed on two IEEE 33-bus and 69-bus standard distribution networks. Accuracy was evaluated by reapplying the procedures using both genetic (GA and immune algorithms (IA. Comparative results indicate that DE is capable of offering a nearer global optimal in minimizing the OF and reaching all the desired conditions than GA and IA.

  16. Knowledge Evolution in Distributed Geoscience Datasets and the Role of Semantic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge evolves in geoscience, and the evolution is reflected in datasets. In a context with distributed data sources, the evolution of knowledge may cause considerable challenges to data management and re-use. For example, a short news published in 2009 (Mascarelli, 2009) revealed the geoscience community's concern that the International Commission on Stratigraphy's change to the definition of Quaternary may bring heavy reworking of geologic maps. Now we are in the era of the World Wide Web, and geoscience knowledge is increasingly modeled and encoded in the form of ontologies and vocabularies by using semantic technologies. Accordingly, knowledge evolution leads to a consequence called ontology dynamics. Flouris et al. (2008) summarized 10 topics of general ontology changes/dynamics such as: ontology mapping, morphism, evolution, debugging and versioning, etc. Ontology dynamics makes impacts at several stages of a data life cycle and causes challenges, such as: the request for reworking of the extant data in a data center, semantic mismatch among data sources, differentiated understanding of a same piece of dataset between data providers and data users, as well as error propagation in cross-discipline data discovery and re-use (Ma et al., 2014). This presentation will analyze the best practices in the geoscience community so far and summarize a few recommendations to reduce the negative impacts of ontology dynamics in a data life cycle, including: communities of practice and collaboration on ontology and vocabulary building, link data records to standardized terms, and methods for (semi-)automatic reworking of datasets using semantic technologies. References: Flouris, G., Manakanatas, D., Kondylakis, H., Plexousakis, D., Antoniou, G., 2008. Ontology change: classification and survey. The Knowledge Engineering Review 23 (2), 117-152. Ma, X., Fox, P., Rozell, E., West, P., Zednik, S., 2014. Ontology dynamics in a data life cycle: Challenges and recommendations

  17. Evolution of arbitrary moments of radiant intensity distribution for partially coherent general beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Youquan; Xu, Yonggen

    2018-04-01

    The evolution law of arbitrary order moments of the Wigner distribution function, which can be applied to the different spatial power spectra, is obtained for partially coherent general beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. A coupling coefficient of radiant intensity distribution (RID) in turbulence is introduced. Analytical expressions of the evolution of the first five-order moments, kurtosis parameter, coupling coefficient of RID for general beams in turbulence are derived, and the formulas are applied to Airy beams. Results show that there exist two types for general beams in turbulence. A larger value of kurtosis parameter for Airy beams also reveals that coupling effect due to turbulence is stronger. Both theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the maximum value of kurtosis parameter for an Airy beam in turbulence is independent of turbulence strength parameter and is only determined by inner scale of turbulence. Relative angular spread, kurtosis and coupling coefficient are less influenced by turbulence for Airy beams with a smaller decay factor and a smaller initial width of the first lobe.

  18. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Déjeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Roy, Régis; Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam — Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. - Highlights: • The evolution of U distribution and speciation in mill tailings is investigated. • High resolution satellite images provide useful information on tailings evolution. • U and many other elements are enriched in a sulfate-rich duricrust. • Formation of

  19. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Déjeant, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.dejeant@normalesup.org [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Paris Diderot — Paris VII, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75013 Paris (France); Galoisy, Laurence [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie — Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Roy, Régis [AREVA Mines — Geoscience Department, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris, La Défense (France); Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie — Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines — R& D Department, BAL 0414C-2, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris, La Défense (France)

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam — Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. - Highlights: • The evolution of U distribution and speciation in mill tailings is investigated. • High resolution satellite images provide useful information on tailings evolution. • U and many other elements are enriched in a sulfate-rich duricrust. • Formation of

  20. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R&D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  1. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, S

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R and D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  2. EVOLUTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION IN MATURE SHELL-TYPE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Houdun; Xin, Yuliang; Liu, Siming; Zhang, Shuinai [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Jokipii, J. R. [University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 (United States); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhd@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2017-01-10

    Multi-wavelength observations of mature supernova remnants (SNRs), especially with recent advances in γ -ray astronomy, make it possible to constrain energy distribution of energetic particles within these remnants. In consideration of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays and physics related to particle acceleration and radiative processes, we use a simple one-zone model to fit the nonthermal emission spectra of three shell-type SNRs located within 2° on the sky: RX J1713.7−3946, CTB 37B, and CTB 37A. Although radio images of these three sources all show a shell (or half-shell) structure, their radio, X-ray, and γ -ray spectra are quite different, offering an ideal case to explore evolution of energetic particle distribution in SNRs. Our spectral fitting shows that (1) the particle distribution becomes harder with aging of these SNRs, implying a continuous acceleration process, and the particle distributions of CTB 37A and CTB 37B in the GeV range are harder than the hardest distribution that can be produced at a shock via the linear diffusive shock particle acceleration process, so spatial transport may play a role; (2) the energy loss timescale of electrons at the high-energy cutoff due to synchrotron radiation appears to be always a bit (within a factor of a few) shorter than the age of the corresponding remnant, which also requires continuous particle acceleration; (3) double power-law distributions are needed to fit the spectra of CTB 37B and CTB 37A, which may be attributed to shock interaction with molecular clouds.

  3. QCD evolution of (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs and the Higgs q T -distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    We provide the proper definition of all the leading-twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs), by considering the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution in hadron-hadron collisions and deriving the factorization theorem in terms of them. We show that the evolution of all the (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs is driven by a universal evolution kernel, which can be resummed up to next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. Considering the proper definition of gluon TMDPDFs, we perform an explicit next-to-leading-order calculation of the unpolarized ( f {1/ g }), linearly polarized ( h {1/⊥ g }) and helicity ( g {1/L g }) gluon TMDPDFs, and show that, as expected, they are free from rapidity divergences. As a byproduct, we obtain the Wilson coefficients of the refactorization of these TMDPDFs at large transverse momentum. In particular, the coefficient of g {1/L g }, which has never been calculated before, constitutes a new and necessary ingredient for a reliable phenomenological extraction of this quantity, for instance at RHIC or the future AFTER@LHC or Electron-Ion Collider. The coefficients of f {1/ g } and h {1/⊥ g } have never been calculated in the present formalism, although they could be obtained by carefully collecting and recasting previous results in the new TMD formalism. We apply these results to analyze the contribution of linearly polarized gluons at different scales, relevant, for instance, for the inclusive production of the Higgs boson and the C-even pseudoscalar bottomonium state η b . Applying our resummation scheme we finally provide predictions for the Higgs boson q T -distribution at the LHC.

  4. Clustering based on adherence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Sylvia; Oja, Hannu; Walker, Sarah A; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Levin, Jonathan; Todd, Jim

    2011-03-08

    Adherence to a medical treatment means the extent to which a patient follows the instructions or recommendations by health professionals. There are direct and indirect ways to measure adherence which have been used for clinical management and research. Typically adherence measures are monitored over a long follow-up or treatment period, and some measurements may be missing due to death or other reasons. A natural question then is how to describe adherence behavior over the whole period in a simple way. In the literature, measurements over a period are usually combined just by using averages like percentages of compliant days or percentages of doses taken. In the paper we adapt an approach where patient adherence measures are seen as a stochastic process. Repeated measures are then analyzed as a Markov chain with finite number of states rather than as independent and identically distributed observations, and the transition probabilities between the states are assumed to fully describe the behavior of a patient. The patients can then be clustered or classified using their estimated transition probabilities. These natural clusters can be used to describe the adherence of the patients, to find predictors for adherence, and to predict the future events. The new approach is illustrated and shown to be useful with a simple analysis of a data set from the DART (Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa) trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

  5. Evolution equation for the higher-twist B-meson distribution amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Offen, N.; Manashov, A.N.; Regensburg Univ.; Sankt-Petersburg State Univ.

    2015-07-01

    We find that the evolution equation for the three-particle quark-gluon B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (DA) of subleading twist is completely integrable in the large N c limit and can be solved exactly. The lowest anomalous dimension is separated from the remaining, continuous, spectrum by a finite gap. The corresponding eigenfunction coincides with the contribution of quark-gluon states to the two-particle DA φ - (ω) so that the evolution equation for the latter is the same as for the leading-twist DA φ + (ω) up to a constant shift in the anomalous dimension. Thus, ''genuine'' three-particle states that belong to the continuous spectrum effectively decouple from φ - (ω) to the leading-order accuracy. In turn, the scale dependence of the full three-particle DA turns out to be nontrivial so that the contribution with the lowest anomalous dimension does not become leading at any scale. The results are illustrated on a simple model that can be used in studies of 1/m b corrections to heavy-meson decays in the framework of QCD factorization or light-cone sum rules.

  6. Wine evolution and spatial distribution of oxygen during storage in high-density polyethylene tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Alamo-Sanza, María; Laurie, V Felipe; Nevares, Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Porous plastic tanks are permeable to oxygen due to the nature of the polymers with which they are manufactured. In the wine industry, these types of tanks are used mainly for storing wine surpluses. Lately, their use in combination with oak pieces has also been proposed as an alternative to mimic traditional barrel ageing. In this study, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in a wine-like model solution, and the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of high-density polyethylene tanks (HDPE), was analysed by means of a non-invasive opto-luminescence detector. Also, the chemical and sensory evolution of red wine, treated with oak pieces, and stored in HDPE tanks was examined and compared against traditional oak barrel ageing. The average OTR calculated for these tanks was within the commonly accepted amounts reported for new barrels. With regards to wine evolution, a number of compositional and sensory differences were observed between the wines aged in oak barrels and those stored in HDPE tanks with oak barrel alternatives. The use of HDPE tanks in combination with oak wood alternatives is a viable alternative too for ageing wine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Production and Distributed Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Fine, V; Potekhin, M; Panitkin, S; De, K; Nilsson, P; Stradling, A; Walker, R; Compostella, G

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. PanDA has performed well with high reliability and robustness during the two years of LHC data-taking, while being actively evolved to meet the rapidly changing requirements for analysis use cases. We will present an overview of system evolution including automatic rebrokerage and reattempt for analysis jobs, adaptation for the CernVM File System, support for the multi-cloud model through which Tier-2 sites act as members of multiple clouds, pledged resource management and preferential brokerage, and monitoring improvements. We will also describe results from the analysis of two years of PanDA usage statistics, current issues, and plans for the future.

  8. On the distribution of interspecies correlation for Markov models of character evolution on Yule trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Willem H; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-01-07

    Efforts to reconstruct phylogenetic trees and understand evolutionary processes depend fundamentally on stochastic models of speciation and mutation. The simplest continuous-time model for speciation in phylogenetic trees is the Yule process, in which new species are "born" from existing lineages at a constant rate. Recent work has illuminated some of the structural properties of Yule trees, but it remains mostly unknown how these properties affect sequence and trait patterns observed at the tips of the phylogenetic tree. Understanding the interplay between speciation and mutation under simple models of evolution is essential for deriving valid phylogenetic inference methods and gives insight into the optimal design of phylogenetic studies. In this work, we derive the probability distribution of interspecies covariance under Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of phenotypic change on a Yule tree. We compute the probability distribution of the number of mutations shared between two randomly chosen taxa in a Yule tree under discrete Markov mutation models. Our results suggest summary measures of phylogenetic information content, illuminate the correlation between site patterns in sequences or traits of related organisms, and provide heuristics for experimental design and reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution and evolution of electrons in a cluster plasma created by a laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the properties and the character of the evolution of an electron subsystem of a large cluster (with a number of atoms n ∼ 10 4 -10 6 ) interacting with a short laser pulse of high intensity (10 17 -10 19 W/cm 2 ). As a result of ionization in a strong laser field, cluster atoms are converted into multicharged ions, part of the electrons being formed leaves the cluster, and the other electrons move in a self-consistent field of the charged cluster and the laser wave. It is shown that electron-electron collisions are inessential both during the cluster irradiation by the laser pulse and in the course of cluster expansion; the electron distribution in the cluster therefore does not transform into the Maxwell distribution even during cluster expansion. During cluster expansion, the Coulomb field of a cluster charge acts on cluster ions more strongly than the pressure resulting from electron-ion collisions. In addition, bound electrons remain inside the cluster in the course of its expansion, and cluster expansion therefore does not lead to additional cluster ionization

  10. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  11. EVOLUTION OF DARK MATTER PHASE-SPACE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN EQUAL-MASS HALO MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Ileana M.; Kazanzidis, Stelios; Valluri, Monica; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We use dissipationless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the true coarse-grained phase-space density distribution f(x, v) in equal-mass mergers between dark matter (DM) halos. The halo models are constructed with various asymptotic power-law indices ρ ∝ r -γ ranging from steep cusps to core-like profiles and we employ the phase-space density estimator 'EnBid' developed by Sharma and Steinmetz to compute f(x, v). The adopted force resolution allows robust phase-space density profile estimates in the inner ∼1% of the virial radii of the simulated systems. We confirm that merger events result in a decrease of the coarse-grained phase-space density in accordance with expectations from Mixing Theorems for collisionless systems. We demonstrate that binary mergers between identical DM halos produce remnants that retain excellent memories of the inner slopes and overall shapes of the phase-space density distribution of their progenitors. The robustness of the phase-space density profiles holds for a range of orbital energies, and a variety of encounter configurations including sequences of several consecutive merger events, designed to mimic hierarchical merging, and collisions occurring at different cosmological epochs. If the progenitor halos are constructed with appreciably different asymptotic power-law indices, we find that the inner slope and overall shape of the phase-space density distribution of the remnant are substantially closer to that of the initial system with the steepest central density cusp. These results explicitly demonstrate that mixing is incomplete in equal-mass mergers between DM halos, as it does not erase memory of the progenitor properties. Our results also confirm the recent analytical predictions of Dehnen regarding the preservation of merging self-gravitating central density cusps.

  12. Seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone and its power-law obeying floe size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Stern, H. L., III; Schweiger, A. J. B.; Steele, M.; Hwang, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    A thickness, floe size, and enthalpy distribution (TFED) sea ice model, implemented numerically into the Pan-arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS), is used to investigate the seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and its floe size distribution. The TFED sea ice model, by coupling the Zhang et al. [2015] sea ice floe size distribution (FSD) theory with the Thorndike et al. [1975] ice thickness distribution (ITD) theory, simulates 12-category FSD and ITD explicitly and jointly. A range of ice thickness and floe size observations were used for model calibration and validation. The model creates FSDs that generally obey a power law or upper truncated power law, as observed by satellites and aerial surveys. In this study, we will examine the role of ice fragmentation and lateral melting in altering FSDs in the Arctic MIZ. We will also investigate how changes in FSD impact the seasonal evolution of the MIZ by modifying the thermodynamic processes.

  13. A revisited Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model and the evolution of grain-size distributions in steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hömberg, D.; Patacchini, F. S.; Sakamoto, K.; Zimmer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov approach for nucleation and growth models of diffusive phase transitions is revisited and applied to model the growth of ferrite in multiphase steels. For the prediction of mechanical properties of such steels, a deeper knowledge of the grain structure is essential. To this end, a Fokker-Planck evolution law for the volume distribution of ferrite grains is developed and shown to exhibit a log-normally distributed solution. Numerical parameter studi...

  14. Influence of initial heterogeneities and recharge limitations on the evolution of aperture distributions in carbonate aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hubinger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst aquifers evolve where the dissolution of soluble rocks causes the enlargement of discrete pathways along fractures or bedding planes, thus creating highly conductive solution conduits. To identify general interrelations between hydrogeological conditions and the properties of the evolving conduit systems the aperture-size frequency distributions resulting from generic models of conduit evolution are analysed. For this purpose, a process-based numerical model coupling flow and rock dissolution is employed. Initial protoconduits are represented by tubes with log-normally distributed aperture sizes with a mean μ0 = 0.5 mm for the logarithm of the diameters. Apertures are spatially uncorrelated and widen up to the metre range due to dissolution by chemically aggressive waters. Several examples of conduit development are examined focussing on influences of the initial heterogeneity and the available amount of recharge. If the available recharge is sufficiently high the evolving conduits compete for flow and those with large apertures and high hydraulic gradients attract more and more water. As a consequence, the positive feedback between increasing flow and dissolution causes the breakthrough of a conduit pathway connecting the recharge and discharge sides of the modelling domain. Under these competitive flow conditions dynamically stable bimodal aperture distributions are found to evolve, i.e. a certain percentage of tubes continues to be enlarged while the remaining tubes stay small-sized. The percentage of strongly widened tubes is found to be independent of the breakthrough time and decreases with increasing heterogeneity of the initial apertures and decreasing amount of available water. If the competition for flow is suppressed because the availability of water is strongly limited breakthrough of a conduit pathway is inhibited and the conduit pathways widen very slowly. The resulting aperture distributions are found to be

  15. Diversification Rates and the Evolution of Species Range Size Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castiglione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic range sizes frequency distribution (RFD within clades is typically right-skewed with untransformed data, and bell-shaped or slightly left-skewed under the log-transformation. This means that most species within clades occupy diminutive ranges, whereas just a few species are truly widespread. A number of ecological and evolutionary explanations have been proposed to account for this pattern. Among the latter, much attention has been given to the issue of how extinction and speciation probabilities influence RFD. Numerous accounts now convincingly demonstrate that extinction rate decreases with range size, both in living and extinct taxa. The relationship between range size and speciation rate, though, is much less obvious, with either small or large ranged species being proposed to originate more daughter taxa. Herein, we used a large fossil database including 21 animal clades and more than 80,000 fossil occurrences distributed over more than 400 million years of marine metazoans (exclusive of vertebrates evolution, to test the relationship between extinction rate, speciation rate, and range size. As expected, we found that extinction rate almost linearly decreases with range size. In contrast, speciation rate peaks at the large (but not the largest end of the range size spectrum. This is consistent with the peripheral isolation mode of allopatric speciation being the main mechanism of species origination. The huge variation in phylogeny, fossilization potential, time of fossilization, and the overarching effect of mass extinctions suggest caution must be posed at generalizing our results, as individual clades may deviate significantly from the general pattern.

  16. Geographical distribution and evolution of deaths in hospitals in Spain, 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Puente, A; García Alegría, J

    2018-05-05

    The location where death occurs varies widely among societies. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution in the hospital mortality rate (HMR) in Spain over the course of 20years and its distribution by province during a more recent period and to explore its relationship with potential explanatory variables. This was an ecological study. The population mortality rates were obtained from the Natural Population Movement (Movimiento Natural de la Población), and the hospital mortality rates were obtained from the Specialised Care Information System (Sistema de Información en Atención Especializada), which includes information from all hospitals in Spain. We calculated the mortality rates for patients who were not surveyed and the HMR at the national level between 1996 and 2015 and for provinces between 2013 and 2015. The relationship between the provincial distribution of HMR and various demographic, socioeconomic and healthcare variables were analysed through simple and multiple linear regression. The HMR in Spain increased from 49% in 1996 to 56% in 2007, having remained stable from 1996 to 2015. The variation among provinces was 40% to 70%. The multivariate analysis showed a higher HMR in the less rural provinces and in those with a larger availability of hospital beds. There is considerable provincial heterogeneity in Spain in terms of the probability of dying in hospital or at home. This result could be partly explained by demographics (percentage of rural population) and the healthcare structure (number of hospital beds per population). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclotide Evolution: Insights from the Analyses of Their Precursor Sequences, Structures and Distribution in Violets (Viola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyu Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotides are a family of plant proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. By disrupting cell membranes, the cyclotides function as host defense peptides by exhibiting insecticidal, anthelmintic, antifouling, and molluscicidal activities. In this work, we provide the first insight into the evolution of this family of plant proteins by studying the Violaceae, in particular species of the genus Viola. We discovered 157 novel precursor sequences by the transcriptomic analysis of six Viola species: V. albida var. takahashii, V. mandshurica, V. orientalis, V. verecunda, V. acuminata, and V. canadensis. By combining these precursor sequences with the phylogenetic classification of Viola, we infer the distribution of cyclotides across 63% of the species in the genus (i.e., ~380 species. Using full precursor sequences from transcriptomes, we show an evolutionary link to the structural diversity of the cyclotides, and further classify the cyclotides by sequence signatures from the non-cyclotide domain. Also, transcriptomes were compared to cyclotide expression on a peptide level determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the novel cyclotides discovered were associated with the emergence of new biological functions.

  18. Search for the algorithm of genes distribution during the process of microbial evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.

    2015-09-01

    Previous two and three dimensional graph analysis of eco-physiological data of Archaea demonstrated specific geometry for distribution of major Prokaryotic groups in a hyperboloid function. The function of a two-sheet hyperboloid covered all known biological groups, and therefore, could be applied for the entire evolution of life on Earth. The vector of evolution was indicated from the point of hyper temperature, extreme acidity and low salinity to the point of low temperature and increased alkalinity and salinity. According to this vector, the following groups were chosen for the gene screening analysis. In the vector "High-Temperature → Low-Temperature" within extreme acidic pH (0-3), it is: 1) the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota - order Sulfolobales, 2) moderately thermophilic Euryarchaeota - Class Thermoplasmata, and 3) mesophilic acidophiles- genus Thiobacillus and others. In the vector "Low pH → High pH" the following groups were selected in three temperature ranges: a) Hyperthermophilic Archaea and Eubacteria, b) moderately thermophilic - representatives of the genera Anaerobacter and Anoxybacillus, and c) mesophilic haloalkaliphiles (Eubacteria and Archaea). The genes associated with acidophily (H+ pump), chemolitho-autotrophy (proteins of biochemichal cycles), polymerases, and histones were proposed for the first vector, and for the second vector the genes associated with halo-alkaliphily (Na+ pumps), enzymes of organotrophic metabolisms (sugar- and proteolytics), and others were indicated for the screening. Here, an introduction to the phylogenetic constant (ρη) is presented and discussed. This universal characteristic is calculated for two principally different life forms -Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; Existence of the second type of living forms is impossible without the first one. The number of chromosomes in Prokaryotic organisms is limited to one (with very rare exceptions, to two), while in Eukaryotic organisms this number is larger. Currently

  19. Improved Information and Educational Messages on Outer Packaging of Micronutrient Powders Distributed in Indonesia Increase Caregiver Knowledge and Adherence to Recommended Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, Aang; Vossenaar, Marieke; Poonawala, Alia; Mallipu, Agnes; Izwardy, Doddy; Menon, Ravi; Tumilowicz, Alison

    2018-06-08

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of improved information and educational messages on outer packaging of a micronutrient powder (MNP), locally known as “ Taburia ”, on knowledge and adherence to recommended use. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 1149 caregivers and their children aged 6⁻36 months. Caregiver⁻child dyads were randomized by their villages to receive 30 sachets of Taburia with the: (i) original outer packaging; (ii) improved outer packaging; or (iii) improved outer packaging combined with cooking demonstrations. Adherence to Taburia use was assessed through caregiver interviews and observation of unused sachets during home visits; “high” adherence was defined as consuming 13⁻17 sachets in the previous month. Data collection included surveys and focus groups discussions. The majority of caregivers (>80%) preferred the improved packaging because it was more attractive and contained more comprehensive information. Caregivers who received the improved packaging had better knowledge regarding the recommended use of Taburia ( p influencers of recommended MNP use by caregivers.

  20. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déjeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Roy, Régis; Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam--Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The general behavior of NLO unintegrated parton distributions based on the single-scale evolution and the angular ordering constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, H.; Modarres, M.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the complexity of generalized two hard scale (k t ,μ) evolution equation, well known as the Ciafaloni, Catani, Fiorani and Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equations, and calculate the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF), Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR) proposed a procedure based on (i) the inclusion of single-scale (μ) only at the last step of evolution and (ii) the angular ordering constraint (AOC) on the DGLAP terms (the DGLAP collinear approximation), to bring the second scale, k t into the UPDF evolution equations. In this work we intend to use the MSTW2008 (Martin et al.) parton distribution functions (PDF) and try to calculate UPDF for various values of x (the longitudinal fraction of parton momentum), μ (the probe scale) and k t (the parton transverse momentum) to see the general behavior of three-dimensional UPDF at the NLO level up to the LHC working energy scales (μ 2 ). It is shown that there exits some pronounced peaks for the three-dimensional UPDF(f a (x,k t )) with respect to the two variables x and k t at various energies (μ). These peaks get larger and move to larger values of k t , as the energy (μ) is increased. We hope these peaks could be detected in the LHC experiments at CERN and other laboratories in the less exclusive processes.

  2. The evolution and main determinants of productivity in Brazilian electricity distribution 1998-2005. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Fac. CC. Economicas y Empresariales e IUDR - Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Programa de investigacion Energia y Cambio Climatico Fedea-Abengoa (Spain); Tovar, Beatriz [Dpto. de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT - Universidad las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Iootty, Mariana [UFRRJ Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes; Pinto, Helder Queiroz Jr. [IE-UFRJ Instituto de Economia - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    This paper estimates changes in the productivity of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on a panel of 18 firms from 1998 to 2005. The study decomposes the productivity change of these distribution firms in terms of technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical progress. This exercise aims to help the understanding of the main determinants of the evolution of productivity, focusing its relationship with the restructuring process implemented in the 1990s. TFP index records a yearly positive growth rate of 1.3% in the whole period under analysis for all firms. Technical change was the main component behind this evolution, with an average growth of 2.1% per year, while technical efficiency presented a yearly negative performance of - 0.8%. The results prove that, in general terms, the incentives generated in the reform process do not seem to have led the firms to behave in a more efficient manner. (author)

  3. Crab Cavity effects on transverse distribution evolution and tail cleaning in the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Steeper, S; Tucker, D; Wieker, Devin; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the transverse action and tune distribution evolution as a function of the Crab Cavity RF noise Power Spectral Density (PSD). In addition, it presents the potential for transverse tail cleaning through the deliberate injection of noise with an appropriate PSD. Such a procedure would be very beneficial since it would strongly reduce the transverse losses following a crab cavity trip, and could complement or substitute the electron lens approach.

  4. Agent-Based Modelling of the Evolution of the Russian Party System Based on Pareto and Hotelling Distributions. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Геннадьевич Иванов

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The given article presents research of the evolution of the Russian party system. The chosen methodology is based on the heuristic potential of agent-based modelling. The author analyzes various scenarios of parties’ competition (applying Pareto distribution in connection with recent increase of the number of political parties. In addition, the author predicts the level of ideological diversity of the parties’ platforms (applying the principles of Hotelling distribution in order to evaluate their potential competitiveness in the struggle for voters.

  5. On the problem of time evolution of the particle distribution function in a high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaronyan, F.A.; Atoyan, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Time evolution of a one-particle distribution function in nonrelativistic plasma is considered in the absence of an external field. A linear differential equation describing the high-energy part of the distribution function is derived. The approximated analytical solution to this equation yields thermalization time (maxwellization time) of particles in the energy range epsilon >> kT: tsub(epsilon) approximately 0.64 (epsilon/kT)sup(3/2)tsub(0), t 0 being relaxation time in the range of mean energies (epsilon approximately kT). The significance of the results is discussed on the example of γ-luminosity of accretion plasma around a black hole

  6. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sakamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width

  7. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  8. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine particles in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles were investigated both horizontally and vertically in the large urban agglomerate of Barcelona, Spain. Within the SAPUSS project (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, a large number of instruments was deployed simultaneously at different monitoring sites (road, two urban background, regional background, urban tower 150 m a.s.l., urban background tower site 80 m a.s.l. during a 4 week period in September–October 2010. Particle number concentrations (N>5 nm are highly correlated with black carbon (BC at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under cleaner atmospheric conditions (low condensation sink, CS such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10–500 as well as particle number concentrations (N>5 nm allow us to identify three types of nucleation and growth events: (1 a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding urban background area; (2 a regional type event impacting only the regional background area but not the urban agglomerate; (3 an urban type event which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the optimal combination between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated

  9. Adherence to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Farinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  10. Numerical investigation on residual stress distribution and evolution during multipass narrow gap welding of thick-walled stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Zhang, J.X.; Xue, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We performed pass-by-pass simulation of stresses for welding of thick-walled pipes. → The distributions and evolution of the residual stresses are demonstrated. → After the groove is filled to a height, the through-wall stress is almost unchanged. - Abstracts: The detailed pass-by-pass finite element (FE) simulation is presented to investigate the residual stresses in narrow gap multipass welding of pipes with a wall thickness of 70 mm and 73 weld passes. The simulated residual stress on the outer surface is validated with the experimental one. The distribution and evolution of the through-wall residual stresses are demonstrated. The investigated results show that the residual stresses on the outer and inner surfaces are tensile in the weld zone and its vicinity. The through-wall axial residual stresses at the weld center line and the HAZ line demonstrate a distribution of bending type. The through-wall hoop residual stress within the weld is mostly tensile. After the groove is filled to a certain height, the peak tensile stresses and the stress distribution patterns for both axial and hoop stresses remain almost unchanged.

  11. An in situ USAXS-SAXS-WAXS study of precipitate size distribution evolution in a model Ni-based alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ross N; Serio, Joseph; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Intermetallic γ' precipitates typically strengthen nickel-based superalloys. The shape, size and spatial distribution of strengthening precipitates critically influence alloy strength, while their temporal evolution characteristics determine the high-temperature alloy stability. Combined ultra-small-, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS-SAXS-WAXS) analysis can be used to evaluate the temporal evolution of an alloy's precipitate size distribution (PSD) and phase structure during in situ heat treatment. Analysis of PSDs from USAXS-SAXS data employs either least-squares fitting of a preordained PSD model or a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach, the latter avoiding a priori definition of a functional form of the PSD. However, strong low- q scattering from grain boundaries and/or structure factor effects inhibit MaxEnt analysis of typical alloys. This work describes the extension of Bayesian-MaxEnt analysis methods to data exhibiting structure factor effects and low- q power law slopes and demonstrates their use in an in situ study of precipitate size evolution during heat treatment of a model Ni-Al-Si alloy.

  12. The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. IV - The evolution of the correlation function. [galaxy distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the two-point correlation function for the large-scale distribution of galaxies in an expanding universe is studied on the assumption that the perturbation densities lie in a Gaussian distribution centered on any given mass scale. The perturbations are evolved according to the Friedmann equation, and the correlation function for the resulting distribution of perturbations at the present epoch is calculated. It is found that: (1) the computed correlation function gives a satisfactory fit to the observed function in cosmological models with a density parameter (Omega) of approximately unity, provided that a certain free parameter is suitably adjusted; (2) the power-law slope in the nonlinear regime reflects the initial fluctuation spectrum, provided that the density profile of individual perturbations declines more rapidly than the -2.4 power of distance; and (3) both positive and negative contributions to the correlation function are predicted for cosmological models with Omega less than unity.

  13. The Paradigmatic Evolution of U.S. Television and the Emergence of Internet-Distributed Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Lotz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Television industries around the world have weathered profound change as technologies advanced and services developed to allow internet-distributed television to compete alongside broadcast and cable-distributed television. This article, drawn from the context of the U.S., explores the emergence of internet-distributed television as a mechanism that provides the affordance of nonlinear distribution. It assesses the preliminary organization of internet-distributed television by portals and explores the similarities and differences between portals and networks/channels with an eye toward conceptualizing emerging business practices and strategies.

  14. Evolution of the Distribution of Neutron Exposures in the Galaxy Disc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this work was the development of an analytical model for the NEG, to provide ... paper is organized as follows: in section 2 we deduce the evolution equation of .... of neutron exposures for the seed nuclei that can experience any irradiation times. ..... We thank the referee for an extensive and helpful review, containing very ...

  15. The Evolution of Frequency Distributions: Relating Regularization to Inductive Biases through Iterated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The regularization of linguistic structures by learners has played a key role in arguments for strong innate constraints on language acquisition, and has important implications for language evolution. However, relating the inductive biases of learners to regularization behavior in laboratory tasks can be challenging without a formal model. In this…

  16. Temporal evolution of electron energy distribution function and plasma parameters in the afterglow of drifting magnetron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Hun; In, Jung-Hwan; Chang, Hong-Young

    2005-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and plasma and floating potentials in a mid-frequency pulsed dc magnetron plasma are investigated using time-resolved probe measurements. A negative-voltage dc pulse with an average power of 160 W during the pulse-on period, a repetition frequency of 20 kHz and a duty cycle of 50% is applied to the cathode of a planar unbalanced magnetron discharge with a grounded substrate. The measured electron energy distribution is found to exhibit a bi-Maxwellian distribution, which can be resolved with the low-energy electron group and the high-energy tail part during the pulse-on period, and a Maxwellian distribution only with low-energy electrons as a consequence of initially rapid decay of the high-energy tail part during the pulse-off period. This characteristic evolution of the EEDF is reflected in the decay characteristics of the electron density and temperature in the afterglow. These parameters exhibit twofold decay represented by two characteristic decay times of an initial fast decay time τ 1 , and a subsequent slower decay time τ 2 in the afterglow when approximated with a bi-exponential function. While the initial fast decay times are of the order of 1 μs (τ T1 ∼ 0.99 μs and τ N1 ∼ 1.5 μs), the slower decay times are of the order of a few tens of microseconds (τ T2 ∼ 7 μs and τ N2 ∼ 40 μs). The temporal evolution of the plasma parameters are qualitatively explained by considering the formation mechanism of the bi-Maxwellian electron distribution function and the electron transports of these electron groups in bulk plasma

  17. Legacy systems: managing evolution through integration in a distributed and object-oriented computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, D; Sauquet, D; Fofol, I; Tanguy, L; Jean, F C; Degoulet, P

    1995-01-01

    Legacy systems are crucial for organizations since they support key functionalities. But they become obsolete with aging and the apparition of new techniques. Managing their evolution is a key issue in software engineering. This paper presents a strategy that has been developed at Broussais University Hospital in Paris to make a legacy system devoted to the management of health care units evolve towards a new up-to-date software. A two-phase evolution pathway is described. The first phase consists in separating the interface from the data storage and application control and in using a communication channel between the individualized components. The second phase proposes to use an object-oriented DBMS in place of the homegrown system. An application example for the management of hypertensive patients is described.

  18. QCD evolution of (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs and the Higgs q(T)-distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.; Kasemets, T.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pisano, C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We provide the proper definition of all the leading-twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs), by considering the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution in hadron-hadron collisions and deriving the factorization theorem in terms

  19. Molecular and morphological systematics of the Ellisellidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia): Parallel evolution in a globally distributed family of octocorals

    KAUST Repository

    Bilewitch, Jaret P.

    2014-04-01

    The octocorals of the Ellisellidae constitute a diverse and widely distributed family with subdivisions into genera based on colonial growth forms. Branching patterns are repeated in several genera and congeners often display region-specific variations in a given growth form. We examined the systematic patterns of ellisellid genera and the evolution of branching form diversity using molecular phylogenetic and ancestral morphological reconstructions. Six of eight included genera were found to be polyphyletic due to biogeographical incompatibility with current taxonomic assignments and the creation of at least six new genera plus several reassignments among existing genera is necessary. Phylogenetic patterns of diversification of colony branching morphology displayed a similar transformation order in each of the two primary ellisellid clades, with a sea fan form estimated as the most-probable common ancestor with likely origins in the Indo-Pacific region. The observed parallelism in evolution indicates the existence of a constraint on the genetic elements determining ellisellid colonial morphology. However, the lack of correspondence between levels of genetic divergence and morphological diversity among genera suggests that future octocoral studies should focus on the role of changes in gene regulation in the evolution of branching patterns. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Molecular and morphological systematics of the Ellisellidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia): Parallel evolution in a globally distributed family of octocorals

    KAUST Repository

    Bilewitch, Jaret P.; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John; Degnan, Sandie M.

