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Sample records for adhd transdermal methylphenidate

  1. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  2. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate Transdermal Delivery System Treatment of ADHD on Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Giefer, Eldred E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the growth of children being treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured in 127 children ages 6 to 12 at longitudinal assessments for up to 36 months of treatment with MTS. These…

  3. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  4. Efficacy of a Methylphenidate Transdermal System versus t.i.d. Methylphenidate in a Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Schentag, Jerome; Ballow, Charles H.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Meichenbaum, David L.; Forehand, Gregory L.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Tresco, Katy E.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Coles, Erika K.; Gonzalez, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To test the efficacy and tolerability of the methylphenidate transdermal formulation (MTS) against immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in a 12-hr analog classroom setting. Method: A total of nine boys ages 6 to 9 years, medicated with MPH for ADHD, complete a within-subject, double-blind study. For the purpose of the…

  5. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... that was covered by the patch seizures motion tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  6. ADHD, Methylphenidate, and Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Plioplys, Sigita

    2016-06-01

    Investigators from the Department of Functional Neurology, Epileptology and Epilepsy Institute (IDEE), and the Lyon's University Hospital examined the clinical determinants of ADHD severity in children with epilepsy (CWE) along with the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). PMID:27617408

  7. Varying the Wear Time of the Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Boellner, Samuel W.; Lopez, Frank A.; Turnbow, John M.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Manos, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of variable wear times of the methylphenidate transdermal system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was concluded that duration of medication effect was directly related to the wear time of the methylphenidate transdermal system patch.

  8. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  9. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memo

  10. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory fu

  11. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  12. Methylphenidate in Treatment of ADHD and Comorbid Chronic Tic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children (ages 6-12 years with Tourette's syndrome (96% or chronic motor tic disorder (4% were evaluated at State University of New York, Stony Brook.

  13. Methylphenidate-Induced Seizure, ADHD and Abnormal EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Harvard Medical School, Boston, present the case of a 6-year-old girl with ADHD taking valproic acid for behavioral problems who had a generalized tonic-clonic convulsion shortly after a first dose of methylphenidate.

  14. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to improve ADHD symptoms along with the patient’s self-esteem, thinking ability, and social and family interactions. Do ... that stimulants prescribed to treat a child’s or adolescent’s ADHD could affect an individual’s vulnerability to developing ...

  15. A One Year Trial of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Paul H.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Sanford, Mary Eve; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Tomb, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on symptom severity and social adjustment in adult ADHD. Method: Adults (n = 116) meeting operational diagnostic criteria for ADHD (the "Utah Criteria") entered a randomized double-blind crossover trial of methylphenidate and placebo. Participants who improved on…

  16. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  17. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  18. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria P.; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  19. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  20. Comparative Cardiac Risks of Methylphenidate and Amphetamines in Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk for adverse cardiac events in subjects between 3 and 20 years of age treated with methylphenidate or amphetamine salts for ADHD was determined in a retrospective study at University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

  1. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica;

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  2. Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Schoevers, Robert A.; Booij, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) occupies brain striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) and is an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, patients with ADHD and comorbid cocaine dependence do not benefit significantly from treatment with MPH. To better understand the neu

  3. Methylphenidate significantly reduces lapses of attention during on-road highway driving in patients with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lapses of attention are characteristic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as such may impair performance of daily activities. Data from an on-road driving study were reanalyzed to determine lapses in patients with ADHD after treatment with methylphenidate and placebo.A total of

  4. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

    OpenAIRE

    Suheil Artul; Faozi Artoul; George Habib; William Nseir; Bishara Bisharat; Yousif Nijim

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin) due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate) Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was...

  5. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheil Artul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin.

  6. Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a “reinforcer” and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal mo...

  7. Reduced pain perception in children and adolescents with ADHD is normalized by methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Nicole; Rubia, Katya; Knopf, Hildtraud; Hölling, Heike; Martini, Julia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study examined pain perception in children and adolescents with ADHD and the interaction between pain perception and the administration of methylphenidate (MPH) in order to generate hypotheses for further research that will help to clarify the association between ADHD diagnosis, MPH treatment and pain perception. Methods We included 260 children and adolescents of the “German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents” (KiGGS) and analyzed pare...

  8. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  9. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  10. Reversible Dopamine Transporter Modifications in Response to Methylphenidate Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to monitor the dopamine transporter activity in 5 males, ages 8 to 10, with ADHD, after cessation of methylphenidate (MPH treatment, in a study at the University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  11. Effect of Methylphenidate in ADHD with Epilepsy or with EEG Abnormalities without Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of ADHD, group 1 with epilepsy and group 2 with EEG abnormalities without seizures, were determined in a study of 119 children (98 males, 21 females; ages 6 to 16 years at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

  12. The beneficial effect of methylphenidate in ADHD with comorbid separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Golubchik, Lilya; Sever, Jonathan M; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the response of subsyndromal separation anxiety (SSSA) symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A group of patients with ADHD and SSSA (n=42), aged 8-17 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severity of SSSA symptoms was assessed using appropriate scales including the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and the specially designed Child and Adolescent Separation Anxiety Scale (CASAS). The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale. The severity of ADHD and separation anxiety reduced significantly and significant positive correlations were found between the changes in ADHD Rating Scale and the total CASAS scores (P=0.012), as well as other relevant subscales of Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and CASAS. The MPH-related attenuation in the severity of ADHD was associated with a corresponding improvement in separation anxiety related to school. SSSA symptomatology may be secondary to ADHD and thus the alleviation in ADHD symptoms achieved by MPH treatment results in corresponding relief in separation anxiety.

  13. Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Jeanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL and medication satisfaction after switching from a stable dose of oral extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH to methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS via a dose-transition schedule in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods In a 4-week, multisite, open-label study, 171 children (164 in the intent-to-treat [ITT] population aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD abruptly switched from a stable dose of oral ER-MPH to MTS nominal dosages of 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg using a predefined dose-transition schedule. Subjects remained on the scheduled dose for the first week, after which the dose was then titrated to an optimal effect. The ADHD Impact Module-Children (AIM-C, a disease-specific validated HRQL survey instrument measuring child and family impact, was used to assess the impact of ADHD symptoms on the lives of children and their families at baseline and study endpoint. Satisfaction with MTS use was assessed via a Medication Satisfaction Survey (MSS at study endpoint. Both the AIM-C and MSS were completed by a caregiver (parent/legally authorized representative. Tolerability was monitored by spontaneous adverse event (AE reporting. Results AIM-C child and family HRQL mean scores were above the median possible score at baseline and were further improved at endpoint across all MTS doses. Similar improvements were noted for behavior, missed doses, worry, and economic impact AIM-C item scores. Overall, 93.8% of caregivers indicated a high level of satisfaction with their child's use of the study medication. The majority of treatment-emergent AEs (> 98% were mild to moderate in intensity, and the most commonly reported AEs included headache, decreased appetite, insomnia, and abdominal pain. Seven subjects discontinued the study due to intolerable AEs (n = 3 and application site reactions (n = 4. Conclusion This study demonstrates that MTS, when carefully

  14. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B;

    2015-01-01

    to treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2015 we...... of bias assessment, and two review authors independently performed all tasks. We used standard methodological procedures expected within Cochrane. Data from parallel-group trials and first period data from cross-over trials formed the basis of our primary analyses; separate analyses were undertaken using...... tablet' controlled trials. These use a placebo-like substance that causes adverse events in the control arm that are comparable to those associated with methylphenidate. However, for ethical reasons, such trials should first be conducted with adults, who can give their informed consent.Future trials...

  15. The Acute Effect of Methylphenidate in Brazilian Male Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…

  16. Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methylphenidate is used as part of a treatment program to control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ... are the same age) in adults and children. Methylphenidate (Methylin) is also used to treat narcolepsy (a ...

  17. Associative learning in ADHD: improved expression under methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As might be expected of a disorder in which inhibitory deficits form part of the diagnostic criteria, deficits in response inhibition in ADHD have been evidenced in a number of studies. To date, the tasks used in such studies have required participants to inhibit the learned stimulus-response associations that result in unwanted behavior. Howe...

  18. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubiner, Howard; Saules, Karen K; Arfken, Cynthia L; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Schuster, Charles R; Lockhart, Nancy; Edwards, Ann; Donlin, Judy; Pihlgren, Eric

    2002-08-01

    In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate (MTP) versus placebo in 48 cocaine-dependent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adults, the authors sought to determine whether MTP would be safe, control ADHD symptoms, and affect cocaine use. Efficacy indexes revealed significantly greater ADHD symptom relief in the MTP group. There were no group differences in self-reported cocaine use, urinalysis results, or cocaine craving. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results are preliminary. However, we found that MTP improved subjective reports of ADHD symptoms and did not worsen cocaine use while participants were in treatment.

  19. First evidence of HERV-H transcriptional activity reduction after methylphenidate treatment in a young boy with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Balestrieri, Emanuela; Matteucci, Claudia; Sinibaldi Vallebona, Paola; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been associated with many complex diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In ADHD an over-expression of HERV-H family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been documented. It has been hypothesized that HERVs may represent the link between genetic and environmental risk factors, contributing to the clinical onset and/or to the progression of the neurodevelopmental disease. The effect of pharmacological treatment on HERV transcriptional activity in psychiatric disorders has been attracting attention. Using a real-time RT-PCR we investigated the influence of methylphenidate on HERV transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a young patient with ADHD. In this clinical case we describe for the first time the reduction of HERV-H expression and the significant improvement of ADHD symptoms after 6 months of methylphenidate treatment. PMID:27602426

  20. A Comparison of Effectiveness of Regulation of Working Memory Function and Methylphenidate on Remediation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ali Akbar Soleimani; Zahra Farahmand; Samira Keshavarzi; Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and serious disorder affecting such key cognitive components as working memory. Working memory serves to facilitate and check attention in any individual and to focus on those affairs that need to be retained in mind. This study examines whether a combination of the two therapeutic methods of working memory training and Methylphenidate might be more effective in treating ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years of age than when methylp...

  1. Methylphenidate Improves Working Memory and Set-Shifting in AD/HD: Relationships to Baseline Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Catecholamine stimulant drugs are highly efficacious treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). Catecholamine modulation in humans influences performance of numerous cognitive tasks, including tests of attention and working memory (WM). Clear delineation of the effects of methylphenidate upon such cognitive…

  2. Hyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Someren, E.J. Van

    2007-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythm, as well as the effects of methylphenidate on these variables, in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: 1) Baseline group comparison; 2) Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over medication trial. SETTING: Data collection to

  3. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  4. Efficacy of methylphenidate and behavioral intervention on classroom behavior in children with ADHD and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C R; Handen, B L; Lubetsky, M J; Sacco, K A

    1994-10-01

    Using a combination of an alternating treatment and double-blind placebo-controlled drug design, the independent and combined effects of two behavioral interventions and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH) in 3 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mental retardation (MR) were assessed. In this single subject design, 2 of the 3 subjects responded positively to medication as measured by increased on-task behavior. The first behavioral intervention, a token economy for on-task behavior, was ineffective for increasing either on-task behavior or work accuracy when combined with placebo. However, improvement in work accuracy was realized with implementation of a second behavioral intervention that specifically targeted accuracy independent of drug conditions. The current findings highlight both the positive effects and limitations of the two commonly used treatment modalities for ADHD. Future studies should continue to extend this area of investigative efforts to produce more data-based knowledge as to the appropriate doses of treatment, both pharmacological and behavioral, with children with both ADHD and mental retardation. PMID:7980374

  5. Efficacy of methylphenidate and behavioral intervention on classroom behavior in children with ADHD and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C R; Handen, B L; Lubetsky, M J; Sacco, K A

    1994-10-01

    Using a combination of an alternating treatment and double-blind placebo-controlled drug design, the independent and combined effects of two behavioral interventions and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH) in 3 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mental retardation (MR) were assessed. In this single subject design, 2 of the 3 subjects responded positively to medication as measured by increased on-task behavior. The first behavioral intervention, a token economy for on-task behavior, was ineffective for increasing either on-task behavior or work accuracy when combined with placebo. However, improvement in work accuracy was realized with implementation of a second behavioral intervention that specifically targeted accuracy independent of drug conditions. The current findings highlight both the positive effects and limitations of the two commonly used treatment modalities for ADHD. Future studies should continue to extend this area of investigative efforts to produce more data-based knowledge as to the appropriate doses of treatment, both pharmacological and behavioral, with children with both ADHD and mental retardation.