    2014-01-01

    The octocorals of the Ellisellidae constitute a diverse and widely distributed family with subdivisions into genera based on colonial growth forms. Branching patterns are repeated in several genera and congeners often display region-specific variations in a given growth form. We examined the systematic patterns of ellisellid genera and the evolution of branching form diversity using molecular phylogenetic and ancestral morphological reconstructions. Six of eight included genera were found to be polyphyletic due to biogeographical incompatibility with current taxonomic assignments and the creation of at least six new genera plus several reassignments among existing genera is necessary. Phylogenetic patterns of diversification of colony branching morphology displayed a similar transformation order in each of the two primary ellisellid clades, with a sea fan form estimated as the most-probable common ancestor with likely origins in the Indo-Pacific region. The observed parallelism in evolution indicates the existence of a constraint on the genetic elements determining ellisellid colonial morphology. However, the lack of correspondence between levels of genetic divergence and morphological diversity among genera suggests that future octocoral studies should focus on the role of changes in gene regulation in the evolution of branching patterns. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  2. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing system during the LHC Long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  3. Distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae inferred from genomic in situ hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pita

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily.

  4. Determination of the relations governing the evolution of the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1985-04-01

    An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  5. Quantification of the evolution of firm size distributions due to mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of firm sizes is known to be heavy tailed. In order to account for this stylized fact, previous economic models have focused mainly on growth through investments in a company's own operations (internal growth). Thereby, the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the firm size (external growth) is often not taken into consideration, notwithstanding its potential large impact. In this article, we make a first step into accounting for M&A. Specifically, we describe the effect of mergers and acquisitions on the firm size distribution in terms of an integro-differential equation. This equation is subsequently solved both analytically and numerically for various initial conditions, which allows us to account for different observations of previous empirical studies. In particular, it rationalises shortcomings of past work by quantifying that mergers and acquisitions develop a significant influence on the firm size distribution only over time scales much longer than a few decades. This explains why M&A has apparently little impact on the firm size distributions in existing data sets. Our approach is very flexible and can be extended to account for other sources of external growth, thus contributing towards a holistic understanding of the distribution of firm sizes.

  6. Quantification of the evolution of firm size distributions due to mergers and acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of firm sizes is known to be heavy tailed. In order to account for this stylized fact, previous economic models have focused mainly on growth through investments in a company’s own operations (internal growth). Thereby, the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the firm size (external growth) is often not taken into consideration, notwithstanding its potential large impact. In this article, we make a first step into accounting for M&A. Specifically, we describe the effect of mergers and acquisitions on the firm size distribution in terms of an integro-differential equation. This equation is subsequently solved both analytically and numerically for various initial conditions, which allows us to account for different observations of previous empirical studies. In particular, it rationalises shortcomings of past work by quantifying that mergers and acquisitions develop a significant influence on the firm size distribution only over time scales much longer than a few decades. This explains why M&A has apparently little impact on the firm size distributions in existing data sets. Our approach is very flexible and can be extended to account for other sources of external growth, thus contributing towards a holistic understanding of the distribution of firm sizes. PMID:28841683

  7. Quantification of the evolution of firm size distributions due to mergers and acquisitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Claudio Lera

    Full Text Available The distribution of firm sizes is known to be heavy tailed. In order to account for this stylized fact, previous economic models have focused mainly on growth through investments in a company's own operations (internal growth. Thereby, the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A on the firm size (external growth is often not taken into consideration, notwithstanding its potential large impact. In this article, we make a first step into accounting for M&A. Specifically, we describe the effect of mergers and acquisitions on the firm size distribution in terms of an integro-differential equation. This equation is subsequently solved both analytically and numerically for various initial conditions, which allows us to account for different observations of previous empirical studies. In particular, it rationalises shortcomings of past work by quantifying that mergers and acquisitions develop a significant influence on the firm size distribution only over time scales much longer than a few decades. This explains why M&A has apparently little impact on the firm size distributions in existing data sets. Our approach is very flexible and can be extended to account for other sources of external growth, thus contributing towards a holistic understanding of the distribution of firm sizes.

  8. Rock fragment distributions and regolith evolution in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Ken Luckow; Daniel A. Marion; Kristin R. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Rock fragments in the regolith are a persistent property that reflects the combined influences of geologic controls, erosion, deposition, bioturbation, and weathering. The distribution of rock fragments in regoliths of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, shows that sandstone fragments are common in all layers, even if sandstone is absent in parent material. Shale and...

  9. Evolution of a Family Nurse Practitioner Program to Improve Primary Care Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Len Hughes; Fenley, Mary D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a Family Nurse Practitioner Program that has effectively improved the distribution of primary health care manpower in rural areas. Program characteristics include selection of personnel from areas of need, decentralization of clinical and didactic training sites, competency-based portable curriculum, and circuit-riding institutionally…

  10. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Victor A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These

  11. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  12. Predictions of Gene Family Distributions in Microbial Genomes: Evolution by Gene Duplication and Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Itai; Camacho, Carlos J.; DeLisi, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A universal property of microbial genomes is the considerable fraction of genes that are homologous to other genes within the same genome. The process by which these homologues are generated is not well understood, but sequence analysis of 20 microbial genomes unveils a recurrent distribution of gene family sizes. We show that a simple evolutionary model based on random gene duplication and point mutations fully accounts for these distributions and permits predictions for the number of gene families in genomes not yet complete. Our findings are consistent with the notion that a genome evolves from a set of precursor genes to a mature size by gene duplications and increasing modifications. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Predictions of Gene Family Distributions in Microbial Genomes: Evolution by Gene Duplication and Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Itai; Camacho, Carlos J.; DeLisi, Charles

    2000-09-18

    A universal property of microbial genomes is the considerable fraction of genes that are homologous to other genes within the same genome. The process by which these homologues are generated is not well understood, but sequence analysis of 20 microbial genomes unveils a recurrent distribution of gene family sizes. We show that a simple evolutionary model based on random gene duplication and point mutations fully accounts for these distributions and permits predictions for the number of gene families in genomes not yet complete. Our findings are consistent with the notion that a genome evolves from a set of precursor genes to a mature size by gene duplications and increasing modifications. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Dynamics of Rn-222 daughter size distribution evolution: modelling and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, G.; El Moussaoui, B.; Renoux, A.

    1989-01-01

    Size distribution of short lived radon daughters is considered as a fundamental parameter in radiation protection in so far as about 40% of human exposure is due to inhalation of such radioactive particles, in mines as well as in indoor environments. Many experiments have been carried out in various conditions: controlled atmospheres, uranium mine atmospheres, atmospheric air, and more recently in houses because of the increasing interest in exposure to natural radiation. From an experimental point of view, previous measurements dealt with the cumulative size distribution of radon progeny alpha activity. Then, in spite of the difficulty in comparing data of different investigators, it was often found that a significant part of the activity was associated with particles above 0.1 μm in diameter. Otherwise, a bimodality was often observed in the case of airborne radioactive particles. The attachment of small radioactive ions or atoms produced by the radon decay on ambient particles has been studied. Differences arise in the calculation of the attachment coefficient and in the choice of the natural particle size distribution. This paper presents our investigation in this field by studying the theoretical and experimental aspects of the radon daughter behaviour in a cylindrical vessel simultaneously. (author)

  15. A methodology for determining the evolution law of gob permeability and its distributions in longwall coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cun; Tu, Shihao; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Qingsheng; Yuan, Yong; Wang, Fangtian

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the permeability evolution law of the gob by mining disturbances and obtain the permeability distribution of the fully compacted gob, comprehensive methods including theoretical analyses of monitoring data and numerical simulation are used to determine the permeability of gobs in the mining process. Based on current research, three zones of the vertical stress and permeability in the gob are introduced in this article, which are the caving rock mass accumulation zone, the gradually compacted zone and the fully compacted zone. A simple algorithm is written by using FISH language to be imported into the reservoir model. FISH language is an internal programming language in FLAC3D. It is possible to calculate the permeability at each zone with this algorithm in the mining process. Besides, we analyze the gas flow rates from seven gob gas ventholes (GGV) located on a longwall face operated in a mine of a Huainan coalfield in Huainan City, China. Combined with Darcy’s law, a calculation model of permeability around GGV in the gob is proposed. Using this model, the evolution law of permeability in the gob is deduced; the phases of permeability evolution are the decline stage and the stable stage. The result of the vertical stress monitoring data and good fitting effect of the permeability to the experimental data show that the permeability decline caused by the compaction of the gob is the principal reason for the decline stage. The stable stage indicates that the gob has been fully compacted, and the average period of full gob compaction is 47.75 d. The permeability in the middle of the compacted gob is much smaller than the permeability on the edge of the gob which presents an O shape trend. Besides, the little difference among the results of the numerical simulation, the permeability calculation model and other commonly used calculation models validate the correctness of the permeability calculation model and numerical simulation results

  16. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of a spatial exploration under time evolution of the attractiveness: Persistent nodes, degree distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    This work explores the features of a graph generated by agents that hop from one node to another node, where the nodes have evolutionary attractiveness. The jumps are governed by Boltzmann-like transition probabilities that depend both on the euclidean distance between the nodes and on the ratio (β) of the attractiveness between them. It is shown that persistent nodes, i.e., nodes that never been reached by this special random walk are possible in the stationary limit differently from the case where the attractiveness is fixed and equal to one for all nodes (β = 1). Simultaneously, one also investigates the spectral properties and statistics related to the attractiveness and degree distribution of the evolutionary network. Finally, a study of the crossover between persistent phase and no persistent phase was performed and it was also observed the existence of a special type of transition probability which leads to a power law behaviour for the time evolution of the persistence.

  18. Modeling the isotopic evolution of snowpack and snowmelt: Testing a spatially distributed parsimonious approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Aho, Pertti; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McNamara, James P; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kormos, Patrick; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge. We present a novel, parsimonious modeling method to account for the snowpack isotope fractionation and estimate isotope ratios in snowmelt water in a fully spatially distributed manner. Our model introduces two calibration parameters that alone account for the isotopic fractionation caused by sublimation from interception and ground snow storage, and snowmelt fractionation progressively enriching the snowmelt runoff. The isotope routines are linked to a generic process-based snow interception-accumulation-melt model facilitating simulation of spatially distributed snowmelt runoff. We use a synthetic modeling experiment to demonstrate the functionality of the model algorithms in different landscape locations and under different canopy characteristics. We also provide a proof-of-concept model test and successfully reproduce isotopic ratios in snowmelt runoff sampled with snowmelt lysimeters in two long-term experimental catchment with contrasting winter conditions. To our knowledge, the method is the first such tool to allow estimation of the spatially distributed nature of isotopic fractionation in snowpacks and the resulting isotope ratios in snowmelt runoff. The method can thus provide a useful tool for tracer-aided modeling to better understand the integrated nature of flow, mixing, and transport processes in snow-influenced catchments.

  19. Guangxi crustal structural evolution and the formation and distribution regularities of U-rich strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zili.

    1989-01-01

    Based on summing up Guangxi geotectonic features and evolutionary regularities, this paper discusses the occurrence features, formation conditions and time-space distribution regularities of various U-rich strata during the development of geosyncline, platform and diwa stages, Especially, during diwa stage all those U-rich strata might be reworked to a certain degree and resulted in the mobilization of uranium, then enriching to form polygenetic composite uranium ore deposits with stratabound features. This study will be helpful for prospecting in the region

  20. On the Relationship between Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of Rivers and Prehistoric Settlements Distribution in the Songshan Mountain Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of Holocene geomorphic evolution of rivers around Songshan Mountain in relation to human frequentation in Prehistoric periods. The investigations were performed by means of an integration of GIS data processing; field surveys and particle size analysis. In 8000–3000 aBP; in the Songshan Mountain Region, large-scale river sedimentation occurred. This increased the elevation of river beds that were higher than today. After 3000 aBP; the upper reaches of the rivers experienced a down cut; while the lower reaches experienced continuing sedimentation. The data on the elevation of prehistoric settlements above the river levels were obtained from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs. These data were corrected according to the evolutionary features of fluvial landforms in order to obtain synchronous elevations above river levels of prehistoric settlements. The relationship between sediment distribution and the Holocene geomorphic evolution was investigated through the statistical analysis of the elevation above the river levels. Outputs from our analyses enabled us to differentiate three evolutionary stages. During the first one, related to Peiligang culture (9000–7500 aBP, populations mainly settled on both hilly relief and high plateaus depending on their agriculture production modes. During the second stage, from Yangshao (7500–5000 aBP to the Longshan period (5000–4000 aBP, settlements were mainly distributed on mountainous areas and hilly lands to avoid flooding and to develop agriculture. Finally, during the Xiashang culture (4000–3000 aBP, a large number of settlements migrated to the plain area to facilitate trade of goods and cultural exchanges.

  1. Evolution of electron pitch angle distributions across Saturn's middle magnetospheric region from MIMI/LEMMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Paranicas, C.; Santos-Costa, D.; Livi, S.; Krupp, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roussos, E.; Tseng, W.-L.

    2014-12-01

    We provide a global view of ~20 to 800 keV electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) close to Saturn's current sheet using observations from the Cassini MIMI/LEMMS instrument. Previous work indicated that the nature of pitch angle distributions in Saturn's inner to middle magnetosphere changes near the radial distance of 10RS. This work confirms the existence of a PAD transition region. Here we go further and develop a new technique to statistically quantify the spatial profile of butterfly PADs as well as present new spatial trends on the isotropic PAD. Additionally, we perform a case study analysis and show the PADs exhibit strong energy dependent features throughout this transition region. We also present a diffusion theory model based on adiabatic transport, Coulomb interactions with Saturn's neutral gas torus, and an energy dependent radial diffusion coefficient. A data-model comparison reveals that adiabatic transport is the dominant transport mechanism between ~8 to 12RS, however interactions with Saturn's neutral gas torus become dominant inside ~7RS and govern the flux level of ~20 to 800 keV electrons. We have also found that field-aligned fluxes were not well reproduced by our modeling approach. We suggest that wave-particle interactions and/or a polar source of the energetic particles needs further investigation.

  2. Microfracture spacing distributions and the evolution of fracture patterns in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. N.; Laubach, S. E.; Marrett, R.

    2018-03-01

    Natural fracture patterns in sandstone were sampled using scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging. All fractures are opening-mode and are fully or partially sealed by quartz cement. Most sampled fractures are too small to be height-restricted by sedimentary layers. At very low strains ( 100) datasets show spacings that are best fit by log-normal size distributions, compared to exponential, power law, or normal distributions. The clustering of fractures suggests that the locations of natural factures are not determined by a random process. To investigate natural fracture localization, we reconstructed the opening history of a cluster of fractures within the Huizachal Group in northeastern Mexico, using fluid inclusions from synkinematic cements and thermal-history constraints. The largest fracture, which is the only fracture in the cluster visible to the naked eye, among 101 present, opened relatively late in the sequence. This result suggests that the growth of sets of fractures is a self-organized process, in which small, initially isolated fractures grow and progressively interact, with preferential growth of a subset of fractures developing at the expense of growth of the rest. Size-dependent sealing of fractures within sets suggests that synkinematic cementation may contribute to fracture clustering.

  3. Antitropical distribution and evolution in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Antitropical distributions of continental shelf, Indo-West Pacific species are probably not due to transgression of the tropics during the glacial periods, isothermic submergence, island integration, rising Neogene temperatures, or the Mesozoic dispersal of fragments from a Pacific continental mass. Characteristics of common antitropical patterns, plus information from systematic works on a variety on a variety of animal and plant groups, indicate that the long discarded "relict theory" of Theel (1885) appears to best fit the evidence, for it provides a mechanism whereby antitropical distribution may be brought about. The relict theory is compatible with the concept that the East Indies part of the Indo-West Pacific has been functioning as a center of evolutionary origin. It suggests that antitropical and associated disjunct patterns are produced as an older species, that has spread out to occupy a broad range, loses ground and gradually becomes supplanted by a younger species that had subsequently evolved in the East Indies. As this process goes on, the older species becomes restricted to a few isolated localities on the fringe of its original range. These isolates are often found to the north and south of the equatorial region but may include relict populations at the western edge of the Indian Ocean.

  4. Evolution of Sr distribution coefficient as a function of time, incubation conditions and measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guo; Staunton, Siobhan

    2005-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the dynamics of radiostrontium in soil is required to allow accurate long-term predictions of its mobility. We have followed the soil solution distribution of 85 Sr as a function of time under controlled conditions over 4 months and studied the effect of soil moisture content and organic matter amendments. Data have been compared to redox conditions and soil pH. To fuel the ongoing debate on the validity of distribution coefficient (K d ) values measured in dilute suspension, we have compared values obtained from the activity concentration in soil solution obtained by centrifugation to data obtained in suspension with or without air-drying of the soil samples after incubation. The 85 Sr adsorption properties of soil, incubated without prior contamination were also measured. There is some time-dependent adsorption of Sr. This is partly due to changing soil composition due to the decomposition of added organic matter and anaerobic conditions induced by flooding. There is also a kinetic effect, but adsorption remains largely reversible. Most of the observed effects are lost when soil is suspended in electrolyte solution

  5. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  6. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    reported [Bindslev , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205005 2006]. Here we extend the discussion of these results which were obtained at the TEXTOR tokamak. The fast ions are generated by neutral-beam injection and ion-cyclotron resonance heating. The CTS system uses 100-150 kW of 110-GHz gyrotron probing radiation......Fast ions created in the fusion processes will provide up to 70% of the heating in ITER. To optimize heating and current drive in magnetically confined plasmas insight into fast-ion dynamics is important. First measurements of such dynamics by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were recently...... of the velocity distribution after turnoff of the ion heating. These results are in close agreement with numerical simulations....

  7. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  8. Evolution of size distribution, optical properties, and structure of Si nanoparticles obtained by laser-assisted fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, G. L.; Graff, I. L.; Schreiner, W. H.; Bezerra, A. G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the physical properties of Si-based nanoparticles produced by an environment-friendly three-step method relying on: (1) laser ablation of a solid target immersed in water, (2) centrifugation and separation, and (3) laser-assisted fragmentation. The evolution of size distribution is followed after each step by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and crosschecked by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-ablated colloidal suspension of Si nanoparticles presents a large size distribution, ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers. Centrifugation drives the very large particles to the bottom eliminating them from the remaining suspension. Subsequent irradiation of height-separated suspensions with a second high-fluence (40 mJ/pulse) Nd:YAG laser operating at the fourth harmonic (λ =266 nm) leads to size reduction and ultra-small nanoparticles are obtainable depending on the starting size. Si nanoparticles as small as 1.5 nm with low dispersion (± 0.7 nm) are observed for the uppermost part after irradiation. These nanoparticles present a strong blue photoluminescence that remains stable for at least 8 weeks. Optical absorption (UV-Vis) measurements demonstrate an optical gap widening as a consequence of size decrease. Raman spectra present features related to pure silicon and silicon oxides for the irradiated sample. Interestingly, a defect band associated with silicon oxide is also identified, indicating the possible formation of defect states, which, in turn, supports the idea that the blue photoluminescence has its origin in defects.

  9. The mangotoxin biosynthetic operon (mbo) is specifically distributed within Pseudomonas syringae genomospecies 1 and was acquired only once during evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Víctor J; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Arrebola, Eva; Bardaji, Leire; Codina, Juan C; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M; Murillo, Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Mangotoxin production was first described in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains. A phenotypic characterization of 94 P. syringae strains was carried out to determine the genetic evolution of the mangotoxin biosynthetic operon (mbo). We designed a PCR primer pair specific for the mbo operon to examine its distribution within the P. syringae complex. These primers amplified a 692-bp DNA fragment from 52 mangotoxin-producing strains and from 7 non-mangotoxin-producing strains that harbor the mbo operon, whereas 35 non-mangotoxin-producing strains did not yield any amplification. This, together with the analysis of draft genomes, allowed the identification of the mbo operon in five pathovars (pathovars aptata, avellanae, japonica, pisi, and syringae), all of which belong to genomospecies 1, suggesting a limited distribution of the mbo genes in the P. syringae complex. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences from housekeeping genes differentiated three groups within genomospecies 1. All of the strains containing the mbo operon clustered in groups I and II, whereas those lacking the operon clustered in group III; however, the relative branching order of these three groups is dependent on the genes used to construct the phylogeny. The mbo operon maintains synteny and is inserted in the same genomic location, with high sequence conservation around the insertion point, for all the strains in groups I and II. These data support the idea that the mbo operon was acquired horizontally and only once by the ancestor of groups I and II from genomospecies 1 within the P. syringae complex.

  10. The large scale and long term evolution of the solar wind speed distribution and high speed streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the solar wind speed distribution and of high speed streams in the solar wind are examined. Comparisons of the solar wind streaming speeds measured at Earth, Pioneer 11, and Pioneer 10 indicate that between 1 AU and 6.4 AU the solar wind speed distributions are narrower (i.e. the 95% value minus the 5% value of the solar wind streaming speed is less) at extended heliocentric distances. These observations are consistent with one exchange of momentum in the solar wind between high speed streams and low speed streams as they propagate outward from the Sun. Analyses of solar wind observations at 1 AU from mid 1964 through 1973 confirm the earlier results reported by Intriligator (1974) that there are statistically significant variations in the solar wind in 1968 and 1969, years of solar maximum. High speed stream parameters show that the number of high speed streams in the solar wind in 1968 and 1969 is considerably more than the predicted yearly average, and in 1965 and 1972 less. Histograms of solar wind speed from 1964 through 1973 indicate that in 1968 there was the highest percentage of elevated solar wind speeds and in 1965 and 1972 the lowest. Studies by others also confirm these results although the respective authors did not indicate this fact. The duration of the streams and the histograms for 1973 imply a shifting in the primary stream source. (Auth.)

  11. Spatio-temporal evolution of the dust particle size distribution in dusty argon rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killer, Carsten; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, André

    2015-01-01

    An imaging Mie scattering technique has been developed to measure the spatially resolved size distribution of dust particles in extended dust clouds. For large dust clouds of micrometre-sized plastic particles confined in an radio frequency (rf) discharge, a segmentation of the dust cloud into populations of different sizes is observed, even though the size differences are very small. The dust size dispersion inside a population is much smaller than the difference between the populations. Furthermore, the dust size is found to be constantly decreasing over time while the particles are confined in an inert argon plasma. The processes responsible for the shrinking of the dust in the plasma have been addressed by mass spectrometry, ex situ microscopy of the dust size, dust resonance measurements, in situ determination of the dust surface temperature and Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR). It is concluded that both a reduction of dust size and its mass density due to outgassing of water and other volatile constituents as well as chemical etching by oxygen impurities are responsible for the observations. (paper)

  12. Carnivore-specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): distribution, evolution, and genomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters-Conte, Kathryn B; Johnson, Diana L E; Allard, Marc W; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics.

  13. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains in myosin motor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Simm

    Full Text Available Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss.

  14. Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.

  15. Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.

  16. The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summit metabolic rate (M(sum), maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M(sum) is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M(sum) than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M(sum) as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M(sum) should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M(sum) data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M(sum) variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M(sum), and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M(sum). These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M(sum) in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

  17. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  18. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Maréchal, Eric

    2008-08-07

    Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2) following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory) is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure). Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1) having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2) which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a constant rate, corresponding to the

  19. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2 following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. Results We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure. Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1 having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2 which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a

  20. Evolution equation for the B-meson distribution amplitude in the heavy-quark effective theory in coordinate space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The B-meson distribution amplitude (DA) is defined as the matrix element of a quark-antiquark bilocal light-cone operator in the heavy-quark effective theory, corresponding to a long-distance component in the factorization formula for exclusive B-meson decays. The evolution equation for the B-meson DA is governed by the cusp anomalous dimension as well as the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-type anomalous dimension, and these anomalous dimensions give the ''quasilocal'' kernel in the coordinate-space representation. We show that this evolution equation can be solved analytically in the coordinate space, accomplishing the relevant Sudakov resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The quasilocal nature leads to a quite simple form of our solution which determines the B-meson DA with a quark-antiquark light-cone separation t in terms of the DA at a lower renormalization scale μ with smaller interquark separations zt (z≤1). This formula allows us to present rigorous calculation of the B-meson DA at the factorization scale ∼√(m b Λ QCD ) for t less than ∼1 GeV -1 , using the recently obtained operator product expansion of the DA as the input at μ∼1 GeV. We also derive the master formula, which reexpresses the integrals of the DA at μ∼√(m b Λ QCD ) for the factorization formula by the compact integrals of the DA at μ∼1 GeV.

  1. Glacial lakes in South Tyrol: distribution, evolution and potential for GLOFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Marie-Claire; Mergili, Martin

    2017-04-01

    All over the world glaciers are currently retreating, leading to the formation or growth of glacial lakes. Some of these lakes are susceptible to sudden drainage. In order to assess the danger of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, we present (i) an inventory of lakes, (ii) an analysis of the development of selected glacial lakes since 1945, and (iii) the susceptibility to and the possible impact areas of GLOFs. The inventory includes 1010 lakes that are larger than 250 m2 at an elevation above 2000 m asl, most of them of glacial origin. These lakes are mapped manually from orthophotos. Apart from collecting information on the spatial distribution of these lakes, the inventory lists dam material, glacier contact, and further parameters. 89% of the lakes in the investigation area are impounded by bedrock, whereas 93% of the lakes are detached from the associated glacier. The majority of lakes is small to medium sized (selected lakes are analyzed in detail in the field and from multi-temporal orthophotos, including the development of lake size and surroundings in the period since 1945. The majority of the selected lakes, however, was first recorded on orthophotos from the early 1980s. Eight of ten lakes grew significantly in that period. But when the lakes detached from the glacier until the early 2000s, the growth slowed down or ceased. Based on the current development of the selected lakes we conclude that the close surroundings of these lakes have stabilised and the lakes' susceptibility to an outburst has thus decreased. We further conduct broad-scale analyses of the susceptibility of the mapped lakes to GLOFs, and of the potential reach of possible GLOFs. The tool r.glachaz is used to determine the potentially dangerous lakes. Even though some few lakes require closer attention, the overall susceptibility to GLOFs in South Tyrol is relatively low, as most lakes are impounded by bedrock. In some cases, GLOFs caused by impact

  2. Adherence to antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common disorder with painful symptoms and, frequently, social impairment and decreased quality of life. The disorder has a tendency to be long lasting, often with frequent recurrence of symptoms. The risk of relapse and the severity of the symptoms may be reduced by correct...... of dependence of antidepressant medicine, have a great influence on adherence to treatment....

  3. adherence to antiretroviral regimens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to macro- and microeconomic costs.' What soon became evident, however, was the vital importance of patient adherence with prescribed medication in order to garner the benefits that were so rapidly becoming available. As a result, much attention has recently been paid to this aspect of management. Both clinicians and ...

  4. The evolution of the englacial temperature distribution in the superimposed ice zone of a polar ice cap during a summer season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.; Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide more insight into the processes affecting the evolution of the englacial temperature distribution at a non-temperate location on a glacier. Measurements were made in the top 10 m of the ice at the summit of Laika Ice Cap (Canadian Arctic)

  5. Discovery of cyclotides in the fabaceae plant family provides new insights into the cyclization, evolution, and distribution of circular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Aaron G; Colgrave, Michelle L; Philip, Reynold; Kerenga, Bomai; Daly, Norelle L; Anderson, Marilyn A; Craik, David J

    2011-04-15

    Cyclotides are plant proteins whose defining structural features are a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and three interlocking disulfide bonds, which in combination are known as a cyclic cystine knot. This unique structural motif confers cyclotides with exceptional resistance to proteolysis. Their endogenous function is thought to be as plant defense agents, associated with their insecticidal and larval growth-inhibitory properties. However, in addition, an array of pharmaceutically relevant biological activities has been ascribed to cyclotides, including anti-HIV, anthelmintic, uterotonic, and antimicrobial effects. So far, >150 cyclotides have been elucidated from members of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae plant families, but their wider distribution among other plant families remains unclear. Clitoria ternatea (Butterfly pea) is a member of plant family Fabaceae and through its usage in traditional medicine to aid childbirth bears similarity to Oldenlandia affinis, from which many cyclotides have been isolated. Using a combination of nanospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analyses, we examined seed extracts of C. ternatea and discovered cyclotides in the Fabaceae, the third-largest family of flowering plants. We characterized 12 novel cyclotides, thus expanding knowledge of cyclotide distribution and evolution within the plant kingdom. The discovery of cyclotides containing novel sequence motifs near the in planta cyclization site has provided new insights into cyclotide biosynthesis. In particular, MS analyses of the novel cyclotides from C. ternatea suggest that Asn to Asp variants at the cyclization site are more common than previously recognized. Moreover, this study provides impetus for the examination of other economically and agriculturally significant species within Fabaceae, now the largest plant family from which cyclotides have been described.

  6. The evolution of body size in extant groups of North American freshwater fishes: speciation, size distributions, and Cope's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Page, Lawrence M

    2003-03-01

    Change in body size within an evolutionary lineage over time has been under investigation since the synthesis of Cope's rule, which suggested that there is a tendency for mammals to evolve larger body size. Data from the fossil record have subsequently been examined for several other taxonomic groups to determine whether they also displayed an evolutionary increase in body size. However, we are not aware of any species-level study that has investigated the evolution of body size within an extant continental group. Data acquired from the fossil record and data derived from the evolutionary relationships of extant species are not similar, with each set exhibiting both strengths and weaknesses related to inferring evolutionary patterns. Consequently, expectation that general trends exhibited in the fossil record will correspond to patterns in extant groups is not necessarily warranted. Using phylogenetic relationships of extant species, we show that five of nine families of North American freshwater fishes exhibit an evolutionary trend of decreasing body size. These trends result from the basal position of large species and the more derived position of small species within families. Such trends may be caused by the invasion of small streams and subsequent isolation and speciation. This pattern, potentially influenced by size-biased dispersal rates and the high percentage of small streams in North America, suggests a scenario that could result in the generation of the size-frequency distribution of North American freshwater fishes.

  7. On γ5 in higher-order QCD calculations and the NNLO evolution of the polarized valence distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the prescription for the Dirac matrix γ 5 in dimensional regularization used in most second- and third-order QCD calculations of collider cross sections. We provide an alternative implementation of this approach that avoids the use of an explicit form of γ 5 and of its (anti-) commutation relations in the most important case of no more than one γ 5 in each fermion trace. This treatment is checked by computing the third-order corrections to the structure functions F 2 and g 1 in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering with axial-vector couplings to the W-bosons. We derive the so far unknown third-order helicity-difference splitting function ΔP ns (2)s that contributes to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) evolution of the polarized valence quark distribution of the nucleon. This function is negligible at momentum fractions x>or similar 0.3 but relevant at x<<1.

  8. Long-term evolution of electron distribution function due to nonlinear resonant interaction with whistler mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.

    2018-04-01

    Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.

  9. Stratigraphical discontinuities, tropical landscape evolution and soil distribution relationships in a case study in SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cooper

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available On a regional summit surface in the county of Piracicaba (SP within the Peripheric Depression of São Paulo, formed of discontinued flattened tops, there is an abrupt transition between a Typic Hapludox and a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox, together with two stoneline layers. Using stratigraphical, mineralogical, and cartographic studies, this transition and the soil distribution of this surface were studied, correlating them with the different parent materials and the morphoclimatic model of landscape evolution in Southeastern Brazil. The Typic Hapludox was formed on a sandy Cenozoic deposit (Q that overlies a pellitic deposit of the Iratí formation (Pi, representing a regional erosive discordance. Westwards to the Piracicaba River, this sequence is interrupted by a diabase sill overlain by a red clayey material which gave origin to the Kandiudalfic Eutrudox. Two post-Permian depositional events were identified by the two stonelines and stratigraphical discontinuities. The first event generated the deposition of a sandy sediment in the form of levelled alveoluses on regional barriers, most of these formed by dikes and diabase sills, probably during a drier phase. The second depositional event, leading to the deposition of the red clay was probably the dissection of the previously formed pediplane during a humid climate, followed by another pedimentation process during a later, drier period.

  10. Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas are considered concerning the evolution of galaxies which are closely related to those of stellar evolution and the origin of elements. Using information obtained from stellar spectra, astronomers are now able to consider an underlying process to explain the distribution of various elements in the stars, gas and dust clouds of the galaxies. (U.K.)

  11. Patient adherence with COPD therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Rand

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are very few published studies on adherence to treatment regimens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the evidence that exists suggests that, as with asthma therapy, adherence is poor. Patient beliefs about COPD, as well as their motivation and expectations about the likelihood of success of medical interventions, can influence adherence rates. Other critical factors include the patient's understanding of their illness and therapy, and the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen. Incorrect inhaler technique is also a common failing. When prescribing in primary or specialist care, healthcare professionals should address adherence as a vital part of the patient consultation. Improved patient education may also increase adherence rates.

  12. MIZMAS: Modeling the Evolution of Ice Thickness and Floe Size Distributions in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ITD theory of Thorndike et al. (1975) in order to explicitly simulate the evolution of FSD and ITD jointly. The FSD theory includes a FSD function and...et al., 2015). 4 RESULTS Modeling: A FSD theory is developed and coupled to the ITD theory of Thorndike et al. (1975) in order to... Thorndike , A.S., D.A. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and R. Colony (1975), The thickness distribution of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4501–4513. Zhang

  13. Correlates of Pediatric CPAP Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephen M.M.; Jensen, Emily L.; Simon, Stacey L.; Friedman, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric condition characterized by recurrent partial or complete cessation of airflow during sleep, typically due to inadequate upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a therapeutic option that reduces morbidity. Despite efforts to promote use, CPAP adherence is poor in both pediatric and adult populations. We sought to determine whether demographics, insurance status, OSA severity, therapeutic pressure, or comorbid conditions were associated with pediatric CPAP adherence. Methods: A retrospective review of adherence download data was performed on all pediatric patients with initiation or adjustment of CPAP treatment over a one-year period with documented in-laboratory CPAP titration. Patients were grouped as CPAP adherent or non-adherent, where adherence was defined as > 70% nightly use and average usage ≥ 4 hours per night. Differences between the groups were analyzed by χ2 test. Results: Overall, nearly half of participants were CPAP adherent (49%, 69/140). Of the demographic data collected (age, ethnicity, sex, insurance status), only female sex was associated with better adherence (60.9% vs 39.5% of males adherent; odds ratio [OR] = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.20–4.85; p = 0.01). Severity of OSA (diagnostic apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and degree of hypoxemia), therapeutic pressure, and residual AHI did not impact CPAP adherence (p > 0.05). Patients with developmental delay (DD) were more likely to be adherent with CPAP than those without a DD diagnosis (OR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.27–5.13; p = 0.007). Female patients with trisomy 21 tended to be more adherent, but this did not reach significance or account for the overall increased adherence associated with female sex. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adherence to CPAP therapy is poor but suggests that female sex and developmental delay are associated with better adherence. These findings support efforts to understand the

  14. Insecticidal genes of Yersinia spp.: taxonomical distribution, contribution to toxicity towards Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachtner Joachim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxin complex (Tc proteins termed TcaABC, TcdAB, and TccABC with insecticidal activity are present in a variety of bacteria including the yersiniae. Results The tc gene sequences of thirteen Yersinia strains were compared, revealing a high degree of gene order conservation, but also remarkable differences with respect to pseudogenes, sequence variability and gene duplications. Outside the tc pathogenicity island (tc-PAIYe of Y. enterocolitica strain W22703, a pseudogene (tccC2'/3' encoding proteins with homology to TccC and similarity to tyrosine phosphatases at its C-terminus was identified. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the tc-PAIYe and of tccC2'/3'-homologues in all biotype 2–5 strains tested, and their absence in most representatives of biotypes 1A and 1B. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 TccC sequences indicates the presence of the tc-PAIYe in an ancestor of Yersinia. Oral uptake experiments with Manduca sexta revealed a higher larvae lethality of Yersinia strains harbouring the tc-PAIYe in comparison to strains lacking this island. Following subcutaneous infection of Galleria mellonella larvae with five non-human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and four Y. enterocolitica strains, we observed a remarkable variability of their insecticidal activity ranging from 20% (Y. kristensenii to 90% (Y. enterocolitica strain 2594 dead larvae after five days. Strain W22703 and its tcaA deletion mutant did not exhibit a significantly different toxicity towards G. mellonella. These data confirm a role of TcaA upon oral uptake only, and suggest the presence of further insecticidal determinants in Yersinia strains formerly unknown to kill insects. Conclusion This study investigated the tc gene distribution among yersiniae and the phylogenetic relationship between TccC proteins, thus contributing novel aspects to the current discussion about the evolution of insecticidal toxins in the genus Yersinia. The toxic potential of several Yersinia

  15. Adherence as a language game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein

    2017-04-01

    Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order.