  6. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  7. Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... or hearing voices that do not exist) motor tics or verbal tics depression abnormally excited mood mood ...

  8. The influence of methylphenidate on the power spectrum of ADHD children – an MEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was dedicated to investigate the influence of Methylphenidate (MPH on cortical processing of children who were diagnosed with different subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. As all of the previous studies investigating power differences in different frequency bands have been using EEG, mostly with a relatively small number of electrodes our aim was to obtain new aspects using high density magnetoencephalography (MEG. Methods 35 children (6 female, 29 male participated in this study. Mean age was 11.7 years (± 1.92 years. 17 children were diagnosed of having an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of the combined type (ADHDcom, DSM IV code 314.01; the other 18 were diagnosed for ADHD of the predominantly inattentive type (ADHDin, DSM IV code 314.0. We measured the MEG during a 5 minute resting period with a 148-channel magnetometer system (MAGNES™ 2500 WH, 4D Neuroimaging, San Diego, USA. Power values were averaged for 5 bands: Delta (D, 1.5–3.5 Hz, Theta (T, 3.5–7.5 Hz, Alpha (A, 7.5–12.5 Hz, Beta (B, 12.5–25 Hz and Global (GL, 1.5–25 Hz.. Additionally, attention was measured behaviourally using the D2 test of attention with and without medication. Results The global power of the frequency band from 1.5 to 25 Hz increased with MPH. Relative Theta was found to be higher in the left hemisphere after administration of MPH than before. A positive correlation was found between D2 test improvement and MPH-induced power changes in the Theta band over the left frontal region. A linear regression was computed and confirmed that the larger the improvement in D2 test performance, the larger the increase in Theta after MPH application. Conclusion Main effects induced by medication were found in frontal regions. Theta band activity increased over the left hemisphere after MPH application. This finding contradicts EEG results of several groups who found lower levels of Theta power

  9. An Analysis of Patient Adherence to Treatment during a 1-Year, Open-Label Study of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Treatment adherence is an important aspect of ADHD symptom management, but there are many factors that may influence adherence. Method: This analysis assessed adherence to OROS methylphenidate during a 1-year, open-label study in children. Adherence was defined as the number of days medication was taken divided by the number of days in…

  10. High sibling correlation on methylphenidate response but no association with DAT1-10R homozygosity in Dutch sibpairs with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Emma M; Bakker, Steven C; Pauls, David L; Oteman, Nicole; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; Pearson, Peter L; Sinke, Richard J; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A minority of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not respond favorably to methylphenidate. This has been partially associated with homozygosity for the Dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10-repeat allele and the presence of one or two Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) 7-

  11. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate on Neural Networks Associated with Executive Attention in Children with ADHD: Results from a Longitudinal Functional MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kerstin; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal functional MRI study examines the effects of stimulants on neural activity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that one year of methylphenidate treatment might be beneficial though insufficient to show normalization of neural correlates of attention.

  12. Sex Differences in the Response of Children with ADHD to Once-Daily Formulations of Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, J. S.; Coghill, David; Markowitz, John S.; Swanson, James M.; Vandenberghe, Mieke; Hatch, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of sex differences in methylphenidate response by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have lacked methodological rigor and statistical power. This paper reports an examination of sex differences based on further analysis of data from a comparison of two once-daily methylphenidate formulations (the COMACS…

  13. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  14. Methylphenidate and Amphetamine Do Not Induce Cytogenetic Damage in Lymphocytes of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kristine L.; Shelby, Michael D.; Itchon-Ramos, Nilda; Faircloth, Melissa; Kissling, Grace E.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Ravi, Hima; Murli, Hemalatha; Mattison, Donald R.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    The inducement of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving treatment with methylphenidate- or amphetamine-based drugs is investigated. Findings did not reveal significant increases in cytogenetic damage related to the treatment. The risk for cytogenetic damage posed by such products…

  15. Actigraphic Monitoring during Sleep of Children with ADHD on Methylphenidate and Placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Boivin, Diane B.; Joober, Ridha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances appear as a comorbid condition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of activity levels during sleep and therapeutic response to methylphenidate (MPH). Method: Nightly sleep actigraphic recordings during a double-blind, placebo-controlled,…

  16. Methylphenidate improves diminished error and feedback sensitivity in ADHD : An Evoked Heart Rate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that has previously been related to a decreased sensitivity to errors and feedback. Supplementary to the traditional performance measures, this study uses autonomic measures to study this decreased sensitivity in ADHD and th

  17. Methylphenidate and Play Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Sagady, Amie E.; McAuliffe-Bellin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 9-12% of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Although psychostimulant medication is often the primary treatment modality, little is known regarding the effects of such agents on social interactions and play in this population. Additionally, the role of ADHD symptoms in social and…

  18. Meta-analysis of Effectiveness of Methylphenidate on the Rate of ADHD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Jamali-Paghale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, psychologists and psychiatrists in the field of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD have been research doing for measurement of validity and efficiency of available treatment and. In this regard, meta-analysis integrates the results of different studies then determines the effect size of drug treatment.This study seeks to investigate the effective rate of methylphenidateon on reducing ADHD symptoms by following the meta-analysis model.Materials and Methods: 21 Studies which were methodologically accepted were selected and meta-analysis was done on them. The research tool was meta-analysis check list.Results: the result indicated that rate of effect size drug treatment on reducing ADHD symptoms was 0.71 (p≤ 0.001. This rate of effective size according to Cohen table was higher than average and considered.Conclusion: Therefore, it seems that methylphenidateon can be applied as proper treatments for individuals suffering from ADHD symptoms.

  19. Meta-analysis of Effectiveness of Methylphenidate on the Rate of ADHD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Somaye Jamali-Paghale; Ahmad Abedi; Elham Aghaei; Salar Faramarzi; Arezou Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, psychologists and psychiatrists in the field of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) have been research doing for measurement of validity and efficiency of available treatment and. In this regard, meta-analysis integrates the results of different studies then determines the effect size of drug treatment.This study seeks to investigate the effective rate of methylphenidateon on reducing ADHD symptoms by following the meta-analysis model.Materials and Met...

  20. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patch and then wash your hands well with soap and water.To apply the patch, follow these steps: Wash and dry the skin in the area where you plan to apply the patch. Be sure that the skin is free of powders, oils, and lotions. Open the tray that contains the ...

  1. Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

  2. Aspects of ADHD in adults : neurocognitive functioning, actigraphy, effects of methylphenidate, and association with genetic polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Aukje Marije

    2006-01-01

    The current thesis encompasses a number of empirical, clinical studies into various aspects of ADHD in adults. The common theme of the studies and thereby the overall aim of the thesis is to further substantiate the external validity (especially the concurrent and predictive validity) of the diagnos

  3. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, d...

  4. MR imaging of the effects of methylphenidate on brain structure and function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Durston, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the first-choice pharmacological intervention for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The pharmacological and behavioral effects of methylphenidate are well described, but less is known about neurochemical brain changes induced by methylphenidate. Thi

  5. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  6. Methylphenidate improves response inhibition but not reflection–impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    DeVito, Elise E.; Blackwell, Andrew D.; Clark, Luke; Kent, Lindsey; Dezsery, Anna Maria; Turner, Danielle C; Aitken, Michael R.F.; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity is a cardinal feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is thought to underlie many of the cognitive and behavioural symptoms associated with the disorder. Impairments on some measures of impulsivity have been shown to be responsive to pharmacotherapy. However, impulsivity is a multi-factorial construct and the degree to which different forms of impulsivity contribute to impairments in ADHD or respond to pharmacological treatments remains unclear....

  7. The adolescent outcome of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder treated with methylphenidate or methylphenidate combined with multimodal behaviour therapy: results of a naturalistic follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Oord; P.J.M. Prins; J. Oosterlaan; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who participated in a randomized clinical trial, which compared a brief intensive multimodal behaviour therapy combined with optimally titrated methylphenidate to optimally titrated methylphenidate alone (n = 45), were reassess

  8. Preventative treatment in an animal model of ADHD: Behavioral and biochemical effects of methylphenidate and its interactions with ovarian hormones in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Freund, Nadja; Thompson, Britta S; Meda, Shirisha; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-09-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p.o.) between P20-35 and tested during late adolescence/young adulthood (P60); half of these subjects underwent ovariectomy at P55 to determine hormonal influences. Females with 6-OHDA were depleted of PFC dopamine by 61% and demonstrated increased impulsive choice (delayed discounting) and preferences for cocaine-associated environments relative to control females. Both MPH and ovariectomy reduced impulsive choice and cocaine preferences in 6-OHDA females, but had no enduring effect in Sham females. Ovariectomy itself did not significantly affect impulsivity. Juvenile MPH interacted strongly with 6-OHDA to increase D4, D5, Alpha-1A, Alpha-2A, and 5-HT-1A mRNA receptor expression in the PFC. MPH alone effected D1 mRNA, while 6-OHDA increased BDNF; all markers were decreased by ovariectomy. Together, these data suggest that 6-OHDA changes in dopamine are not only relevant for ADHD-like behaviors, but their long-term modulation by treatment and the influence of cyclical differences in menstrual cycle. PMID:27397110

  9. ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been a problem. Schools can also play a part in helping students with ADHD. Most schools will develop a plan ... they head off to college or start a job. When the time comes for you to do this, you may ...

  10. Dissociation in Response to Methylphenidate on Response Variability in a Group of Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A.; Barry, Edwina; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Cox, Marie; Kelly, Simon P.; Daibhis, Aoife; Daly, Michael; Keavey, Michelle; Watchorn, Amy; Fitzgerald, Michael; McNicholas, Fiona; Kirley, Aiveen; Robertson, Ian H.; Gill, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Increased variability in reaction time (RT) has been proposed as a cardinal feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increased variability during sustained attention tasks may reflect inefficient fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuitry; activity within these circuits is modulated by the catecholamines. A disruption to…

  11. Task-Related Default Mode Network Modulation and Inhibitory Control in ADHD: Effects of Motivation and Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Hollis, Chris; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Totman, John J.; Liotti, Mario; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including poor attention and inhibitory control, are at least partially alleviated by factors that increase engagement of attention, suggesting a hypodopaminergic reward deficit. Lapses of attention are associated with attenuated deactivation of the default…

  12. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...

  13. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  14. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Roos, M.; Minova, A.; Eijken, E.J.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kenemans, J.L.; Verbaten, M.N.; Olivier, B.; Volkerts, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial e

  15. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects. PMID:27409720

  16. Commentary: RCT of Optimal Dose Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Severe ADHD and ID--A Reply to Arnold (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Taylor, Eric; Baird, Gillian; Bernard, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The commentary by Arnold (2013) raises a number of interesting issues and speculations about the action of methylphenidate in children with intellectual disability (ID) and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. In our article (Simonoff et al., 2013), we were careful to stick closely to the statistical analysis…

  17. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  18. Buspirone versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind and Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita; Shahrbabaki, Mahin Eslami; Razjouyan, Katayoon; Amini, Homayoun; Mazhabdar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of buspirone compared with methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 34 children with ADHD as defined by DSM-IV-TR were randomized to buspirone or methylphenidate dosed on weight-adjusted basis at buspirone (0.5 mg/kg/day) and methylphenidate…

  19. Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Short, Elizabeth J.; McNamara, Nora K.; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Whipkey, Resaca; Manos, Michael J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of youths aged 5 to 17 years with bipolar disorder (BD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. The trial observation showed that euthymic youths with BD and ADHD might benefit from short-term concomitant treatment with methylphenidate.