  16. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  17. Modeling of the evolution of bubble size distribution of gas-liquid flow inside a large vertical pipe. Influence of bubble coalescence and breakup models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The range of gas-liquid flow applications in today's technology is immensely wide. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. In gas-liquid flows, the bubble size distribution plays an important role in the phase structure and interfacial exchange behaviors. It is therefore necessary to take into account the dynamic change of the bubble size distribution to get good predictions in CFD. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble-Size-Class Test Solver was introduced in Lucas et al. (2001) for the simulation of the development of the flow structure along a vertical pipe. The model considers a large number of bubble classes. It solves the radial profiles of liquid and gas velocities, bubble-size class resolved gas fraction profiles as well as turbulence parameters on basis of the bubble size distribution present at the given axial position. The evolution of the flow along the height is assumed to be solely caused by the progress of bubble coalescence and break-up resulting in a bubble size distribution changing in the axial direction. In this model, the bubble coalescence and breakup models are very important for reasonable predictions of the bubble size distribution. Many bubble coalescence and breakup models have been proposed in the literature. However, some obvious discrepancies exist in the models; for example, the daughter bubble size distributions are greatly different from different bubble breakup models, as reviewed in our previous publication (Liao and Lucas, 2009a; 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to compare and evaluate typical bubble coalescence and breakup models that have been commonly used in the literature. Thus, this work is aimed to make a comparison of several typical bubble coalescence and breakup models and to discuss in detail the ability of the Test Solver to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution. (orig.)

  18. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  19. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  20. Antihypertensive Medications Adherence Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital, Ogbomosho, 2Goshen Heart Clinic, Osogbo, 3Department of Economics, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria ... significant impact of antihypertensive medication adherence.[13]. The level of information provided to patients may also impact ..... Muntner P. New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy.

  1. Effects of next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution on generalized parton distributions of the proton and deeply virtual Compton scattering at high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh [University of Science and Technology of Mazandaran, Department of Physics, Behshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goharipour, Muhammad [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guzey, Vadim [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    We studied the effects of NLO Q{sup 2} evolution of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) using the aligned-jet model for the singlet quark and gluon GPDs at an initial evolution scale. We found that the skewness ratio for quarks is a slow logarithmic function of Q{sup 2}, reaching r{sup S} = 1.5-2 at Q{sup 2} = 100 GeV{sup 2} and r{sup g} ∼ 1 for gluons in a wide range of Q{sup 2}. Using the resulting GPDs, we calculated the DVCS cross section on the proton in NLO pQCD and found that this model in conjunction with modern parameterizations of proton PDFs (CJ15 and CT14) provides a good description of the available H1 and ZEUS data in a wide kinematic range. (orig.)

  2. An investigation of processes controlling the evolution of the boundary layer aerosol size distribution properties at the Swedish background station Aspvreten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distributions have been measured at the Swedish background station Aspvreten (58.8° N, 17.4° E. Different states of the aerosol were determined using a novel application of cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in eight different clusters capturing different stages of the aerosol lifecycle. The atmospheric aerosol size distributions were interpreted as belonging to fresh, intermediate and aged types of size distribution. With aid of back trajectory analysis we present statistics concerning the relation of source area and different meteorological parameters using a non-Lagrangian approach. Source area is argued to be important although not sufficient to describe the observed aerosol properties. Especially processing by clouds and precipitation is shown to be crucial for the evolution of the aerosol size distribution. As much as 60% of the observed size distributions present features that are likely to be related to cloud processes or wet deposition. The lifetime properties of different sized aerosols are discussed by means of measured variability of the aerosol size distribution. Processing by clouds and precipitation is shown to be especially crucial in the size range 100 nm and larger. This indicates an approximate limit for activation in clouds to 100 nm in this type of environment. The aerosol lifecycle is discussed. Size distributions indicating signs of recent new particle formation (~30% of the observed size distributions represent the first stage in the lifecycle. Aging of the aerosol size distribution may follow two branches: either growth by condensation and coagulation or processing by non-precipitating clouds. In both cases mass is accumulated. Wet removal is the main process capable of removing aerosol mass. Wet deposition is argued to be an important mechanism in reaching a state where nucleation may occur (i.e. sufficiently low aerosol surface area in environments similar to the one studied.

  3. Adhered Supported Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm

  4. Galactic chemical evolution with main-sequence mass loss and the distribution of F and G dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Simple closed galactic chemical-evolution models incorporating early main-sequence stellar mass loss have been developed for disk ages of 5, 10, and 15 Gyr. Relative to models without stellar mass loss, the models are shown to produce a 30-60 percent increase in the present mass ratio of dwarfs to dwarfs plus remnants, and a 200-250 percent increase in the total mass of late F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence at the current disk age. For present disk ages 5 and 10 Gyr, the total mass of mid-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence is also shown to increase by 90-120 percent. It is concluded that models with main-sequence mass loss have a slightly reduced gas metallicity and slightly increased gas fraction midway through the evolution. 30 references

  5. GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION: THE IMPACT OF THE 13C-POCKET STRUCTURE ON THE s -PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisterzo, S.; Travaglio, C.; Wiescher, M.; Käppeler, F.; Gallino, R.

    2017-01-01

    The solar s -process abundances have been analyzed in the framework of a Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model. The aim of this work is to implement the study by Bisterzo et al., who investigated the effect of one of the major uncertainties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) yields, the internal structure of the 13 C pocket. We present GCE predictions of s -process elements computed with additional tests in the light of suggestions provided in recent publications. The analysis is extended to different metallicities, by comparing GCE results and updated spectroscopic observations of unevolved field stars. We verify that the GCE predictions obtained with different tests may represent, on average, the evolution of selected neutron-capture elements in the Galaxy. The impact of an additional weak s -process contribution from fast-rotating massive stars is also explored.

  6. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome.

  7. The gas market opens out to competition: how will the French system of distributions evolve?; Ouverture a la concurrence du marche du gaz: quelle evolution pour le systeme francais des concessions de distribution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonnier, R. [Strasbourg-3 Universite, Robert Schuman, 67 (France)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ. Louis Pasteur, 67 (France)

    1998-10-01

    Th public distribution of natural gas in France is organised around a system of franchises allocated by the communes to a unique designated distributor (Gaz de France in most cases). This system, which was recently eased by a legislative provision, seems to have an uncertain future faced with the opening of competition that is encouraged by the European authorities and with the demands of some local communities which would like to lay a greater role in the future organisational plan for gas. This article looks at the possible evolutions, from the reactivation of franchises to their complete disappearance. (author)

  8. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.

  9. Exercise after Stroke: Patient Adherence and Beliefs after Discharge from Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristine K; Porter, Rebecca E; DeBaun-Sprague, Erin; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene A

    2017-03-01

    Most people complete post-stroke rehabilitation within the first 6 months after stroke even though benefits from exercise are believed to persist well beyond 6 months. Physical and Occupational therapists provide home exercise programs (HEP) to instruct patients on exercises to continue after discharge from rehabilitation. Unfortunately, there is little known about HEP adherence rates in adults with stroke. The objectives of this project were to (1) determine the adherence rate with post-rehabilitation HEP and reasons for non-adherence, (2) assess for interactions between HEP adherence and self-report of depression and fatigue, and (3) determine patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise during stroke recovery. This was a cross-sectional, survey study. A survey was developed and distributed during stroke support group meetings to determine adherence rates with post rehabilitation HEP, reasons for non-adherence, and patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported receiving a HEP and 65.3% of those reported being adherent with at least part of the HEP. Several reasons for non-adherence were identified, including 'doing different exercises than the ones given by the physical therapist', as the most frequently given reason. Study participants identified positive roles of exercise in their recovery from stroke. Patient adherence with HEP after discharge from rehabilitation is less than ideal. Reasons for non-adherence are varied. Rehabilitation therapists need to be able to identify and help patients manage barriers to HEP adherence to promote management of residual deficits.

  10. Long-period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Infrared photometry, spectral classification, AGB evolution, and spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.M.G.; Wood, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared JHK photometry and visual spectra have been obtained for a large sample of long-period variables (LPVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Various aspects of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution of LPVs are discussed using these data. The birth/death rate of LPVs of different ages in the LMC is compared with the birth rates of appropriate samples of planetary nebulas, clump stars, Cepheids, and OH/IR stars. It appears that there are much fewer large-amplitude LPVs per unit galactic stellar mass in the LMC than in the Galaxy. It is suggested that this may be due to the fact that the evolved intermediate-age AGB stars in the LMC often turn into carbon stars, which tend to have smaller pulsation amplitudes than M stars. There is also a major discrepancy between the number of LPVs in the LMC (and in the Galaxy) and the number predicted by the theories of AGB evolution, pulsation, and mass loss. A distance modulus to the LMC of 18.66 + or - 0.05 is derived by comparing the LMC LPVs with P about 200 days with the 47 Tucanae Mira variables in the (K, log P) plane. 64 refs

  11. Risks of nuclear waste disposal in space. III - Long-term orbital evolution of small particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Wells, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    A study of long term risks is presented that treats an additional pathway that could result in earth reentry, namely, small radioactive particles released in solar orbit due to payload fragmentation by accidental explosion or meteoroid impact. A characterization of such an event and of the initial mass size distribution of particles is given for two extremes of waste form strength. Attention is given to numerical results showing the mass-time distribution of material and the fraction of initial mass intercepted by earth. It is concluded that it appears that program planners need not be to concerned about the risks of this particular failure mechanism and return pathway.

  12. Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: a current perspective of genome distribution, evolution, and function : Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: genomic organization, evolution, and molecular mechanism models contribute broadly to plant pathogen defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2018-02-01

    STAND P-loop NTPase is the common weapon used by plant and other organisms from all three kingdoms of life to defend themselves against pathogen invasion. The purpose of this study is to review comprehensively the latest finding of plant STAND P-loop NTPase related to their genomic distribution, evolution, and their mechanism of action. Earlier, the plant STAND P-loop NTPase known to be comprised of only NBS-LRRs/AP-ATPase/NB-ARC ATPase. However, recent finding suggests that genome of early green plants comprised of two types of STAND P-loop NTPases: (1) mammalian NACHT NTPases and (2) NBS-LRRs. Moreover, YchF (unconventional G protein and members of P-loop NTPase) subfamily has been reported to be exceptionally involved in biotic stress (in case of Oryza sativa), thereby a novel member of STAND P-loop NTPase in green plants. The lineage-specific expansion and genome duplication events are responsible for abundance of plant STAND P-loop NTPases; where "moderate tandem and low segmental duplication" trajectory followed in majority of plant species with few exception (equal contribution of tandem and segmental duplication). Since the past decades, systematic research is being investigated into NBS-LRR function supported the direct recognition of pathogen or pathogen effectors by the latest models proposed via 'integrated decoy' or 'sensor domains' model. Here, we integrate the recently published findings together with the previous literature on the genomic distribution, evolution, and distinct models proposed for functional molecular mechanism of plant STAND P-loop NTPases.

  13. Objective Assessment Method for RNAV STAR Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Matthews, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design specifications. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying 4D radar track data onto RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed frequencies of aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions. Full-lateral adherence was always greater than Full-lateral/ full- vertical, as it is a subset, but the difference between the rates was not consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0% in KDEN (Denver) to 21% in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0% to nearly 100% for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1,000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  14. Drop size distribution evolution after continuous or intermittent injection of butane or propane in a confined air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knubben, G.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Drop size distributions and velocities have been measured of n-butane and propane sprays, rapidly evaporating in air flowing at constant velocity, 15 m/s typically. The inlet air temperature has been found to be of main importance in the evaporation process. After a period of the order of the

  15. Matrix Structure Evolution and Nanoreinforcement Distribution in Mechanically Milled and Spark Plasma Sintered Al-SiC Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb, Nouari; Aliyu, Ismaila Kayode; Hassan, Syed Fida; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2014-09-19

    Development of homogenous metal matrix nanocomposites with uniform distribution of nanoreinforcement, preserved matrix nanostructure features, and improved properties, was possible by means of innovative processing techniques. In this work, Al-SiC nanocomposites were synthesized by mechanical milling and consolidated through spark plasma sintering. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) facility was used for the characterization of the extent of SiC particles' distribution in the mechanically milled powders and spark plasma sintered samples. The change of the matrix crystallite size and lattice strain during milling and sintering was followed through X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density and hardness of the developed materials were evaluated as function of SiC content at fixed sintering conditions using a densimeter and a digital microhardness tester, respectively. It was found that milling for 24 h led to uniform distribution of SiC nanoreinforcement, reduced particle size and crystallite size of the aluminum matrix, and increased lattice strain. The presence and amount of SiC reinforcement enhanced the milling effect. The uniform distribution of SiC achieved by mechanical milling was maintained in sintered samples. Sintering led to the increase in the crystallite size of the aluminum matrix; however, it remained less than 100 nm in the composite containing 10 wt.% SiC. Density and hardness of sintered nanocomposites were reported and compared with those published in the literature.

  16. The chromosomal distributions of Ty1-copia group retrotransposable elements in higher plants and their implications for genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. (Pat) Heslop-Harrison; Andrea Brandes; Shin Taketa; Thomas Schmidt; Alexander V. Vershinin; Elena G. Alkhimova; Anette Kamm; Robert L. Doudrick; . [and others

    1997-01-01

    Retrotransposons make up a major fraction - sometimes more than 40% - of all plant genomes investigated so far. We have isolated the reverse transcriptase domains of theTyl-copia group elements from several species, ranging in genome size from some 100 Mbp to 23,000 Mbp, and determined the distribution patterns of these retrotransposons on metaphase chromosomes and...

  17. Numerical Modeling Describing the Effects of Heterogeneous Distributions of Asperities on the Quasi-static Evolution of Frictional Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, P. A.; Parker, J. M.; Glaser, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of how slip accumulates along faults and its relation to the breakdown of shear stress is beneficial to many engineering disciplines, such as, hydraulic fracture and understanding induced seismicity (among others). Asperities forming along a preexisting fault resist the relative motion of the two sides of the interface and occur due to the interaction of the surface topographies. Here, we employ a finite element model to simulate circular partial slip asperities along a nominally flat frictional interface. Shear behavior of our partial slip asperity model closely matched the theory described by Cattaneo. The asperity model was employed to simulate a small section of an experimental fault formed between two bodies of polymethyl methacrylate, which consisted of multiple asperities whose location and sizes were directly measured using a pressure sensitive film. The quasi-static shear behavior of the interface was modeled for cyclical loading conditions, and the frictional dissipation (hysteresis) was normal stress dependent. We further our understanding by synthetically modeling lognormal size distributions of asperities that were randomly distributed in space. Synthetic distributions conserved the real contact area and aspects of the size distributions from the experimental case, allowing us to compare the constitutive behaviors based solely on spacing effects. Traction-slip behavior of the experimental interface appears to be considerably affected by spatial clustering of asperities that was not present in the randomly spaced, synthetic asperity distributions. Estimates of bulk interfacial shear stiffness were determined from the constitutive traction-slip behavior and were comparable to the theoretical estimates of multi-contact interfaces with non-interacting asperities.

  18. 3D-HST+CANDELS: The Evolution of the Galaxy Size-Mass Distribution since z = 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, A.; Franx, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Skelton, R. E.; Momcheva, I. G.; Whitaker, K. E.; Brammer, G. B.; Bell, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Wuyts, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Holden, B. P.; Barro, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Chang, Yu-Yen; McGrath, E. J.; Häussler, B.; Dekel, A.; Behroozi, P.; Fumagalli, M.; Leja, J.; Lundgren, B. F.; Maseda, M. V.; Nelson, E. J.; Wake, D. A.; Patel, S. G.; Labbé, I.; Faber, S. M.; Grogin, N. A.; Kocevski, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopic+photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift range 0 3 × 109 M ⊙, and steep, R_{eff}\\propto M_*^{0.75}, for early-type galaxies with stellar mass >2 × 1010 M ⊙. The intrinsic scatter is lsim0.2 dex for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric but is skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses, a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive (~1011 M ⊙), compact (R eff < 2 kpc) early-type galaxies increases from z = 3 to z = 1.5-2 and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.

  19. New insights into the distribution and evolution of the Cenozoic Tan-Lu Fault Zone in the Liaohe sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang; Xu, Chang-gui; Wu, Kui; Wang, Guang-yuan; Jia, Nan

    2018-01-01

    As the largest strike-slip fault system in eastern China, the northeast-trending Tan-Lu Fault Zone (TLFZ) is a significant tectonic element contributing to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional geologic evolution of eastern Asia, as well as to the formation of ore deposits and oilfields. Because of the paucity of data, its distribution and evolutionary history in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin of the northern Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) are still poorly understood. Investigations of the strike-slip fault system in the western portion of the offshore Liaohe sub-basin via new seismic data provide us with new insights into the characteristics of the Cenozoic TLFZ. Results of this study show that Cenozoic dextral strike-slip faults occurred near the center of the Liaoxi graben in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin; these strike-slip faults connect with their counterparts to the north, the western part of the onshore Liaohe sub-basin, and have similar characteristics to those in other areas of the BBB in terms of kinematics, evolutionary history, and distribution; consequently, these faults are considered as the western branch of the TLFZ. All strike-slip faults within the Liaoxi graben merge at depth with a central subvertical basement fault induced by the reactivation of a pre-existing strike-slip basement fault, the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. Data suggest that the TLFZ across the whole Liaohe sub-basin comprises two branches and that the Cenozoic distribution of this system was inherited from the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. This characteristic distribution might be possessed by the whole TLFZ, thus the new understandings about the distribution and evolutionary model of the TLFZ in this study can be inferred in many research fields along the whole fault zone, such as regional geology, ore deposits, petroleum exploration and earthquake hazard.

  20. Computing distance distributions from dipolar evolution data with overtones: RIDME spectroscopy with Gd(iii)-based spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Katharina; Mertens, Valerie; Qi, Mian; Nalepa, Anna I; Godt, Adelheid; Savitsky, Anton; Jeschke, Gunnar; Yulikov, Maxim

    2017-07-21

    Extraction of distance distributions between high-spin paramagnetic centers from relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) data is affected by the presence of overtones of dipolar frequencies. As previously proposed, we account for these overtones by using a modified kernel function in Tikhonov regularization analysis. This paper analyzes the performance of such an approach on a series of model compounds with the Gd(iii)-PyMTA complex serving as paramagnetic high-spin label. We describe the calibration of the overtone coefficients for the RIDME kernel, demonstrate the accuracy of distance distributions obtained with this approach, and show that for our series of Gd-rulers RIDME technique provides more accurate distance distributions than Gd(iii)-Gd(iii) double electron-electron resonance (DEER). The analysis of RIDME data including harmonic overtones can be performed using the MATLAB-based program OvertoneAnalysis, which is available as open-source software from the web page of ETH Zurich. This approach opens a perspective for the routine use of the RIDME technique with high-spin labels in structural biology and structural studies of other soft matter.

  1. Assessing the evolution of oases in arid regions by reconstructing their historic spatio-temporal distribution: a case study of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaowen; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Xueqiang; Fan, Peilei

    2017-12-01

    Oasis evolution, one of the most obvious surface processes in arid regions, affects various aspects of the regional environment, such as hydrological processes, ecological conditions, and microclimates. In this paper, the historical spatio-temporal evolution of the cultivated oases in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland watershed in the northwest of China, was assessed using multidisciplinary methods and data from multiple sources, including historical literature, ancient sites, maps and remotely sensed images. The findings show that cultivated oases were first developed on a large scale during the Han Dynasty (121 BC-220) and then gradually decreased in extent from the Six Dynasties period (220-581) to the Sui-Tang period (581-907), reaching a minimum in the Song-Yuan period (960-1368). An abrupt revival occurred during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and continued through the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), and during the period of the Republic of China (1912-1949), oasis development reached its greatest peak of the entire historical period. The oasis areas during seven major historical periods, i.e., Han, Six Dynasties, Sui-Tang, Song-Yuan, Ming, Qing, and Republic of China, are estimated to have been 1703 km2, 1115 km2, 629 km2, 614 km2, 964 km2, 1205 km2, and 1917 km2, respectively. The spatial distribution generally exhibited a continuous sprawl process, with the center of the oases moving gradually from the downstream region to the middle and even upstream regions. The oases along the main river remained stable during most periods, whereas those close to the terminal reaches were subject to frequent variations and even abandonment. Socio-economic factors were the main forces driving the evolution of cultivated oases in the area; among them, political and societal stability, national defense, agricultural policy, population, and technological progress were the most important.

  2. Evolution of Hierarchical Structure and Spatial Pattern of Coastal Cities in China – Based on the Data of Distribution of Marine-Related Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive research of the evolution of the hierarchical structure and spatial pattern of coastal cities in China was conducted based on the data of distribution of the headquarters and subsidiaries of marine-related enterprises in 1995, 2005 and 2015 using the city network research method proposed by Taylor. The results of the empirical research showed: China’s coastal city network had an obvious hierarchical characteristics of “national coastal cityregional coastal city-sub-regional coastal city-local coastal city”, in the 20 years of development process, the hierarchies of coastal cities in China showed a hierarchical progressive evolution; in past 20 years, the spatial pattern and network structure of coastal cities in China tended to be complete, and the city network was more uniform, forming a “three tiers and three urban agglomerations” network structure; the strength of connection among the cities was obviously strengthened, and the efficiency of urban spatial connection was improved overall.

  3. EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS. II. THE EFFECTS OF CLUSTER SIZE AND DYNAMICAL STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C.; Li, Shengtai; Norman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that magnetic fields from radio jets and lobes powered by their central super massive black holes can be an important source of magnetic fields in the galaxy clusters. This is Paper II in a series of studies where we present self-consistent high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological magnetohydrodynamic simulations that simultaneously follow the formation of a galaxy cluster and evolution of magnetic fields ejected by an active galactic nucleus. We studied 12 different galaxy clusters with virial masses ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 2 x 10 15 M sun . In this work, we examine the effects of the mass and merger history on the final magnetic properties. We find that the evolution of magnetic fields is qualitatively similar to those of previous studies. In most clusters, the injected magnetic fields can be transported throughout the cluster and be further amplified by the intracluster medium (ICM) turbulence during the cluster formation process with hierarchical mergers, while the amplification history and the magnetic field distribution depend on the cluster formation and magnetism history. This can be very different for different clusters. The total magnetic energies in these clusters are between 4 x 10 57 and 10 61 erg, which is mainly decided by the cluster mass, scaling approximately with the square of the total mass. Dynamically older relaxed clusters usually have more magnetic fields in their ICM. The dynamically very young clusters may be magnetized weakly since there is not enough time for magnetic fields to be amplified.

  4. Evolution of grain boundary character distributions in alloy 825 tubes during high temperature annealing: Is grain boundary engineering achieved through recrystallization or grain growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xia, Shuang; Wang, Baoshun; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) of nickel-based alloy 825 tubes was carried out with different cold drawing deformations by using a draw-bench on a factory production line and subsequent annealing at various temperatures. The microstructure evolution of alloy 825 during thermal-mechanical processing (TMP) was characterized by means of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the TMP effects on the grain boundary network and the evolution of grain boundary character distributions during high temperature annealing. The results showed that the proportion of ∑ 3 n coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries of alloy 825 tubes could be increased to > 75% by the TMP of 5% cold drawing and subsequent annealing at 1050 °C for 10 min. The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples and the fully recrystallized samples suggested that the proportion of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries depended on the annealing time. The frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries increases rapidly with increasing annealing time associating with the formation of large-size highly-twinned grains-cluster microstructure during recrystallization. However, upon further increasing annealing time, the frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries decreased markedly during grain growth. So it is concluded that grain boundary engineering is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. - Highlights: •The grain boundary engineering (GBE) is applicable to 825 tubes. •GBE is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. •The low ∑ CSL grain boundaries in 825 tubes can be increased to > 75%.

  5. Electronically-measured adherence to immunosuppressive medications and kidney function after deceased donor kidney transplantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, Ajay K.; Weng, Francis L.; Cen, Ye-Ying; Joffe, Marshall; Kamoun, Malek; Feldman, Harold I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss. Methods In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR. Results The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%) and 30 (12%) had >85–100%, 50–85% and adherence, respectively. 79 (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time. Conclusions Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication, was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes. PMID:20977496

  6. Electronically measured adherence to immunosuppressive medications and kidney function after deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, Ajay K; Weng, Francis L; Cen, Ye-Ying; Joffe, Marshall; Kamoun, Malek; Feldman, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss. In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR. The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%), and 30 (12%) had >85-100%, 50-85%, and adherence, respectively. Seventy-nine (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time. Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. The distribution, geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic granitoid plutons in the North Altun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Tong; Chen, Bai-Lin; Zhao, Ni-Na; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Gao; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Bin; Han, Mei-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abundant early Paleozoic granitoid plutons are widely distributed in the North Altun orogenic belt. These rocks provide clues to the tectonic evolution of the North Altun orogenic belt and adjacent areas. In this paper, we report an integrated study of petrological features, U-Pb zircon dating, in situ zircon Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical compositions for the Abei, 4337 Highland and Kaladawan Plutons from north to south in the North Altun orogenic belt. The dating yielded magma crystallization ages of 514 Ma for the Abei Pluton, 494 Ma for the 4337 Highland Pluton and 480-460 Ma for the Kaladawan Pluton, suggesting that they are all products of oceanic slab subduction because of the age constraint. The Abei monzogranites derived from the recycle of Paleoproterozoic continental crust under low-pressure and high-temperature conditions are products of subduction initiation. The 4337 Highland granodiorites have some adakitic geochemical signatures and are sourced from partial melting of thickened mafic lower continental crust. The Kaladawan quartz diorites are produced by partial melting of mantle wedge according to the positive εHf(t) values, and the Kaladawan monzogranite-syenogranite are derived from partial melting of Neoproterozoic continental crust mixing the juvenile underplated mafic material from the depleted mantle. These results, together with existing data, provide significant information about the evolution history of oceanic crust subduction during the 520-460 Ma. The initiation of subduction occurred during 520-500 Ma with formation of Abei Pluton; subsequent transition from steep-angle to flat-slab subduction at ca.500 Ma due to the arrival of buoyant oceanic plateaus, which induces the formation of 4337 Highland Pluton. With ongoing subduction, the steep-angle subduction system is reestablished to cause the formation of 480-460 Ma Kaladawan Pluton. Meanwhile, it is this model that account for the temporal-spatial distribution of these early

  8. Adherence with Preventive Medication in Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burgess

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.

  9. 3D-HST + CANDELS: the Evolution of the Galaxy Size-mass Distribution Since Z=3

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerWel, A.; Franx, M.; vanDokkum, P. G.; Skelton, R. E.; Momcheva, I. G.; Whitaker, K. E.; Brammer, G. B.; Bell, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Wuyts, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift (z) range 0 3 x 10 (sup 9) solar masses, and steep, effective radius in proportion to mass of a black hole (sup 0.75), for early-type galaxies with stellar mass > 2 x 10 (sup 10) solar masses. The intrinsic scatter is approximately or less than 0.2 decimal exponents for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric, but skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive (approximately 10 (sup 11) solar masses), compact (effective radius less than 2 kiloparsecs) early-type galaxies increases from z = 3 to z = 1.5 - 2 and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.

  10. A study of the energy evolution of event shape distributions and their means with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined in e+e− collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 45 and 202 GeV. A phenomenological analysis based on power correction models including hadron mass e ects for both differential distributions and mean values is presented. Using power corrections, s is extracted from the mean values and shapes. In an alternative approach, renormalisation group invariance (RGI) is used as an explicit constraint, leading to a consistent description of mean values without the need for sizeable power corrections. The QCD beta-function is precisely measured using this approach. From the DELPHI data on Thrust, including data from low energy experiments, one finds beta0 = 7:86 +- 0:32 for the one loop coefficient of the beta-function or, assuming QCD, nf = 4:75 +- 0:44 for the number of active flavours. These values agree well with the QCD expectation of beta0 = 7:67 and nf = 5. A direct measurement of the full logarithmic energy ...

  11. Dynamical Timescale of Pre-collapse Evolution Inferred from Chemical Distribution in the Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1) Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Bourke, Tyler L. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); II, Neal J. Evans, E-mail: yunhee.choi@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present observations and analyses of the low-mass star-forming region, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1). CS ( J = 2–1)/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ( J = 1–0) and C{sup 17}O ( J = 2–1)/C{sup 18}O ( J = 2–1) were observed with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory, respectively. In addition, Spitzer infrared data and 1.2 mm continuum data observed with Max-Planck Millimetre Bolometer are used. We also perform chemical modeling to investigate the relative molecular distributions of the TMC-1 filament. Based on Spitzer observations, there is no young stellar object along the TMC-1 filament, while five Class II and one Class I young stellar objects are identified outside the filament. The comparison between column densities calculated from dust continuum and C{sup 17}O 2–1 line emission shows that CO is depleted much more significantly in the ammonia peak than in the cyanopolyyne peak, while the column densities calculated from the dust continuum are similar at the two peaks. N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not depleted much in either peak. According to our chemical calculation, the differential chemical distribution in the two peaks can be explained by different timescales required to reach the same density, i.e., by different dynamical processes.

  12. Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-11-01

    This paper comparatively shows the influence of four water treatment processes on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a water distribution system. The study was performed from February 2005 to January 2012 with analytical data of 600 samples taken in Aljaraque water treatment plant (WTP) and 16 locations along the water distribution system (WDS) in the region of Andévalo and the coast of Huelva (southwest Spain), a region with significant seasonal and population changes. The comparison of results in the four different processes studied indicated a clear link of the treatment process with the formation of THM along the WDS. The most effective treatment process is preozonation and activated carbon filtration (P3), which is also the most stable under summer temperatures. Experiments also show low levels of THMs with the conventional process of preoxidation with potassium permanganate (P4), delaying the chlorination to the end of the WTP; however, this simple and economical treatment process is less effective and less stable than P3. In this study, strong seasonal variations were obtained (increase of THM from winter to summer of 1.17 to 1.85 times) and a strong spatial variation (1.1 to 1.7 times from WTP to end points of WDS) which largely depends on the treatment process applied. There was also a strong correlation between THM levels and water temperature, contact time and pH. On the other hand, it was found that THM formation is not proportional to the applied chlorine dose in the treatment process, but there is a direct relationship with the accumulated dose of chlorine. Finally, predictive models based on multiple linear regressions are proposed for each treatment process.

  13. Long-term Geochemical Evolution of Lithogenic Versus Anthropogenic Distribution of Macro and Trace Elements in Household Attic Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2017-01-01

    Attic dusts were examined as historical archives of anthropogenic emissions, with the goal of elucidating the enrichment pathways associated with hydrothermal exploitation of Cu, Pb, and Zn minerals in the Bregalnica River basin in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. Dust samples were collected from 84 settlements. Atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were applied as analytical techniques for the determination of 69 element contents. Multivariate analysis was applied for the extraction of dominant geochemical markers. The lithogenic distribution was simplified to six dominant geochemical markers: F1: Ga-Nb-Ta-Y-(La-Gd)-(Eu-Lu); F2: Be-Cr-Li-Mg-Ni; F3: Ag-Bi-Cd-Cu-In-Mn-Pb-Sb-Te-W-Zn; F4: Ba-Cs-Hf-Pd-Rb-Sr-Tl-Zr; F5: As-Co-Ge-V; and F6: К-Na-Sc-Ti. The anthropogenic effects on the air pollution were marked by a dominance of F3 and secondary dominance of F5. The fifth factor also was determined as a lithogenic marker for the occurrence of the very old Rifeous shales. The first factor also presents a very unique association that despite the heterogeneity relays on natural phenomena of tracking the deposition in areas of Proterosoic gneisses; related to the distribution of fine particles was associated with carbonate-silicate volcanic rocks. Intensive poly-metallic dust depositions were recorded only in the surroundings of localities where the hydrothermal extractions are implemented. Long-term deposition can be considered as pollution indexes for these hot spots. This mainly affects the Cd, Pb, and Zn deposition that is as high as 25, 3900, and 3200 mg/kg, respectively.

  14. Energy evolution of the moments of the hadron distribution in QCD jets including NNLL resummation and NLO running-coupling corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Ramos, Redamy

    2014-01-01

    The moments of the single inclusive momentum distribution of hadrons in QCD jets, are studied in the next-to-modified-leading-log approximation (NMLLA) including next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections to the alpha_s strong coupling. The evolution equations are solved using a distorted Gaussian parametrisation, which successfully reproduces the spectrum of charged hadrons of jets measured in e+e- collisions. The energy dependencies of the maximum peak, multiplicity, width, kurtosis and skewness of the jet hadron distribution are computed analytically. Comparisons of all the existing jet data measured in e+e- collisions in the range sqrt(s)~2-200 GeV to the NMLLA+NLO* predictions allow one to extract a value of the QCD parameter Lambda_QCD, and associated two-loop coupling constant at the Z resonance alpha_s(m_Z^2)= 0.1195 +/- 0.0022, in excellent numerical agreement with the current world average obtained using other methods.

  15. Evolution of a Directional Wave Spectrum in a 3D Marginal Ice Zone with Random Floe Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive

  16. Antidiabetic medication adherence and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... tive of the study was to determine current antidiabetic medication adherence in ...... A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. .... Pascal IGU, Ofoedu JN, Uchenna NP, Nkwa AA, Uchamma GUE.

  17. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS, AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. III. MODELING THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR COMPONENT IN GALAXY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Boissier, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; Kennicutt, R. C. Jr; Moustakas, J.; Prantzos, N.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of 42 spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We make use of ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared radial profiles, corrected for internal extinction using the total-infrared to UV ratio, to probe the emission of stellar populations of different ages as a function of galactocentric distance. We fit these radial profiles with models that describe the chemical and spectro-photometric evolution of spiral disks within a self-consistent framework. These backward evolutionary models successfully reproduce the multi-wavelength profiles of our galaxies, except for the UV profiles of some early-type disks for which the models seem to retain too much gas. From the model fitting we infer the maximum circular velocity of the rotation curve V C and the dimensionless spin parameter λ. The values of V C are in good agreement with the velocities measured in H I rotation curves. Even though our sample is not volume limited, the resulting distribution of λ is close to the lognormal function obtained in cosmological N-body simulations, peaking at λ ∼ 0.03 regardless of the total halo mass. We do not find any evident trend between λ and Hubble type, besides an increase in the scatter for the latest types. According to the model, galaxies evolve along a roughly constant mass-size relation, increasing their scale lengths as they become more massive. The radial scale length of most disks in our sample seems to have increased at a rate of 0.05-0.06 kpc Gyr -1 , although the same cannot be said of a volume-limited sample. In relative terms, the scale length has grown by 20%-25% since z = 1 and, unlike the former figure, we argue that this relative growth rate can be indeed representative of a complete galaxy sample.

  18. Radial Distribution of Stars, Gas, and Dust in SINGS Galaxies. III. Modeling the Evolution of the Stellar Component in Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Boissier, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Moustakas, J.; Prantzos, N.; Gallego, J.

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the evolution of 42 spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We make use of ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared radial profiles, corrected for internal extinction using the total-infrared to UV ratio, to probe the emission of stellar populations of different ages as a function of galactocentric distance. We fit these radial profiles with models that describe the chemical and spectro-photometric evolution of spiral disks within a self-consistent framework. These backward evolutionary models successfully reproduce the multi-wavelength profiles of our galaxies, except for the UV profiles of some early-type disks for which the models seem to retain too much gas. From the model fitting we infer the maximum circular velocity of the rotation curve V C and the dimensionless spin parameter λ. The values of V C are in good agreement with the velocities measured in H I rotation curves. Even though our sample is not volume limited, the resulting distribution of λ is close to the lognormal function obtained in cosmological N-body simulations, peaking at λ ~ 0.03 regardless of the total halo mass. We do not find any evident trend between λ and Hubble type, besides an increase in the scatter for the latest types. According to the model, galaxies evolve along a roughly constant mass-size relation, increasing their scale lengths as they become more massive. The radial scale length of most disks in our sample seems to have increased at a rate of 0.05-0.06 kpc Gyr-1, although the same cannot be said of a volume-limited sample. In relative terms, the scale length has grown by 20%-25% since z = 1 and, unlike the former figure, we argue that this relative growth rate can be indeed representative of a complete galaxy sample.