  20. Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, N.; Fallon, S.J.; Schouwenburg, M. van; Schaaf, M.; Buitelaar, J.; Jensen, O.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salien

  1. Questões atuais no tratamento farmacológico do TDAH em adultos com metilfenidato Actual issues in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD in adults with methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R. Louzã

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento farmacológico do transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade (TDAH em adultos inclui o uso de psicoestimulantes, antidepressivos e atomoxetina, sendo o primeiro considerado a indicação de primeira escolha. A eficácia do metilfenidato foi demonstrada em adultos quando se empregavam doses maiores, proporcionalmente similares àquelas usadas em estudos em crianças. O perfil de eventos adversos do metilfenidato, incluindo aqueles relativos ao sistema cardiovascular, parece bastante seguro.Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood includes psychostimulants, antidepressants and atomoxetine, the first of them being considered the first choice. Methylphenidate efficacy has been demonstrated in adults when higher doses were used, in a proportionate similar way to what has been described in children. Methylphenidate profile of adverse events, including cardiovascular ones, seems to be safe.

  2. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  3. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  4. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  5. Delta Plots in the study of individual differences: New tools reveal response inhibition deficits in AD/HD That are eliminated by methylphenidate treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Ridderinkhof; A. Scheres; J. Oosterlaan; J.A. Sergeant

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  6. Delta Plots in the Study of Individual Differences : New Tools Reveal Response Inhibition Deficits in AD-HD That Are Eliminated by Methylphenidate Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  7. Transdermal delivery: product and patent update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Babu, R J

    2013-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive alternative to the oral and parenteral drug delivery. Drugs which are prone to first-pass metabolism can be delivered easily in small doses with sustained blood levels through this method. An update to available products along with a review of clinical trials and patents are discussed in this study. In this review, we have compiled 16 drugs, i.e. Buprenorphine, Clonidine, Estradiol, Fentanyl, Granisetron, Lidocaine, Methylphenidate, Nicotine, Nitroglycerin, Oxybutynin, Rivastigmine, Rotigotine, Scopolamine, Selegiline, Testosterone, Influenza virus vaccine (Microneedle) and covering about 22 marketed products on the transdermal system. We present instrumental information on them along with the compilation of current clinical trials on transdermal systems. We summarize the contents of patents granted in last 5 years under different pharmacological categories. This article serves, accordingly as a source of available information focused on transdermal drug delivery research. PMID:24025130

  8. Methylphenidate produces selective enhancement of declarative memory consolidation in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Linssen, A. M. W.; Vuurman, E.F.P.M.; Sambeth, A; Riedel, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline and is used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Besides reducing behavioral symptoms, it improves their cognitive function. There are also observations of methylphenidate-induced cognition enhancement in healthy adults, although studies in this area are relatively sparse. We assessed the possible memory-enhancing properties of methylphenidate. Objective In the current study, the p...

  9. Efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in 45 adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.J.; Burger, H.; Boonstra, A.M.; Linden, P.D. van der; Kalma, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking in Europe. This study was undertaken to report on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in an adult out-patient population with ADHD, and to compare results

  10. LETTER TO THE EDITOR - COMMENTS ON CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS IN CHILDREN TREATED WITH METHYLPHENIDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent report by El-Zein et al. suggests that chromosome alterations may be a consequence of short-term methylphenidate use for the treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The report concludes that 3 months of treatment with methylphenidate...

  11. Actigraphic Recording of Manic Symptoms Induced by Methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Lahti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterized by a long-standing pattern of impulsive behavior, hyperkinesia, and inattention. Psychostimulants, for example, methylphenidate, are the treatment of choice for ADHD both in children, adolescents, and adults. Method. The effect of methylphenidate on sleep structure is not well known. We studied the effect of long-acting methylphenidate on sleep in adult ADHD patients, in a naturalistic treatment setting, using actigraphic and polysomnographic recordings. Results. One of our patients experienced manic episode after starting methylphenidate. A wrist-worn accelerometer recording demonstrated a decrease in the duration and quality of sleep. After discontinuation of methylphenidate treatment, the patient's symptoms subsided and there was no need for hospital admission. Actigraphic recording showed a decrease in the amount and quality of the patient's sleep as triggering factor for the manic symptoms. Conclusions. Disruptions of the sleep-wake cycle are probably important etiologic factors in mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder. The changes in length and quality of sleep described in this case report bear close resemblance to those of patients with a manic episode, although these symptoms were induced by methylphenidate.

  12. Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance study

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Austin, Glenn; Kirkorian, Gary; Ridlehuber, Hugh W.; Desmond, John E.; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Functional MRI revealed differences between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls in their frontal–striatal function and its modulation by methylphenidate during response inhibition. Children performed two go/no-go tasks with and without drug. ADHD children had impaired inhibitory control on both tasks. Off-drug frontal–striatal activation during response inhibition differed between ADHD and healthy children: ADHD children had greater frontal activ...

  13. ADHD Meds May Pose Heart Risks for Some Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADHD Meds May Pose Heart Risks for Some Kids Study found slightly higher chance of irregular heartbeat ... when putting a child on methylphenidate, Pratt added. Kids with existing congenital heart disease are most affected ...

  14. Nucleus accumbens lesions modulate the effects of Methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Podet, Adam; Lee, Min J.; Swann, Alan C.; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD, Ritalin) is the prescribed drug of choice for treatment of ADHD. In recent years, the diagnosis rate of ADHD has increased dramatically, as have the number of MPD prescriptions. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants produces behavioral sensitization in rats, an experimental indicator of a drug’s potential liability. In studies on cocaine and amphetamine, this effect has been reported to involve the nucleus accumbens (NAc), one of the nuclei belonging ...

  15. Does Methylphenidate Affect Cystometric Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Park, Geun Ho; Cho, Sung Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is limited research on its effects on lower urinary tract function. This study investigated changes in cystometric parameters after intragastric administration of MPH in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Fourteen- to 16-week-old male SHRs (n=10), weighing between 280 and 315 g, were used. Th...

  16. ADHD in Substance Use Disorders : Prevalence and Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Konstenius, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention deficit /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are persistent and prevailing disorders that conjointly are associated with negative lifeevents and mental distress. The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the rate of ADHD in substance using populations and to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of methylphenidate pharmacotherapy for treatment of co-existing ADHD and SUD. The prevalence of ADHD was investigated in Studies I and II...

  17. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is…

  18. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; vanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  19. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective? (vol 130, pg 40, 1997)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; Manor, O; VanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  20. The Influences of Methylphenidate and Tomoxetine on the Function of HPA in Children with ADHD%哌甲酯及托莫西汀对注意缺陷多动障碍儿童HPA轴功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕惠; 陈辉; 刘艳艳; 林桂秀; 韦立新; 洪艳玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过研究哌甲酯(MPH)及托莫西汀(ATX)治疗前后注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)儿童下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺(HPA)轴的功能状态,探讨HPA轴在ADHD中的作用.方法:采用前瞻、双盲、随机对照研究方法,根据美国(第4版)(DSM-IV)ADHD诊断和分型标准确诊111例6~14岁ADHD男童,其中注意缺陷为主型(ADHD-I)33例,多动-冲动为主型(ADHD-HI)30例,混合型(ADHD-C)48例,对照组为年龄匹配健康男童35名.31例ADHD儿童随机给予MPH治疗和ATX治疗,于治疗前和治疗后1个月进行皮质醇测定.血浆皮质醇测定采用全自动微粒酶免疫分析法,于上午8:00空腹抽血测定.结果:ADHD各组血浆皮质醇水平[(236.12±109.77)nmol/L)均较对照组[(353.32±112.75)nmol/L)明显降低(P<0.01).ADHD-HI组[(177.62±62.99)nmol/L )]下降程度较ADHD-I组[(246.71±129.27)nmol/L,P<0.05]及ADHD-C组[(265.41±106.00)nmol/L,P<0.01]为著.31例ADHD男童,治疗后皮质醇浓度(249.84±87.86)nmol/L高于治疗前的(164.94±48.98)nmol/L(P<0.001),而治疗后符合DSM-IV的症状数中位数(M/QR)为10/3分,低于治疗前的12/4分(P<0.01).结论:在非应激状态下,ADHD儿童存在着HPA轴调节功能障碍,这可能系HPA轴低反应性所致.哌甲酯和托莫西汀均能提高ADHD患儿的皮质醇水平,皮质醇的提高与行为的改善密切相关.%Objective:To explore the relationship between hypothalanns-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and ADHD. The function of HPA axis in children with ADHD has been investigated before and after the treatment of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine ( ATX).Methods: The clinical study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized case-control trail. One hundred and eleven male children with ADHD between the ages of 6 to 14 years old were included in this study. The diagnosis of ADHD and its tiree subtypes were according to the handbook for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by American Psychiatric Association ( DSM-iV). Among all the cases there were 33

  1. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Mostafavi; Seyed Ali Keshavarz; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad.Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Maryam Chamari,; Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods: Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (...

  2. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed Ali; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Kooshesh, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Chamari, Maryam; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1...

  3. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study.

  4. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p cannabis, opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study. PMID:25605438

  5. 托莫西汀对哌甲酯治疗无效的注意缺陷多动障碍患儿的疗效和安全性分析%Efficacy and Safety of Tomoxetine on ADHD Children That Underwent Ineffective Treatment with Methylphenidate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 顾教伟; 王大斌

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究托莫西汀对哌甲酯治疗无效的注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患儿的疗效和安全性.方法:对39例经哌甲酯治疗3~6个月无效的ADHD患儿给予托莫西汀治疗8周,分别于第4周和第8周采用Conners父母症状问卷评分评估其疗效和安全性.结果:托莫西汀治疗4周后,26例患儿症状得到缓解;8周后,28例患儿有效;Conners父母症状问卷评分品行、学习、心身障碍、冲动-多动、焦虑因子和多动指数均较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05).结论:托莫西汀可用于哌甲酯治疗无效的ADHD患儿,其不良反应轻微,可耐受.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of tomoxetine on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHA) in children with ineffective treatment by methylphenidate. Methods Tomoxetine was administrated for 8 weeks in 39 patients with ADHA unresponsive to 3 to 6 months treatment of methylphenidate. Conner's parents symptom questionnaire ( PSQ) was employed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tomoxetine at 4 and 8 weeks. Results The clinical symptom was relieved in 26 patients with 4-week treatment of tomoxetine and in 28 patients with 8-week treatment. The scores in the subscales of Conner's PSQ were reduced significantly after treatment(P < 0. 05) ,including behavior scale, learning problem, psychosomatic problems, opposition-hyperactivity, anxious factor and hyperactivity scale. Conclusion Tomoxetine could be effectively and well tolerated used for treatment of childhood ADHD unresponsive to methylphenidate.

  6. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    M Karahmadi; H Esmaili

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin) is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive d...

  7. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica;

    2015-01-01

    with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. STUDY ANSWER AND LIMITATIONS: The analyses included 38 parallel...... and general behaviour and parent reported quality of life. However, given the risk of bias in the included studies, and the very low quality of outcomes, the magnitude of the effects is uncertain. Methylphenidate is associated with an increased risk of non-serious but not serious adverse events. FUNDING......STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...

  8. Atomoxetine Open-Label Trial in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine (originally named tomoxetine, a new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD marketed by Eli Lilly, was compared to methylphenidate in a prospective, randomized, open-label study for 10 weeks duration, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Carolinas Medical Center, and Lilly Research Laboratories.

  9. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  10. Transdermal selegiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Ashwin A; Pae, Chi-Un; Zarzar, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Although older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective in the treatment of depressive disorders, they are underutilized in clinical practice due to main concerns about interaction with tyramine-containing food, and side effects. Efforts to address these safety issues led to the development of a transdermal formulation of selegiline, called selegiline transdermal system (STS). STS has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of major depression. Transdermal administration of selegiline bypasses gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass metabolism. Therefore, STS permits inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B enzymes in the brain while preserving the activity of MAO-A in the gastrointestinal system, thereby minimizing the risk of possible interactions with tyramine-rich foods. Tyramine challenge tests have confirmed that dietary modifications are not required with the 6 mg STS. The FDA has required dietary modifications with the 9 mg and 12 mg STS. Compared to oral administration, transdermal selegiline leads to sustained (minimal peak-trough fluctuations) plasma concentrations of the parent compound, increasing the amount of drug delivered to the brain. The efficacy of STS has been established in several short-term and one long-term randomized controlled trials. In clinical trials, application site reactions and insomnia were observed more frequently with STS than placebo. Rates of orthostatic hypotension, sexual dysfunction and weight gain were comparable between STS and placebo. STS is a new generation of MAOI with superior safety profile to older MAOIs. It increases the pharmacological options available to treat depressive disorders and may benefit patients with major depression with atypical features and resistant depression. It is important for health-care professionals to be informed about the properties of STS. PMID:17612708

  11. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano, Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto, Sandra; Muszkat, Mauro; Gattás, Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; de Andrade, Ênio Roberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; do Rosário, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate. PMID:26061456

  12. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  13. Comparison of Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 and Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) in Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dashti, Naser; Hekmat, Hoda; Soltani, Hamid Reza; Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Javaherchian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin®), used to treat patients with ADHD. Me...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Niko; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at

  15. The effect of methylphenidate on oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder O efeito do metilfenidato sobre o transtorno opositivo-desafiador comórbido com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro; Paulo Mattos; Isabella de Souza; Giuseppe Pastura; Fernanda Gomes

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of methylphenidate on the diagnosis of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We conducted an open-label study in which 10 children and adolescents with a dual diagnosis of ODD and ADHD were assessed for their ODD symptoms and treated with methylphenidate. At least one month after ADHD symptoms were under control, ODD symptoms were reevaluated with the Parent form of the Children Interview for ...

  16. Effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on learning skills in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Hong, Sungdo David; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Shim, Se-Hoon; Choi, Jeewook; Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Joung, Yoo-Sook; Kim, Eui-Jung; Park, Joon-Ho

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate on learning skills in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In an open-label study, 121 adolescents with ADHD were administered flexible doses of OROS methylphenidate for 12 weeks. The efficacy of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms was evaluated by ADHD Rating Scale (ARS) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). Learning Skills Test (LST) was used to measure the learning skills of the participants at the baseline and the endpoint. Continuous performance test, visuospatial and verbal working memory, verbal fluency, and inhibition were evaluated before and after the 12 weeks of treatment. The mean total and subscores of LST were significantly increased after the 12-week treatment with OROS methylphenidate. Executive functions were also improved during the trial, with the exception of inhibition measured by the Stroop Test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the influence of OROS methylphenidate on learning skill. As a result, OROS methylphenidate was effective in enhancing learning skills in adolescents with ADHD.

  17. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  18. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of three fixed dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medori, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Trott, G.E.; Lee, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and the need to evaluate efficacy and safety of methylphenidate treatment in these patients. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 401 adults with ADHD (218 men; 18-63 years) were randomly assigne

  19. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  20. School-Based Administration of ADHD Drugs Decline, along with Diversion, Theft, and Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Bucher, Richard H.; Wilford, Bonnie B.; Coleman, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000 researchers have reported a decline in the administration of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications given by school nurses, although no decline has been noted in the incidence of ADHD in school-age populations. Government data for the same period show reduced levels of methylphenidate abuse as measured by its…

  1. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Methylphenidate Dose-Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Nick, Todd G.; Melguizo Castro, Maria S.; Stein, Mark A.; Brinkman, William B.; Graham, Amanda J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. Method:…

  2. Animal Model of Methylphenidate's Longterm Memory-Enhancing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a…

  3. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  4. Alterations in brain neurotrophic and glial factors following early age chronic methylphenidate and cocaine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchon-Tenenbaum, Yaarit; Weizman, Abraham; Rehavi, Moshe

    2015-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) overdiagnosis and a pharmacological attempt to increase cognitive performance, are the major causes for the frequent (ab)use of psychostimulants in non-ADHD individuals. Methylphenidate is a non-addictive psychostimulant, although its mode of action resembles that of cocaine, a well-known addictive and abused drug. Neuronal- and glial-derived growth factors play a major role in the development, maintenance and survival of neurons in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that methylphenidate and cocaine treatment affect the expression of such growth factors. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 14, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated chronically with either cocaine or methylphenidate. The rats were examined behaviorally and biochemically at several time points (PND 35, 56, 70 and 90). On PND 56, rats treated with cocaine or methylphenidate from PND 14 through PND 35 exhibited increased hippocampal glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA levels, after 21 withdrawal days, compared to the saline-treated rats. We found a significant association between cocaine and methylphenidate treatments and age progression in the prefrontal protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neither treatments affected the behavioral parameters, although acute cocaine administration was associated with increased locomotor activity. It is possible that the increased hippocampal GDNF mRNA levels, may be relevant to the reduced rate of drug seeking behavior in ADHD adolescence that were maintained from childhood on methylphenidate. BDNF protein level increase with age, as well as following stimulant treatments at early age may be relevant to the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of ADHD. PMID:25576963

  5. Dopamine and Norepinephrine Receptors Participate in Methylphenidate Enhancement of In Vivo Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Jenson, Daniel; Yang, Kechun; Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Levine, Amber; Broussard, John I.; Tang, Jianrong; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children. Methylphenidate (MPH, e.g., Ritalin) has been used to treat ADHD for over 50 years. It is the most commonly prescribed treatment for ADHD, and in the past decade it was the drug most commonly prescribed to teenagers. In addition, MPH has become one of the most widely abused drugs on college campuses. In this study, we examined the effects of MPH on hippocampal synaptic pl...

  6. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  7. The Effect of Animal-assisted Play Therapy (AAT on Improving the Life Quality of Parents having Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children Treated with Methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Motarabesoun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children is considered to be one of the most widespread neuro-behavioral disorders in children, which is typically characterized by problems such as poor educational performance, communication difficulties and other social inconsistencies. Timely identification and treatment of this disorder can result in significant improvement in their individual and social performances and it can reduce the symptoms of this disorder. Nowadays, play therapy is regarded as one of the recent treatments. One type of play therapy is referred to as animal-assisted play therapy. Methodology: This study was based on a single case study in which two children with ADHD were studied. Before the treatment intervention, the life quality questionnaire (SF-36 was conducted on three consecutive days as the baseline. Then, based on the designed operational procedure, the stages of treatment intervention were carried out with a domestic animal (rabbit within six 45-minute sessions. At the end of the two treatment sessions and during the whole intervention period, the dependent variable, the effect size and improvement rate were measured. Results: the results of the study indicated that the experimented animal-assisted play therapy was statistically significant for both children (P< 0.05. However, the rate of improvement in clinical terms was not meaningfully significant. Conclusion: with respect to the obtained significant differences in eye diagrams and the calculated physical and mental health indexes and the statistical significance of the effect size, it can be concluded that animal-assisted play therapy can contribute to the relative improvement of the life quality of these children’s parents. Keywords: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children; animal-assisted play therapy; life quality of ADHD children’s parents;

  8. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Induced Insomnia in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Lake, Marybeth; Pliszka, Steven R.; Walkup, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined subtype, and oppositional defiant disorder presents with a complaint of marked insomnia. Her parents describe 60 to 90 minutes of nightly initial insomnia that began with the initiation of 36 mg OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) 2 months ago. Behavioral interventions…

  9. Evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker, W D; Hedayat, M

    2001-09-01

    Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychologic conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. The stimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine remain the pharmacologic agents of first choice for the management of ADHD. These agents are equally effective in improving the core symptoms of the disorder, but individual children may respond better to one stimulant medication than to another. Achievement of maximal benefit may require titration of the initial dosage and dosing before breakfast, before lunch and in the afternoon. The family physician should tailor the treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child and family. Psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in the child with ADHD. PMID:11563573

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Methylphenidate Affects the Dopamine System and the Reactivity to Natural Reward in Adulthood in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lepelletier, François-Xavier; Tauber, Clovis; NICOLAS, Céline; Solinas, Marcello; Castelnau, Pierre; Belzung, Catherine; Emond, Patrick; Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Chalon, Sylvie; Galineau, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly-used medication for the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). However, its prescription to adults with ADHD and narcolepsy raises the question of how the brain is impacted by MPH exposure during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to elucidate the long-term neurobiological consequences of prenatal exposure to MPH using a rat model. Methods: We focused on the effects of such treatment on the adult dopamine...

  11. Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Sams, Susan E.; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced…

  12. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  13. Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-01-01

    Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder. PMID:26693882

  14. Motivational Incentives and Methylphenidate Enhance Electrophysiological Correlates of Error Monitoring in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and/or inattention and are particularly impaired when performing tasks that require a high level of cognitive control. Methylphenidate (MPH) and motivational incentives may help improve…

  15. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  16. A pilot study for augmenting atomoxetine with methylphenidate: safety of concomitant therapy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Susan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined augmenting atomoxetine with extended-release methylphenidate in children whose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD previously failed to respond adequately to stimulant medication. Methods Children with ADHD and prior stimulant treatment (N = 25 received atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg/day plus placebo. After 4 weeks, patients who were responders (n = 4 were continued on atomoxetine/placebo while remaining patients were randomly assigned to either methylphenidate (ATX/MPH (1.1 mg/kg/day or placebo augmentation (ATX/PB for another 6 weeks. Patients and sites were blind to timing of active augmentation. Safety measures included vital signs, weight, and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by ADHD rating scales. Results Categorical increases in vital signs occurred for 5 patients (3 patients in ATX/MPH, 2 patients in ATX/PBO. Sixteen percent discontinued the study due to AE, but no difference between augmentation groups. Atomoxetine treatment was efficacious on outcome measures (P ≤ .001, but methylphenidate did not enhance response. Conclusion Methylphenidate appears to be safely combined with atomoxetine, but conclusions limited by small sample. With atomoxetine treatment, 43% of patients achieved normalization on ADHD ratings.