  19. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    disturbing levels of patients adherence with management recommendations. Asthma education strategies need to be modified to engage ... and quick procedure. ... Participants' medication adherence and skills at using .... In this study 17 of the 67 patients studied .... adherence: changing behaviour to promote better self-.

  20. Preliminary investigation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in declining morbidity and mortality rates from HIV-associated diseases, but concerns regarding access and adherence are growing. To determine the adherence level and the reasons for non-adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ...

  1. Examining treatment adherence among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Robert; Kinsman, Anne; Ortaglia, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) participate in a variety of treatments, including medication, behavioral, alternative and developmental treatments. Parent adherence to these treatments is crucial for positive child outcomes. The current study: 1) Explored patterns of parent adherence across the full range of treatments that are prescribed to children with ASD and, 2) Examined whether parent demographics, parent treatment attitudes, and child ASD severity contribute to parents' adherence across ASD treatments. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children with ASD in a southeastern state. Parents (N = 274) were included if they were parenting a child with ASD who was receiving treatment for ASD symptoms. Paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were used to assess the study aims. Adherence to medication treatment was significantly greater than adherence to behavioral, developmental, or alternative treatments (adjusted p-values 0.0006, 0.0030, 0.0006 respectively). Perceived family burden of a treatment was associated with lower adherence to medication, developmental, and alternative treatments. Finally, greater ASD severity was associated with lower adherence to alternative treatments. Overall, the independent variables accounted for more variance in adherence to medication and alternative treatments than in behavioral and developmental treatments. Parents' adherence to ASD treatment differs significantly by treatment type and is influenced by parental perceptions of the burden of treatment on the family. These findings highlight the importance of understanding and addressing the impact of ASD treatment regimens on family life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospective study related to the evolution of energy distribution networks. Needs of evolution of technical and organisational models of energy distribution networks with respect to energy transition scenarios in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Part 1 - Hypotheses and perspectives, Part 2 - Needs of network evolution. Study related to the impact of the electric vehicle and of photovoltaic production on electric distribution networks - Case study for Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, Francois; Fontaine, Frederick

    2013-02-01

    The first part of this document aims at presenting perspectives of emergence of new energy production, consumption and storage sources, and their impacts on energy (electricity, gas, heat) distribution and transport networks. It is based on two scenarios: the regional climate-air-energy scheme, and the regional Negawatt scenario. The objective was to select a limited number of aspects: solutions enabling an optimal injection of biogas produced in the concerned region, development of photovoltaic energy and electric vehicles and their impact on the balance of medium-voltage and low-voltage networks, and smart grid technologies and their possible impact on the optimisation of electric network management. The second part reports the detailed study of these issues. It more particularly addresses technical impacts of different sectors on electric and gas networks in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, technical, economic and organisational assets of smart grid technologies, investments policies and implementation planning, and resulting evolutions for energy markets. Related documents published by ERDF and GrDF are provided

  3. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  4. Perspectives Regarding Adherence to Prescribed Treatment in Highly Adherent HIV-Infected Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M; Menke, Edna M

    2008-01-01

    Focus group methodology was used to describe the medication adherence experience of 24 HIV-infected gay men who reported being adherent to their medication regimens. A conceptualization of medication adherence as an evolving process consisted of challenges to adherence (learning the diagnosis, starting the medications, struggling with the medications, dealing with side effects, coping with stigma) as well as those factors supportive of adherence (believing in medications, finding motivating factors, using reminders, depending on others, owning the disease). Themes associated with challenges to adherence focused on diagnosis and the physical and emotional adjustments individuals made to incorporate antiretroviral medications into their daily lives and move toward medication adherence. The factors supportive of adherence were related to the ongoing behaviors identified with establishing and maintaining adherence behaviors. What can be taken from the study is that adherence is a complex and dynamic process rather than a static behavior.

  5. A novel method for measuring patients' adherence to insulin dosing guidelines: introducing indicators of adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahané Michel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic type 1 patients are often advised to use dose adjustment guidelines to calculate their doses of insulin. Conventional methods of measuring patients' adherence are not applicable to these cases, because insulin doses are not determined in advance. We propose a method and a number of indicators to measure patients' conformance to these insulin dosing guidelines. Methods We used a database of logbooks of type 1 diabetic patients who participated in a summer camp. Patients used a guideline to calculate the doses of insulin lispro and glargine four times a day, and registered their injected doses in the database. We implemented the guideline in a computer system to calculate recommended doses. We then compared injected and recommended doses by using five indicators that we designed for this purpose: absolute agreement (AA: the two doses are the same; relative agreement (RA: there is a slight difference between them; extreme disagreement (ED: the administered and recommended doses are merely opposite; Under-treatment (UT and over-treatment (OT: the injected dose is not enough or too high, respectively. We used weighted linear regression model to study the evolution of these indicators over time. Results We analyzed 1656 insulin doses injected by 28 patients during a three weeks camp. Overall indicator rates were AA = 45%, RA = 30%, ED = 2%, UT = 26% and OT = 30%. The highest rate of absolute agreement is obtained for insulin glargine (AA = 70%. One patient with alarming behavior (AA = 29%, RA = 24% and ED = 8% was detected. The monitoring of these indicators over time revealed a crescendo curve of adherence rate which fitted well in a weighted linear model (slope = 0.85, significance = 0.002. This shows an improvement in the quality of therapeutic decision-making of patients during the camp. Conclusion Our method allowed the measurement of patients' adherence to their insulin adjustment guidelines. The indicators that we

  6. Immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalić, Jelena; Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila; Mitić, Branka; Paunović, Goran; Cvetković, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    To assess the degree of immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients (KTPs) and to determine if there is a difference in the rate of adherence to tacrolimus (Tac), cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (Sir). From a total of 63 KTPs treated at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Centre Niš, Serbia, 60 participated in the study by responding to questionnaires. They were divided into the adherence group (n = 43) and the nonadherence group (n = 17) according to their degree of adherence which was measured using a validated survey form, the simplified medication adherence questionnaire. The KTP adherence to the different immunosuppressive regimens (Tac, CsA and Sir) was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Adherence was observed in 43 (71.7%) patients, and only 17 (28.3%) did not follow the prescribed therapy. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the nonadherence group (38.52 ± 18.22 ml/min) than in the adherence group (52.43 ± 16.91 ml/min, p adherers and the nonadherers (6.30 ± 2.06 vs. 5.0 ± 1.52 ng/ml, p adherence. Nonadherence was associated with worse graft function and a lower Tac level. Knowledge about the degree of adherence could help the early identification of nonadherent patients and the development of strategies to improve this. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Evolution models of helium white dwarf-main-sequence star merger remnants: the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianfei; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Bi, Shaolan

    2018-02-01

    It is not known how single white dwarfs with masses less than 0.5Msolar -- low-mass white dwarfs -- are formed. One way in which such a white dwarf might be formed is after the merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star that produces a red giant branch star and fails to ignite helium. We use a stellar-evolution code to compute models of the remnants of these mergers and find a relation between the pre-merger masses and the final white dwarf mass. Combining our results with a model population, we predict that the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs formed through this channel spans the range 0.37 to 0.5Msolar and peaks between 0.45 and 0.46Msolar. Helium white dwarf--main-sequence star mergers can also lead to the formation of single helium white dwarfs with masses up to 0.51Msolar. In our model the Galactic formation rate of single low-mass white dwarfs through this channel is about 8.7X10^-3yr^-1. Comparing our models with observations, we find that the majority of single low-mass white dwarfs (<0.5Msolar) are formed from helium white dwarf--main-sequence star mergers, at a rate which is about $2$ per cent of the total white dwarf formation rate.

  8. Illness perception, coping and adherence to treatment among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Vélez, Esperanza; Bosch, Ricardo J

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the predictive value of illness representations on treatment adherence and coping strategies in a group of patients on haemodialysis. Understanding the cognitive and emotional factors that influence adherence behaviour and coping strategies and determining their relationship to sociodemographic factors remain a challenge; meeting this challenge would encourage comprehensive patient care, thereby improving their quality of life Cross-sectional study with predictive means in a sample of 135 patients on haemodialysis. Data collection occurred from September 2010-January 2012 and tools included the following: sociodemographic data, Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento del Estrés and the Morisky-Green test to study adherence to treatment. Being a woman, having a greater knowledge of the disease and having a poorer sense of personal control affected adherence to treatment on controlling for each factor. 'Identity', 'personal control' and 'adherence' were associated with a proactive coping strategy, whereas 'evolution' and 'gender' were related independently to avoidance coping strategies; those who believed that their illness had a chronic course were more likely to cope by avoiding the problem and this tendency was stronger among women. This study provides evidence supporting the role of gender, knowledge about the disease and sense of personal control in adherence to therapeutic regimens of patients in chronic haemodialysis. The identification and characterization of patients' perception of chronic illness may represent a useful framework to influence disease outcomes such as adherence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examined the interactions of P. aeruginosa with hydrogel contact lenses and other substrata, and characterize adherence to lenses under various physiological and physicochemical conditions. Isolates adhered to polystyrene, glass, and hydrogel lenses. With certain lens types, radiolabeled cells showed decreased adherence with increasing water content of the lenses, however, this correlation with not found for all lenses. Adherence to rigid gas permeable lenses was markedly greater than adherence to hydrogels. Best adherence occurred near pH 7 and at a sodium chloride concentration of 50 mM. Passive adhesion of heat-killed cells to hydrogels was lower than the adherence obtained of viable cells. Adherence to hydrogels was enhanced by mucin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, bovine serum albumin, and a mixture of these macromolecules. Adherence to coated and uncoated lenses was greater with a daily-wear hydrogel when compared with an extended-wear hydrogel of similar polymer composition. Greater adherence was attributed to a higher concentration of adsorbed macromolecules on the 45% water-content lens in comparison to the 55% water-content lens

  10. Does the Number of Pharmacies a Patient Frequents Affect Adherence to Statins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Russell; Sketris, Ingrid; Andreou, Pantalis; Holbrook, Anne; Levy, Adrian; Tamim, Hala

    2017-05-06

    We hypothesized that medication adherence is affected by the number of pharmacies a patient frequents. The objective was to estimate the strength of association between the number of pharmacies a patient frequents and adherence to statins. Using administrative data from the Nova Scotia Seniors' Pharmacare program, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among subjects aged 65 years and older first dispensed statin between 1998 and 2008. The Usual Provider of Care (UPC), was defined as the number of dispensation days from the most frequented pharmacy divided by the total number of dispensation days. Estimated adherence of over 80% of the Medication Possession Ratio was defined as adherent. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression. The cohort of 25,641 subjects was 59% female with a mean age of 74 years. During follow-up, subjects filled prescriptions in a median of 2 (mean = 2; standard deviation = 0.88) pharmacies and visited pharmacies a median of 28 (mean = 30) times. During that time, 61% of patients used one pharmacy exclusively. Among subjects using 1 pharmacy, 59% were adherent while 58% using more than one pharmacy were adherent. However, upon adjustment for differences in distributions of age, sex, and other confounders, subjects who used more than one pharmacy had 10% decreased odds of statin adherence (odds ratio: 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.96). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Among seniors newly starting statin therapy, using a single community pharmacy was modestly associated with adherence.

  11. Predictors of Vitamin Adherence After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.

  12. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8. The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012, being married (P = 0.012 increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024 decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence.

  13. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  14. Neutronic evolution of SENA reactor during the first and second cycles. Comparison between the experimental power distributions obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE and the theoretical power values computed with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, Chantal

    1976-03-01

    The neutronic evolution of the reacteur Sena during the first and second cycles is presented. The experimental power distributions, obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE are compared with the theoretical powers calculated with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE. The CIRCE code allows: the study of the evolution of the principal parameters of the core, the comparison of the results of measured and theoretical estimates. Therefore this study has a great interest for the knowledge of the neutronic evolution of the core, as well as the validation of the refinement of theoretical estimation methods. The core calculation methods and requisite data for the evaluation of the measurements are presented after a brief description of the SENA core and its inner instrumentation. The principle of the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE, and calculation of the experimental power distributions and nuclear core parameters are then exposed. The results of the evaluation are discussed, with a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. Taking account of the approximations used, these results, as far as the first and second cycles at SENA are concerned, are satisfactory, the deviations between theoretical and experimental power distributions being lower than 3% at the middle of the reactor and 9% at the periphery [fr

  15. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  16. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison with major infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis ... dietary and fluid adherence is of crucial importance to the quality of life and survival of ... behaviours such as medication adherence among psychiatric ... or nursing sister and introduced to one of the study personnel who .... Children per household. 61.

  17. Self-replenishing low-adherence coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikic, T.; Ming, W.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; With, de G.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Zwaag, van der S.

    2007-01-01

    Low-adherence coatings are widely used today since their water/oil repellency makes them easily cleanable (a well-known example is PTFE). The low surface tension is provided by fluorine- or silicon-containing species that are present at the film surface. Low adherence coatings have already been

  18. Medication adherence in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition with intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Medications are the cornerstone of treatment of IBD. However, patients often adhere to medication poorly. Adherence to medications is defined as the process by which patients take their medications as prescribed. Treatment non-adherence is a common problem among chronic diseases, averaging 50% in developed countries and is even poorer in developing countries. In this review, we will examine the adherence data in IBD which vary greatly depending on the study population, route of administration, and methods of adherence measurement used. We will also discuss the adverse clinical outcomes related to non-adherence to medical treatment including increased disease activity, flares, loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, and so forth. There are many methods to measure medication adherence namely direct and indirect methods, each with their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we will explore different intervention strategies to improve adherence to medications.

  19. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  20. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... Access to family support did not positively influence medication adherence, while access to financial support marginally impacted on outcome among hypertensive and T2D patients. However, un- wavering tendency for therapy affordability significantly influenced adherence and outcome, thus, the need for ...

  1. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  2. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  3. Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.A. Olowookere

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ure, development of drug resistance and subsequent virological and immunological .... adherence during counseling sessions, although 95% adher- ence is sufficient .... evaluation and adherence measurement by self report.

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. ... The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A ..... in an outpatient setting.

  5. Layered distributed architecture for plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravamuthan, G.; Verma, Yachika; Ranjan, Jyoti; Chachondia, Alka S.; Ganesh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plant automation system and associated software remains one of the greatest challenges to the widespread implementation of highly adaptive re-configurable automation technology. This paper presents a layered distributed architecture for a plant automation system designed to support rapid reconfiguration and redeployment of automation components. The paper first presents evolution of automation architecture and their associated environment in the past few decades and then presents the concept of layered system architecture and the use of automation components to support the construction of a wide variety of automation system. It also highlights the role of standards and technology, which can be used in the development of automation components. We have attempted to adhere to open standards and technology for the development of automation component at a various layers. It also highlights the application of this concept in the development of an Operator Information System (OIS) for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). (author)

  6. Longitudinal Analysis of Adherence to First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy: Evidence of Treatment Sustainability from an Indian HIV Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Anita; Kumarasamy, N; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Shastri, Suresh; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; Rewari, Bharath B; Arumugam, Karthika; Antony, Jimmy; De Costa, Ayesha; D'Souza, George

    2016-01-01

    Given the chronic nature of HIV infection and the need for life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), maintaining long-term optimal adherence is an important strategy for maximizing treatment success. In order to understand better the dynamic nature of adherence behaviors in India where complex cultural and logistic features prevail, we assessed the patterns, trajectories and time-dependent predictors of adherence levels in relation to virological failure among individuals initiating first-line ART in India. Between July 2010 and August 2013, eligible ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals newly initiating first-line ART within the national program at three sites in southern India were enrolled and monitored for two years. ART included zidovudine/stavudine/tenofovir plus lamivudine plus nevirapine/efavirenz. Patients were assessed using clinical, laboratory and adherence parameters. Every three months, medication adherence was measured using pill count, and a structured questionnaire on adherence barriers was administered. Optimal adherence was defined as mean adherence ≥95%. Statistical analysis was performed using a bivariate and a multivariate model of all identified covariates. Adherence trends and determinants were modeled as rate ratios using generalized estimating equation analysis in a Poisson distribution. A total of 599 eligible ART-naïve patients participated in the study, and contributed a total of 921 person-years of observation time. Women constituted 43% and mean CD4 count prior to initiating ART was 192 cells/mm3. Overall mean adherence among all patients was 95.4%. The proportion of patients optimally adherent was 75.6%. Predictors of optimal adherence included older age (≥40 years), high school-level education and beyond, lower drug toxicity-related ART interruption, full disclosure, sense of satisfaction with one's own health and patient's perception of having good access to health-care services. Adherence was inversely proportional to virological

  7. Communication strategies to improve HIV treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Donna; Ross, Michael W; Looney, Carol; Nepal, Vishnu P; Price, Andrea J; Giordano, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of HIV-positive patients, traditional approaches to improving medication adherence have failed consistently. Acknowledging the role of communication in health behavior, we conducted a qualitative study to learn about patients' HIV treatment adherence experiences and to identify which communication strategies might influence adherence. Findings indicate that five constructs--cultural beliefs/language, stigma, cues to action, self-efficacy, and mood state--are potentially modifiable by improved communication. Results will be used to create a direct marketing campaign targeted to HIV-infected patients. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Renal Transplant Recipients: The Factors Related to Immunosuppressive Medication Adherence Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Pen-Chen; Yeh, Mei Chang; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplant failures are caused primarily by lack of adherence to immunosuppressive medication regimens by patients after transplantation. A number of studies have indicated that health-related beliefs are an effective predictor of health-related behavior. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of the personal characteristics and health-related beliefs of patients on adherence to treatment with immunosuppressive medication based on the Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional study distributed questionnaires to patients who had been recruited via purposive sampling at one medical center in Taipei. All of the potential participants had undergone kidney transplantation at least 6 months previously. The self-developed questionnaire collected data in three areas: personal characteristics, health-related beliefs regarding transplant rejection, and adherence to the immunosuppressive medication regimen. One hundred twenty-two valid questionnaires were received. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. Participants who had received dialysis treatment or had experienced rejection perceived susceptibility to rejection more strongly than those who had not. Participants who had undergone transplantation in Taiwan, had experienced more drug-related symptoms, or had contracted severe to extremely severe infections in the past showed lower rates of adherence to treatment with immunosuppressive medication. Adherence to medication regimens correlated negatively with length of time since transplantation. Length of time since transplantation, drug-related symptoms, perceived susceptibility to rejection, and perceived benefits of treatment were identified as major predictors of adherence to immunosuppressive medication regimens. The results partially conformed to the concepts of the Health Belief Model. Perceived susceptibility to rejection and

  9. The mARM spatially distributed soil evolution model: A computationally efficient modeling framework and analysis of hillslope soil surface organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sagy; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg

    2009-09-01

    equilibrium grading of the slope may be finer or coarser than the initial conditions. The results demonstrate the complexity of the evolution of surface grading and the balance between the armouring and weathering processes. They also point toward inherent organization of surface grading on the hillslope driven by erosion even for extremely high weathering rates. The implications for natural landforms are discussed. We also plot and quantify, for the first time, a log-log relationship between surface grading, contributing area and slope for a range of weathering rates. The results show that this log-log relationship is robust, the log-log scaling is constant in space, and true even for extreme weathering rates. This has potentially important implications for soil geomorphology. It suggests that an analytical solution can be found for soil grading catena. This might allow us to more easily map soil distribution as a function of topographic characteristics.

  10. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: Key concepts related to self-care and adherence were defined, discussed, and implemented as part of the ASEF framework. ASEF was applied to seven self-care case studies, and the perceived usefulness and feasibility of ASEF was evaluated in a questionnaire study by the case study participants...... resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting....... Finally, we reviewed the individual case studies usage of ASEF. Results: A range of central self-care concepts were defined and the ASEF methodological framework was introduced. ASEF was successfully used in seven case studies with a total of 25 participants. Of these, 16 provided answers...

  11. Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medications: Application of Health Belief Model .... Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios expressing the ... costs.[15]. Adherence to medication is always a matter of concern, especially in chronic diseases and identification of the ...

  12. Factors Influencing Adherence to Routine Iron Supplementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fineprint

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... adherence among pregnant women in three selected health centers in Akinyele. Local Government Area, Ibadan ... socioeconomic status, and illiteracy. [12]. .... 80.74% in India [24 ] Although the reason for this disparity is not ...

  13. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence.

  15. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  16. Basal friction evolution and crevasse distribution during the surge of Basin 3, Austfonna ice-cap - offline coupling between a continuum ice dynamic model and a discrete element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yongmei; Zwinger, Thomas; Åström, Jan; Gladstone, Rupert; Schellenberger, Thomas; Altena, Bas; Moore, John

    2017-04-01

    The outlet glacier at Basin 3, Austfonna ice-cap entered its active surge phase in autumn 2012. We assess the evolution of the basal friction during the surge through inverse modelling of basal friction coefficients using recent velocity observation from 2012 to 2014 in a continuum ice dynamic model Elmer/ice. The obtained basal friction coefficient distributions at different time instances are further used as a boundary condition in a discrete element model (HiDEM) that is capable of computing fracturing of ice. The inverted basal friction coefficient evolution shows a gradual 'unplugging' of the stagnant frontal area and northwards and inland expansion of the fast flowing region in the southern basin. The validation between the modeled crevasses distribution and the satellite observation in August 2013 shows a good agreement in shear zones inland and at the frontal area. Crevasse distributions of the summer before and after the glacier reached its maximum velocity in January 2013 (August 2012 and August 2014, respectively) are also evaluated. Previous studies suggest the triggering and development of the surge are linked to surface melt water penetrating through ice to form an efficient basal hydrology system thereby triggering a hydro- thermodynamic feedback. This preliminary offline coupling between a continuum ice dynamic model and a discrete element model will give a hint on future model development of linking supra-glacial to sub-glacial hydrology system.

  17. Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Shalini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  18. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena

    2013-04-08

    After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  19. Modeling human-water-systems: towards a comprehensive and spatially distributed assessment of co-evolutions for river basins in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    P. Krahe; E. Nilson; M. Knoche; A.-D. Ebner von Eschenbach

    2016-01-01

    In the context of river basin and flood risk management there is a growing need to improve the understanding of and the feedbacks between the driving forces “climate and socio-economy” and water systems. We make use of a variety of data resources to illustrate interrelationships between different constituents of the human-water-systems. Taking water storage for energy production as an example we present a first analysis on the co-evolution of socio-economic and hydrological ...

  20. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011. In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4 for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii added simultaneously with the cells or (iii one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings.

  1. Adherence to systemic therapies for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in Lebanon: a physicians' survey from three medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammoury, Alfred; Okais, Jad; Hobeika, Mireille; Sayegh, Raymond B; Shayto, Rani H; Sharara, Ala I

    2017-01-01

    Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are chronic conditions that may cause tissue damage and disability, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Various treatments have been developed for IMIDs, including immune modulators and targeted biologic agents. However, adherence remains suboptimal. An adherence survey was used to evaluate physicians' beliefs about adherence to medication in IMID and to evaluate if and how they manage adherence. The survey was distributed to 100 randomly selected physicians from three different specialties. Results were analyzed by four academic experts commissioned to develop an action plan to address practical and perceptual barriers to adherence, integrating it into treatment goals to maximize outcomes in IMID, thereby elevating local standards of care. Eighty-two physicians participated in this study and completed the questionnaire. Most defined adherence as compliance with prescribed treatment. Although the majority of surveyed physicians (74%) did not systematically measure adherence in their practice, 54% identified adherence as a treatment goal of equal or greater importance to therapeutic endpoints. Lack of time and specialized nursing support was reported as an important barrier to measuring adherence. The expert panel identified four key areas for action: 360° education (patient-nurse-physician), patient-physician communication, patient perception and concerns, and market access/cost. An action plan was developed centered on education and awareness, enhanced benefit-risk communication, development of adherence assessment tools and promotion of patient support programs. Nonadherence to medication is a commonly underestimated problem with important consequences. A customized target-based strategy to address the root causes of non-adherence is essential in the management of chronic immune-mediated diseases.

  2. Multiple Measures Reveal Antiretroviral Adherence Successes and Challenges in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Kiwanuka, Julius; Nansera, Denis; Ragland, Kathleen; Mellins, Claude; Bangsberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children in developing settings is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2–10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS). Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = −0.25, p = 0.04). Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0–2.0; p = 0.04), and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8–5.2; passets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0007) were protective against these interruptions. Conclusions/Significance Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development. PMID:22590600

  3. Norovirus Genetic Diversity – from within patient viral evolution to global distribution : Genetische diversiteit van norovirus – van virale evolutie binnen patiënten tot wereldwijde verspreiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Beek (Janko)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNoroviruses belong to the family of Caliciviridae and cause acute gastroenteritis. The genetic diversity within the genus Norovirus is extremely large and novel genotypes, recombinants within and between genotypes, and antigenic drift variants are regularly discovered. The distribution

  4. Determinants of adherence to methylphenidate and the impact of poor adherence on maternal and family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan S F; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Miao-Churn; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style, parent- child relationship, and perceived family support. The sample consisted of 307 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (271 boys and 36 girls), 6-17 years of age, who had been treated with IR MPH for the past 6 months. The measures included the Chinese Health Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family APGAR, and Home Behaviors of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents. Reasons for poor adherence (n = 79; 25.7%) included forgetting medication (72.7%), the medication having no effect (20.0%), and refusing medication (12.7%). Increased age and three-times-daily administration were the major predictors for poor adherence to IR MPH. Poor adherence was associated with increased degree of maternal psychological distress, indifferent parenting, maternal overprotection/control, poor family support, decreased interaction with parents, and increased problems at home. Findings indicate that multiple daily dosing of MPH increases the likelihood of poor adherence, particularly in adolescents, and that poor adherence is associated with impaired maternal/family process. Once-daily administration of MPH is necessary to improve adherence and to decrease the possible exacerbation of tense parent-child relationships caused by poor drug adherence.

  5. Medication Adherence Apps: Review and Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmad, Niall Safir; Ali, Shahnaz; Ali, Shair; George, Anju; Saleem Danish, Hiba; Uppal, Encarl; Soo, James; Mobasheri, Mohammad H; King, Dominic; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2018-03-16

    Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps. In April 2015, relevant medication adherence apps were identified by searching the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store using a combination of relevant search terms. Data extracted included app store source, app price, documentation of health care professional (HCP) involvement during app development, and evidence base for each respective app. Free apps were downloaded to explore the strategies used to promote medication adherence. Testing involved a standardized medication regimen of three reminders over a 4-hour period. Nonadherence features designed to enhance user experience were also documented. The app repository search identified a total of 5881 apps. Of these, 805 fulfilled the inclusion criteria initially and were tested. Furthermore, 681 apps were further analyzed for data extraction. Of these, 420 apps were free for testing, 58 were inaccessible and 203 required payment. Of the 420 free apps, 57 apps were developed with HCP involvement and an evidence base was identified in only 4 apps. Of the paid apps, 9 apps had HCP involvement, 1 app had a documented evidence base, and 1 app had both. In addition, 18 inaccessible apps were produced with HCP involvement, whereas 2 apps had a documented evidence base. The 420 free apps were

  6. Evolution models of helium white dwarf--main-sequence star merger remnants: the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianfei; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Bi, Shaolan

    2017-01-01

    It is not known how single white dwarfs with masses less than 0.5Msolar -- low-mass white dwarfs -- are formed. One way in which such a white dwarf might be formed is after the merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star that produces a red giant branch star and fails to ignite helium. We use a stellar-evolution code to compute models of the remnants of these mergers and find a relation between the pre-merger masses and the final white dwarf mass. Combining our results with ...

  7. Chromosomal distribution of interstitial telomeric sequences as signs of evolution through chromosome fusion in six species of the giant water bugs (Hemiptera, Belostoma)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chirino, M. G.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František; Bressa, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 14 (2017), s. 5227-5235 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-17211S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chromosomal fusion * interstitial telomeric repeats * karyotype evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.3098/full

  8. Blood Pressure Treatment Adherence and Control after Participation in the ReHOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Silva de Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lack of adherence to pharmacological treatment is one of the main causes of low control rates in hypertension. Objective: To verify treatment adherence and associated factors, as well as blood pressure (BP control in participants of the Resistant Hypertension Optimal Treatment (ReHOT clinical trial. Method: Cross-sectional study including all 109 patients who had completed the ReHOT for at least 6 months. We excluded those participants who failed to respond to the new recruitment after three phone contact attempts. We evaluated the BP control by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; controlled levels: 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP < 130 x 80 mmHg and analyzed the patients' treatment adherence using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS questionnaire validated by Bloch, Melo, and Nogueira (2008. The statistical analysis was performed with the software IBM SPSS statistics 21.0. We tested the normality of the data distribution with kurtosis and skewness. The variables tested in the study are presented with descriptive statistics. Comparisons between treatment adherence and other variables were performed with Student's t test for independent variables and Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. To conduct analyses among patients considering adherence to treatment and BP control, we created four groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3. We considered a 5% significance level in all tests. Results: During the ReHOT, 80% of the patients had good BP control and treatment adherence. Of 96 patients reevaluated in the present study, only 52.1% had controlled hypertension when assessed by ABPM, while 31.3% were considered adherent by the MMAS. Regarding other ABPM measures, we observed an absence of a nocturnal dip in 64.6% of the patients and a white-coat effect and false BP control in 23% and 12.5%, respectively. Patients' education level showed a trend towards being a determinant factor associated with lack of adherence (p = 0

  9. Patient Adherence to Biologic Agents in Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...... = 39), and ustekinumab (n = 95). MPR calculation was calculated monthly based on the hospital records documenting the dispensing of biologics to the patients. Clinical data [Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), presence of psoriatic arthritis, concomitant...

  10. Improving medication adherence in patients with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve...... medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review...... for persistence, blood pressure or hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting led to a sustained improvement in medication adherence for patients with hypertension. The intervention had no significant impact on blood pressure and secondary clinical outcomes....

  11. Measurement complexity of adherence to medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galato D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dayani Galato, Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol, Anna Paula PiovezanMaster Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina (Unisul Tubarão, Santa Catarina, BrazilAdherence to pharmacologic therapy is a major challenge for the rational use of medicines, particularly when it comes to antiretroviral drugs that require adherence to at least 95% of prescribed doses.1 Studies in this area are always important and contribute to medication adherence understanding, even though there is no reference test for measuring this. Recently, an article was published in this journal that proposes the determination of lamivudine plasma concentration to validate patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment.2 In that study, serum levels obtained after 3 hours of ingestion of the last dose of the drug were compared with patient reports that were classified into different levels of adherence, based on their recall of missed doses in the previous 7 days.It was hypothesized by the authors that the use of a biological marker for drug adherence was extremely important, given the relevance of the topic. However, we would like to draw attention to some points that may determine the success of the use of similar methods for this purpose. The formation of groups with similar anthropometric characteristics is relevant since the dose of lamivudine may have to be changed, depending, for example, on sex, weight, and age.3 Even information considered important by the authors of that study was not provided. There is a need for greater clarity on the eligibility criteria, especially with regard to the clinical stage of the disease, CD4 counts and viral load, associated diseases, and comorbidity, as well as the evaluation of kidney function and other medications used that can affect lamivudine pharmacokinetics.3View original paper by Minzi and colleagues

  12. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  13. Mathematical modeling and comparison of protein size distribution in different plant, animal, fungal and microbial species reveals a negative correlation between protein size and protein number, thus providing insight into the evolution of proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiessen Axel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sizes of proteins are relevant to their biochemical structure and for their biological function. The statistical distribution of protein lengths across a diverse set of taxa can provide hints about the evolution of proteomes. Results Using the full genomic sequences of over 1,302 prokaryotic and 140 eukaryotic species two datasets containing 1.2 and 6.1 million proteins were generated and analyzed statistically. The lengthwise distribution of proteins can be roughly described with a gamma type or log-normal model, depending on the species. However the shape parameter of the gamma model has not a fixed value of 2, as previously suggested, but varies between 1.5 and 3 in different species. A gamma model with unrestricted shape parameter described best the distributions in ~48% of the species, whereas the log-normal distribution described better the observed protein sizes in 42% of the species. The gamma restricted function and the sum of exponentials distribution had a better fitting in only ~5% of the species. Eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 aa, whereas bacterial (320 aa and archaeal (283 aa proteins are significantly smaller (33-40% on average. Average protein sizes in different phylogenetic groups were: Alveolata (628 aa, Amoebozoa (533 aa, Fornicata (543 aa, Placozoa (453 aa, Eumetazoa (486 aa, Fungi (487 aa, Stramenopila (486 aa, Viridiplantae (392 aa. Amino acid composition is biased according to protein size. Protein length correlated negatively with %C, %M, %K, %F, %R, %W, %Y and positively with %D, %E, %Q, %S and %T. Prokaryotic proteins had a different protein size bias for %E, %G, %K and %M as compared to eukaryotes. Conclusions Mathematical modeling of protein length empirical distributions can be used to asses the quality of small ORFs annotation in genomic releases (detection of too many false positive small ORFs. There is a negative correlation between average protein size and total number of

  14. Modeling human-water-systems: towards a comprehensive and spatially distributed assessment of co-evolutions for river basins in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krahe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of river basin and flood risk management there is a growing need to improve the understanding of and the feedbacks between the driving forces “climate and socio-economy” and water systems. We make use of a variety of data resources to illustrate interrelationships between different constituents of the human-water-systems. Taking water storage for energy production as an example we present a first analysis on the co-evolution of socio-economic and hydrological indicators. The findings will serve as for the development of conceptual, but fully coupled socio-hydrological models for selected sectors and regions. These models will be used to generate integrated scenarios of the climate and socio-economic change.

  15. Transient improvement of urticaria induces poor adherence as assessed by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sakae; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Inomata, Naoko; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Morisky, Donald E; Katoh, Norito

    2015-11-01

    Poor adherence to medication is a major public health challenge. Here, we aimed to determine the adherence to oral and topical medications and to analyze underlying associated factors using the translated Japanese version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 regarding urticaria treatment. Web-based questionnaires were performed for 3096 registered dermatological patients, along with a subanalysis of 751 registered urticaria patients in this study. The adherence to oral medication was significantly associated with the frequency of hospital visits. Variables that affected the adherence to topical medication included age and experience of drug effectiveness. The rate of responses that "It felt like the symptoms had improved" varied significantly among the dermatological diseases treated with oral medications. Dermatologists should be aware that adherence to the treatment of urticaria is quite low. Regular visits and active education for patients with urticaria are mandatory in order to achieve a good therapeutic outcome by increasing the adherence. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Blending ecology and evolution using emerging technologies to determine species distributions with a non-native pathogen in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Waring; S. Cushman; A. Eckert; L. Flores-Renteria; H. Lintz; R. Sniezko; C. Still; C. Wehenkel; A. Whipple; M. Wing

    2017-01-01

    A collaborative team of researchers from the United States and Mexico has begun an exciting new research project funded by The National Science Foundation’s Macrosystems Biology program. The project will study ecological and evolutionary processes affecting the distribution of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), an important tree species of mixed conifer...

  17. Studies of the hydrodynamic evolution of matter produced in fluctuations in p-barp collisions and in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. II. Transverse-momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataja, M.; Ruuskanen, P.V.; McLerran, L.D.; von Gersdorff, H.