  17. Response to methylphenidate by adult and pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Spanish multicenter DIHANA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán-Usón, JR; Cánovas-Martínez, A; De Lucas-Taracena, MT; Díaz-Atienza, F; Eddy-Ives, LS; Fernández-Jaén, A; Fernández-Pérez, M; García-Giral, M; García-Magán, P; Garraus-Oneca, M; Idiazábal-Alecha, MA; López-Benito, M; Lorenzo-Sanz, G; Martínez-Antón, J; Martínez-Granero, MA; Montañés-Rada, F; Mulas-Delgado, F; Ochando-Perales, G; Ortega-García, E; Pelaz-Antolín, A; Ramos-Quiroga, JA; Ruiz-Sanz, FC; Vaquerizo-Madrid, J; Yusta-Izquierdo, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this multicenter Spanish study was to evaluate the response to immediate-release methylphenidate by children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to obtain information on current therapy patterns and safety characteristics. Methods: This multicenter, observational, retrospective, noninterventional study included 730 patients aged 4–65 years with a diagnosis of ADHD. Information was obtained based on a review of medical records for the years 2002–2006 in sequential order. Results: The ADHD predominantly inattentive subtype affected 29.7% of patients, ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive was found in 5.2%, and the combined subtype in 65.1%. Overall, a significant lower Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score and mean number of DSM-IV TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision) symptoms by subtype were found after one year of treatment with immediate-release methylphenidate; CGI decreased from 4.51 to 1.69, symptoms of inattention from 7.90 to 4.34, symptoms of hyperactivity from 6.73 to 3.39, and combined subtype symptoms from 14.62 to 7.7. Satisfaction with immediate-release methylphenidate after one year was evaluated as “very satisfied” or “satisfied” by 86.90% of the sample; 25.75% of all patients reported at least one adverse effect. At the end of the study, 41.47% of all the patients treated with immediate-release methylphenidate were still receiving it, with a mean time of 3.80 years on therapy. Conclusion: Good efficacy and safety results were found for immediate-release methylphenidate in patients with ADHD. PMID:23430373

  18. Selegiline in Comparison with Methylphenidate in Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit yperactivity Disorder: A Double-blind, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: "n "nAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . "nMethod: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. "nResults: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . "nConclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies .

  19. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin (1mg/kg, and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1mg/kg. ADHD rating scale and sleep patterns questionnaires were completed. Research hypotheses were assessed at the baseline, the second, fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment.Results: The mean sleep latency and total sleep disturbance scores were reduced in melatonin group, while the scores increased in the placebo group (p≥0.05. Data analysis, using ANOVA with repeated measures, did not show any statistically significant differences between the two groups in ADHD scores.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with methylphenidate can partially improve symptoms of sleep disturbance. However, it does not seem to reduce attention deficiency and hyperactivity behavior of children with ADHD.

  20. Sleep Disturbances and Epileptiform Activity in a Subpopulation of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD: A Literature Review Generating an Hypothesis with Implications for Drug Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Miller

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of electroencephalography and sleep studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the associated behavioral disorders is reviewed. Based on the available literature, we propose a hypothesis indicating four subtypes of ADHD. The usefulness of EEGs and sleep laboratory indices in detecting a subgroup of patients with submaximal responses to methylphenidate is also discussed.

  1. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Liebrenz Michael; Hof Danielle; Buadze Anna; Stohler Rudolf; Eich Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin®) and 20 mg sustai...

  2. Methylphenidate and the Juvenile Brain: Enhancement of Attention at the Expense of Cortical Plasticity?

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Kimberly R.; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug for juveniles and adolescents. Used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals, it has been regarded as a relatively safe medication for the past several decades. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that the age-dependent activities of the drug, as well as potential developmental effects, are largely ignored. In addition, the diagnosis...

  3. Descending glutamatergic pathways of PFC are involved in acute and chronic action of Methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Wanchoo, S.J.; Swann, A.C.; Dafny, N

    2009-01-01

    Progressive augmentation of behavioral response following repeated psychostimulant administrations is known as behavioral sensitization, and is an indicator of a drug’s liability for abuse. It is known that methylphenidate (MPD) (also known as Ritalin), a drug used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), induces sensitization in animals following repeated injections. It was recently reported that bilateral electric (non-specific) lesion of prefrontal cortex (PFC) prevented M...

  4. Selegiline Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transdermal selegiline is used to treat depression. Selegiline is in a class of medications called monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances that are needed to maintain ...

  5. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of thedrug occurs by means of skin. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitationof hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steadyplasma level of the drug. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the activeingredients into the circulatory system via skin. This review article covers a brief outline of theprinciples of transdermal permeation, various components of transdermal patch, approaches oftransdermal patch, evaluation of transdermal system, its application with its limitation.

  6. [Transdermal Delivery of NSAIDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko

    2015-11-01

    Skin has been studied as administration site of drug for its systemic effects, since systemic therapeutic agents can be delivered for long time with a controlled ratio, escaping from the first pass effect by liver by the transdermal delivery, which can decrease the dosage form. The low permeability of drug molecules through stratum corneum has been the limiting factor for developing transdermal delivery system of therapeutic agents. To enhance the permeability of drug molecules, many studies have been reported. PMID:26689064

  7. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account.

  8. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account. PMID:24311027

  9. Effects of methylphenidate on sensitivity to reinforcement in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an application of the matching law.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, L. K.; Kollins, S H

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hypothesized to be the result of decreased sensitivity to consequences compared to typical children. The present study examined sensitivity to reinforcement in 2 boys diagnosed with ADHD using the matching law to provide more precise and quantitative measurement of this construct. This experiment also evaluated the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on sensitivity to reinforcement of children with A...

  10. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  11. Prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model showing hyperactivity, reduced cingulate cortex volume, reduced dopamine turnover and responsiveness to oral methylphenidate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinmin; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Yuehang; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, nicotine replacement therapy and smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy are associated with cognitive disabilities later in life in children exposed prenatally to nicotine. The disabilities include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder. However, the structural and neurochemical bases of these cognitive deficits remain unclear. Using a mouse model we show that prenatal nicotine exposure produces hyperactivity, selective decreases in cingulate cortical volume and radial thickness as well as decreased dopamine turnover in the frontal cortex. The hyperactivity occurs in both male and female offspring and peaks during the “active” or dark phase of the light-dark cycle. These features of the mouse model closely parallel the human ADHD phenotype, whether or not the ADHD is associated with prenatal nicotine exposure. A single oral, but not intraperitoneal, administration of a therapeutic equivalent dose (0.75 mg/kg) of methylphenidate decreases the hyperactivity and increases the dopamine turnover in the frontal cortex of the prenatally nicotine exposed mice, once again paralleling the therapeutic effects of this compound in ADHD subjects. Collectively, our data suggest that the prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model has striking parallels to the ADHD phenotype not only in behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurochemical features but also with respect to responsiveness of the behavioral phenotype to methylphenidate treatment. The behavioral, neurochemical and anatomical biomarkers in the mouse model could be valuable for evaluating new therapies for ADHD and mechanistic investigations into its etiology. PMID:22764249

  12. Prefrontal grey and white matter neurometabolite changes after atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarova, Veronika; Bittsansky, Michal; Ondrejka, Igor; Dobrota, Dusan

    2014-04-30

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral childhood disorder. Dysfunction of prefrontal neural circuits which are responsible for executive and attentional functions has been previously shown in ADHD. We investigated the neurometablite changes in areas included in dorsolateral prefrontal neural circuits after 2 months of long-acting methylphenidate or atomoxetine medication in children with ADHD who were responders to treatment. Twenty-one ADHD children were examined by single voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) before and after 2 months of medication with OROS methylphenidate (n=10) or atomoxetine (n=11). The spectra were taken from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, 8ml) and white matter behind the DLPFC (anterior semioval center, 7.5ml), bilaterally. NAA and NAA/Cr (N-acetylaspartate/creatine) decreased in the left DLPFC and Cho/Cr (choline/creatine) increased in the right DLPFC after atomoxetine medication. Glu+Gln and Glu+Gln/Cr (glutamate/glutamine) increased in the left white matter after methylphenidate medication. We hypothesize that atomoxetine could decrease hyperactivation of DLPFC neurons and methylphenidate could lead to increased activation of cortical glutamatergic projections with the consequences of increased tonic dopamine release in the mesocortical system.

  13. Association among SNAP-25 Gene "Dd"eI and "Mnl"I Polymorphisms and Hemodynamic Changes during Methylphenidate Use: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ozgur; Akin, Ata; Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Ciftci, Koray; Ay, Mustafa Ertan; Bicer, Duygu; Oncu, Bedriye; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Munir, Kerim; Yazgan, Yanki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interaction of treatment-related hemodynamic changes with genotype status for Synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) gene in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on and off single dose short-acting methylphenidate treatment with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Method:…

  14. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  15. A head-to-head randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment for executive function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Yang, Li-Kuang

    2013-10-01

    Results regarding the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on executive functions were inconsistent and no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two medications in improving executive functions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted an 8-10 wk, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by psychiatric interview. The two treatment arms were immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-methylphenidate) (n = 31) and atomoxetine once daily (n = 32). Executive functions were assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), including spatial working memory, spatial span, intra-extra dimensional set shifts, rapid visual information processing and Stockings of Cambridge (SOC). In addition to the symptom assessments at baseline (week 0), visit 2 (week 4-5) and visit 3 (week 8–10), they received CANTAB assessments at baseline and visit 3 (60.4 ± 6.3 d). Compared to baseline, adults treated with atomoxetine showed significant improvement in spatial working memory, spatial short-term memory, sustained attention and spatial planning at visit 3; adults treated with IR-methylphenidate showed significant improvement in spatial working memory at visit 3. Comparing the magnitude of improvement in executive functions between these two medications, the effect was generally similar for the two groups, although atomoxetine might have significantly greater efficacy than IR-methylphenidate in terms of improving spatial planning (SOC). Our results provide evidence to support that both IR-methylphenidate and atomoxetine improved various executive functions in adults with ADHD with greater improvement in atomoxetine than IR-methylphenidate in spatial planning.

  16. The neurobiological basis of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curatolo Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is not a single pathophysiological entity and appears to have a complex etiology. There are multiple genetic and environmental risk factors with small individual effect that act in concert to create a spectrum of neurobiological liability. Structural imaging studies show that brains of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are significantly smaller than unaffected controls. The prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum are differentially affected and evidence indicating reduced connectivity in white matter tracts in key brain areas is emerging. Genetic, pharmacological, imaging, and animal models highlight the important role of dopamine dysregulation in the neurobiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. To date, stimulants are the most effective psychopharmacological treatments available for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Currently only immediate release methylphenidate and atomoxetine are approved for the treatment of ADHD in Italy. Drug treatment should always be part of a comprehensive plan that includes psychosocial, behavioural and educational advice and interventions.

  17. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  18. Perspectives on Transdermal Electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery offers several advantages, including avoidance of erratic absorption, absence of gastric irritation, painlessness, noninvasiveness, as well as improvement in patient compliance. With this mode of drug administration, there is no pre-systemic metabolism and it is possible to increase drug bioavailability and half-life. However, only a few molecules can be delivered across the skin in therapeutic quantities. This is because of the hindrance provided by the stratum corneum. Several techniques have been developed and used over the last few decades for transdermal drug delivery enhancement. These include sonophoresis, iontophoresis, microneedles, and electroporation. Electroporation, which refers to the temporary perturbation of the skin following the application of high voltage electric pulses, has been used to increase transcutaneous flux values by several research groups. In this review, transdermal electroporation is discussed and the use of the technique for percutaneous transport of low and high molecular weight compounds described. This review also examines our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of electroporation and safety concerns arising from the use of this transdermal drug delivery technique. Safety considerations are especially important because electroporation utilizes high voltage pulses which may have deleterious effects in some cases.

  19. Should we keep on? Looking into pharmacogenomics of ADHD in adulthood from a different perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaris, Diego L; Mota, Nina R; da Silva, Bruna Santos; Girardi, Pricila; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Bau, Claiton Hd; Contini, Verônica

    2014-07-01

    A considerable proportion of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not respond to the treatment with methylphenidate. This scenario could be due to inherited interindividual differences that may alter pharmacologic treatment response. In this sense, in 2012 we conducted a systematic search on PUBMED-indexed literature for articles containing information about pharmacogenomics of ADHD in adults. Five studies were found on methylphenidate pharmacogenomics and the only significant association was reported by one particular study. However, this single association with the SLC6A3 gene was not replicated in two subsequent reports. In the present review, although we could not find additional pharmacogenomics studies, we discuss these up-to-date findings and suggest new approaches for this field. Additionally, using systeomic-oriented databases, we provide a broad picture of new possible candidate genes as well as potential gene-gene interactions to be investigated in pharmacogenomics of persistent ADHD.