    1986-01-01

    We study solutions to the hydrodynamic equations appropriate for ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. We find that the matter produced in such collisions spends time t>30 fm/c at temperatures larger than 150 MeV. The transverse momentum of protons, kaons, and pions is computed in the central region of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. Assuming Bjorken's initial conditions for the hydrodynamic equations, and a bag-model equation of state, we show that the transverse-momentum distribution as a function of dN/dy does reflect properties of the equation of state. We demonstrate that such a distribution approximately scales as a function of (1/A)dN/dy. The relation between p/sub t/ and dN/dy is shown to be significantly altered under different assumptions about the equation of state. The transverse-momentum distribution of heavy hadrons is shown to be much enhanced relative to that of light pions. These distributions are little changed by differences in the assumptions about the initial transverse density and velocity profile. We are unable to fit the observed correlation between p/sub t/ and dE/dy observed in the Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment

  18. The mARM3D spatially distributed soil evolution model: Three-dimensional model framework and analysis of hillslope and landform responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sagy; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg

    2010-10-01

    We present a three-dimensional landscape-pedogenesis model, mARM3D (matrices ARMOUR 3D), which simulates soil evolution as a function of erosion and pedogenic processes. The model simulates the discretized soil profile for points on a spatial grid. The approach, using transition matrices, is computationally efficient and allows the simulation of large-scale spatial coupling and long-term soil evolution. We study the effect of the depth-dependent soil-weathering rate (i.e., the rate of soil particle breakdown) and bedrock-lowering rate (i.e., the rate of conversion of bedrock to soil). The difference in depth-dependent weathering functions has a significant effect on the in-profile soil properties through depth, specifically particle size grading. However, the depth dependency has a relatively minor effect on the surface properties of the soil profile, with all weathering functions generating very similar surface properties. The surface properties were a function of the cumulative amount of weathering (i.e., the integral of the weathering function over exhumation) with finer surface grading for higher weathering rates. Soil thickness could be estimated without explicitly modeling soil thickness. Thickness was negatively correlated with surface median grain size. As thickness decreases, the surface grading coarsens. This was driven by surface erosion, where as surface grading coarsens, erosion decreases and the soil deepens. Weathering and erosion interact to spatially organize the surface soil grading with a log-log relationship between surface grading, contributing area, and local slope. This relationship was independent of the weathering function. This relationship might be useful for the spatial description of soil properties in digital soil mapping.

  19. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is a chronic disease and often requires complex management. This study was undertaken in four pharmacies–V-Ninat Pharmacy, Videc Chemists, Tomabel Pharmacy and Josbet Chemists, all in Isolo, Lagos, to determine the level of adherence to the anti-asthmatic drugs by asthmatic patients who participated in the ...

  20. Adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis...

  1. Adherence to Cooperative Principles among Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Data on group characteristics, level of awareness, adherence and ... enhance small scale farmers' access to credit, Oruonye and Musa (2012) ... According to FAO (2012) cooperatives play important roles in overcoming barriers ... collective bargaining power in input and output markets; and ..... Members' dishonest attitude.

  2. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  3. Antipsychotic medication non-adherence among schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Non-adherence can cause high rates of relapse within 5 years of recovery from the first episode.7. Thus, lack of .... schizophrenia patients at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia, June 2014 (n = 412). 0. No substance use. Alcohol. Cigarre e. Chat. Alcohol/Cigarete/Chat. Cigarrete/ ...

  4. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  5. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip Krasniqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB. To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188. Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker’s commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  6. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Neziri, Burim

    2017-01-01

    The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109-0.188). Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker's commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  7. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  8. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Family source of support was the most available [hypertensive (225; 90.0%); T2D (174; 87.0%)], but government and non-governmental organisation support were largely desired, with financial support preferred, 233(93.2%) hypertensive and 190(95.0%) T2D, respectively. Adherent hypertensive patients with or ...

  9. Multiple measures reveal antiretroviral adherence successes and challenges in HIV-infected Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Haberer

    Full Text Available Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART among children in developing settings is poorly understood.To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2-10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS. Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥ 48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.04. Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with <90% MEMS adherence: hospitalization of child (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-5.5; p = 0.001, liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.0; p = 0.04, and caregiver's alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8-5.2; p<0.0001. Child's use of co-trimoxazole (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.009, caregiver's use of ART (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.03, possible caregiver depression (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; p = 0.001, and caregiver feeling ashamed of child's HIV status (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.6; p<0.0001 were protective against <90% MEMS adherence. Change in drug manufacturer (AOR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.5; p = 0.009 and caregiver's alcohol use (AOR 5.5, 95%CI 2.8-10.7; p<0.0001 were associated with ≥ 48-hour interruptions by MEMS, while second-line ART (AOR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1-0.99; p = 0.049 and increasing assets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.9; p = 0.0007 were protective against these interruptions.Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for

  10. Feeding in full-time public schools: Do students adhere and accept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nágila Araújo de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Identifying adherence to, and acceptance of school feeding, and analyzing the factors associated with non-adherence/non-acceptance in full-time public schools in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with students of both sexes aged 6-14 years. Issues regarding the consumption of meals, food distribution, food eaten outside the school and socioeconomic data, including nutritional assessment of students, were investigated. Adherence to meals was defined as the consumption of school meals four to five times/week, and acceptance was defined as meal approval, using the facial hedonic scale. Results A total of 359 students participated in this study and it was observed that adherence was high for lunch (95% and afternoon snacks (78%, and low for morning snacks (44%. Acceptance did not reach the required minimum percentage of 85% for any of the meals. Factors associated with non-adherence were the presence of >4 people in a household, having meals in a refectory, the meal location being considered uncomfortable and a negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals. Factors associated with non-acceptance were age >10 years, female sex, the negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals and inadequate food temperature. Conclusion Lunch and afternoon snacks showed the highest adherence, but the stipulated acceptance was not reached. Non-adherence and non-acceptance were mainly associated with aspects related to school feeding. This study allowed the evaluation of feeding in full-time public schools, in order to influence its improvement.

  11. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  12. Adherence of preventive oral care products in the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, D; Mahzia, R; Nakhleh, K; Joury, E

    2016-09-25

    No study has investigated the availability and adherence of preventive oral care products on the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations. Data were collected in 2012, and updated in 2016, in terms of availability, characteristics and adherence to evidence-based international recommendations. Few preventive products adhered to the recommendations. Despite the large decrease in the number of oral care products on the Syrian market, due to the Syrian crisis, nonadherence of some of the available products is still present. A multisectorial approach at a policy level is needed to address such important limitations. The Syrian Ministry of Health should reform regulations for fluoride products to become subject to drug monitoring systems; the Syrian Arab Committee for Measurements and Standards needs to update its standards; and the Syrian General Dental Association should distribute a preventive booklet to dental practitioners.

  13. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing adherent' as missing adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  14. Psychosocial influencers and mediators of treatment adherence in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Suk; Seo, Wha Sook

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of the development and testing of the hypothetical model that illustrates relationships between treatment adherence and its psychosocial influencing factors and to elucidate the direct and indirect (mediating) effects of factors on treatment adherence. Poor adherence has been consistently reported in haemodialysis patients. Much research has showed various influencing factors of adherence, but these studies have failed to identify consistent influencing factors. This study was performed using a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 150 end-stage renal failure patients on haemodialysis at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data were collected over 10 months (June 2010-April 2011). The hypothetical model provided a good fit with data. Haemodialysis-related knowledge, perceived barrier to adherence, self-efficacy on adherence, and healthcare provider support had significant effects on adherence. Self-efficacy was found to mediate barrier-adherence and family support-adherence relationships. Self-efficacy in combination with barrier, family support, and healthcare provider support was found to mediate the depression-adherence relationship. Strategies aimed at the development of successful adherence interventions should focus on reducing perceived barriers and enhancing self-efficacy and knowledge. It can be suggested that efforts to improve the healthcare provider-patient relationship would enhance adherence. In depressive patients, strategies that promote self-efficacy and the support of family or healthcare providers could diminish the negative impact of depression on adherence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  16. Darwinian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter; Koelewijn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is a central tenet in biology. Conventionally, the defi nition of Darwinian evolution is linked to a population-based process that can be measured by focusing on changes in DNA/allele frequencies. However, in some publications it has been suggested that selection represents a

  17. Temporal-Spatial Evolution Analysis of Lake Size-Distribution in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin Using Landsat Imagery Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Four natural lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River—Dongting Lake, Poyang Lake, Chaohu Lake and Taihu Lake—play a key role in the climate, environment, and ecology of this area. Upstream of these lakes, the Three Gorges Dam Project has been storing water for 12 years. Future monitoring and management of rivers and lakes can certainly benefit from research on the patterns of variation of natural lakes downstream of the Three Gorges Project. This research applies Landsat TM/ETM data to evaluate water area changes in the four lakes from 2002 to 2013. The water area is estimated using AWEI (Automated Water Extraction Index from satellite images. The average areas decreased respectively 452, 11, and 5 km2 (29.6%, 1.4% and 0.2% from 2002 to 2013 for Dongting, Chaohu, and Taihu Lakes. Meanwhile, it increased 300 km2 (11.0% for Poyang Lake. Precipitation and changes in river inflow may account for the fluctuation in the surface area to a large degree, especially between 2009 and 2013. The present study was undertaken to characterize the evolution of lakes and to explore the potential driving force of variation in order to assist the management of dams upstream in the river basin.

  18. The chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    1986-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies is reviewed with particular attention to the theoretical interpretation of the distribution and abundances of elements in stars and the interstellar medium. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. The metallicity distribution of the solar vicinity, age metallicity relationship, abundance gradients in the galaxy, external galaxies, star formation and evolution, major sites of nucleosynthesis, yields of chemical elements, chemical models, and the galactic disk, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  19. [Adverse side effects of antiretroviral therapy: relationship between patients' perception and adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Teresa; del Cacho, Elena; López, Ester; Codina, Carles; Tuset, Montserrat; de Lazzari, Elisa; Miró, Josep M; Gatell, Josep M; Ribas, Josep

    2007-06-23

    To evaluate the relationship between perceived adverse side effects (AE) and non-adherence associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). For 6 consecutive months, patients taking HAART who came to the Pharmacy Department were interviewed. In the questionnaire they had to answer if they had experienced any AE over the past 6 months, what did they do in response to AE and what was the clinical evolution. Adherence was measured by pill counts or by pharmacy records (when pill counts were not possible). Of 1,936 interviewed patients, 661 (34.1%) reported AE over the past 6 months. The type of antiretroviral drug regimen and starting, re-starting or changing HAART over the past 6 months were significantly associated with AE. Patients who reported AE were 1.4 times more likely to be non-adherents. The most frequently reported AE were diarrhea followed by central nervous system abnormalities and by other gastrointestinal disturbances. In patients starting HAART, 62% of AE improved or disappeared during the first 4 weeks of therapy. Patients who report AE have worst adherence. AE are more frequent in patients starting HAART but in most cases they improve with time and/or symptomatic therapy.

  20. Medication practice and feminist thought: a theoretical and ethical response to adherence in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren M; Colbert, Alison M; Erlen, Judith A

    2005-08-01

    Accurate self-administration of antiretroviral medication therapy for HIV/AIDS is a significant clinical and ethical concern because of its implications for individual morbidity and mortality, the health of the public, and escalating healthcare costs. However, the traditional construction of patient medication adherence is oversimplified, myopic, and ethically problematic. Adherence relies on existing social power structures and western normative assumptions about the proper roles of patients and providers, and principally focuses on patient variables, obscuring the powerful socioeconomic and institutional influences on behaviour. Some professionals advocate for alternate approaches to adherence, but many of the available alternatives remain conceptually underdeveloped. Using HIV/AIDS as an exemplar, this paper presents medication practice as a theoretical reconstruction and explicates its conceptual and ethical evolution. We first propose that one of these alternatives, medication practice, broadens the understanding of individuals' medication-taking behaviour, speaks to the inherent power inequities in the patient-provider interaction, and addresses the ethical shortcomings in the traditional construal. We then integrate medication practice with feminist thought, further validating individuals' situated knowledge, choices, and multiple roles; more fully recognizing the individual as a multidiminsional, autonomous human being; and reducing notions of obedience and deference to authority. Blame is thus extricated from the healthcare relationship, reshaping the traditionally adversarial components of the interaction, and eliminating the view of adherence as a patient problem in need of patient-centred interventions.

  1. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z phot = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z phot = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M * = (8 ± 1) × 10 10 M ☉ , although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M H distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  2. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Straße, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Poggianti, B. M., E-mail: j.m.simpson@dur.ac.uk [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  3. TMDs: Evolution, modeling, precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alesio Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factorization theorem for qT spectra in Drell-Yan processes, boson production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering allows for the determination of the non-perturbative parts of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Here we discuss the fit of Drell-Yan and Z-production data using the transverse momentum dependent formalism and the resummation of the evolution kernel. We find a good theoretical stability of the results and a final χ2/points ≲ 1. We show how the fixing of the non-perturbative pieces of the evolution can be used to make predictions at present and future colliders.

  4. Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients in ... impact of medication adherence on the clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients at ... the review of case notes of one-hundred and fifty two randomly selected patients.

  5. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven .... Table 1: Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and HAART adherence among ... constraints (44%), stigma (15%), travel/migration.

  6. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E

    1985-09-01

    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  7. Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive ... Despite its benefits, the practice of EBF among HIV positive mothers is low in Ethiopia. Objective: This study is intended to assess factors influencing adherence to exclusively breast ...

  8. Determinants of Adherence to Living on Dialysis for Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores perceptions that affect adherence behaviors among Mexican Americans living with dialysis. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD living on dialysis, 15 family members, and 6 health care personnel who provided care to them. Four themes emerged: (a positive influences to adherence, (b obstacles to adherence, (c daily activity losses, and (d fears about living with dialysis. From the findings, the perceptions given for non-adherence with the dialysis regimen ranged from denial of the condition, lack of pre-education, to cultural factors. Those given for adherence included prolonged life, family, and hope of getting a transplant. Health care providers were the reminder to adhere. Several cultural factors influenced their adherence perceptions. Strategies to enhance adherence behaviors should focus on knowledge about dialysis, use of the collective efficacy of the family, and the inclusion of cultural values.

  9. Comprehensive efforts to increase adherence to statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vonbank, Alexander; Agewall, Stefan; Kjeldsen, Keld Per

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that statin therapy improves cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, statin adherence is far from optimal regarding initiation, execution and persistence of treatment over time.26 Poor adherence to statin therapy is associated with a significantly incre...

  10. Hydrogen evolution from aqueous-phase photocatalytic reforming of ethylene glycol over Pt/TiO{sub 2} catalysts: Role of Pt and product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fuying [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Resources and Chemical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China); Gu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Niu, Yu [College of Resources and Chemical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China); Wang, Renzhang [College of Resources and Chemical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China); Tong, Yuecong; Zhu, Shuying; Zhang, Hualei [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Zizhong, E-mail: z.zhang@fzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Xuxu [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic EG reforming generates many hydrocarbons besides H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO. • Pt loading greatly improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} for EG reforming. • Half amount of the produced H{sub 2} over Pt/TiO{sub 2} originates from EG reforming. - Abstract: Pt nanoparticles were loaded on anatase TiO{sub 2} by the photodeposition method to investigate their photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} evolution in an aqueous solution containing a certain amount of ethylene glycol (EG) as the sacrificial agent. The surface properties and chemical states of the Pt/TiO{sub 2} sample were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrochemical resistance. The aqueous-phase photocatalytic EG reforming using Pt/TiO{sub 2} and anatase TiO{sub 2} generated not only H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, but also CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Moreover, the amount of formate and acetate complexes in the solution increased gradually. The EG adsorption and gas-phase intermediates during photocatalytic reaction processes were investigated by the in situ FTIR spectrum. Finally, the photocatalytic EG reforming reaction mechanism was elucidated. This helped to better understand the role of a sacrificial agent in a photocatalytic hydrogen production.

  11. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Baguso, Glenda N.; Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the U.S. report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transg...

  12. Does Prescription Drug Adherence Reduce Hospitalizations and Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    William Encinosa; Didem Bernard; Avi Dor

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the impact of diabetic drug adherence on hospitalizations, ER visits, and hospital costs, using insurance claims from MarketScan® employer data. However, it is often difficult to measure the impact of drug adherence on hospitalizations since both adherence and hospitalizations may be correlated with unobservable patient severity. We control for such unobservables using propensity score methods and instrumental variables for adherence such as drug coinsurance levels and direct-to- ...

  13. Thickness distributions and evolution of growth mechanisms of NH4-illite from the fossil hydrothermal system of Harghita Bai, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobos, Iuliu; Eberl, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal growth of NH4-illite (NH4-I) from the hydrothermal system of Harghita Bãi (Eastern Carpathians) was deduced from the shapes of crystal thickness distributions (CTDs). The 4-illite-smectite (I-S) interstratified structures (R1, R2, and R3-type ordering) with a variable smectite-layer content. The NH4-I-S (40–5% S) structures were identified underground in a hydrothermal breccia structure, whereas the K-I/NH4-I mixtures were found at the deepest level sampled (−110 m). The percentage of smectite interlayers generally decreases with increasing depth in the deposit. This decrease in smectite content is related to the increase in degree of fracturing in the breccia structure and corresponds to a general increase in mean illite crystal thickness. In order to determine the thickness distributions of NH4-I crystals (fundamental illite particles) which make up the NH4-I-S interstratified structures and the NH4,-I/K-I mixtures, 27 samples were saturated with Li+ and aqueous solutions of PVP-10 to remove swelling and then were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The profiles for the mean crystallite thickness (Tmean) and crystallite thickness distribution (CTD) of NH4-I crystallites were determined by the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach method using the MudMaster computer code. The Tmean of NH4-I from NH4-I-S samples ranges from 3.4 to 7.8 nm. The Tmean measured for the NH4-I/K-I mixture phase ranges from 7.8 nm to 11.7 nm (NH4-I) and from 12.1 to 24.7 nm (K-I).The CTD shapes of NH4-I fundamental particles are asymptotic and lognormal, whereas illites from NH4-I/K-I mixtures have bimodal shapes related to the presence of two lognormal-like CTDs corresponding to NH4-I and K-I.The crystal-growth mechanism for NH4-I samples was simulated using the Galoper code. Reaction pathways for NH4-I crystal nucleation and growth could be determined for each sample by plotting their CTD parameters on an α–β2 diagram constructed using Galoper. This analysis shows that NH4-I crystals

  14. Adherence to treatment of patients with past ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Je. Azarenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the general practitioner is managing patients with the effects of ischemic stroke. The improvement of patients adherence to treatment in a significant way contributes to successful secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Adherence to treatment can be determined through various questionnaires, including Morissky-Green. Currently, the adherence to a long-term drug therapy remains insufficient.

  15. Primary non-adherence to prescribed medication in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristján; Halldórsson, Matthías; Thengilsdóttir, Gudrún

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-adherence refers to the patient not redeeming a prescribed medication at some point during drug therapy. Research has mainly focused on secondary non-adherence. Prior to this study, the overall rate of primary non-adherence in general practice in Iceland was not known....

  16. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.

    2015-01-01

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  18. Self-reported adherence to treatment: A study of socioeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Adherence to treatment is important and relevant in HIV treatment. Previous studies in sub Sahara Africa and south western Nigeria reported that psychiatric morbidity influence treatment adherence. The present study was to examine treatment adherence among the male and the female patients with HIV infection ...

  19. Determinants of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated factors of adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment (ART), factors or variables that can discriminate between adherent and non-adherent patients on ART were selected. Simple structured questionnaire was employed. The study sample consisted of 145 HIV patients who received ART in the Shashemene ...

  20. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  1. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  2. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Flavia Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. 234 Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity 238 U (t½ = 4.5 10 9 years). Since 234 Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium 234 Th/ 238 U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO 2 atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides 210 Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and 210 Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium 210 Po/ 210 Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, 226 Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and 228 Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides 238 U, 234 Th, 22 '6Ra, 22 '8Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  3. Evolution of the F0F1 ATP synthase complex in light of the patchy distribution of different bioenergetic pathways across prokaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Lila Koumandou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and archaea are characterized by an amazing metabolic diversity, which allows them to persist in diverse and often extreme habitats. Apart from oxygenic photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation, well-studied processes from chloroplasts and mitochondria of plants and animals, prokaryotes utilize various chemo- or lithotrophic modes, such as anoxygenic photosynthesis, iron oxidation and reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. Most bioenergetic pathways have a similar general structure, with an electron transport chain composed of protein complexes acting as electron donors and acceptors, as well as a central cytochrome complex, mobile electron carriers, and an ATP synthase. While each pathway has been studied in considerable detail in isolation, not much is known about their relative evolutionary relationships. Wanting to address how this metabolic diversity evolved, we mapped the distribution of nine bioenergetic modes on a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA sequences from 272 species representing the full diversity of prokaryotic lineages. This highlights the patchy distribution of many pathways across different lineages, and suggests either up to 26 independent origins or 17 horizontal gene transfer events. Next, we used comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of all subunits of the F0F1 ATP synthase, common to most bacterial lineages regardless of their bioenergetic mode. Our results indicate an ancient origin of this protein complex, and no clustering based on bioenergetic mode, which suggests that no special modifications are needed for the ATP synthase to work with different electron transport chains. Moreover, examination of the ATP synthase genetic locus indicates various gene rearrangements in the different bacterial lineages, ancient duplications of atpI and of the beta subunit of the F0 subcomplex, as well as more recent stochastic lineage-specific and species-specific duplications of all subunits. We

  4. The morphology and distribution of submerged reefs in the Maui-Nui Complex, Hawaii: New insights into their evolution since the Early Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faichney, Iain D.E.; Webster, James M.; Clague, David A.; Kelley, Chris; Applegate, Bruce; Moore, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Reef drowning and backstepping have long been recognised as reef responses to sea-level rise on subsiding margins. During the Late Pleistocene (~500–14 ka) Hawaiian reefs grew in response to rapid subsidence and 120 m 100 kyr sea-level cycles, with recent work on the submerged drowned reefs around the big island of Hawaii, and in other locations from the last deglacial, providing insight into reef development under these conditions. In contrast, reefs of the Early Pleistocene (~1.8–0.8 Ma) remain largely unexplored despite developing in response to significantly different 60–70 m 41 kyr sea-level cycles. The Maui-Nui Complex (MNC — forming the islands of Maui, Molokai, Lanai and Kahoolawe), provides a natural laboratory to study reef evolution throughout this time period as recent data indicate the reefs grew from 1.1 to 0.5 Ma. We use new high resolution bathymetric and backscatter data as well as sub-bottom profiling seismic data and field observations from ROV and submersible dives to make a detailed analysis of reef morphology and structure around the MNC. We focus specifically on the south-central region of the complex that provides the best reef exposure and find that the morphology of the reefs varies both regionally and temporally within this region. Barrier and pinnacle features dominate the steeper margins in the north of the study area whilst broad backstepping of the reefs is observed in the south. Within the Au'au channel in the central region between the islands, closely spaced reef and karst morphology indicates repeated subaerial exposure. We propose that this variation in the morphology and structure of the reefs within the MNC has been controlled by three main factors; the subsidence rate of the complex, the amplitude and period of eustatic sea-level cycles, and the slope and continuity of the basement substrate. We provide a model of reef development within the MNC over the last 1.2 Ma highlighting the effect that the interaction

  5. Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Impact of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-08-01

    To review the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and reductions in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and overall mortality. Current cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the American Institute for Cancer Research, journal articles published between 2004 and 2016, and internet resources. Evidence from a number of large observational studies indicates that following current cancer prevention recommendations in a comprehensive manner results in significant reductions in both cancer risk and cancer mortality, as well as in cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality. Nurses can take the lead in familiarizing patients and families with established cancer prevention recommendations and resources that may assist patients in implementing them comprehensively in their daily lives, as well as in discussing the substantial health benefits of adhering to the recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-06-22

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process.

  7. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    OpenAIRE

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Metho...

  8. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research

  9. Adherence to Principles of Medical Ethics Among Physicians in Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Ahmad; Malek, Farhad; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Rostami Maskopaii, Somayeh; Hamta, Amir; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Considering that medical ethics is an applied subject providing systematic solutions to help physicians with moral issues, this research aimed to evaluate adherence to the principles of medical ethics among physicians on the basis of attitude of physicians of Mazandaran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mazandaran province, Iran during 2015. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was first completed by 40 physicians and its reliability was confirmed by obtaining a Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to 0.818. Its validity was confirmed by medical ethics experts. Therefore, the questionnaire was reliable and valid. Analytical and descriptive analysis were performed. According to our findings, there is a significant correlation between some of variables of medical ethics principles. The results show that adherence to indicators of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice has been almost good; however, physicians' ethical behaviors which pertain towards the principle of autonomy have not been acceptable. There was not any significant difference in adherence to the principles of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence, and justice on the basis of sex, residency, education and occupation. According to the present study, more training is required to improve physicians' adherence to the principles of medical ethics . 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Contributions of Nursing in adherence to treatment of hypertension: a systematic review of Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease in health services in Brazil and the nursing is co-responsible in the development of strategies to improve adherence of hypertensive treatment. This study aimed to verify the contributions of the nursing team, active in Basic Health Units to facilitate adherence to treatment of hypertension. Contents: We conducted a systematic review of the Brazilian literature of descriptive and qualitative kind, carried with 17 original scientific articles and research published in national journals in Portuguese between the years 2010 and 2015, indexed in the Virtual Library Database in health / BIREME, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Conclusion: The Nursing is present and active in assisting the hypertensive patients of the Health Units and shows evolution incorporating the use of technology as a way of innovation and management of care.

  11. Motivational factors of adherence to cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Shahriari, Mohsen; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2012-05-01

    Main suggested theories about patients' adherence to treatment regimens recognize the importance of motivation in positive changes in behaviors. Since cardiac diseases are chronic and common, cardiac rehabilitation as an effective prevention program is crucial in management of these diseases. There is always concern about the patients' adherence to cardiac rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe the motivational factors affecting the patients' participation and compliance to cardiac rehabilitation by recognizing and understanding the nature of patients' experiences. The participants were selected among the patients with cardiac diseases who were referred to cardiac rehabilitation in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Iran. The purposive sampling method was used and data saturation achieved after 8 semi-structured interviews. The three main concepts obtained from this study are "beliefs", "supporters" and "group cohesion". In cardiac rehabilitation programs, emphasis on motivational factors affects the patient's adherence. It is suggested that in cardiac rehabilitation programs more attention should be paid to patients' beliefs, the role of patients' supporters and the role of group-based rehabilitation.

  12. Medication non-adherence and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Lau, Sofie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins are widely prescribed to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, statin non-adherence is very high. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to investigate reasons for stopping statin treatment in the general population and to study how aspects of information-seeking ......BACKGROUND: Statins are widely prescribed to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, statin non-adherence is very high. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to investigate reasons for stopping statin treatment in the general population and to study how aspects of information......-seeking and processing is associated with statin non-adherence. METHODS: This study used a population survey on 3050 Danish residents aged 45-65 years. Reasons for statin discontinuation was studied among those who were previous statin users. The association between information seeking and processing and statin...... from information disseminated by media outlets. Side effects and fear of side effects should be addressed in clinical practice. Health care professionals should pay attention to emotional aspects of how information is disseminated and perceived by statin users....

  13. Adherent Raindrop Modeling, Detectionand Removal in Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shaodi; Tan, Robby T; Kawakami, Rei; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2016-09-01

    Raindrops adhered to a windscreen or window glass can significantly degrade the visibility of a scene. Modeling, detecting and removing raindrops will, therefore, benefit many computer vision applications, particularly outdoor surveillance systems and intelligent vehicle systems. In this paper, a method that automatically detects and removes adherent raindrops is introduced. The core idea is to exploit the local spatio-temporal derivatives of raindrops. To accomplish the idea, we first model adherent raindrops using law of physics, and detect raindrops based on these models in combination with motion and intensity temporal derivatives of the input video. Having detected the raindrops, we remove them and restore the images based on an analysis that some areas of raindrops completely occludes the scene, and some other areas occlude only partially. For partially occluding areas, we restore them by retrieving as much as possible information of the scene, namely, by solving a blending function on the detected partially occluding areas using the temporal intensity derivative. For completely occluding areas, we recover them by using a video completion technique. Experimental results using various real videos show the effectiveness of our method.

  14. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  15. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen; Babiker, Nathan; Gardner, Emma; Royle, Jane; Curley, Rachael; Hoo, Zhe Hui; Wildman, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence.

  16. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Kedar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  17. Distribution and evolution of sterols and aliphatic hydrocarbons in dated marine sediment cores from the Cabo Frio upwelling region, SW Atlantic, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; Martins, César C; Taniguchi, Satie; Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Magalhães, Caio Augusto; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2017-08-01

    We report the distribution of selected lipid biomarkers specifically sterols and aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from Cabo Frio, SW Atlantic continental shelf, Brazil, corresponding approximately to the last 700 years. In the Cabo Frio region, a costal upwelling occurs as a quasi-seasonal phenomenon characterized by nutrient-rich bottom waters that intrude on the continental shelf and promote relatively high biological productivity compared to other Brazilian continental shelf areas. The results for sterols indicate the predominance of organic matter (OM) inputs related to marine organisms, mainly plankton, in all of the cores along the time scale studied. Principal component analyses show three different groups of variables, which may be associated with (i) the more effective intrusion of the nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water, resulting in the increase of marine lipid biomarkers such as sterols and short-chain n-alkanes; (ii) the influence of the Coastal Water with higher surface water temperature and subsequently lower primary productivity; and (iii) OM characterized by high total organic carbon and long-chain n-alkanes related to an allochthonous source. Relatively high concentrations of sterols and n-alkanes between 1450 and 1700 AD, chronologically associated with the Little Ice Age, suggest a period associated with changes in the local input of specific sources of these compounds. The concentrations of lipid biomarkers vary over core depth, but this does not suggest a notably high or low intensity of upwelling processes. It is possible that the climatic and sea surface temperature changes reported in previous studies did not affect the input of the sedimentary lipid biomarkers analyzed here.

  18. Can human error theory explain non-adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nick; Safdar, A; Franklin, Bryoney D

    2005-08-01

    To apply human error theory to explain non-adherence and examine how well it fits. Patients who were taking chronic medication were telephoned and asked whether they had been adhering to their medicine, and if not the reasons were explored and analysed according to a human error theory. Of 105 patients, 87 were contacted by telephone and they took part in the study. Forty-two recalled being non-adherent, 17 of them in the last 7 days; 11 of the 42 were intentionally non-adherent. The errors could be described by human error theory, and it explained unintentional non-adherence well, however, the application of 'rules' was difficult when considering mistakes. The consideration of error producing conditions and latent failures also revealed useful contributing factors. Human error theory offers a new and valuable way of understanding non-adherence, and could inform interventions. However, the theory needs further development to explain intentional non-adherence.

  19. Statistical and physical evolution of QSO's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caditz, D.; Petrosian, V.

    1989-09-01

    The relationship between the physical evolution of discrete extragalactic sources, the statistical evolution of the observed population of sources, and the cosmological model is discussed. Three simple forms of statistical evolution: pure luminosity evolution (PLE), pure density evolution (PDE), and generalized luminosity evolution (GLE), are considered in detail together with what these forms imply about the physical evolution of individual sources. Two methods are used to analyze the statistical evolution of the observed distribution of QSO's (quasars) from combined flux limited samples. It is shown that both PLE and PDE are inconsistent with the data over the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.2, and that a more complicated form of evolution such as GLE is required, independent of the cosmological model. This result is important for physical models of AGN, and in particular, for the accretion disk model which recent results show may be inconsistent with PLE

  20. Beliefs about medications predict adherence to antidepressants in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Waleed; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed Yousry; Hashem, Abdel Hamid; Moussa, Suaad; Coker, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kenneth C M

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to treatment is a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. This study investigates the relationship between older depressed patients' adherence to antidepressants and their beliefs about and knowledge of the medication. Assessment was undertaken of 108 outpatients over the age of 55 years diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated for at least four weeks with antidepressants. Adherence was assessed using two self-report measures: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and a Global Adherence Measure (GAM). Potential predictors of adherence investigated included sociodemographic, medication and illness variables. In addition, 33 carers were interviewed regarding general medication beliefs. 56% of patients reported 80% or higher adherence on the GAM. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with adherence on the MARS. Specific beliefs about medicines, such as "my health depends on antidepressants" (necessity) and being less worried about becoming dependant on antidepressants (concern) were highly correlated with adherence. General beliefs about medicines causing harm or being overprescribed, experiencing medication side-effects and severity of depression also correlated with poor adherence. Linear regression with the MARS as the dependent variable explained 44.3% of the variance and showed adherence to be higher in subjects with healthy specific beliefs who received more information about antidepressants and worse with depression severity and autonomic side-effects. Our findings strongly support a role for specific beliefs about medicines in adherence. Challenging patients' beliefs, providing information about treatment and discussing side-effects could improve adherence. Poor response to treatment and medication side-effects can indicate poor adherence and should be considered before switching medications.

  1. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN IC 348: THE ROLE OF DISKS IN ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION OF YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these 'disk-locking' theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 μm, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the

  2. Pinpointing differences in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Holm, Jacob Bak; Poulsen, Kristian Arild

    2010-01-01

    Platinum compounds are used in the treatment of cancer. We demonstrate that cisplatin-induced (10 µM) apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) is pronounced within 18 hours in non-adherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC), whereas there is no increase in caspase-3 activity in the adherent Ehrlich Lettré...... ascites tumour cells (ELA). Loss of KCl and cell shrinkage are hallmarks in apoptosis and has been shown in EATC. However, we find no reduction in cell volume and only a minor loss of K(+) which is accompanied by net uptake of Na(+) following 18 hours cisplatin exposure in ELA. Glutathione and taurine...

  3. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-08-15

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation.

  4. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation

  5. Review on Factors Influencing Physician Guideline Adherence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, C J G M; Crijns, H J G M; Dierick-van Daele, A T M; Dekker, L R C

    2018-04-09

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in Western countries. Physician adherence to guidelines is often suboptimal, resulting in impaired patient outcome and prognosis. Multiple studies have been conducted to evaluate patterns and the influencing factors of patient adherence, but little is known about factors influencing physician guideline adherence. This review aims to identify factors influencing physician guideline adherence relevant to cardiology and to provide insights and suggestions for future improvement. Physician adherence was measured as adherence to standard local medical practice and applicable guidelines. Female gender and older age had a negative effect on physician guideline adherence. In addition, independent of the type of heart disease, physicians without cardiologic specialization were linked to physician noncompliance. Also, guideline adherence in primary care centers was at a lower level compared to secondary or tertiary care centers. The importance of guideline adherence increases as patients age, and complex diseases and comorbidity arise. Appropriate resources and interventions, taking important factors for nonadherence in account, are necessary to improve guideline adoption and adherence in every level of the chain. This in turn should improve patient outcome.

  6. Family strategies for achieving medication adherence in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerski, Lisa; Perrazo, Lauren; Goebel, Jens; Pai, Ahna L H

    2011-01-01

    Although nonadherence is well documented and strategies for adherence have been shown to be critical to overcoming barriers and improving overall adherence rates, it is unknown how family strategy use is related to adherence in the pediatric renal transplant population. The aims of this study were to assess (a) the strategies used by adolescents with kidney transplants and their caregivers to adhere to the posttransplant oral medication regimen and (b) the relationship of these strategies to objective adherence rates. Semistructured interviews to assess self-management were administered to 17 adolescents (14-18 years) and 17 caregivers. Adherence to oral immunosuppressant medication, measured via electronic monitors, was determined also for a subset of 13 dyads. Common strategies endorsed by families included the following: making it part of the routine (88.2%), verbal reminders by caregiver (82.4%), caregiver verifying medication was taken (76.5%), placing medication in a convenient location (76.5%), and using a pillbox (70.6%). A greater number of family-endorsed strategies were correlated with higher levels of adherence. Of those strategies spontaneously endorsed, only caregiver reminders to take medication and caregiver verification that medications were taken were related significantly to higher adherence rates. The findings highlight the importance of identification and use of specific strategies to improve adherence rates of pediatric renal transplant recipients and emphasize the need for continued caregiver involvement in the promotion of adherence to the treatment regimen.

  7. Adherence to vitamin supplementation following adolescent bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is known about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1 ± 1.5; range = 13-19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, P bariatric surgery, high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  9. Community health workers adherence to referral guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs......Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...

  10. Universal pacemaker of genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental observation of comparative genomics is that the distribution of evolution rates across the complete sets of orthologous genes in pairs of related genomes remains virtually unchanged throughout the evolution of life, from bacteria to mammals. The most straightforward explanation for the conservation of this distribution appears to be that the relative evolution rates of all genes remain nearly constant, or in other words, that evolutionary rates of different genes are strongly correlated within each evolving genome. This correlation could be explained by a model that we denoted Universal PaceMaker (UPM) of genome evolution. The UPM model posits that the rate of evolution changes synchronously across genome-wide sets of genes in all evolving lineages. Alternatively, however, the correlation between the evolutionary rates of genes could be a simple consequence of molecular clock (MC). We sought to differentiate between the MC and UPM models by fitting thousands of phylogenetic trees for bacterial and archaeal genes to supertrees that reflect the dominant trend of vertical descent in the evolution of archaea and bacteria and that were constrained according to the two models. The goodness of fit for the UPM model was better than the fit for the MC model, with overwhelming statistical significance, although similarly to the MC, the UPM is strongly overdispersed. Thus, the results of this analysis reveal a universal, genome-wide pacemaker of evolution that could have been in operation throughout the history of life.

  11. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  12. Impact of written information on control and adherence in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Inês Rosendo Carvalho E Silva; Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Marques, Margarida

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes therapeutic education and information by leaflets is important. This study aimed to understand the effectiveness of written information to diabetic patients, after six months, in the control of diabetes and medication adherence. Non-pharmacological clinical trial. Randomized sample of diabetic patients of 65 volunteer doctors, distributed among the five health regions in Portugal. At the first appointment, patients were randomized in four groups (three intervention with validated leaflets and one control), leaflet reading being reinforced at the follow-up appointments in a 6-months period. Variables collected: HbA1c, home blood glucose, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, cigarettes smoked, physical activity level, adherence to medication, medication, height, diabetes progression, age, sex and educational background. Descriptive and inferential statistics. From the 709 patients recruited, 702 were studied in this 6-months period with no statistical differences in the baseline variables studied. After six months of intervention, the adherence to medication improved in the leaflet group (p=0.034). This was noticed in those under 65 years of age (p=0.027), with diabetes for ≤ 5 years (p=0.010), with educational background up to 4 years (p=0.030) and 9 years (p=0.006) and with HbA1c ≥ 7% at the beginning of the study. Interventions with leaflets handed in primary healthcare to people with diabetes type 2 can bring benefits in what concerns adherence to therapeutics, namely in younger people with a less studies.

  13. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.

  14. Evaluating Patient Interest in an Adherence-Focused Smartphone App to Improve HIV Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W Gaborcik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate patient interest in a smartphone mobile application (app to assist in medication adherence. Methods: In January 2014, a 19-question, anonymous, paper survey was distributed to a convenience sample of patients in the reception area of a nonprofit HIV primary care clinic and pharmacy. Results: Of the 101 patients surveyed, 72.3% had a smartphone and 70.3% were interested in downloading and using an adherence app if one was available. If an app was customizable, patients desired appointment reminders (87%, notifications to schedule appointments (85%, refill notifications (83%, medication reminders (79%, and adherence tracked by pharmacy (59%. Conclusions: Results share insights on the potential use of technology to assist an HIV patient population with medication adherence. Conflict of Interest Dr. Jennifer Rodis is the creator and director of the Partner For Promotion (PFP program otherwise she has no additional conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. All other authors declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Student Project

  15. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  16. Security Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  17. Cepheid evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1984-05-01

    A review of the phases of stellar evolution relevant to Cepheid variables of both Types I and II is presented. Type I Cepheids arise as a result of normal post-main sequence evolutionary behavior of many stars in the intermediate to massive range of stellar masses. In contrast, Type II Cepheids generally originate from low-mass stars of low metalicity which are undergoing post core helium-burning evolution. Despite great progress in the past two decades, uncertainties still remain in such areas as how to best model convective overshoot, semiconvection, stellar atmospheres, rotation, and binary evolution as well as uncertainties in important physical parameters such as the nuclear reaction rates, opacity, and mass loss rates. The potential effect of these uncertainties on stellar evolution models is discussed. Finally, comparisons between theoretical predictions and observations of Cepheid variables are presented for a number of cases. The results of these comparisons show both areas of agreement and disagreement with the latter result providing incentive for further research

  18. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Therefore, the platypus sequence was studied to quantify the role of gene duplication in the evolution of venom. ... Platypus venom is present only in males and is used for asserting dominance over com- petitors during the ... Certain toxin gene families are known to re- peatedly evolve through gene duplications. The rapidly ...

  19. Gamification of Medication Adherence in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Izzat; Thomas, Rhys Huw

    2017-11-01

    Adherence to medication regimens is a crucial factor in seizure-freedom and well-being for people with epilepsy. In contrast, taking medication inconsistently increases the risk of not only seizures and their adverse effects, but drug side-effects and unnecessary modifications to treatment plans. Epilepsy is prevalent across all age groups and we have been slow to utilise both the technologies and psychologies derived from computer gaming. Gaming has broken through to the mainstream and is no longer the preserve of younger males, mirroring the adoption of smart-phones. 'Gamification' motivates users into engaging in an activity with a higher intensity and duration. Introducing gaming elements into a non-gaming context has the potential to transform routine tasks into more enjoyable and motivating experiences. This has been exploited by marketing executives, but also has clear uses in a healthcare setting too. We discuss how previously published frameworks could be employed to help people with epilepsy adhere to medication regimens to create a patient-focussed, modifiable and fun experience. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endovascular Interventions for the Morbidly Adherent Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kaufman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly adherent placentas are a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from placental invasion of the myometrium to invasion past the myometrium and muscular layers into adjacent structures. This entity is becoming more prevalent recently with increased number of cesarean deliveries. Given the high risk of morbidity and mortality, this was traditionally treated with pre-term planned cesarean hysterectomy. However, recently, uterine preservation techniques have been implemented for those women wishing to preserve future fertility or their uterus. Early identification is crucial as studies have shown better outcomes for women treated at tertiary care facilities by a dedicated multidisciplinary team. Interventional radiologists are frequently included in the care of these patients as there are several different endovascular techniques which can be implemented to decrease morbidity in these patients both in conjunction with cesarean hysterectomy and in the setting of uterine preservation. This article will review the spectrum of morbidly adherent placentas, imaging, as well as the surgical and endovascular interventions implemented in the care of these complex patients.

  1. Evolución de los métodos de evaluación de la confiabilidad para redes eléctricas de distribución; Evolution of reliability assessment methods for electrical distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sierra Gil

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende ofrecer una breve panorámica sobre la evolución de los métodos de evaluación de la confiabilidad y las especificidades de los mismos durante la caracterización de redes eléctricas de distribución y mostrar como la utilización de uno u otro depende no solo de de la disponibilidad de datos y la existencia o no de regulaciones para la continuidad del servicio eléctrico, sino que además depende del enfoque que se le de al estudio en cuestión, selección de variantes durante el diseño, opciones de mejora de la confiabilidad durante la explotación o gestión de mantenimiento.  This paper intends to offer a brief panoramic about the evolution of the reliability assessment methods and the specificities of the same ones during the characterization of the electrical distribution networks and to show how the utilization of either method not depends only of availability of data and the existence or not of regulations for the continuity of electrical service, rather besides depends of the approach to reliability studies in point: selection of variants during the design, reliability improving options during the exploitations or maintenance management.

  2. Emotional functioning, barriers, and medication adherence in pediatric transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick King, Megan L; Mee, Laura L; Gutiérrez-Colina, Ana M; Eaton, Cyd K; Lee, Jennifer L; Blount, Ronald L

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed relationships among internalizing symptoms, barriers to medication adherence, and medication adherence in adolescents with solid organ transplants. The sample included 72 adolescents who had received solid organ transplants. Multiple mediator models were tested via bootstrapping methods. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships between barriers and internalizing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress, as well as between internalizing symptoms and medication adherence. Barriers indicative of adaptation to the medication regimen (e.g., forgetting, lack of organization) were related to medication adherence and mediated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and medication adherence. These findings indicate that barriers may serve as a more specific factor in the relationship between more general, pervasive internalizing symptoms and medication adherence. Results may help guide areas for clinical assessment, and the focus of interventions for adolescent transplant recipients who are experiencing internalizing symptoms and/or who are nonadherent to their medication regimen.

  3. SMS messages increase adherence to rapid diagnostic test results among malaria patients: results from a pilot study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Schatzkin, Eric; De La Cruz, Anna; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Nwokolo, Ernest; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ujuju, Chinazo; Montagu, Dominic; Liu, Jenny

    2014-02-25

    The World Health Organization now recommends parasitological confirmation for malaria case management. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are an accurate and simple diagnostic to confirm parasite presence in blood. However, where they have been deployed, adherence to RDT results has been poor, especially when the test result is negative. Few studies have examined adherence to RDTs distributed or purchased through the private sector. The Rapid Examination of Malaria and Evaluation of Diagnostic Information (REMEDI) study assessed the acceptability of and adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care from private sector drug retailers in two cities in Oyo State in south-west Nigeria. In total, 465 adult participants were enrolled upon exit from a participating drug shop having purchased anti-malaria drugs for themselves. Participants were given a free RDT and the appropriate treatment advice based on their RDT result. Short Message Service (SMS) text messages reiterating the treatment advice were sent to a randomly selected half of the participants one day after being tested. Participants were contacted via phone four days after the RDT was conducted to assess adherence to the RDT information and treatment advice. Adherence to RDT results was 14.3 percentage points (P-val <0.001) higher in the treatment group who were sent the SMS. The higher adherence in the treatment group was robust to several specification tests and the estimated difference in adherence ranged from 9.7 to 16.1 percentage points. Further, the higher adherence to the treatment advice was specific to the treatment advice for anti-malarial drugs and not other drugs purchased to treat malaria symptoms in the RDT-negative participants who bought both anti-malarial and symptom drugs. There was no difference in adherence for the RDT-positive participants who were sent the SMS. SMS text messages substantially increased adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care for malaria from

  4. Patient non-adherence: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Vidya; Mekoth, Nandakumar

    2017-04-18

    Purpose While interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) has been used in health psychology research, it has so far not been applied to seek deeper insights into the patients' experiences about treatment. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by using IPA to understand patient non-adherence. Design/methodology/approach In total, 18 patients with chronic conditions seeking healthcare services in Goa and Karnataka, India, were selected by using the snowball sampling method. In-depth interviews were conducted face to face. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect the data. IPA was used to explore the themes to predict patient non-adherence. Findings The study results indicate that economic factors, health system related factors, social factors and psychological factors impact patient non-adherence. Patient non-adherence includes medication non-adherence and lifestyle modification non-adherence. Research limitations/implications Being cross sectional in design, the results may not be as appropriate as the results derived from a longitudinal study given that non-adherence occurs over time. Practical implications Patient non-adherence is a global health issue. Multidisciplinary approach to enhance patient adherence to treatment should form part of public healthcare policy. Social implications Exploring the factors influencing patient non-adherence will help the health-care industry stakeholders to reduce healthcare cost and improve patient's quality of life. Originality/value Although there is extensive quantitative research on the prevalence of non-adherence, qualitative research is limited. This paper addresses this gap by using IPA to understand patient non-adherence and its factors and dimensions.

  5. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  6. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  7. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adherence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: solutions for the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Moss, Mary; Buchanan, Cindy L; Goebel, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Non-adherence remains a significant problem among pediatric (and adult) renal transplant recipients. Non-adherence among solid organ transplant recipients results in US$15-100 million annual costs. Estimates of non-adherence range from 30 to 70% among pediatric patients. Research demonstrates that a 10% decrement in adherence is associated with 8% higher hazard of graft failure and mortality. Focus has begun to shift from patient factors that impact adherence to the contributing healthcare and systems factors. The purpose of this review is to describe problems within the systems implicated in non-adherence and potential solutions that may be related to positive adherence outcomes. Systems issues include insurance and legal regulations, provider and care team barriers to optimal care, and difficulties with transitioning to adult care. Potential solutions include recognition of how systems can work together to improve patient outcomes through improvements in insurance programs, a multi-disciplinary care team approach, evidence-based medical management, pharmacy-based applications and interventions to simplify medication regimens, improved transition protocols, and telehealth/technology-based multi-component interventions. However, there remains a significant lack of reliability in the application of these potential solutions to systems issues that impact patient adherence. Future efforts should accordingly focus on these efforts, likely by leveraging quality improvement and related principles, and on the investigation of the efficacy of these interventions to improve adherence and graft outcomes.

  9. Adherence to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Arnedt, J Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S; Cuddihy, Leisha J; Aloia, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role of adherence. This review describes a comprehensive literature search of adherence to CBTI. The search revealed 15 studies that evaluated adherence to CBTI in adults using valid and reliable measures of sleep, and measure of adherence other than study withdrawals. The primary purposes of this review were to 1) synthesize current study characteristics, methodology, adherence rates, contributing factors, and impact on outcomes, 2) discuss measurement issues, and 3) identify future practice and research directions that may lead to improved outcomes. Strong patterns and inconsistencies were identified among the studies, which complicate an evaluation of the role of adherence as a factor and outcome of CBTI success. The importance of standardized adherence and outcome measures is discussed. In light of the importance of adherence to behavior change, this systematic review may better inform future intervention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological distress and treatment adherence among children on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, J M; Asarnow, J R; Munford, P R; Koprowski, C M; Belin, T R; Salusky, I B

    1997-10-01

    Among 23 pediatric renal dialysis patients, we obtained self-reported assessments of psychological adjustment and biochemical and subjective ratings of adherence. Findings indicate elevated levels of depressive symptoms and substantial nonadherence. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of hopelessness, more negative self-perceptions, and more depressogenic attributional style. The psychological adjustment measures did not significantly correlate with adherence. Nonsignificant associations among different measures of adherence underscore its multifaceted nature. Implications for monitoring the adjustment of children on dialysis, assessing adherence, and future research are discussed.

  11. Communications and Tracking Distributed Systems Evolution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William

    1990-01-01

    The Communications and Tracking (C & T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts are used to derive the results to date. A description of the C & T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the hooks and scars currently identified to support future growth.

  12. Nudging Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine N. Farrell; Andreas Thiel

    2013-01-01

    This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institut...

  13. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  14. Positive airway pressure adherence and subthreshold adherence in posttraumatic stress disorder patients with comorbid sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow BJ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Krakow,1–3 Jessica J Obando,2 Victor A Ulibarri,1,2 Natalia D McIver1,2 1Sleep & Human Health Institute, 2Maimonides Sleep Arts & Sciences, Albuquerque, 3Los Alamos Medical Center, Los Alamos, NM, USA Study objectives: Patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA manifest low adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP due to fixed, pressure-induced expiratory pressure intolerance (EPI, a subjective symptom and objective sign aggravated by anxiety sensitivity and somatosensory amplification. As advanced PAP therapy modes (ie, auto-bilevel PAP [ABPAP] or adaptive servo-ventilation [ASV] may address these side effects, we hypothesized such treatment would be associated with decreased expiratory intolerance and increased adherence in posttraumatic stress patients with co-occurring OSA.Methods: We reviewed charts of 147 consecutive adult patients with moderately severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and objectively diagnosed OSA. All patients failed or rejected CPAP and were manually titrated on auto-adjusting, dual-pressure ABPAP or ASV modes in the sleep laboratory, a technique to eliminate flow limitation breathing events while resolving EPI. Patients were then prescribed either mode of therapy. Follow-up encounters assessed patient use, and objective data downloads (ODDs measured adherence.Results: Of 147 charts reviewed, 130 patients were deemed current PAP users, and 102 provided ODDs: 64 used ASV and 38 used ABPAP. ODDs yielded three groups: 59 adherent per insurance conventions, 19 subthreshold compliant partial users, and 24 noncompliant. Compliance based on available downloads was 58%, notably higher than recently reported rates in PTSD patients with OSA. Among the 19 partial users, 17 patients were minutes of PAP use or small percentages of nights removed from meeting insurance compliance criteria for PAP devices.Conclusion: Research is warranted on advanced PAP modes in

  15. Adherence to anti-depressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The study of medicine taking is controversial as it often reveals a discrepancy between healthcare professionals' advice and patients' actual behaviour. Qualitative researchers have examined depressed people's adherence to prescriptions of antidepressants by exploring the meaning they impute...... to the medicine and their use of the medicine in the wider context of their everyday lives. This paper contributes to this area of research by means of a prospective research study focussing on depressed patients' perspectives on taking medicine and how they change through time. The study included consecutive...... semi-structured interviews with 16 people four times during the year following an admission to hospital for depression. Data were collected in 2008-2009 in the Region of Southern Denmark. The study was based on an interactionist conception of social career and data were analysed thematically. Findings...

  16. Adherent zirconia films by reactive ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, S.N.; Armini, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional methods of forming ceramic coatings on metal substrates, such as CVD or plasma spray, typically retain a sharp interface and may have adhesion problems. In order to produce a completely mixed interface for better adhesion, a method using reactive ion implantation was used which can grow a thick stoichiometric film of an oxide ceramic starting from inside the substrate. Zirconium oxide ceramic films have been produced by this technique using a high-energy zirconium ion beam in an oxygen gas ambient. Compositional data are shown based on Auger electron spectroscopy of the film. Tribological properties of the layer were determined from wear and friction measurements using a pin-on-disk test apparatus. The adhesion was measured both by a scratch technique as well as by thermal shock. Results show an extremely adherent ZrO 2 film with good tribological properties

  17. Immune adherence: a quantitative and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, T [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Research Inst.

    1978-09-01

    Quantitative and kinetic analysis of the immune-adherence reaction (IA) between C3b fragments and IA receptors as an agglutination reaction is difficult. Analysis is possible, however, by use of radio-iodinated bovine serum albumin as antigen at low concentrations (less than 200 ng/ml) and optimal concentration of antibody to avoid precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes with human erythrocytes without participation of complement. Antigen and antibody are reacted at 37/sup 0/C, complement is added, the mixture incubated and human erythrocytes added; after further incubation, ice-cold EDTA containing buffer is added and the erythrocytes centrifuged and assayed for radioactivity. Control cells reacted with heated guinea pig serum retained less than 5% of the added radioactivity. The method facilitates measurement of IA reactivity and permits more detailed analysis of the mechanism underlying the reaction.

  18. Treatment adherence in multiple sclerosis: a survey of Belgian neurologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decoo D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny Decoo,1 Mathieu Vokaer2 1Department of Neurology and Neurorehab, AZ Alma, Sijsele, Belgium; 2Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Edith Cavell Hospital, CHIREC group, Brussels, Belgium Background: Poor treatment adherence is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. This survey evaluated neurologists’ perception of treatment adherence among MS patients.Materials and methods: This questionnaire-based survey of Belgian neurologists treating MS patients was conducted between June and July 2014. Face-to-face interviews with the neurologists were based on a semistructured questionnaire containing questions regarding the perception of the treatment-adherence level.Results: A total of 41 neurologists participated in the survey. Of these, 88% indicated frequent discussions about treatment adherence as beneficial for treatment efficacy. The mean time spent on the treatment-adherence discussion during the initial consultation was 11 minutes, with 24% of doctors spending 5 minutes and 24% of doctors spending 10 minutes discussing this issue. The majority of neurologists (56% perceived the adherence level in MS as good, and 12% perceived it as excellent. The majority of neurologists (64% indicated intolerance as a main cause of poor adherence, and all neurologists reported insufficient efficacy as a consequence of nonadherence. The importance of adherence in the neurologists’ practice was evaluated on a scale of 1–10, with 1= “not very important” and 10= “very important”: 44% of doctors indicated a score of 10, and the mean score was 9.0.Conclusion: Belgian neurologists consider treatment adherence in MS as essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of nonadherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment adherence, physician survey

  19. Adherence to gout management recommendations of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Bingqing; Sha, Yue; Zeng, Xuejun

    2017-11-01

    Though efficacious and affordable treatments for gout are widely available, gout is still not well controlled in many countries of the world including China.To investigate patient adherence to gout management recommendations and potential barriers in Chinese male gout patients, a survey was carried out by telephone interview in male patients registered in the gout clinic at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Adherence to dietary and medication recommendations was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and proportion of cumulative time adherent to chemical urate-lowering therapy (ULT), respectively. Dietary adherence was defined as consumption of alcohol, seafood and animal organs less than once per month, and reduced red meat after dietary counseling. Medication adherence was defined as ULT ≥80% of time in the past 12 months for patients with indications. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient characteristics associated with management adherence. Reasons for nonadherence were also sought by open-end questions.Dietary and medication adherence were 44.2% and 21.9%, respectively. Older age (odds ratio [OR] 7.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.49-25.04 for age ≥60), higher serum uric acid (sUA) levels (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.42-8.75 for the highest quartile), and tophi (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.77) were associated with dietary adherence independently, while tophi (OR 14.05, 95% CI 2.67-74.08) and chronic kidney disease (OR 16.66, 95% CI 2.63-105.37) were associated with medication adherence independently. Reasons that patients reported for nonadherence to medication included remission after treatment (35.3%), concerns for potential side effects (22.7%), insufficient patient education (8.7%), and adverse events (8.2%).Patient adherence to gout management recommendations is poor in China. Older age, increased disease burden, and specific comorbidities were associated with management adherence.

  20. Medication adherence in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Silveira Adriano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacological treatment adherence of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, attended in an outpatient pharmacy at a tertiary hospital in northeastern Brazil. Methods: The analysis of adherence was performed along with caregivers, through a structured questionnaire based on Morisky, Green and Levine, which enabled the categorization of adherence in “highest”, “moderate” or “low” grades, and through evaluating medication dispensing registers, which classified the act of getting medications at the pharmacy as “regular” or “irregular”. Drug Related Problems (DRP were identified through the narrative of caregivers and classified according to the Second Granada Consensus. Then, a pharmaceutical orientation chart with information about the therapeutic regimen was applied, in order to function as a guide for issues that influenced adherence. Results: A total of 43 patients was included, with a mean age of 11.12 years, and 65.1% (n = 28 were female. Applying the questionnaire, it was found “highest” adherence in 46.5% (n = 20 patients, “moderate” adherence in 48.8% (n = 21, and “low” adherence in 4.7% (n = 2. Through an analysis of the medication dispensing registers, a lower level of adherence was observed: only 25.6% (n = 11 of the participants received “regularly” the medications. Twenty-six DRP was identified, and 84.6% (n = 22 were classified as real. There were no significant associations between socio-demographic variables and adherence, although some caregivers have reported difficulty in accessing the medicines and in understanding the treatment. Conclusion: Our findings showed problems in the adherence process related to inattention, forgetfulness and irregularity in getting medicines, reinforcing the need for the development of strategies to facilitate a better understanding of treatment and to ensure adherence.

  1. Evaluation of adherence and depression among patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen Li; Yeoh, Lee Ying; Seow, Ying Ying; Luo, Xue Chun; Griva, Konstadina

    2012-07-01

    It is challenging for dialysis patients to maintain adherence to their medical regimen, and symptoms of depression are prevalent among them. Limited data is available about adherence and depression among patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study aimed to examine the rates of treatment non-adherence and depression in PD patients. A total of 20 PD patients (response rate 71.4%; mean age 64.4 ± 11.6 years) were assessed using the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Self Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form. A self-reported adherence (PD exchanges, medication and diet) scale developed for the study was also included. Medical information (e.g. most recent biochemistry results) was obtained from chart review. The mean self-reported scores indicated an overall high level of adherence, although a significant proportion of patients were non-adherent. Among the latter, 20% of patients were non-adherent to medication and 26% to diet due to forgetfulness, while 15% and 26% of patients admitted to deliberate non-adherence to medication and diet, respectively. Treatment modality, employment, self-care status and self-efficacy were associated with overall adherence. Using a cutoff point of 8 for HAD depression and anxiety subscales, 40% of patients were found to be depressed and 30% had symptoms of anxiety. This is the first study to document treatment adherence and depression among PD patients in Singapore. Findings of high prevalence of depression and anxiety, and reports of poor adherence warrant development of intervention programmes.

  2. Medication adherence beliefs of U.S community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing attention on the role of community pharmacists in improving medication adherence. There is a need to better understand pharmacist attitudes and experiences related to this role. To assess community pharmacist perceptions of patient reasons for non-adherence, characterize the adherence beliefs of community pharmacists, and test if there are demographic predictors of pharmacists' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and role beliefs related to intervening on medication non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was mailed using a 4-contact approach to 1000 pharmacists practicing in 5 Midwestern U.S. States. The survey included seven domains to address the study objectives. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic items, coefficient alphas tested the internal consistency of scales, and multiple regression was used to test the relationship between demographics and scale means. There were 261 usable responses giving a 29% response rate. Pharmacists perceived forgetting and instructions changing without a new prescription to be the most common reasons for late refills. A minority of pharmacists agreed that non-adherence involves a deliberate decision or that negative medication beliefs were common reasons for late refills. Pharmacists were confident, had positive outcome expectations, and positive role beliefs related to interacting with patients who have adherence issues. Barriers to adherence intervention included difficulties with follow-up and documentation. Also, over half of the pharmacists reported that discussing adherence makes patients defensive. Pharmacists had positive attitudes toward intervening on medication non-adherence although barriers to intervention are present. Pharmacists perceived non-intentional reasons for late refills to be more prevalent than intentional reasons. Pharmacists may benefit from additional non-adherence communication training and support targeted at identifying a broader range of non-adherence

  3. Modelling imperfect adherence to HIV induction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith? Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induction-maintenance therapy is a treatment regime where patients are prescribed an intense course of treatment for a short period of time (the induction phase, followed by a simplified long-term regimen (maintenance. Since induction therapy has a significantly higher chance of pill fatigue than maintenance therapy, patients might take drug holidays during this period. Without guidance, patients who choose to stop therapy will each be making individual decisions, with no scientific basis. Methods We use mathematical modelling to investigate the effect of imperfect adherence during the inductive phase. We address the following research questions: 1. Can we theoretically determine the maximal length of a possible drug holiday and the minimal number of doses that must subsequently be taken while still avoiding resistance? 2. How many drug holidays can be taken during the induction phase? Results For a 180 day therapeutic program, a patient can take several drug holidays, but then has to follow each drug holiday with a strict, but fairly straightforward, drug-taking regimen. Since the results are dependent upon the drug regimen, we calculated the length and number of drug holidays for all fifteen protease-sparing triple-drug cocktails that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusions Induction therapy with partial adherence is tolerable, but the outcome depends on the drug cocktail. Our theoretical predictions are in line with recent results from pilot studies of short-cycle treatment interruption strategies and may be useful in guiding the design of future clinical trials.

  4. Exercise, Affect, and Adherence: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of regular exercise and overall physical activity (PA in the general population represent a significant public health challenge. Previous research suggests that, for many people, exercise leads to a negative affective response and, in turn, reduced likelihood of future exercise. The purpose of this paper is to examine this exercise-affect-adherence relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Specifically, we argue that low rates of physical exercise in the general population are a function of the evolved human tendency to avoid unnecessary physical exertion. This innate tendency evolved because it allowed our evolutionary ancestors to conserve energy for physical activities that had immediate adaptive utility such as pursuing prey, escaping predators, and engaging in social and reproductive behaviors. The commonly observed negative affective response to exercise is an evolved proximate psychological mechanism through which humans avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. The fact that the human tendencies toward negative affective response to and avoidance of unnecessary physical activities are innate does not mean that they are unchangeable. Indeed, it is only because of human-engineered changes in our environmental conditions (i.e., it is no longer necessary for us to work for our food that our predisposition to avoid unnecessary physical exertion has become a liability. Thus, it is well within our capabilities to reengineer our environments to once again make PA necessary or, at least, to serve an immediate functional purpose. We propose a two-pronged approach to PA promotion based on this evolutionary functional perspective: First, to promote exercise and other physical activities that are perceived to have an immediate purpose, and second, to instill greater perceived purpose for a wider range of physical activities. We posit that these strategies are more likely to result in more positive (or at least less negative affective

  5. Benefits of adherence to psychotropic medications on depressive symptoms and antiretroviral medication adherence among men and women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Seth C; Amaral, Christine; Swetzes, Connie; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O

    2012-04-01

    Psychotropic medications are commonly used for depressive symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the relationships between adherence to psychotropic medications, depressive symptoms, and antiretroviral adherence. We assessed depressive symptoms among 324 people living with HIV/AIDS across a 3-month period (70% men; mean age 45 years; 90% African-American). Psychotropic and antiretroviral adherence was assessed using monthly, unannounced telephone pill counts. Multiple-regression and mediation analyses were utilized to examine associations under investigation. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower antiretroviral and psychotropic medication adherence. Greater adherence to psychotropic medications regardless of medication class was positively related to higher antiretroviral adherence. Greater adherence to psychotropic medications also significantly mediated the association between depressive symptoms and antiretroviral adherence. This study demonstrates the benefits of adherence to psychotropic medications on both depressive symptoms and antiretroviral adherence. Future work examining psychotropic medication adherence on disease outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS is warranted.

  6. The physics of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, Manfred

    1988-12-01

    The Darwinian concept of evolution through natural selection has been revised and put on a solid physical basis, in a form which applies to self-replicable macromolecules. Two new concepts are introduced: sequence space and quasi-species. Evolutionary change in the DNA- or RNA-sequence of a gene can be mapped as a trajectory in a sequence space of dimension ν, where ν corresponds to the number of changeable positions in the genomic sequence. Emphasis, however, is shifted from the single surviving wildtype, a single point in the sequence space, to the complex structure of the mutant distribution that constitutes the quasi-species. Selection is equivalent to an establishment of the quasi-species in a localized region of sequence space, subject to threshold conditions for the error rate and sequence length. Arrival of a new mutant may violate the local threshold condition and thereby lead to a displacement of the quasi-species into a different region of sequence space. This transformation is similar to a phase transition; the dynamical equations that describe the quase-species have been shown to be analogous to those of the two-dimensional Ising model of ferromagnetism. The occurrence of a selectively advantageous mutant is biased by the particulars of the quasi-species distribution, whose mutants are populated according to their fitness relative to that of the wild-type. Inasmuch as fitness regions are connected (like mountain ridges) the evolutionary trajectory is guided to regions of optimal fitness. Evolution experiments in test tubes confirm this modification of the simple chance and law nature of the Darwinian concept. The results of the theory can also be applied to the construction of a machine that provides optimal conditions for a rapid evolution of functionally active macromolecules. An introduction to the physics of molecular evolution by the author has appeared recently.1 Detailed studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of replication of RNA, the most

  7. Dynamical Evolution of Ring-Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand dynamical processes related to the evolution of size distribution of particles in planetary rings and application of theoretical results to explain features in the present rings of giant planets. We studied velocity evolution and accretion rates of ring particles in the Roche zone. We developed a new numerical code for the evolution of ring particle size distribution, which takes into account the above results for particle velocity evolution and accretion rates. We also studied radial diffusion rate of ring particles due to inelastic collisions and gravitational encounters. Many of these results can be also applied to dynamical evolution of a planetesimal disk. Finally, we studied rotation rates of moonlets and particles in planetary rings, which would influence the accretional evolution of these bodies. We describe our key accomplishments during the past three years in more detail in the following.

  8. The Adherence Estimator: a brief, proximal screener for patient propensity to adhere to prescription medications for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHorney, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    To conceptualize, develop, and provide preliminary psychometric evidence for the Adherence Estimator--a brief, three-item proximal screener for the likelihood of non-adherence to prescription medications (medication non-fulfillment and non-persistence) for chronic disease. Qualitative focus groups with 140 healthcare consumers and two internet-based surveys of adults with chronic disease, comprising a total of 1772 respondents, who were self-reported medication adherers, non-persisters, and non-fulfillers. Psychometric tests were performed on over 150 items assessing 14 patient beliefs and skills hypothesized to be related to medication non-adherence along a proximal-distal continuum. Psychometric tests included, but were not limited to, known-groups discriminant validity at the scale and item level. The psychometric analyses sought to identify: (1) the specific multi-item scales that best differentiated self-reported adherers from self-reported non-adherers (non-fulfillers and non-persisters) and, (2) the single best item within each prioritized multi-item scale that best differentiated self-reported adherers from self-reported non-adherers (non-fulfillers and non-persisters). The two rounds of psychometric testing identified and cross-validated three proximal drivers of self-reported adherence: perceived concerns about medications, perceived need for medications, and perceived affordability of medications. One item from each domain was selected to include in the Adherence Estimator using a synthesis of psychometric results gleaned from classical and modern psychometric test theory. By simple summation of the weights assigned to the category responses of the three items, a total score is obtained that is immediately interpretable and completely transparent. Patients can be placed into one of three segments based on the total score--low, medium, and high risk for non-adherence. Sensitivity was 88%--of the non-adherers, 88% would be accurately classified as medium

  9. Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.

    2009-10-01

    A religion affiliation can be considered as a “degree of freedom” of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious “questions” in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, after using a “statistical physics filter”. We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so-called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range-thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, besides the well accepted “at birth” attachment effect. The importance of the “external field” is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

  10. Personal barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence: Case studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence: Case studies from a rural Uganda prospective clinical cohort. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2013) > ... should target specific personal barriers to ART adherence like: lack of family support, health and sexual life concerns, desire to have children and family instability.

  11. Predictors of medication non-adherence for vasculitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Susan L.; DeVellis, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to document whether demographic, clinical, regimen-related, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors predict medication non-adherence for vasculitis patients. A secondary purpose is to explore whether adherence varies by medication type and whether patients experienced drug-related side effects. Vasculitis patients (n=228) completed online baseline and 3-month follow-up surveys. Demographic (age, gender, education, race, marital status, and insurance status), clinical (perceived vasculitis severity, disease duration, vasculitis type, and relapse/remission status), regimen-related (experience of side effects), intrapersonal (depressive symptoms), and interpersonal (adherence-related support from family and friends) factors were measured at baseline. Medication non-adherence was assessed at follow-up using the Vasculitis Self-Management Survey medication adherence sub-scale (α=0.89). Variables that significantly correlated (pvasculitis medication types, patients who experienced side effects were less adherent than patients who did not experience side effects. Multiple factors are associated with medication non-adherence for vasculitis patients. Providers should discuss medication adherence and drug-related side effects with vasculitis patients. Providers may want to particularly target younger patients and patients with clinical signs of depression. PMID:23314654

  12. Treatment non-adherence among patients with poorly controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Background: Poor adherence to prescribed therapy among patients with chronic diseases is a growing concern which un- dermines the ... consent was obtained from individual patient to signi- .... and SRMAS in binary categories of adherence versus ..... United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group.

  13. The Influence of Goal Setting on Exercise Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Lawrence E.; Stone, William J.; Anonsen, Lori J.; Klein, Diane A.

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the influence of fitness- and health-related goal setting on exercise adherence. Students in a college fitness program participated in goal setting, reading, or control groups. No significant differences in exercise adherence were found. Students enrolled for letter grades had more fitness center visits and hours of activity than students…

  14. Bacterial adherence: the role of serum and wound fluid | Yah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BAP were achieved by exposing the pathogens to freshly excised wounds. The adhered bacteria were then eluded and quantified using log (CFU/cm2) on Mueller Hinton Agar per cm2 of tissue. The results indicated that wound fluid and serum has a remarkable bacterial adherence potential (BAP) when exposed to ...

  15. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  16. [Adherence to pharmacological treatment in adult patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima

    2012-06-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients on hemodialysis is not a simple process. Strategies to promote adherence will meet the need for improvements in the process of orientation concerning the disease and its pharmacological treatment. To identify compliance with pharmacological treatment of patients on hemodialysis and the main factors related to it we used the Adherence Scale. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect socioeconomic, pharmacological data, as well as those regarding self-reported adherence to drug. Out of the 65 participants, 55.4% showed non-compliance. The mean number of drugs used was 4.1 ± 2.5 (self-report) and 6.2 ± 3.0 (prescription). Statistical analysis showed significant differences concerning compliance at different ages (> 60 years are more adherent). A significant proportion of patients have difficulty to comply with treatment and the main factor was forgetfulness. Regarding age, elderly patients are more adherent to treatment. The low level of knowledge about the used drugs may be one of the reasons for the lack of adherence, and the patient's orientation process by a team of multiprofessionals involved in assisting is a strategy to promote adherence.