  20. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Patel DS; Patel MV; Patel KN; Patel BA; Patel PA

    2012-01-01

    Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS) provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients o...

  1. Behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization between methylphenidate amphetamine, and 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in female SD rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Pamela B; Atkins, Kristal D; Dafny, Nachum

    2011-01-01

    The psychostimulants amphetamine and methylphenidate (MPD / Ritalin) are the drugs most often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, students of all ages take these drugs to improve academic performance but also abuse them for pleasurable enhancement. In addition, other psychostimulants such 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA / ecstasy) are used / abused for similar objectives. One of the experimental markers for the potential of a drug to produce dep...

  2. The effects of clinically relevant doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate on signal detection and DRL in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Spencer, Robert C.; Harris, Rachel L.; Feit, Elizabeth C.; McKee, Brenda L.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Low dose amphetamine (AMPH) and methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®) are the most widely prescribed and most effective pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Certain low, clinically relevant doses of MPH improve sustained attention and working memory in normal rats, in contrast to higher doses that impair cognitive ability and induce locomotor activity. However, the effects of AMPH of MPH on sustained attention and behavioral inhibition remain poorly characterized. Th...

  3. ADHD Medication Trends in Turkey: 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ozgür; Yilmaz, Esra Safak; Karada X011f, Hasan; Vural, Mert; Vural, Elif Hilal; Akbulat, Akif; Gürsöz, Hakk X0131; Türkçapar, Hakan; Kerman, Saim

    2014-02-19

    Objective: To investigate the change of ADHD medication prescriptions in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. Method: Consumption data of ADHD medications, immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), OROS MPH (Concerta), and atomoxetine (Strattera) were obtained from IMS Health database for the November 2008 to October 2013 period. Defined daily dose (DDD) of each drug was calculated according to WHO definitions and time-series analysis was conducted. Results: There was a significant seasonal effect for prescription of all drugs. Annual use of ADHD medications increased 2.18 times for all ADHD medications combined. DDDs per 1,000 population per day for all ADHD medications were 0.28 in 2009, 0.41 in 2010, 0.52 in 2011, and 0.59 in 2012. OROS MPH represented almost 75% of all ADHD medication utilization. Conclusion: As reported from several other countries, ADHD medication use increased in Turkey. Results suggested that over- and underdiagnosis might be seen at the same time. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  4. Acute neuropharmacological effects of atomoxetine on inhibitory control in ADHD children: A fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nagashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the current study is to explore the neural substrate for effects of atomoxetine (ATX on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. We monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of sixteen ADHD children (6–14 years old performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after ATX or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Sixteen age- and gender-matched normal controls without ATX administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the go/no-go task recruited the right inferior and middle prefrontal gyri (IFG/MFG, and this activation was absent in pre-medicated ADHD children. The reduction of right IFG/MFG activation was acutely normalized after ATX administration but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are reminiscent of the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to up-regulate reduced right IFG/MFG function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. As with methylphenidate, activation in the IFG/MFG could serve as an objective neuro-functional biomarker to indicate the effects of ATX on inhibitory control in ADHD children. This promising technique will enhance early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children, especially in those with a hyperactivity/impulsivity phenotype.

  5. Acute neuropharmacological effects of atomoxetine on inhibitory control in ADHD children: a fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masako; Monden, Yukifumi; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Mizutani, Tsutomu; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Gunji, Yuji; Hirano, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Takamichi; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Momoi, Mariko Y; Watanabe, Eiju; Yamagata, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    The object of the current study is to explore the neural substrate for effects of atomoxetine (ATX) on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of sixteen ADHD children (6-14 years old) performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after ATX or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Sixteen age- and gender-matched normal controls without ATX administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the go/no-go task recruited the right inferior and middle prefrontal gyri (IFG/MFG), and this activation was absent in pre-medicated ADHD children. The reduction of right IFG/MFG activation was acutely normalized after ATX administration but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are reminiscent of the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to up-regulate reduced right IFG/MFG function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. As with methylphenidate, activation in the IFG/MFG could serve as an objective neuro-functional biomarker to indicate the effects of ATX on inhibitory control in ADHD children. This promising technique will enhance early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children, especially in those with a hyperactivity/impulsivity phenotype.

  6. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits. PMID:25369623

  7. Exposure to methylphenidate during infancy and adolescence in non-human animals and sensitization to abuse of psychostimulants later in life: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaboinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neuropsychiatric pathology that has an important prevalence among young people and is difficult to diagnose. It is usually treated with methylphenidate, a psychostimulant with a mechanism of action similar to that of cocaine. Previous studies show that repeated use of psychostimulants during childhood or adolescence may sensitize subjects, making them more prone to later abuse of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine.Objective: To review experimental studies in non-human models (rodents and monkeys treated with methylphenidate during infancy or adolescence and tested for reinforcing effects on psychostimulant drugs in adulthood.Method: Systematic collection of data was performed on four databases (Web of Knowledge, PsycARTICLE, PubMed and SciELO. The initial search identified 202 articles published from 2009 to 2014, which were screened for eligibility. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in this study.Results: The findings indicate that early exposure to methylphenidate has an effect on an ADHD animal model, specifically, on spontaneously hypertensive strain rats, especially those tested using the self-administration paradigm.Conclusion:Future studies should prioritize the spontaneously hypertensive rat strain - an animal model of ADHD. Experimental designs comparing different behavioral paradigms and modes of administration using this strain could lead to improved understanding of the effects of exposure to methylphenidate during childhood and adolescence.

  8. Coaching for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcomes after exposure to methylphenidate or atomoxetine during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bro SP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Søren Pauli Bro,1 Maiken Ina Siegismund Kjaersgaard,2 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Merete Juul Sørensen,3 Jørn Olsen,4 Bodil Hammer Bech,4 Lars Henning Pedersen,4,5 Jakob Christensen,6,7 Mogens Vestergaard11Research Unit and Section for General Practice, Department of Public Health, 2Section for Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, 3Regional Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, 4Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, 5Department of Clinical Medicine – Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University, 6Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 7Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkObjective: To determine if prenatal exposure to methylphenidate (MPH or atomoxetine (ATX increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Materials and methods: This was a population-based cohort study of all pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. Information on use of ADHD medication, ADHD diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes was obtained from nationwide registers.Results: We identified 989,932 pregnancies, in which 186 (0.02% women used MPH/ATX and 275 (0.03% women had been diagnosed with ADHD but who did not take MPH/ATX. Our reference pregnancies had no exposure to MPH/ATX and no ADHD diagnosis. Exposure to MPH/ATX was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA; ie, death of an embryo or fetus in the first 22 weeks of gestation (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.36. The risk of SA was also increased in pregnancies where the mother had ADHD but did not use MPH/ATX (aRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.20. The aRR of Apgar scores <10 was increased among exposed women (aRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11–3.82 but not among unexposed women with ADHD (aRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.48–2.05.Conclusion: MPH/ATX was associated with a higher risk of SA, but our study indicated that it may at

  10. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model for ADHD: a short overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Tellez, Ruth; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Diverse studies indicate that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in encoding processes, including working or short-term memory. Some ADHD dysfunctional domains are reflected in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Because ADHD, drugs and animal models are eliciting a growing interest, hence the aim of this work is to present a brief overview with a focus on the SHR as an animal model for ADHD and memory deficits. Thus, this paper reviews the concept of SHR as a model system for ADHD, comparing SHR, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats with a focus on the hypertension level and working, short-term memory and attention in different behavioral tasks, such as open field, five choice serial reaction time, water maze, passive avoidance, and autoshaping. In addition, drug treatments (d-amphetamine and methylphenidate) are evaluated.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of the dopaminergic system has been suggested in patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since the symptoms can be successfully treated with methylphenidate, a potent blocker of the dopamine transporter (DAT). This study reports the findings on the status of the DAT in adults with ADHD before and after commencement of treatment with methylphenidate, as measured using [99mTc]TRODAT-1. Seventeen patients (seven males, ten females, aged 21-64 years, mean 38 years) were examined before and after the initiation of methylphenidate treatment (3 x 5 mg/day). All subjects were injected with 800 MBq [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and imaged 3 h p.i. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans were acquired using a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative evaluation of the DAT, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific binding in the striatum, with the cerebellum used as background [(STR-BKG)/BKG]. Data were compared with an age-matched control group. It was found that untreated patients presented with a significantly increased specific binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the DAT as compared with normal controls [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.43±0.18 vs 1.22±0.06, P<0.001]. Under treatment with methylphenidate, specific binding decreased significantly in all patients [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.00±0.14, P<0.001]. Our findings suggest that the number of DAT binding sites is higher in drug-naive patients suffering from ADHD than in normal controls. The decrease in available DAT binding sites under treatment with methylphenidate correlates well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. The data of this study help to elucidate the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients suffering from ADHD and the effect of treatment with psychoactive drugs. (orig.)

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; LaFougere, C.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich (Germany); Krause, J.; Krause, K.-H. [Inst. for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ottobrunn (Germany); Friedrich Baur Inst., Univ. of Munich (Germany); Kung, H.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Involvement of the dopaminergic system has been suggested in patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since the symptoms can be successfully treated with methylphenidate, a potent blocker of the dopamine transporter (DAT). This study reports the findings on the status of the DAT in adults with ADHD before and after commencement of treatment with methylphenidate, as measured using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1. Seventeen patients (seven males, ten females, aged 21-64 years, mean 38 years) were examined before and after the initiation of methylphenidate treatment (3 x 5 mg/day). All subjects were injected with 800 MBq [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and imaged 3 h p.i. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans were acquired using a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative evaluation of the DAT, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific binding in the striatum, with the cerebellum used as background [(STR-BKG)/BKG]. Data were compared with an age-matched control group. It was found that untreated patients presented with a significantly increased specific binding of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 to the DAT as compared with normal controls [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.43{+-}0.18 vs 1.22{+-}0.06, P<0.001]. Under treatment with methylphenidate, specific binding decreased significantly in all patients [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.00{+-}0.14, P<0.001]. Our findings suggest that the number of DAT binding sites is higher in drug-naive patients suffering from ADHD than in normal controls. The decrease in available DAT binding sites under treatment with methylphenidate correlates well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. The data of this study help to elucidate the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients suffering from ADHD and the effect of treatment with psychoactive drugs. (orig.)

  13. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  14. College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide ... with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face a number of challenges, including ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ... for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication for ADHD will continue to benefit ...

  16. Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Breffni

    2012-03-20

    The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group.

  17. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro eGarcía-Aviles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if methylphenidate administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered methylphenidate doses (1.3; 2.7 and 5mg/Kg to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3mg/Kg methylphenidate; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum, an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the medial septum the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibres did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.

  18. Error patterns on the continuous performance test in non-medicated and medicated samples of children with and without ADHD: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losier, B J; McGrath, P J; Klein, R M

    1996-11-01

    We systematically reviewed the patterns of Continuous Performance Test (CPT) errors of omission and commission exhibited by normal children and children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) under no drug, placebo and methylphenidate drug conditions. Findings from 26 studies were submitted to a meta-analytic procedure. In contrast to the contradictory findings of individual reports, our results revealed that children with ADHD made significantly more errors of omission and commission than normal children. As well, in children with ADHD and treated with methylphenidate, statistically significant reductions in the rate of both error types were noted. The effects of methylphenidate on the percentage of hits (i.e. 1 - omissions) were greater in experiments using shorter stimulus duration, smaller number of trials and higher probability of a target. Using Signal Detection Theory (SDT) parameters, we found that children with ADHD were less sensitive to the difference between targets and non-targets than their normal counterparts, while showing a comparable response bias. Similarly, the effects of methylphenidate were restricted to improving the sensitivity, while not affecting response bias, in both normal children and those with ADHD.