  17. Adherence-monitoring practices by private healthcare sector doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of patient self-reports and 18.3% reporting the use of pill counts. A total of 68.7% of the doctors indicated that their adherence monitoring was reliable, whilst 19.7% indicated that they did not test the reliability of their monitoring tools .The most common strategy used to improve adherence by their patients was ...

  18. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  19. Reliability of assessment of adherence to an antimicrobial treatment guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, PGM; Gans, ROB; Panday, PVN; Degener, JE; Laseur, M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    Assessment procedures for adherence to a guideline must be reliable and credible. The aim of this study was to explore the reliability of assessment of adherence, taking account of the professional backgrounds of the observers. A secondary analysis explored the impact of case characteristics on

  20. The Role of Theory in Increasing Adherence to Prescribed Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julie; Wishart, Laurie; Hanna, Steven

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article is to apply theoretical frameworks to adherence behaviour and to guide the development of an intervention to increase adherence to prescribed home programmes. Summary of Key Points: Delivering an effective intervention requires establishing one that is evidence based and of adequate dosage. Two-thirds of patients who receive home exercise prescriptions do not adhere to their home programme, which may contribute to their physiotherapy's being ineffective. The mediating concepts of self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectations (OE) are common to the five relevant theories used to explain adherence to exercise: the health belief model, protection motivation theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, and social cognitive theory. Conclusion/Recommendations: Few intervention studies with any theoretical underpinning have examined adherence to exercise. Even fewer have been designed to affect and measure change in the theoretical mediators of SE and OE in patient populations. Physiotherapists must consider increasing adherence as a component of effective physiotherapy. Ongoing research is needed to increase our understanding of adherence to prescribed home programmes and to design interventions to affect theoretical mediators for increasing adherence. PMID:20190989

  1. The impact of knowledge and attitudes on adherence to tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of knowledge and attitudes on adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a case-control study in a Moroccan region. ... on TB especially among non adherent patients. This finding justifies the need to incorporate patient?s education into current TB case management. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:52 ...

  2. the art of avoiding non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is better than cure' may therefore be applicable to the problem of non-adherence among patients on ART even more than in the management of chronic non- infectious diseases in which drug resistance is not an issue of concern. We therefore undertook an analysis of results from the adherence monitoring in our HIV care ...

  3. Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among urban Ethiopian clients. ... clients' self-reported adherence to HAART medication, a descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among adults receiving HAART medication at the Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa.

  4. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia : A patients' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, L. H.; Kars, M. C.; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M.; Peters, M.; Schuurmans, M. J.; Fischer, K.

    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to

  5. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...

  6. Adherence of pediatric patients to automated peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Annabelle N; Warady, Bradley A

    2011-05-01

    Little information is available on adherence to a home automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) prescription for children with end-stage renal disease. We have therefore retrospectively reviewed HomeChoice PRO Card data from patients Adherence was characterized as occurring ≥ 95%, 90-94%, or treatment adherence and patient age, gender, race and if the patient had received training, respectively, was assessed. Of the 51 patients (57% male), with a mean age at peritoneal dialysis (PD) onset of 11.8 ± 5.3 years, 28 (55%) were adherent for all variables. No difference in mean age or if patients were trained existed between the two groups. Males were more likely to be non-adherent (p = 0.026) as were African Americans (p = 0.048). The majority of patients were adherent to duration (96%) and number of cycles (92%), whereas non-adherence was more common with number of sessions (82%) and dialysate volume (78%). In conclusion, 45% of the pediatric patients in our study cohort exhibited some non-adherence to their prescribed APD regimen, emphasizing the value of closely monitoring the performance of home dialysis in children.

  7. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without...

  8. Barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between household economic factors and adherence. Our findings suggest that the role of economic status on adherence appears to be a function of the economic component. Debt and non-farming-related occupation were consistently associated ...

  9. Guidelines Adherence and Hypertension Control in an Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate doctors' adherence to Malaysian Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) 2008 in established hypertensive patients with cardiovascular diseases and factors associated with guideline adherence and hypertension control in Pulau Pinang Hospital, Malaysia. Methods: Prescriptions written by 13 doctors for ...

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  11. Genetic factors in exercise adoption, adherence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Effects of Psychosocial Parameters on Adherence of Adult Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the rate of adherence of adult HIV seropositive adult Nigerian to antiretroviral therapy and the effects of psychosocial factors including psychiatric morbidity, patients' perception of their illness, availability of social support, preference for alternative medicine on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: ...

  13. Method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.

    1998-06-16

    A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface. 3 figs.

  14. The relationship between perceived self-efficacy and adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities in type 2 diabetic clients. Low adherence to diabetic self-care activities result in increased risks of developing chronic serious and life-threatening complications with increased morbidity ...

  15. Adherence to systemic therapies for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in Lebanon: a physicians’ survey from three medical specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammoury A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Ammoury,1 Jad Okais,2 Mireille Hobeika,3 Raymond B Sayegh,4 Rani H Shayto,5 Ala I Sharara5 1Division of Dermatology, St George Hospital University Medical Center, 2Division of Rheumatology, St Joseph University, 3AbbVie Levant, 4Division of Gastroenterology, St Joseph University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs are chronic conditions that may cause tissue damage and disability, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Various treatments have been developed for IMIDs, including immune modulators and targeted biologic agents. However, adherence remains suboptimal. Methods: An adherence survey was used to evaluate physicians’ beliefs about adherence to medication in IMID and to evaluate if and how they manage adherence. The survey was distributed to 100 randomly selected physicians from three different specialties. Results were analyzed by four academic experts commissioned to develop an action plan to address practical and perceptual barriers to adherence, integrating it into treatment goals to maximize outcomes in IMID, thereby elevating local standards of care. Results: Eighty-two physicians participated in this study and completed the questionnaire. Most defined adherence as compliance with prescribed treatment. Although the majority of surveyed physicians (74% did not systematically measure adherence in their practice, 54% identified adherence as a treatment goal of equal or greater importance to therapeutic endpoints. Lack of time and specialized nursing support was reported as an important barrier to measuring adherence. The expert panel identified four key areas for action: 360° education (patient–nurse–physician, patient–physician communication, patient perception and concerns, and market access/cost. An action plan was developed centered on education and awareness

  16. 76 FR 12969 - Campaign To Improve Poor Medication Adherence (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... the root causes for inadequate medication adherence, and effecting changes in knowledge and behaviors... adherence, a vital first step toward improved adherence behavior and better public health outcomes. DATES... adherence behavior and better health outcomes. Relevance Inadequate medication adherence is a $290 billion...

  17. Planning Systems for Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of the mission planning process involving distributed operations (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) and the computer hardware and software systems needed to support such an effort. Topics considered include: evolution of distributed planning systems, ISS distributed planning, the Payload Planning System (PPS), future developments in distributed planning systems, Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) and Next Generation distributed planning systems.

  18. What Time is it? Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Yordanos M; Wilson, Ira B

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and explored the sociocultural context in which they relate to their regimen requirements. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 105 patients on ART and observations held at the study clinic. We analyzed data using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings indicate that study participants are highly adherent to dose but less adherent to dose schedule. Strict dose time instructions were reported as stressful and unrealistic. The discrepancy between adherence to dose and dose schedule could be explained by time perception, difficulty with the strictness of medication regimens, or beliefs about dose timing adherence. Care providers should acknowledge the complexities of medication practices and engage in shared decision-making to incorporate patients' perspectives and identify effective interventions.

  19. [Improving treatment adherence in kidney transplantation: a major challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Michèle

    2014-06-01

    The kidney transplant recipient is faced not only with the perspective of taking immunosuppressive drugs lifelong, but also the possibility of other long-term treatments prescribed for preexisting conditions, complications, or side effects. Proper management, and most importantly patient adherence, can become a complex challenge. Here we recall current definitions and describe methods for measuring treatment adherence, followed by a discussion on the prevalence of non-adherence in kidney transplant recipients, its effect on graft survival, and factors predictive of non-adherence. Ways of improving adherence are examined, leading to the conviction that helping patients take their medications regularly would probably have a greater impact on graft survival than marketing a new immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P adherence than younger children, P dialysis (P treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  1. Health behavior change: can genomics improve behavioral adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Bryan, Angela D; Bray, Molly S; Swan, Gary E; Green, Eric D

    2012-03-01

    The National Human Genome Research Institute recommends pursuing "genomic information to improve behavior change interventions" as part of its strategic vision for genomics. The limited effectiveness of current behavior change strategies may be explained, in part, by their insensitivity to individual variation in adherence responses. The first step in evaluating whether genomics can inform customization of behavioral recommendations is evidence reviews to identify adherence macrophenotypes common across behaviors and individuals that have genetic underpinnings. Conceptual models of how biological, psychological, and environmental factors influence adherence also are needed. Researchers could routinely collect biospecimens and standardized adherence measurements of intervention participants to enable understanding of genetic and environmental influences on adherence, to guide intervention customization and prospective comparative effectiveness studies.

  2. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial conditions are probably set by results of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBNS) without intervening complications affecting the composition of visible matter so that extrapolation of observed abundances to BBNS products seems fairly secure. Primordial helium and deuterium abundances deduced in this way place upper and lower limits on baryonic density implying that both baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter exist and predicting no more than 3 neutrino flavours as recently confirmed in accelerator experiments. The validity of simple galactic chemical evolution models assumed in extrapolating back to the Big Bang is examined in the light of the frequency distribution of iron or oxygen abundances in the Galactic halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  3. A new evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laenen, E.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolution equation for the gluon density relevant for the region of small x B . It generalizes the GLR equation and allows deeper penetration in dense parton systems than the GLR equation does. This generalization consists of taking shadowing effects more comprehensively into account by including multigluon correlations, and allowing for an arbitrary initial gluon distribution in a hadron. We solve the new equation for fixed α s . We find that the effects of multigluon correlations on the deep-inelastic structure function are small. (orig.)

  4. Does good medication adherence really save payers money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bruce C; Dai, Mingliang; Xu, Jing; Loh, Feng-Hua E; S Dougherty, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Despite a growing consensus that better adherence with evidence-based medications can save payers money, assertions of cost offsets may be incomplete if they fail to consider additional drug costs and/or are biased by healthy adherer behaviors unobserved in typical medical claims-based analyses. The objective of this study was to determine whether controlling for healthy adherer bias (HAB) materially affected estimated medical cost offsets and additional drug spending associated with higher adherence. A total of 1273 Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes enrolled in Part D plans between 2006 and 2009. Using survey and claims data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we measured medical and drug costs associated with good and poor adherence (proportion of days covered ≥ 80% and <80%, respectively) to oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, and statins over 2 years. To test for HAB, we estimated pairs of regression models, one set containing variables typically controlled for in conventional claims analysis and a second set with survey-based variables selected to capture HAB effects. We found consistent evidence that controlling for HAB reduces estimated savings in medical costs from better adherence, and likewise, reduces estimates of additional adherence-related drug spending. For ACE inhibitors/ARBs we estimate that controlling for HAB reduced adherence-related medical cost offsets from $6389 to $4920 per person (P<0.05). Estimates of additional adherence-related drug costs were 26% and 14% lower in HAB-controlled models (P < 0.05). These results buttress the economic case for action by health care payers to improve medication adherence among insured persons with chronic disease. However, given the limitations of our research design, further research on larger samples with other disease states is clearly warranted.

  5. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  6. Topology evolution in macromolecular networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryven, I.

    2014-01-01

    Governed by various intermolecular forces, molecular networks tend to evolve from simple to very complex formations that have random structure. This randomness in the connectivity of the basic units can still be captured employing distributional description of the state of the system; the evolution

  7. Calculations of the Acceleration of Centrifugal Loading on Adherent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Song, Yang; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Chunqiu

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that the morphology and function of living cells are greatly affected by the state of different high acceleration. Based on the centrifuge, we designed a centrifugal cell loading machine for the mechanical biology of cells under high acceleration loading. For the machine, the feasibility of the experiment was studied by means of constant acceleration or variable acceleration loading in the Petri dish fixture and/or culture flask. Here we analyzed the distribution of the acceleration of the cells with the change of position and size of the culturing device quantitatively. It is obtained that Petri dish fixture and/or culture flask can be used for constant acceleration loading by experiments; the centripetal acceleration of the adherent cells increases with the increase of the distance between the rotor center of the centrifuge and the fixture of the Petri dish and the size of the fixture. It achieves the idea that the general biology laboratory can conduct the study of mechanical biology at high acceleration. It also provides a basis for more accurate study of the law of high acceleration on mechanobiology of cells.

  8. Preoperative Site Marking: Are We Adhering to Good Surgical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Sonia; Chadwick, Michael; Nevins, Edward J; Seward, Joanna

    2017-06-29

    Wrong-site surgery is a never event and a serious, preventable patient safety incident. Within the United Kingdom, national guidance has been issued to minimize the risk of such events. The mandate includes preoperative marking of all surgical patients. This study aimed to quantify regional variation in practice within general surgery and opinions of the surgeons, to help guide the formulation and implementation of a regional general surgery preoperative marking protocol. A SurveyMonkey questionnaire was designed and distributed to 120 surgeons within the Mersey region, United Kingdom. This included all surgical trainees in Mersey (47 registrars, 56 core trainees), 15 consultants, and 2 surgical care practitioners. This sought to ascertain their routine practice and how they would choose to mark for 12 index procedures in general surgery, if mandated to do so. A total of 72 responses (60%) were obtained to the SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Only 26 (36.1%) said that they routinely marked all of their patients preoperatively. The operating surgeon marked the patient in 69% of responses, with the remainder delegating this task. Markings were visible after draping in only 55.6% of marked cases. Based on our findings, surgeons may not be adhering to "Good Surgical Practice"; practice is widely variable and surgeons are largely opposed and resistant to marking patients unless laterality is involved. We suggest that all surgeons need to be actively engaged in the design of local marking protocols to gain support, change practice, and reduce errors.

  9. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Dijk, Liset van; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Heerdink, R.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future

  10. Furthering patient adherence: a position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Dijk, L. van; Ridder, D. de; Heerdink, R.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the problem of patient non-adherence to treatment becomes ever greater and a solution appears hard to find, new ways have to be sought to tackle the issue. Given the weak theoretical underpinning of how to research the adherence problem, a fruitful step might be to find the most

  11. System for integrated adherence monitoring: real-time non-adherence risk assessment in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Ahna L H; Rausch, Joseph; Tackett, Alayna; Marsolo, Keith; Drotar, Dennis; Goebel, Jens

    2012-06-01

    This study reports initial results of the development of the SIAM, a non-adherence risk assessment system for tacrolimus and sirolimus for the pediatric kidney transplant population. Forty-eight youths between 10 and 25 yr of age diagnosed with chronic kidney disease or a kidney transplant used an electronic pill bottle (EM; time stamps each bottle opening) to dispense their medication for at least 30 days or until their next clinic appointment. Youth also completed a self-report adherence measure, and standard deviations were calculated for the last four medication serum trough levels obtained for each patient. Estimation models were developed for each medication (i.e., SIAM(TACRO) and SIAM(SIRO) ) to assign weights to these clinically available adherence measures (self-report and trough levels) for the calculation of a non-adherence risk composite score. SIAM(TACRO) models included both self-report and tacrolimus trough levels and significantly predicted EM. For sirolimus, the model predictive of adherence as measured by EM consisted of the standard deviation of sirolimus trough levels only (SIAM(SIRO) ). Non-adherence risk can be effectively assessed using clinically available assessment tools. However, the best methods for using self-report and trough levels to predict non-adherence likely differ based on the medication for which adherence is being assessed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  13. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  14. Optimizing adherence in HIV prevention product trials: Development and psychometric evaluation of simple tools for screening and adherence counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; Guthrie, Kate Morrow; Zissette, Seth; Fava, Joseph L; Gill, Katherine; Louw, Cheryl E; Kotze, Philip; Reddy, Krishnaveni; MacQueen, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Low adherence in recent HIV prevention clinical trials highlights the need to better understand, measure, and support product use within clinical trials. Conventional self-reported adherence instruments within HIV prevention trials, often relying on single-item questions, have proven ineffective. While objective adherence measures are desirable, none currently exist that apply to both active and placebo arms. Scales are composed of multiple items in the form of questions or statements that, when combined, measure a more complex construct that may not be directly observable. When psychometrically validated, such measures may better assess the multiple factors contributing to adherence/non-adherence. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically evaluate tools to screen and monitor trial participants' adherence to HIV prevention products within the context of clinical trial research. Based on an extensive literature review and conceptual framework, we identified and refined 86 items assessing potential predictors of adherence and 48 items assessing adherence experience. A structured survey, including adherence items and other variables, was administered to former ASPIRE and Ring Study participants and similar non-trial participants (n = 709). We conducted exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify a reduced set of constructs and items that could be used at screening to predict potential adherence, and at follow-up to monitor and intervene on adherence. We examined associations with other variables to assess content and construct validity. The EFA of screener items resulted in a 6-factor solution with acceptable to very good internal reliability (α: .62-.84). Similar to our conceptual framework, factors represent trial-related commitment (Distrust of Research and Commitment to Research); alignment with trial requirements (Visit Adherence and Trial Incompatibility); Belief in Trial Benefits and Partner Disclosure. The EFA on monitoring items resulted in 4

  15. What strategies do ulcerative colitis patients employ to facilitate adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aki Kawakami,1,2 Makoto Tanaka,3 Makoto Naganuma,4 Shin Maeda,5 Reiko Kunisaki,1 Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani2 1Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Home Care and Long-term Care Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan Background: Overall, 30%–45% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC are non-adherent and have difficulties taking their medications; this non-adherence increases the risk of clinical relapse 1.4- to 5.5-fold. This study aimed to clarify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and determine whether the strategies had an impact on good adherence.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. Patients diagnosed as having UC and attending one of the outpatient clinics of four urban hospitals from June 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled. A questionnaire was developed to identify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and then administered to patients with UC. Adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid was calculated, and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the strategies that were associated with good adherence.Results: The final analyses included 671 participants (mean age 40.2 years; 54.3% males. The valid response rate was 96.9%; 186 (27.7% participants were classified as non-adherent, the mean adherence rate being 86.1% (standard deviation [SD] 17.9. Seven strategies that patients employ to facilitate adherence were identified, the

  16. The evolution of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L; Strimling, P; Laland, K N

    2011-10-01

    Teaching, alongside imitation, is widely thought to underlie the success of humanity by allowing high-fidelity transmission of information, skills, and technology between individuals, facilitating both cumulative knowledge gain and normative culture. Yet, it remains a mystery why teaching should be widespread in human societies but extremely rare in other animals. We explore the evolution of teaching using simple genetic models in which a single tutor transmits adaptive information to a related pupil at a cost. Teaching is expected to evolve where its costs are outweighed by the inclusive fitness benefits that result from the tutor's relatives being more likely to acquire the valuable information. We find that teaching is not favored where the pupil can easily acquire the information on its own, or through copying others, or for difficult to learn traits, where teachers typically do not possess the information to pass on to relatives. This leads to a narrow range of traits for which teaching would be efficacious, which helps to explain the rarity of teaching in nature, its unusual distribution, and its highly specific nature. Further models that allow for cumulative cultural knowledge gain suggest that teaching evolved in humans because cumulative culture renders otherwise difficult-to-acquire valuable information available to teach. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Adherence to Biobehavioral Recommendations in Pediatric Migraine as Measured by Electronic Monitoring: The Adherence in Migraine (AIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Ramsey, Rachelle; Aylward, Brandon; Kroner, John W; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Nause, Katie; Allen, Janelle R; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Slater, Shalonda; Hommel, Kevin; LeCates, Susan L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine treatment adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations among pediatric migraine patients using electronic monitoring systems. Nonadherence to medical treatment is a significant public health concern, and can result in poorer treatment outcomes, decreased cost-effectiveness of medical care, and increased morbidity. No studies have systematically examined adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations in adolescents with migraine outside of a clinical trial. Participants included 56 adolescents ages 11-17 who were presenting for clinical care. All were diagnosed with migraine with or without aura or chronic migraine and had at least 4 headache days per month. Medication adherence was objectively measured using electronic monitoring systems (Medication Event Monitoring Systems technology) and daily, prospective self-report via personal electronic devices. Adherence to lifestyle recommendations of regular exercise, eating, and fluid intake were also assessed using daily self-report on personal electronic devices. Electronic monitoring indicates that adolescents adhere to their medication 75% of the time, which was significantly higher than self-reported rates of medication adherence (64%). Use of electronic monitoring of medication detected rates of adherence that were significantly higher for participants taking once daily medication (85%) versus participants taking twice daily medication (59%). Average reported adherence to lifestyle recommendations of consistent noncaffeinated fluid intake (M = 5 cups per day) was below recommended levels of a minimum of 8 cups per day. Participants on average also reported skipping 1 meal per week despite recommendations of consistently eating three meals per day. Results suggest that intervention focused on adherence to preventive treatments (such as medication) and lifestyle recommendations may provide more optimal outcomes for children and adolescents with

  18. Parton distributions with QED corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, The NNPDF; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P.; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on the NNPDF2.3 set, which includes a photon PDF, and QED contributions to parton evolution. We describe the implementation of the combined QCD+QED evolution in the NNPDF framework. We then provide a first determination of the full set

  19. Limits to the adherence of oxide scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Manning, M.I.

    1989-10-01

    Fracture mechanics is used to identify criteria under which uniform oxide scales may be expected to fail due to rapidly applied strains. The most common failure mode occurs when the strain, ε, builds up in the scale until the strain energy density per unit area exceeds the fracture surface energy, γ, of the oxide. This produces spalling when ε > (2γ/hE) 1/2 , where h is the scale thickness and E is the oxide Youngs modulus. In thin scales, as the external strain is applied to the oxide via the metal substrate, it is clear that no further strain can be applied to the oxide if the substrate has itself been strained beyond yield. This gives rise to extended oxide adherence in which the oxide cracks and forms a series of islands but remains attached to the deformed metal. When the oxide thickness is less than its comminution limit, the flaw size necessary for brittle fracture exceeds the oxide thickness and the oxide yields in a ductile manner without cracking. The results are presented as maps of failure strain versus oxide thickness for various oxide systems such as Fe 3 O 4 , Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and NiO. The observed cases of spalling are found to lie within the predicted regions. (author)

  20. Adherence of fluid interfaces and colloidal aggregation in emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses some aspects of the behaviour of emulsions in which droplets are adhesive, and are thus characterised by their ability to stick to one another or on surfaces. The objective is also to identify various adhesive systems while describing their behaviour in order to start to build up a rationale of these phenomena. The author mainly focuses on the adherence of single layers of adsorbed surfactants: by inducing and controlling this adherence, it is possible to make the droplets stick. After a brief presentation of the wetting phenomenon and of the adherence of emulsion droplets, the author presents theoretical backgrounds of adherence, and describes the thermodynamics of liquid films. He presents the general approach which has been adopted to search for and control adherence phenomena in emulsions, and outlines challenges and difficulties related to the use of adhesive particles in industrial applications. A method of measurement of the contact angle between droplets of some tens of microns is described. In the next part, the author reports the characterisation of adherence properties of different emulsions: measurement of adherence energy with respect to some parameters by using contact angle measurements, study of mixed systems (mixtures of surfactants) to illustrate the applicability to industrial formulas. In a last part, the author reports measurements of film thickness between stuck droplets by using experiments of small angle neutron scattering [fr

  1. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  2. Bacterial adherence to extended wear soft contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswad, M.I.; John, T.; Barza, M.; Kenyon, K.; Baum, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to extended wear soft contact lenses (EWSCLs) with and without focal deposits using both a radiolabeling technique and electron microscopy. P. aeruginosa showed significant adherence to contact lenses in vitro. In contrast, S. aureus failed to show significant adherence to contact lenses in vitro (i.e., the radioactive uptake was not significantly above background). The extent of adherence of Pseudomonas was proportional to the number of focal deposits on the lenses. Results of electron microscopic examination showed the bacteria to be adherent primarily to large focal deposits (greater than or equal to 150 microns). There was no pseudomonal adherence to the small focal deposits (less than or equal to 50 microns) and little adherence to the areas in between the focal deposits. The authors hypothesize that worn lenses, especially those with large focal deposits, serve as a vehicle for the transport of P. aeruginosa to the cornea. This hypothesis could be a partial explanation for the high incidence of keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa in EWSCL patients

  3. Two character traits associated with adherence to long term therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reach, Gérard

    2012-10-01

    Adherence is defined as the adequacy between the behaviours of patients and their medical prescriptions. Adherence is a general behaviour, which can explain why patients in the placebo arm of randomised clinical trials have a lower mortality rate when they are adherent. We propose that this behaviour is related to two character traits: patience (capacity to give priority to the future) and, more provocatively, obedience. To support this claim, we bring arguments from the literature and from two published personal studies. We previously showed that type 2 diabetic patients who respond as non-adherers to a questionnaire on adherence to medication and to whom one proposes a fictitious monetary choice between receiving 500 euros today or waiting one year to receive 1500 euros never make the remote choice. We also showed that obese diabetic patients who declare that they do not fasten their seat belt when they are seated in the rear of a car are more often non-adherent concerning medication than those patients who claim that they follow this road safety recommendation. Thus, one of the roles of empowerment and patient education could be to encourage the patients, if they wish it, to replace passive adherence behaviours with conscious active choices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia: a patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, L H; Kars, M C; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M; Peters, M; Schuurmans, M J; Fischer, K

    2015-09-01

    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to prophylactic treatment, from a patients' perspective. To develop a grounded theory, a qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was performed to understand experiences, perceptions and beliefs concerning adherence to prophylaxis. From two Dutch treatment centres, 21 adults with haemophilia using prophylaxis were interviewed. Patients were asked how they experience their task to administer prophylaxis and how they adhere to this. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed in an iterative process, leading to the development of the grounded theory. Adherence was determined by the position of prophylaxis in life. The position of prophylaxis was determined by the perception of prophylaxis and the ability to exert prophylaxis. Patients' perception was influenced by two main factors: acceptance of haemophilia and feeling/fearing symptoms. The ability to exert prophylaxis was influenced by understanding haemophilia and prophylaxis and planning/infusion skills. The combination of different perceptions and skills led to four main positions of prophylaxis in life: (i) prophylaxis integrated in life, (ii) prophylaxis according to doctors' advice, struggling with irregular situations, (iii) prophylaxis is too much to handle, (iv) prophylaxis is a confrontation with illness. The adherence level gradually decreased from position 1 to 4. This information can be used to design tailored interventions to promote adherence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification of documented medication non-adherence in physician notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Alexander; Wheeler, Holly I; Labreche, Matthew; Chu, Julia T; Pendergrass, Merri L; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Einbinder, Jonathan Seth

    2008-11-06

    Medication non-adherence is common and the physicians awareness of it may be an important factor in clinical decision making. Few sources of data on physician awareness of medication non-adherence are available. We have designed an algorithm to identify documentation of medication non-adherence in the text of physician notes. The algorithm recognizes eight semantic classes of documentation of medication non-adherence. We evaluated the algorithm against manual ratings of 200 randomly selected notes of hypertensive patients. The algorithm detected 89% of the notes with documented medication non-adherence with specificity of 84.7% and positive predictive value of 80.2%. In a larger dataset of 1,000 documents, notes that documented medication non-adherence were more likely to report significantly elevated systolic (15.3% vs. 9.0%; p = 0.002) and diastolic (4.1% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.03) blood pressure. This novel clinically validated tool expands the range of information on medication non-adherence available to researchers.

  6. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sureda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.

  7. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (β=0.95), severity of disease (β=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (β=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence. PMID:18243943

  8. [Concept analysis of medication adherence in patients with chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases. However, many patients with chronic disease do not adhere to their medication regimen. This results in worsening symptoms and frequent re-hospitalizations. As a result, healthcare providers may view these patients as bad. Medication adherence is a complex concept. Analyzing this concept may assist nurses to improve patient-centered care. This paper uses Walker & Avant's method to conduct a concept analysis of medication adherence. Results show the defining attributes of medication adherence as: (1) knowing and agreeing to the medication; (2) communicating and negotiating the regimen; and (3) active, continuous involvement in and appraisal of the treatment effect. Identified antecedents of medication adherence included the patient having: (1) a prescribed medication regimen; (2) cognitive and action abilities in her / his role as a patient; and (3) level of preparation for medication treatment. Identified consequences of medication adherence include: (1) improving symptom control; (2) decreasing re-hospitalizations and mortality; (3) reducing medical care costs; (4) restoring self-esteem; and (5) diminishing depression. It is hoped that this concept analysis provides a reference for nurses to achieve a better understanding of medication adherence and further improve nursing practice.

  9. Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.

  10. Appointment length, psychiatrists' communication behaviors, and medication management appointment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra L; Cruz, Robyn F; Wieland, Melissa; Larson, Susan; Cooper, Lisa A; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-09-01

    The authors explored the relationship between critical elements of medication management appointments (appointment length, patient-centered talk, and positive nonverbal affect among providers) and patient appointment adherence. The authors used an exploratory, cross-sectional design employing quantitative analysis of 83 unique audio recordings of split treatment medication management appointments for 46 African-American and 37 white patients with 24 psychiatrists at four ambulatory mental health clinics. All patients had a diagnosis of depression. Data collected included demographic information; Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores for depression severity; psychiatrist verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors during medication management appointments, identified by the Roter Interaction Analysis System during analysis of audio recordings; and appointment adherence. Bivariate analyses were employed to identify covariates that might influence appointment adherence. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were employed to assess the relationship between appointment length, psychiatrist patient-centered talk, and positive voice tone ratings and patient appointment adherence, while adjusting for covariates and the clustering of observations within psychiatrists. Wald chi square analyses were used to test whether all or some variables significantly influenced appointment adherence. GEE revealed a significant relationship between positive voice tone ratings and appointment adherence (p=.03). Chi square analyses confirmed the hypothesis of a positive and significant relationship between appointment adherence and positive voice tone ratings (p=.03) but not longer visit length and more patient-centered communication. The nonverbal conveyance of positive affect was associated with greater adherence to medication management appointments by depressed patients. These findings potentially have important implications for communication skills training and adherence research.

  11. Spillover adherence effects of fixed-dose combination HIV therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauf TL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Teresa L Kauf1, Keith L Davis2, Stephanie R Earnshaw2, E Anne Davis31Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3Independent consultant, Pittsboro, NC, USAAbstract: The impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC products on adherence to other, non-fixed regimen components has not been examined. We compared adherence to a third antiretroviral (ART component among patients receiving a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone consisting of the FDC Epzicom®, GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC (abacavir sulfate 600 mg + lamivudine 300 mg; FDC group versus NRTI combinations taken as two separate pills (NRTI Combo group using data from a national sample of 30 health plans covering approximately 38 million lives from 1997 to 2005. Adherence was measured as the medication possession ratio (MPR. Multivariate logistic regression compared treatment groups based on the likelihood of achieving ≥95% adherence, with sensitivity analyses using alternative thresholds. MPR was assessed as a continuous variable using multivariate linear regression. Covariates included age, gender, insurance payer type, year of study drug initiation, presence of mental health and substance abuse disorders, and third agent class. The study sample consisted of 650 FDC and 1947 NRTI Combo patients. Unadjusted mean adherence to the third agent was higher in the FDC group than the NRTI Combo group (0.92 vs 0.85; P < 0.0001. In regression analyses, FDC patients were 48% and 39% more likely to achieve 95% and 90% third agent adherence, respectively (P ≤ 0.03. None of the other MPR specifications achieved comparable results. Among managed care patients, use of an FDC appears to substantially improve adherence to a third regimen component and thus the likelihood of achieving the accepted standard for adherence to HIV therapy of 95%.Keywords

  12. Investigating Reasons for CPAP Adherence in Adolescents: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Priya S.; Marcus, Carole L.; Maggs, Jill; Stettler, Nicolas; Cornaglia, Mary A.; Costa, Priscilla; Puzino, Kristina; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Bradford, Ruth; Barg, Frances K.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represent an important but understudied subgroup of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) users. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors related to adherence from the perspective of adolescents and their caregivers. Methods: Individual open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 21) and caregivers (n = 20). Objective adherence data from the adolescents' CPAP machines during the previous month was obtained. Adolescents with different adherence levels and their caregivers were asked their views on CPAP. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we identified themes and developed theories that explained the adolescents' adherence patterns. Results: Adolescent participants (n = 21) were aged 12-18 years, predominantly male (n = 15), African American (n = 16), users of CPAP for at least one month. Caregivers were mainly mothers (n = 17). Seven adolescents had high use (mean use 381 ± 80 min per night), 7 had low use (mean use 30 ± 24 min per night), and 7 had no use during the month prior to being interviewed. Degree of structure in the home, social reactions, mode of communication among family members, and perception of benefits were issues that played a role in CPAP adherence. Conclusions: Understanding the adolescent and family experience of using CPAP may be key to increasing adolescent CPAP adherence. As a result of our findings, we speculate that health education, peer support groups, and developmentally appropriate individualized support strategies may be important in promoting adherence. Future studies should examine these theories of CPAP adherence. Citation: Prashad PS; Marcus CL; Maggs J; Stettler N; Cornaglia MA; Costa P; Puzino K; Xanthopoulos M; Bradford R; Barg FK. Investigating reasons for CPAP adherence in adolescents: a qualitative approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1303-1313. PMID:24340293

  13. Medication adherence monitoring: implications for patients and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Bobby; Nayani, Seema

    2018-05-01

    Non-adherence to medication is a key worldwide issue and can lead to adverse patient outcomes and increased health system costs. Would a process facilitating notification of non-adherence infringe upon the autonomy of individuals or breach expectations of privacy? In contrast, patients who are not taking their medication could unknowingly be putting themselves at risk and all the while prescribers are unaware and without the opportunity to intervene. With the advent of electronic methods of medication adherence monitoring, this ethical dilemma now involves a new layer of complexity. We present two scenarios encountered in clinical practice that reflect issues occurring regularly in the Canadian healthcare system.

  14. Can a digital medicine system improve adherence to antipsychotic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papola, D; Gastaldon, C; Ostuzzi, G

    2018-06-01

    A substantial proportion of people with mental health conditions do not adhere to prescribed pharmacological treatments. Poor adherence is probably one of the most critical elements contributing to relapse in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. In order to tackle this global issue, in November 2017 the Food and Drug Administration approved a tablet formulation of the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole embedded with a novel digital adherence-assessment device. In this commentary, we critically appraised the potential beneficial and harmful consequences of this new digital formulation of aripiprazole, and we highlighted expected implications for clinical practice.

  15. Predicting Malawian Women's Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Gleason, Peter C

    2015-07-16

    With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public healthThe knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to provide food support for patients on ART. The

  16. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  17. A Systematic Review of CPAP Adherence Across Age Groups: Clinical and Empiric Insights for Developing CPAP Adherence Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A.M.; Gooneratne, N.; Marcus, C.L.; Ofer, D.; Richards, K.C.; Weaver, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to subgroups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multifactorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA. PMID:21652236

  18. Om religion og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2011-01-01

    for kulturens kausale virkning på den menneskelige kognition og ikke mindst den hominine evolution. Ud fra, hvad vi ved om den menneskelige evolution, ses det, at den hominine evolution har en dybde, som sjældent medtænkes i teorier og hypoteser om den menneskelige evolution. Den menneskelige evolution er...