  19. Long-Term Treatment Outcome in Adult Male Prisoners With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Three-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a 52-Week Methylphenidate Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lindefors, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Despite high rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult lawbreakers, particularly the long-term effects of ADHD pharmacotherapy remain unclear, not the least because of ethical challenges with preventing control subjects in randomized controlled trials from receiving medication over prolonged time. We followed up adult male prisoners with ADHD who completed a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 47-week open-label extension of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate in a Swedish high-security prison from 2007 to 2010 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00482313). Twenty-five trial completers were prospectively followed up clinically 1 year (24/25, 96% participated fully or in part) and 3 years (20/25, 80% participation) after trial regarding ADHD symptoms (observer and self-reports), psychosocial functioning, substance misuse, and criminal reoffending. Methylphenidate-related improvements in ADHD symptoms and psychosocial functioning obtained during the 52-week trial were maintained at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. Specifically, after 3 years, 75% (15/20) of the respondents had been released from prison, and 67% of these (10/15) had employment, usually full time. In contrast, nonmedicated respondents at the 3-year follow-up (5/20) reported more ADHD symptoms, functional impairment, and substance misuse compared with currently medicated respondents (15/20). Further, 40% of the respondents self-reported reoffending, indicating a substantially lower relapse rate than expected (70%-80%).In summary, although these observations need validation from new and larger samples, positive effects were maintained after 4 years of methylphenidate treatment. Most study completers were employed and had no relapse in substance misuse or criminality. These results suggest that motivational support and continued medication are important for improved outcome in adult criminal offenders with ADHD. PMID:26284932

  20. A critical appraisal of atomoxetine in the management of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder beginning in childhood and often continuing into adulthood. A wealth of data shows that ADHD symptoms respond well to pharmacological treatment. Stimulant medications, including amphetamine and methylphenidate, are most commonly used to treat ADHD. However, with the approval of atomoxetine (Strattera(®), [ATX]) by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2002, an effective non-stimulant option became available. The US Food and Drug Administration approved ATX for the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. Although the effect size of ATX is generally lower than that of stimulants, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Practice Parameter for the treatment of ADHD lists ATX as a first-line treatment option. ATX is widely prescribed and accounted for 6% of the prescriptions of ADHD visits in the US in 2010. Numerous trials have found that ATX improves quality of life and emotional lability in addition to core ADHD symptoms. Although some improvement may be seen in a patient as early as one week after the initiation of treatment, ATX generally takes longer to have a full effect. The median time to response using 25% improvement in ADHD symptoms in pooled trials was 3.7 weeks. Data from these trials indicate that the probability of symptom improvement may continue to increase up to 52 weeks after treatment is initiated. ATX has been shown to be safe and effective in combination with stimulants. It has also been studied systematically in subjects with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. The mechanism of action of ATX, its efficacy, and adverse events reported in trials is reviewed. PMID:26730199

  1. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD. PMID:27445873

  2. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD. PMID:27445873

  3. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD.

  4. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  5. ADHD ja rentoutuminen : Rentoutusopas ADHD-liitolle

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Henna; Miettinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli tuottaa ADHD-liitolle opetuskäyttöön ja jaettavaksi rentoutusopas, jossa on kaikenikäisille rentoutumisvaihtoehtoja. Työ sai alkunsa suunnittelupalaverissa yhdessä ADHD-liiton kanssa. ADHD on aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö ja se on neuropsykiatrinen häiriö. ADHD:n ydinoireet ovat tarkkaamattomuus, yliaktiivisuus ja impulsiivisuus ja ne näkyvät sekä painottuvat eri tavoin ja haittaavat usealla elämän osa-alueella. Työssämme perehdytään ADHD:n etiologiaan,...

  6. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karahmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder who referred to Isfahan psychiatric clinics were studied. For 100 of these patients ritalin was prescribed while others received stimidate. After 4 weeks, changes in severity of symptoms were evaluated with parental form of Conner's questionnaire. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean decrease of Conner's number in Ritalin group was 19.63±13.5 and in Stimidate group was 3.29±7.2. Ritalin had effectiveness in treatment of 83.3 percent of the patients ( 6 reduction in Conner's number, but Stimidate was only effective in treating 37.5 percent of the patients. Conclusion: This study showed that foreign methylphenidate (ritalin is more effective than the Iranian form of the medicine (stimidate.

  7. A candidate gene investigation of methylphenidate response in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients: results from a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya Kvarme; Fredriksen, Mats; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. Persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood is common. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant compound that may be effective against ADHD symptoms in children and adults. However, MPH does not exert satisfactory effect in all patients. Several genetic variants have been proposed to predict either treatment response or adverse effects of stimulants. We conducted a literature search to identify previously reported variants associated with MPH response and additional variants that were biologically plausible candidates for MPH response. The response to MPH was assessed by the treating clinicians in 564 adult ADHD patients and 20 genetic variants were successfully genotyped. Logistic regression was used to test for association between these polymorphisms and treatment response. Nominal associations (p nominal significance level (OR 0.560, 95 % CI 0.329-0.953, p = 0.033). However, this finding was not affirmed in the meta-analysis. No genetic variants revealed significant associations after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.00125). Our results suggest that none of the studied variants are strong predictors of MPH response in adult ADHD as judged by clinician ratings, potentially except for rs1800544. Consequently, pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical care is not supported by our analyses. Further studies on the pharmacogenetics of adult ADHD are warranted. PMID:27091191

  8. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebrenz Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin® and 20 mg sustained-release methylphenidate (Ritalin SR® daily. When he was 13, his medication was changed to desipramine (Norpramin®, and both Ritalin® and Ritalin SR® were discontinued; and at age 18, when he developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms, his medication was changed to clomipramine (Anafranil® 75 mg daily. Still suffering from inattention and hyperactivity, the patient began college when he was 19, but did not receive stimulant medication until three years later, when Ritalin® 60 mg daily was re-established. During the 14 months that followed, he began to use Ritalin® excessively, both orally and rectally, in dosages from 4800-6000 mg daily. Four years ago, he was referred to our outpatient service, where his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was re-evaluated. At that point, the patient’s daily Ritalin® dosage was reduced to 200 mg daily orally, but he still experienced pronounced symptoms of, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so this dosage was raised again. The patient’s plasma levels consistently remained between 60–187 nmol/l—within the recommended range—and signs of his obsessive-compulsive symptoms diminished with fluoxetine 40 mg daily. Finally, on a dosage of 378 mg extended-release methylphenidate (Concerta®, his symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have improved dramatically and no further use of methylphenidate has been recorded during the 24 months preceding this report. Conclusions Symptoms of

  9. No Increases in Biomarkers of Genetic Damage or Pathological Changes in Heart and Brain Tissues in Male Rats Administered Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin) for 28 Days

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Kristine L.; Malarkey, David E; Hobbs, Cheryl A.; Davis, Jeffrey P.; Kissling, Grace E.; Caspary, William; Travlos, Gregory; Recio, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Following a 2005 report of chromosomal damage in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were treated with the commonly prescribed medication methylphenidate (MPH), numerous studies have been conducted to clarify the risk for MPH-induced genetic damage. Although most of these studies reported no changes in genetic damage endpoints associated with exposure to MPH, one recent study (Andreazza et al. 2007) reported an increase in DNA damage detected by the Comet assay i...

  10. Transdermal innovations in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rekha; Mahant, Sheefali; Chhabra, Lovely; Nanda, Sanju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, an endocrine disorder affecting glucose metabolism, has been crippling mankind for the past two centuries. Despite the advancements in the understanding pertaining to its pathogenesis and treatment, the currently available therapeutic options are far from satisfactory. The growing diabetic population increases the gravity of the situation. The shortcomings of the conventional drug delivery systems necessitate the need to delve into other routes. On account of its merits over other routes, the transdermal approach has drawn the interest of the researchers around the world. The transdermal drug delivery systems are aimed to achieve therapeutic concentrations of the drug through skin. These systems are designed so that the drug can be delivered at a pre-determined and controlled rate. This makes it particularly conducive to treat chronic disorders like diabetes. Correspondingly, the adverse effects and inconvenience concomitant with oral and parentral route are circumvented. This article attempts to outline the development of transdermal drug delivery systems to optimize diabetes pharmacotherapy. It not only covers the transdermal approaches adopted to fine-tune insulin delivery, but also, discusses various transdermal drug delivery systems fabricated to improve the therapeutic performance of oral hypoglycaemic agents. Such formulations include the advanced drug delivery systems, namely, transferosomal gels, microemulsions, self-dissolving micropiles, nanoparticles, insulin pumps, biphasic lipid systems, calcium carbonate nanoparticles, lecithin nanoparticles; physical techniques such as iontophoresis and microneedles and, drugs formulated as transdermal patches. In addition to this, the authors have also shed light on the future prospects and patented and commercial formulations of antidiabetic agents.

  11. A review of the economic burden of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramore Clark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common disorder that is associated with broad functional impairment among both children and adults. The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize available literature on the economic costs of ADHD, as well as potential economic benefits of treating this condition. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE to identify all published articles on the economic implications of ADHD, and authors were contacted to locate conference abstracts and articles in press that were not yet indexed. In total, 22 relevant items were located including published original studies, economic review articles, conference presentations, and reports available on the Internet. All costs were updated and presented in terms of year 2004 US dollars. A growing body of literature, primarily published in the United States, has demonstrated that ADHD places a substantial economic burden on patients, families, and third-party payers. Results of the medical cost studies consistently indicated that children with ADHD had higher annual medical costs than either matched controls (difference ranged from $503 to $1,343 or non-matched controls (difference ranged from $207 to $1,560 without ADHD. Two studies of adult samples found similar results, with significantly higher annual medical costs among adults with ADHD (ranging from $4,929 to $5,651 than among matched controls (ranging from $1,473 to $2,771. A limited number of studies have examined other economic implications of ADHD including costs to families; costs of criminality among individuals with ADHD; costs related to common psychiatric and medical comorbidities of ADHD; indirect costs associated with work loss among adults with ADHD; and costs of accidents among individuals with ADHD. Treatment cost-effectiveness studies have primarily focused on methylphenidate, which is a cost-effective treatment option with cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from $15

  12. Depressive symptoms as a side effect of the sustained release form of methylphenidate in a 7-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a clinical entity consisting of a cluster of symptoms including hyperactivity, attention disorder and impulse control disorder group. In the context of ADHD etiology we may say that genetic, clinical and imaging studies point out a disruption of the brain dopamine system, which is corroborated by the clinical effectiveness of stimulant drugs, which increase extracellular dopamine in the brain. Basically, it is a biological and not psychological disorder, which is important both for the comprehension and therapeutical approach to this problem. Today, the best recommended approach regarding children with ADHD is a combination of two therapeutic modalities: pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment. The first-choice drugs for this disorder belong to the group of sympathomimetics - psychostimulants and atomoxetine (more recently. As the firstchoice therapy, methylphenydate in sustained release form has numerous advantages. Like all drugs, methylphenidate has its unwanted side effects. Most common are: loss of appetite, weight loss, sleeping disorders, irritability, headache. These side effects are well-known and documented in the literature. By analysing the available literature we have found cases of psychiatric side effects such as: psychosis, mania, visual hallucinations, agitation, suicidal ideas. We have not found examples of ADHD in children who use increased dosage of sustained release of methylphenidate leading to depressive symptomatology. On the other side, methylphenidate may be prescribed for off-label use in treatmentresistant cases of depression. Case report. The case of a 7- year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was on a minimal dose of sustained release form of methylphenidate. After initial titration of the drug, i.e. after raising the dose to the next level the boy developed clinical signs of depression. The treatment was ceased and depressive