  19. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thais Marques; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2017-02-06

    to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283) with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p grupos para aplicação da intervenção comportamental e educativa por telefone. Utilizou-se um roteiro de intervenção segundo os preceitos da Entrevista Motivacional. ao comparar antes e depois das intervenções comportamental e educativa constatou-se que houve uma mudança estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,0283) no aumento do conhecimento das mulheres que participaram da intervenção educativa; não houve mudança comprovada na atitude das mulheres de nenhum dos grupos e houve um aumento da adesão ao exame colpocitológico nos dois grupos (p grupo comportamental (66,8%). as intervenções comportamentais e educativas por telefone foram eficazes na adesão das mulheres ao exame colpocitológico, representando estratégias importantes para educação permanente em saúde, promovendo a atenção para a prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino. comprobar los efectos de intervención comportamental y educativa por teléfono en la adhesión de las mujeres, con

  20. Adherence therapy improves medication adherence and quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, D J; Deane, K H O; Gray, R J; Clark, A B; Pfeil, M; Sabanathan, K; Worth, P F; Myint, P K

    2014-08-01

    Many factors are associated with medication non-adherence in Parkinson's disease (PD), including complex treatment regimens, mood disorders and impaired cognition. However, interventions to improve adherence which acknowledge such factors are lacking. A phase II randomised controlled trial was conducted investigating whether Adherence Therapy (AT) improves medication adherence and quality of life (QoL) compared with routine care (RC) in PD. Eligible PD patients and their spouse/carers were randomised to intervention (RC plus AT) or control (RC alone). Primary outcomes were change in adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale) and QoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39) from baseline to week-12 follow up. Secondary outcomes were MDS-UPDRS (part I, II, IV), Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and the Caregiving Distress Scale. Blinded data were analysed using logistic and linear regression models based on the intention-to-treat principle. Seventy-six patients and 46 spouse/carers completed the study (intervention: n = 38 patients, n = 24 spouse/carers). At week-12 AT significantly improved adherence compared with RC (OR 8.2; 95% CI: 2.8, 24.3). Numbers needed to treat (NNT) were 2.2 (CI: 1.6, 3.9). Compared with RC, AT significantly improved PDQ-39 (-9.0 CI: -12.2, -5.8), BMQ general harm (-1.0 CI: -1.9, -0.2) and MDS-UPDRS part II (-4.8 CI: -8.1, -1.4). No significant interaction was observed between the presence of a spouse/carer and the effect of AT. Adherence Therapy improved self-reported adherence and QoL in a PD sample. The small NNT suggests AT may be cost-effective. A larger pragmatic trial to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of AT by multiple therapists is required. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Furthering patient adherence: a position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-02-27

    As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. The thirty-five corresponding authors of the review studies included in the meta-review were invited to join the International Expert Forum on Patient Adherence and to participate in a four-week web-based focus group discussion. The discussion was triggered by the points on the preliminary agenda presented as propositions to which forum members could react. Two researchers analysed the transcripts and selected relevant phrases. Twenty adherence experts participated. Various ideas and viewpoints were raised. After the closure of the web-site, the expert forum was asked to authorize the synthesis of the discussion, to list the propositions in order of priority and to answer a few questions on the use of the web-based focus group as a tool to obtain expert opinions. Their ranking showed that the development of simple interventions is the most promising step to take in fostering patient adherence, preferably within a multidisciplinary setting of medical, pharmaceutical, social and technical science and, not in the least, by incorporating patients' perspectives. For enhancing adherence, the development of simple interventions originating from a multidisciplinary perspective including patients' input, appears most promising. Disclosing patients' perspectives requires open communication about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent.

  2. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heerdink Rob

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Methods The thirty-five corresponding authors of the review studies included in the meta-review were invited to join the International Expert Forum on Patient Adherence and to participate in a four-week web-based focus group discussion. The discussion was triggered by the points on the preliminary agenda presented as propositions to which forum members could react. Two researchers analysed the transcripts and selected relevant phrases. Results Twenty adherence experts participated. Various ideas and viewpoints were raised. After the closure of the web-site, the expert forum was asked to authorize the synthesis of the discussion, to list the propositions in order of priority and to answer a few questions on the use of the web-based focus group as a tool to obtain expert opinions. Their ranking showed that the development of simple interventions is the most promising step to take in fostering patient adherence, preferably within a multidisciplinary setting of medical, pharmaceutical, social and technical science and, not in the least, by incorporating patients' perspectives. Conclusion For enhancing adherence, the development of simple interventions originating from a multidisciplinary perspective including patients' input, appears most promising. Disclosing patients' perspectives requires open communication about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent.

  3. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  4. Embodied Evolution in Collective Robotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bredeche

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of evolutionary robotics techniques applied to online distributed evolution for robot collectives, namely, embodied evolution. It provides a definition of embodied evolution as well as a thorough description of the underlying concepts and mechanisms. This article also presents a comprehensive summary of research published in the field since its inception around the year 2000, providing various perspectives to identify the major trends. In particular, we identify a shift from considering embodied evolution as a parallel search method within small robot collectives (fewer than 10 robots to embodied evolution as an online distributed learning method for designing collective behaviors in swarm-like collectives. This article concludes with a discussion of applications and open questions, providing a milestone for past and an inspiration for future research.

  5. Online evolution of robot behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Goulart da

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Engenharia Informática (Interação e Conhecimento), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 In this dissertation, we propose and evaluate two novel approaches to the online synthesis of neural controllers for autonomous robots. The first approach is odNEAT, an online, distributed, and decentralized version of NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT). odNEAT is an algorithm for online evolution in groups of embodied agents such a...

  6. Associations between patients' adherence and GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte L; Paulsen, Maja S; Christensen, Palle M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that doctors' personal lifestyle, risk taking personality and beliefs about risk reducing therapies may affect their clinical decision-making. Whether such factors are further associated with patients' adherence with medication is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE...... statin treatment as important, how they managed non-adherence and whether non-adherence annoyed them. The Jackson Personality Inventory-revised was used to measure risk attitude. The GPs' responses were linked to register data on their patients' redeemed statin prescriptions. Mixed effect logistic...

  7. On the distinction between density and luminosity evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the assumptions of pure density evolution and pure luminosity evolution lead to observable differences in the distribution of sources for all convergent luminosity functions. The proof given is valid for sources with an arbitrary number of intrinisic luminosities (e.g., optical, infrared, and radio) and also holds in the special cases of mixed evolution that are considered. (author)

  8. Assessing adherence to the 2010 antiretroviral guidelines in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guidelines for treatment of HIV exist,[1] which integrate scientific ... Ordinarily, subjective approaches such as interviews and selfreport ... for assessing adherence to these guidelines using objective evidence ..... HIV InSite Knowledge Base.

  9. Adherence of adult Chronic Kidney Disease patients with regard to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Journal of Health Sciences ... interrelationships with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other associated diseases. ... Methods: Key words were used for the search in various data bases: ... Fluid non-adherence was 10-74%.

  10. Adherence of pharmacoeconomic studies to national guidelines in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Bos, Jasper M.; Boersma, C.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.; Postma, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the adherence of Dutch pharmacoeconomic studies to the national guidelines of conducting a pharmacoeconomic evaluation. Methods: Dutch guidelines for pharmacoeconomic research were issued in 1999. All Dutch pharmacoeconomic studies that were published in English during

  11. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a predictor of good clinical outcome ... This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some ... of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical ...

  12. Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes mellitus over the years, diabetes places an immense burden on the individuals living ... Key words: Diabetes type 2, adherence, glycemic level, health education and counselling. ... modifying dietary choices, implementing exercise re-.

  13. Adherence to antiretrovirals in refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoguh, Francisca

    Adherence to antiretroviral regimes is essential in effective management of HIV. The cultural, social, religious and immigration status of refugees and asylum seekers can have an impact on their understanding of their care needs and maintenance of their treatment regimen.

  14. Guidelines Adherence and Hypertension Control in an Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... adherence and hypertension control in Pulau Pinang Hospital, Malaysia. Methods: ... Despite the positive impact of guidelines' ..... Size in Information Technology, Learning, and.

  15. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... mobile device to read online. ... This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive- ... adherence: Application and relevance in ..... haemoglobin level in persons with type 2 diabetes[PhD thesis].

  16. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-12-24

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  17. Adherence to nutritional therapy in obese adolescents; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Silvana Lima Guimarães; Sahade, Viviane; Nunes, Mônica; Adan, Luis F

    2013-01-01

    Considering the controversies existent on the subject, the aim of this review is to discuss adherence to diet in obese adolescents. The selection of articles was made in the SCOPUS, COCHRANE, APA Psyc Net, SciELO, LILACS, CAPES Journals, PUBMED/MEDLINE and GOOGLE ACADEMIC databases. Studies published between 2002 and 2012 were selected. There was lack of evidence of conceptual discussion about adherence to diet in obesity in the child-youth context, in addition to scarcity of data on adherence to diet itself in obese adolescents and the methods of evaluating this. Lastly, multiple interdependent factors were found which both facilitated and made the process of adherence to diet difficult for obese youngsters. The majority of these (factors) belong to the socioeconomic and cultural dimension, in addition to pointing out cognitive and psychological factors and those associated with health services and professionals. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived adherence barriers among patients failing second-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived adherence barriers among patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa. W Barnett, G Patten, B Kerschberger, K Conradie, DB Garone, G van Cutsem, CJ Colvin ...

  19. Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-17

    Jan 17, 2014 ... Original Research: Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines. 76. 2014 Volume ..... eat, because they dik (tired) of giving you special food. Then they go .... patients in this study were satisfied with the advice received ...

  20. medication non-adherence among adult psychiatric out patients in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2013-11-03

    Nov 3, 2013 ... KEYWORDS: mental illness, non-adherence, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia .... first time, individuals who were so seriously ill that they could not respond to the ..... don't work when they are not taken. Aus. J.

  1. Adherence to internet-based mobile-supported stress management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarski, A C; Lehr, D.; Berking, M.

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the influence of different guidance formats (content-focused guidance, adherence-focused guidance, and administrative guidance) on adherence and to identify predictors of nonadherence in an Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (ie, GET.ON Stress......) for employees. Methods: The data from the groups who received the intervention were pooled from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of the same Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (N=395). The RCTs only differed in terms of the guidance format...... of the predictors significantly predicted nonadherence. Conclusions: Guidance has been shown to be an influential factor in promoting adherence to an Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention. Adherence-focused guidance, which included email reminders and feedback on demand, was equivalent...

  2. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  3. Cholic acid resistance and the adherence ability of Bifidobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... 1Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, .... The adherence of Bifidobacterium strains on HT-29 cell culture was .... Thomas LA, Veysey MJ, French G, Hylemon, PB, Murphy GM, Dowling.

  4. knowledge and adherence to clinical practice guidelines amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Objective: The therapeutic management of patients with Low Back Pain (LBP) has long been characterized ... Keywords: Low back pain, Clinical practice Guidelines, Knowledge, Adherence ..... discourage the use of modalities such as TENS,.

  5. Acceptance-based behavior therapy to promote HIV medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Ethan; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M

    2011-12-01

    A significant number of adults with HIV in the USA do not maintain adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at adequate levels. Although traditional cognitive behavioral interventions have shown promise in promoting HAART adherence, acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) may be particularly useful in this population. ABBT has the potential to overcome common avoidance-based barriers associated with poor adherence, including denial of various illness-related factors and avoidance of stigmatization. We describe the rationale for promoting psychological and behavioral acceptance in HIV-positive populations; outline an ABBT to promote HAART adherence targeting primary care patients from urban, minority, low socioeconomic backgrounds; and report preliminary qualitative observations of treatment feasibility and acceptability.

  6. Medication adherence and direct treatment cost among diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmacology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti,. Nigeria. 2. ... According to the International. Diabetic ... 53% non-adherence among diabetics in Malaysia; similar .... Necessary adjustments were made in the contents and.

  7. Determinants of Optimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    medication side effects and adolescence were associated with non-adherence (p ... especially the social determinants of health surrounding ... irrespective of their CD4 cell count. ..... reported were cell phone alarm, radio news hour time, or a.

  8. Predicting Immediate Belief Change and Adherence to Argument Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the probative potential of evidence in argument, and evaluates the importance of evidence in predicting belief change. Predicts adherence to argument claims and confirms the traditionally recognized importance of evidence to persuasion. (JMF)

  9. Letters to the Editor Adherence to iron supplementation in pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    counting is more accurate than self-reported adherence.2. On the other hand, ... to iron and folic acid Ssupplementation and prevalence of anemia in pregnant ... prenatal iron folate supplementation among women in Mecha district,. Western ...

  10. Clarifying the Concept of Adherence to eHealth Technology: Systematic Review on When Usage Becomes Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverink, Floor; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2017-12-06

    In electronic health (eHealth) evaluations, there is increasing attention for studying the actual usage of a technology in relation to the outcomes found, often by studying the adherence to the technology. On the basis of the definition of adherence, we suggest that the following three elements are necessary to determine adherence to eHealth technology: (1) the ability to measure the usage behavior of individuals; (2) an operationalization of intended use; and (3) an empirical, theoretical, or rational justification of the intended use. However, to date, little is known on how to operationalize the intended usage of and the adherence to different types of eHealth technology. The study aimed to improve eHealth evaluations by gaining insight into when, how, and by whom the concept of adherence has been used in previous eHealth evaluations and finding a concise way to operationalize adherence to and intended use of different eHealth technologies. A systematic review of eHealth evaluations was conducted to gain insight into how the use of the technology was measured, how adherence to different types of technologies was operationalized, and if and how the intended use of the technology was justified. Differences in variables between the use of the technology and the operationalization of adherence were calculated using a chi-square test of independence. In total, 62 studies were included in this review. In 34 studies, adherence was operationalized as "the more use, the better," whereas 28 studies described a threshold for intended use of the technology as well. Out of these 28, only 6 reported a justification for the intended use. The proportion of evaluations of mental health technologies reporting a justified operationalization of intended use is lagging behind compared with evaluations of lifestyle and chronic care technologies. The results indicated that a justification of intended use does not require extra measurements to determine adherence to the technology. The

  11. [Transcultural adaptation of scales for treatment adherence in hemodialysis: Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire(RABQ) and Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire(RAAQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Inês Maria de Jesus; Bandeira, Marina Bittencourt; Pinheiro, Hélady Sanders; Dutra, Nathália Dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Treatment adherence in hemodialysis is important for guaranteeing better results for patients, but Brazil still lacks validated assessment tools for this purpose. The current study aimed to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire (RABQ) and the Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire (RAAQ). The two questionnaires were submitted to the following cross-cultural adaptation procedures: translation, back-translation, expert panel review, and pilot study. Changes were made in the items' wording and application, which requires a face-to-face interview. It was not necessary to change the choices of answers. The Brazilian versions of the RABQ and RAAQ showed semantic and cultural equivalence to the original versions and are easy for the target population to understand. The two scales still require validity and reliability studies before use in the field.

  12. Predictors of duloxetine adherence and persistence in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Z

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhanglin Cui, Yang Zhao, Diego Novick, Douglas FariesEli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjectives: Adherence to medication for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM is predictive of lower overall health-care costs, and thus a lower burden on both patients and providers. The objectives of this study were to examine the predictors of adherence to and persistence with duloxetine therapy among commercially insured FM patients, and to identify subgroups of patients with high duloxetine persistence and adherence.Study design: This cross-sectional, retrospective study analyzed medical and pharmacy records over 1 year for patients in the US aged 18–64 years with FM who initiated (no prior 90-day use duloxetine treatment in 2008.Methods: Adherence to duloxetine was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR, with high adherence defined as MPR ≥ 0.8. Persistence was defined as the duration of therapy from the index date to the earliest of: the ending date of the last prescription, the date of the first gap of >15 days between prescriptions, or the end of the study period (12 months. Demographic and clinical predictors of adherence were examined via multiple logistic regression (MLR, and subgroups of duloxetine-persistent and -adherent patients were identified using classification and regression trees (CART.Results: Among 4660 duloxetine patients, 33% achieved high adherence. Factors associated with high adherence from MLR included older age, North Central and Northeast regions, prior venlafaxine, pregabalin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, or other antidepressant use, or comorbid dyslipidemia or osteoarthritis (all P < 0.05. CART analysis revealed that patients with prior antidepressant use, aged ≥46, or prior osteoarthritis had higher MPR (all P < 0.05, and patients aged ≥45 with a history of SSRI, venlafaxine, or anticonvulsant use had longer duration of therapy (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: Patients with high adherence to and

  13. Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shergill B

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bav Shergill,1 Simon Zokaie,2 Alison J Carr3 1Department of Dermatology, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Elm Grove, Brighton, UK; 2Leo Pharma, Princes Risborough, 3Hamell, London, UK Background: There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK. Objectives: To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results: This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305 of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01: 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved

  14. Ionic molecular films. Applications. 3. Electron beam stimulated enhanced adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; Montereali, R M; Scavarda do Carmo, L C

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports on the advantages of the use of the technique of electron beam lithography to imprint enhanced sensitive patterns on ionic molecular substrates (bulk crystals or films). With this technique, localized superficial defects are produced which change the chemical properties of surfaces. Sensitized surfaces react with absorbates providing enhanced adherence of such substances. The use of spacially controlled electron beams allows the construction of small (sub-micron) feature chemical and very localized enhanced adherence of absorbates.

  15. Adherence to Medical Cannabis Among Licensed Patients in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotov, Yuval; Baruch, Yehuda; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate adherence among Israeli patients who are licensed to use medical cannabis and to identify factors associated with adherence to medical cannabis. Methods: Ninety-five novice licensed patients were interviewed for this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient?physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare. In addition, patients were queried about adverse effect(s) and about t...

  16. Improving deposition tester to study adherent deposits in papermaking

    OpenAIRE

    Monte Lara, Concepción; Sánchez, Mónica; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods used for the quantification of adherent material contained in a pulp suspension propose either filtration of the sample, which may lead to loss of sticky material in the filtrate, or dilution of the pulp, which may cause destabilization of the dissolved and colloidal material; thus, leading to unreliable results. In 1998, the Cellulose and Paper Group of University Complutense of Madrid developed a deposition tester which aimed to quantify the adherence of material (micro...

  17. MONETARY EXPECTATIONS OF THE ROMANIAN EXECUTIVES REGARDING THE ADHERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the monetary expectations induced to the managers of Romanian firms by adheration. It is based on an investigation among twenty Romanian executives regarding the impact on adheration over monetary aspects: inflation, exchange rates and adoption of euro. We conclude that the results of the monetary policy in the last years made the executives confident that the Romanian authorities could maintain the monetary stability after theadheration.

  18. Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie N Fongwa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors

  19. Medical adherence to topical corticosteroid preparations prescribed for psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Hansen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Topical corticosteroids and corticosteroid combinations are the principal treatments in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate published literature dealing with medical adherence to topical corticosteroid or corticosteroid combinations in patients with psoriasis. MATERIALS...... health outcome in topical treatment of psoriasis, further studies should be conducted addressing determinants of nonadherence and test interventions to improve adherence. Validated measurements of medical nonadherence, prescription registers, or medication-weight are needed....

  20. Predictive patterns of early medication adherence in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Thomas E; Robiner, William N; Thomas, William

    2014-10-27

    Patients' adherence with posttransplant immunosuppression is known to affect renal transplant outcomes. Prospectively, individual medication adherence patterns in 195 kidney transplant recipients were quantified with electronic medication monitors. Monitored drugs were mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, or azathioprine. Monitoring began at hospital discharge and continued an average of 15±8 months. Patient follow-up for clinical outcomes averaged 8±3 years. Each month's adherence percentage was calculated as the sum of daily adherence percents, divided by the number of evaluable days. During the first 3 months after transplantation, patients (n=44) with declining medication adherence, defined as dropping by 7% or higher (equal to missing 2 days) between months 1 and 2, later experienced lower mean medication adherence for months 6 to 12, 73% versus 92% respectively (Padherence, they also had more frequent (P=0.034) and earlier (P=0.065) acute rejection episodes. This was additionally associated with more frequent (P=0.017) and earlier (P=0.046) death-censored graft loss.In addition, daily medication adherence, expressed as the percentage of doses taken, decreased as the number of prescribed daily doses increased. During the first 3 months after transplantation, adherence with four doses per day averaged 84%, compared to 91% for patients on twice-daily dosing (P=0.024) and 93.5% for patients on once-daily dosing (P=0.008). Early declining medication nonadherence is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This pattern is detectable during the first 2 months after transplantation. Early detection of nonadherence provides opportunities to target interventions toward patients at the highest risk for adverse behaviors and events.

  1. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an enhanced team-oriented approach to managing patients with schizophrenia improves adherence and supports corresponding reductions in relapse

  2. Explanatory models of depression and treatment adherence to antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Johannessen, Helle; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    and medicine were not central. However, taking antidepressant medication was a meaningful part of being admitted to hospital, and the adoption of the rhetoric and practices of biomedicine strengthened patients' sense of control and hope for recovery. If medicine was ineffective, the explanatory models...... legitimised alternative strategies towards recovery, including non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The patients' reasons for adhering to antidepressants included a range of diverse psychosocial issues, and could be regarded as a central part of their common sense illness management....

  3. Adherence to treatment in adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucks, Romola S.; Hawkins, Katharine; Skinner, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study was conducted to explore the relationships between illness perceptions, emotional representations, treatment beliefs and reported adherence in adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). MethodsThirty-eight adolescents completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of CF, be...... CF as a chronic condition. ConclusionsThe findings provide preliminary support for the self-regulatory model, using the necessity-concerns framework to operationalize treatment beliefs, in explaining adherence to treatment in adolescents with CF....

  4. Quasars and galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of quasars is discussed. It is noted that substantial clustering may be present at faint magnitudes. The relationship between quasar evolution and galactic evolution is considered. (4 refs).

  5. Psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence among PLWH in China: role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyu; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-12-01

    Globally, optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is insufficient despite it is critical for maximum clinical benefits and treatment success among people living with HIV (PLWH). Many factors have been evidenced to influence medication adherence, including perceived barriers and self-efficacy. However, limited data are available regarding to psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence in China. Moreover, few studies have examined the mechanism of these two factors underlying HIV medication adherence. The aim of the current study is to examine the mediating role of adherence self-efficacy between perceived barriers and ART adherence among PLWH. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 2095 PLWH in Guangxi China who provided data on ART adherence. Participants reported their medication adherence, self-efficacy, barriers to ART adherence, as well as background characteristics. Results indicated a significant indirect effect from perceived barriers to medication adherence through adherence self-efficacy. Higher perceived psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence were related to lower adherence self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower ART adherence. Self-efficacy could buffer the negative effects of perceived barriers on ART adherence. Future interventions to promote HIV medication adherence are recommended to focus on eliminating psychological and behavioral barriers, as well as increasing adherence self-efficacy.

  6. Addressing drug adherence using an operations management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunlee, Martin; Bones, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide a model that enables health systems and pharmacy benefit managers to provide medications reliably and test for reliability and validity in the analysis of adherence to drug therapy of chronic disease. SUMMARY The quantifiable model described here can be used in conjunction with behavioral designs of drug adherence assessments. The model identifies variables that can be reproduced and expanded across the management of chronic diseases with drug therapy. By creating a reorder point system for reordering medications, the model uses a methodology commonly seen in operations research. The design includes a safety stock of medication and current supply of medication, which increases the likelihood that patients will have a continuous supply of medications, thereby positively affecting adherence by removing barriers. CONCLUSION This method identifies an adherence model that quantifies variables related to recommendations from health care providers; it can assist health care and service delivery systems in making decisions that influence adherence based on the expected order cycle days and the expected daily quantity of medication administered. This model addresses the possession of medication as a barrier to adherence.

  7. Adherence to Medical Cannabis Among Licensed Patients in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuval; Baruch, Yehuda; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate adherence among Israeli patients who are licensed to use medical cannabis and to identify factors associated with adherence to medical cannabis. Methods: Ninety-five novice licensed patients were interviewed for this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient-physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare. In addition, patients were queried about adverse effect(s) and about their overall satisfaction from this medical treatment. Results: Eighty percent ( n =76) has been identified as adherent to medical cannabis use. Variables found associated with adherence were "country of origin" (immigrant status), "type of illness" (cancer vs. non-cancer), and "experiencing adverse effect(s)." Three predictors of adherence were found significant in a logistic regression model: "type of illness" (odds ratio [OR] 0.101), patient-physician relationship (OR 1.406), and level of patient activation (OR 1.132). 71.5% rated themselves being "completely satisfied" or "satisfied" from medical cannabis use. Conclusions: Our findings show a relatively high adherence rate for medical cannabis, as well as relative safety and high satisfaction among licensed patients. Additionally indicated is the need to develop and implement standardized education about this evolving field-to both patients and physicians.

  8. Medication adherence and Medicare expenditure among beneficiaries with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopert, Ruth; Shoemaker, J Samantha; Davidoff, Amy; Shaffer, Thomas; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M; Lloyd, Jennifer; Stuart, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    To (1) measure utilization of and adherence to heart failure medications and (2) assess whether better adherence is associated with lower Medicare spending. Pooled cross-sectional design using six 3-year cohorts of Medicare beneficiaries with congestive heart failure (CHF) from 1997 through 2005 (N = 2204). Adherence to treatment was measured using average daily pill counts. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the relationship between medication adherence and Medicare spending. Multivariate analyses included extensive variables to control for confounding, including healthy adherer bias. Approximately 58% of the cohort were taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), 72% a diuretic, 37% a beta-blocker, and 34% a cardiac glycoside. Unadjusted results showed that a 10% increase in average daily pill count for ACE inhibitors or ARBs, beta-blockers, diuretics, or cardiac glycosides was associated with reductions in Medicare spending of $508 (not significant [NS]), $608 (NS), $250 (NS), and $1244 (P <.05), respectively. Estimated adjusted marginal effects of a 10% increase in daily pill counts for beta-blockers and cardiac glycosides were reductions in cumulative 3-year Medicare spending of $510 to $561 and $750 to $923, respectively (P <.05). Higher levels of medication adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with CHF were associated with lower cumulative Medicare spending over 3 years, with savings generally exceeding the costs of the drugs in question.

  9. A wearable sensor system for medication adherence prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Haik; Motamed, Babak; Alshurafa, Nabil; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Studies have revealed that non-adherence to prescribed medication can lead to hospital readmissions, clinical complications, and other negative patient outcomes. Though many techniques have been proposed to improve patient adherence rates, they suffer from low accuracy. Our objective is to develop and test a novel system for assessment of medication adherence. Recently, several smart pill bottle technologies have been proposed, which can detect when the bottle has been opened, and even when a pill has been retrieved. However, very few systems can determine if the pill is subsequently ingested or discarded. We propose a system for detecting user adherence to medication using a smart necklace, capable of determining if the medication has been ingested based on the skin movement in the lower part of the neck during a swallow. This, coupled with existing medication adherence systems that detect when medicine is removed from the bottle, can detect a broader range of use-cases with respect to medication adherence. Using Bayesian networks, we were able to correctly classify between chewable vitamins, saliva swallows, medication capsules, speaking, and drinking water, with average precision and recall of 90.17% and 88.9%, respectively. A total of 135 instances were classified from a total of 20 subjects. Our experimental evaluations confirm the accuracy of the piezoelectric necklace for detecting medicine swallows and disambiguating them from related actions. Further studies in real-world conditions are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethno-Cultural Considerations in Cardiac Patients' Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Shier, K M; Singh, S; Khan, N A; LeBlanc, P; Lowe, J C; Mather, C M; Chong, E; Quan, H

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop an in-depth understanding about factors that influence cardiac medication adherence among South Asian, Chinese, and European White cardiac patients. Sixty-four patients were purposively sampled from an ongoing study cohort. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for analyses. Physicians' culturally sensitive communication and patients' motivation to live a symptom-free and longer life enhanced adherence. European Whites were motivated to enhance personal well-being and enjoy family life. South Asians' medication adherence was influenced by the desire to fulfill the will of God and family responsibilities. The Chinese were motivated to avoid pain, illness, and death, and to obey a health care provider. The South Asians and Chinese wanted to ultimately reduce medication use. Previous positive experiences, family support, and establishing a routine also influenced medication adherence. Deterrents to adherence were essentially the reverse of the motivators/facilitators. This analysis represents an essential first step forward in developing ethno-culturally tailored interventions to optimize adherence.

  11. Cognitive function is linked to adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Galioto, Rachel; Limbach, Kristen; Gunstad, John; Heinberg, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Impairment in cognitive function is found in a significant subset of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery, and recent work shows this impairment is associated with smaller postoperative weight loss. Reduced cognitive function could contribute to poorer adherence to postoperative guidelines, although this has not been previously examined. The present study examined the relationship between cognitive function and adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines. We expected that higher cognitive function would be associated with better adherence to postoperative guidelines. Thirty-seven bariatric surgery patients completed cognitive testing and a self-report measure of adherence to postoperative bariatric guidelines during their 4- to 6-week postoperative appointment. Strong correlations were observed between adherence to postoperative guidelines and cognitive indices of attention, executive function, and memory. Results show that cognitive performance is strongly associated with adherence to postoperative guidelines shortly after bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify whether this relationship is present at later postoperative stages and the degree to which this relationship mediates postoperative weight loss outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro adherence of bacteria to prosthetic grafting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.R.; Stromberg, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Adherence of bacteria to prosthetic grafting material is thought to play an important role in the ultimate development of prosthetic infections. To evaluate the role of bacterial adherence in the initiation and colonization of prosthetic materials, Proplast II, Gore-Tex, and silicone were evaluated for adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria were radiolabeled and incubated with the study material. Adherence was determined by scintillation. Adherence to Proplast II and Gore-Tex reached a maximum at approximately 45 minutes of incubation and demonstrated a detachment phenomenon with E. coli. Similar results were noted with S. aureus, but with a maximal attachment at approximately 30 minutes. Interestingly, bacterial attachment to silicone continued to increase throughout the time of the incubation. In addition, adherence of S. aureus was at a faster rate than E. coli. Attachment of bacteria is a multifactorial process. However, the PTFE graft demonstrates a slower rate of attachment, lower total number of attached bacteria, and faster detachment. The importance of this phenomenon may help explain the foreign body effect of increased susceptibility to infection of foreign materials

  13. Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adherence is crucial for public health program effectiveness, though the benefits of increasing adherence must ultimately be weighed against the associated costs. We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa.We conducted an observational study of 5,258 CHW home visits made in 2003-4 as part of a community-based screening program. We estimated the functional relationship between spending on these visits and increased appointment attendance (adherence. Increased adherence was noted after each subsequent CHW visit. The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand. The CHW program cost R194,018, with 1,576 additional appointments attended. Adherence increased from 74% to 90%; 55% to 87%; 48% to 77%; and 56% to 80% for 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month appointments. Average per-woman costs increased by R14-R47. The majority of this increase occurred with the first 2 CHW visits (90%, 83%, 74%, and 77%; additional cost: R12-R26.We found that study data can be used for program planning, identifying spending levels that achieve adherence targets given budgetary constraints. The results, derived from a single disease program, are retrospective, and should be prospectively replicated.

  14. A proposed evolution for the Italian certified electronic mail system

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Marina; Ferrucci, Luca; Francesco, Gennai; Petrucci, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    One the main objective of the European Commission is to innovate and bring ICT to its full potential in any sector, including eGovernment, eCommerce, and eHealth services. Certified Electronic Mail (CEM) systems of Member States are currently not interoperable, thus impacting on economic growth and competitiveness. The paper investigates the use of the DNSSec technology as a technological evolution of the Italian CEM System and the first step towards interoperability and adherence to internat...

  15. Nudging Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institutional "fit" might play a role in helping to develop better understanding of the social components of interlinkages between the socioeconomic-cultural and ecological dynamics of social-ecological systems. Two clearly discernible patterns provide a map of this Special Feature: (1 One pattern is the authors' positions regarding the place and role of normativity within their studies and assessment of institutional fit. Some place this at the center of their studies, exploring phenomena endogenous to the process of defining what constitutes institutional fit, whereas others take the formation of norms as a phenomenon exogenous to their study. (2 Another pattern is the type of studies presented: critiques and elaborations of the theory, methods for judging qualities of fit, and/or applied case studies using the concept. As a body of work, these contributions highlight that self-understanding of social-ecological place, whether explicit or implicit, constitutes an important part of the study object, i.e., the role of institutions in social-ecological systems, and that this is, at the same time, a crucial point of reference for the scholar wishing to evaluate what constitutes institutional fit and how it might be brought into being.

  16. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekwaletswe CT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an

  17. The evolution of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is believed that only the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were created during the 'Big Bang' origin of the Universe and that all heavier elements were synthesized by nuclear reactions in stars, the interstellar medium and possibly in 'little bangs' in the nuclei of galaxies. The composition of the interstellar medium has evolved through enrichment by processed material shed by evolving stars and the composition of the Solar System reflects that of the interstellar medium at the time of its formation. Differentiation processes during the evolution of the Solar System and individual planets account for the different compositions of the Sun and the planets. The measurement of the abundance distribution of the elements has become a very powerful tool in the elucidation of the evolution of the Solar System, stars and the Galaxy. This review attempts to trace the formation of the elements in stars and their subsequent evolution. (author)

  18. Validating the Modified Drug Adherence Work-Up (M-DRAW) Tool to Identify and Address Barriers to Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun; Bae, Yuna H; Worley, Marcia; Law, Anandi

    2017-09-08

    Barriers to medication adherence stem from multiple factors. An effective and convenient tool is needed to identify these barriers so that clinicians can provide a tailored, patient-centered consultation with patients. The Modified Drug Adherence Work-up Tool (M-DRAW) was developed as a 13-item checklist questionnaire to identify barriers to medication adherence. The response scale was a 4-point Likert scale of frequency of occurrence (1 = never to 4 = often). The checklist was accompanied by a GUIDE that provided corresponding motivational interview-based intervention strategies for each identified barrier. The current pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the M-DRAW checklist (reliability, responsiveness and discriminant validity) in patients taking one or more prescription medication(s) for chronic conditions. A cross-sectional sample of 26 patients was recruited between December 2015 and March 2016 at an academic medical center pharmacy in Southern California. A priming question that assessed self-reported adherence was used to separate participants into the control group of 17 "adherers" (65.4%), and into the intervention group of nine "unintentional and intentional non-adherers" (34.6%). Comparable baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. The M-DRAW checklist showed acceptable reliability (13 item; alpha = 0.74) for identifying factors and barriers leading to medication non-adherence. Discriminant validity of the tool and the priming question was established by the four-fold number of barriers to adherence identified within the self-selected intervention group compared to the control group (4.4 versus 1.2 barriers, p tool will include construct validation.

  19. Rapidity evolution of gluon TMD from low to moderate x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitsky, I.

    2016-01-01

    I discuss how the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distribution (TMD) changes from nonlinear evolution at small x << 1 to linear evolution at moderate x ∼ 1. I have described the rapidity evolution of gluon TMD in the whole range of Bjorken x B and the whole range of transverse momentum. It should be emphasized that with our definition of rapidity cutoff the leading-order matrix elements of TMD operators are UV-finite so the rapidity evolution is the only evolution and it describes all the dynamics of gluon TMDs in the leading-log approximation

  20. Assessing adolescent asthma symptoms and adherence using mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Ho, Yun-Xian; Cala, Cather M; Chen, Qingxia; Nian, Hui; Patterson, Barron L; Johnson, Kevin B

    2013-07-17

    Self-report is the most common method of measuring medication adherence but is influenced by recall error and response bias, and it typically does not provide insight into the causes of poor adherence. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of health behaviors using mobile phones offers a promising alternative to assessing adherence and collecting related data that can be clinically useful for adherence problem solving. To determine the feasibility of using EMA via mobile phones to assess adolescent asthma medication adherence and identify contextual characteristics of adherence decision making. We utilized a descriptive and correlational study design to explore a mobile method of symptom and adherence assessment using an interactive voice response system. Adolescents aged 12-18 years with a diagnosis of asthma and prescribed inhalers were recruited from an academic medical center. A survey including barriers to mobile phone use, the Illness Management Survey, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire were administered at baseline. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of asthma symptoms and adherence were conducted with daily calls to mobile phones for 1 month. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was administered at 2 study time points: baseline and 1 month after baseline. The sample consisted of 53 adolescents who were primarily African American (34/53, 64%) and female (31/53, 58%) with incomes US$40K/year or lower (29/53, 55%). The majority of adolescents (37/53, 70%) reported that they carried their phones with them everywhere, but only 47% (25/53) were able to use their mobile phone at school. Adolescents responded to an average of 20.1 (SD 8.1) of the 30 daily calls received (67%). Response frequency declined during the last week of the month (b=-0.29, PMobile phones provided a feasible method to assess asthma symptoms and adherence in adolescents. The EMA method was consistent with the ACT, a widely established measure of asthma control, and results