  13. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan K Buitelaar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan K Buitelaar1, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga2, Miguel Casas2, J J Sandra Kooij3, Asko Niemelä4, Eric Konofal5, Joachim Dejonckheere6, Bradford H Challis7, Rossella Medori81Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, St. Radboud and Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron and Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3PsyQ, Psycho-Medical Programs, Program Adult ADHD, Den Haag, The Netherlands; 4Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Oulu, Finland; 5Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, France; 6SGS Life Sciences, Mechelen, Belgium; 7Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USA; 8Janssen-Cilag EMEA, Neuss, GermanyAbstract: The osmotic release oral system (OROS methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety and tolerability of OROS methylphenidate in a flexible dose regimen (18–90 mg daily for the treatment of adults diagnosed with ADHD (N = 370. Medication was adjusted to optimize efficacy and tolerability for each patient. Adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were assessed. Most patients (337; 91% completed the seven-week treatment and the final dispensed dose was 18 mg (8%, 36 mg (29%, 54 mg (34%, 72 mg (20%, or 90 mg (9%. Adverse events were reported in 253 (68% patients and most were mild or moderate in severity; most frequently reported included headache (17%, decreased appetite (13%, and insomnia (11%. Adverse events were rarely serious (<1%; 2/370. Small mean increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (both 2.4 mmHg and pulse (3.2 bpm were observed. Body weight decreased

  14. Deviant patterns of methylphenidate use in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Zoëga, Helga; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    , we aimed to identify risk factors associated with deviant patterns of use. METHODS: Based on individual-level prescription data, new users of methylphenidate were followed for one year after filling their first prescription on methylphenidate. Adult patients were identified with deviant patterns...... of use. Characteristics associated with deviant patterns of use included an initial prescription for extended-release methylphenidate (OR2 4.35), age 25-49 years at first prescription (OR2 2.49), general practitioners or hospital doctors as initial prescribers (OR2 3.06 and OR2 4.07) and prior use...... of drugs used in addictive disorders (OR2 2.08) or opioids (OR2 1.75). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the number of different prescribers alone does not seem to effectively identify deviant users of methylphenidate. CONCLUSION: We have identified characteristics associated with deviant patterns...

  15. Methylphenidate facilitates learning-induced amygdala plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Tye, Kay M.; Tye, Lynne D.; Cone, Jackson J.; Hekkelman, Evelien F; Janak, Patricia H.; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Although methylphenidate (Ritalin) has been used therapeutically for nearly 60 years, the mechanisms by which it acutely modifies behavioral performance are poorly understood. Here we combined intra–lateral amygdala in vivo pharmacology and ex vivo electrophysiology to show that acute administration of methylphenidate, as well as a selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, facilitated learning-induced strengthening of cortico-amygdala synapses through a postsynaptic increase in AMPA receptor–...

  16. Working memory capacity predicts effects of methylphenidate on reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.E. van der; Fallon, S.J.; Huurne, N.P. ter; Buitelaar, J.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased use of stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate, by healthy college students has raised questions about its cognitive-enhancing effects. Methylphenidate acts by increasing extracellular catecholamine levels and is generally accepted to remediate cognitive and reward deficits in patien

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms on the day that the pills are taken. For several decades, ... and non-stimulant types—can last throughout the day. A single dose of a long-acting medication ...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may ...

  19. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Crushes What's a Booger? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A Text Size ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 62nd Annual Meeting 2017 Psychopharmacology Update Institute Annual Review Course Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP ADHD - A Guide for Families Skip breadcrumb navigation Getting Treatment Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ...

  2. Long-term neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, even at drug-free status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yu-Shu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPH, a psycho-stimulant, is the most widely administered drug for the pharmacological management of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study attempts to determine whether sustainable improvements occur in neurocognitive function among ADHD patients following 12-month treatment with MPH, at drug-free status. Whether age groups, gender or ADHD subtypes differ in neurocognitive performance during MPH treatment is also examined. Methods Study participants consisted of 103 ADHD patients (mean age: 9.1 ± 1.9 years old who were drug naïve or drug free for at least 6 months. The patients were prescribed oral short-acting MPH at each dose range of 0.3–1.0 mg/kg daily. During 12 months of the study, the patients underwent the test of variables of attention (TOVA at the baseline, month 6 and month12. Patients were instructed to not intake MPH for one week before the second and the third TOVA. Results Seventy five patients completed the study. Results of this study indicated that although commission errors and response sensitivity (d’ significantly improved during MPH treatment for 12 months, omission errors, response time, response time variability and ADHD score did not. While younger ADHD patients ( Conclusions ADHD patients significantly improved in impulsivity and perceptual sensitivity, determined as TOVA, during MPH treatment for 12 months. Age and gender, yet not ADHD subtypes, appear to influence the MPH treatment effects in some indices of TOVA. A future study containing a comparison group is suggested to confirm whether the neurocognitive improvements are attributed to long-term effects of MPH or natural maturation of patients.

  3. [Methylphenidate and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Otero, M; Portela Romero, M; Bugarín González, R; Ventura Victoria, M A

    2013-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is a clinical disease characterized by episodic attacks of vasoconstriction of the arteries and arterioles of the extremities such as fingers and toes, sometimes the ears and nose, in response to cold or emotional stimuli. A classic attack is the pallor of the distal extremity, followed by cyanosis and redness, accompanied by paresthesia, usually as heat. When it occurs without apparent cause is called primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When associated with other disease, is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The secondary table is associated with increased frequency of rheumatic diseases of collagen. They can also present certain drugs that cause vasoconstriction, such as ergotamine, beta-adrenergic antagonists, contraception and sympathomimetic drugs. Regarding the latter, we present a case of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to methylphenidate in a 14 years.

  4. [Methylphenidate and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Otero, M; Portela Romero, M; Bugarín González, R; Ventura Victoria, M A

    2013-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is a clinical disease characterized by episodic attacks of vasoconstriction of the arteries and arterioles of the extremities such as fingers and toes, sometimes the ears and nose, in response to cold or emotional stimuli. A classic attack is the pallor of the distal extremity, followed by cyanosis and redness, accompanied by paresthesia, usually as heat. When it occurs without apparent cause is called primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When associated with other disease, is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The secondary table is associated with increased frequency of rheumatic diseases of collagen. They can also present certain drugs that cause vasoconstriction, such as ergotamine, beta-adrenergic antagonists, contraception and sympathomimetic drugs. Regarding the latter, we present a case of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to methylphenidate in a 14 years. PMID:24034762

  5. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  6. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    with adults diagnosed with ADHD, I illustrate how the process of entification (transforming a trait, temperament, emotion, or some other psychological phenomenon into a thing or agent) can be a way to understand, accept and handle the symptoms of ADHD. In this context, ADHD is perceived on the one hand...

  7. OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Deshwal et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug technology specialists are continuing to search for new methods that can effectively and painlessly deliver larger molecules in therapeutic quantities to overcome the difficulties associated with the oral route. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Skin is an effective medium from which absorption of the drug takes place and enters in to circulatory system. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via skin. The patches have been proved effective because of its large advantages over other controlled drug delivery systems. This review article covers a brief outline of various components of transdermal patch, applications of transdermal patch, their advantages, disadvantages, when the transdermal patch are used and when their use should be avoided, types of transdermal patch, recent techniques for enhancing TDDS

  8. Transdermal innovations in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rekha; Mahant, Sheefali; Chhabra, Lovely; Nanda, Sanju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, an endocrine disorder affecting glucose metabolism, has been crippling mankind for the past two centuries. Despite the advancements in the understanding pertaining to its pathogenesis and treatment, the currently available therapeutic options are far from satisfactory. The growing diabetic population increases the gravity of the situation. The shortcomings of the conventional drug delivery systems necessitate the need to delve into other routes. On account of its merits over other routes, the transdermal approach has drawn the interest of the researchers around the world. The transdermal drug delivery systems are aimed to achieve therapeutic concentrations of the drug through skin. These systems are designed so that the drug can be delivered at a pre-determined and controlled rate. This makes it particularly conducive to treat chronic disorders like diabetes. Correspondingly, the adverse effects and inconvenience concomitant with oral and parentral route are circumvented. This article attempts to outline the development of transdermal drug delivery systems to optimize diabetes pharmacotherapy. It not only covers the transdermal approaches adopted to fine-tune insulin delivery, but also, discusses various transdermal drug delivery systems fabricated to improve the therapeutic performance of oral hypoglycaemic agents. Such formulations include the advanced drug delivery systems, namely, transferosomal gels, microemulsions, self-dissolving micropiles, nanoparticles, insulin pumps, biphasic lipid systems, calcium carbonate nanoparticles, lecithin nanoparticles; physical techniques such as iontophoresis and microneedles and, drugs formulated as transdermal patches. In addition to this, the authors have also shed light on the future prospects and patented and commercial formulations of antidiabetic agents. PMID:25418713

  9. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  10. Performance and private speech of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder while taking the Tower of Hanoi test: effects of depth of search, diagnostic subtype, and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Helena; Chang, H Theresa; Klorman, Rafael; Thatcher, Joan E; Borgstedt, Agneta D

    2005-10-01

    We administered the Tower of Hanoi to demographically comparable samples of control participants (n = 34) and children with the Combined (n = 22) and Inattentive subtypes (n = 19) of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Controls excelled over children with the Inattentive subtype, who outperformed patients with the Combined subtype. These results replicated findings of greater executive deficits in the Combined than in the Inattentive type of ADHD. Double-blind administration of methylphenidate improved task performance only for patients with the Inattentive subtype. In a drug-free Baseline session, children with both subtypes of ADHD made more private verbalizations than controls, particularly when failing puzzles. In later sessions, regardless of drug condition, the inattentive sample exhibited a smaller increase in self-regulatory utterances under failure. In contrast, the combined sample decreased self-regulatory verbalizations under failure only under methylphenidate. The results support some differences between the two subtypes of ADHD in executive functioning and in their response to stimulant therapy. PMID:16195955

  11. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  12. Methylphenidate enhances NMDA-receptor response in medial prefrontal cortex via sigma-1 receptor: a novel mechanism for methylphenidate action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPH, commercially called Ritalin or Concerta, has been widely used as a drug for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Noteworthily, growing numbers of young people using prescribed MPH improperly for pleasurable enhancement, take high risk of addiction. Thus, understanding the mechanism underlying high level of MPH action in the brain becomes an important goal nowadays. As a blocker of catecholamine transporters, its therapeutic effect is explained as being due to proper modulation of D1 and α2A receptor. Here we showed that higher dose of MPH facilitates NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission via a catecholamine-independent mechanism, in layer V∼VI pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (PFC. To indicate its postsynaptic action, we next found that MPH facilitates NMDA-induced current and such facilitation could be blocked by σ1 but not D1/5 and α2 receptor antagonists. And this MPH eliciting enhancement of NMDA-receptor activity involves PLC, PKC and IP3 receptor mediated intracellular Ca(2+ increase, but does not require PKA and extracellular Ca(2+ influx. Our additional pharmacological studies confirmed that higher dose of MPH increases locomotor activity via interacting with σ1 receptor. Together, the present study demonstrates for the first time that MPH facilitates NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission via σ1 receptor, and such facilitation requires PLC/IP3/PKC signaling pathway. This novel mechanism possibly explains the underlying mechanism for MPH induced addictive potential and other psychiatric side effects.

  13. Similar and Different? Subjective Effects of Methylphenidate and Cocaine in Opioid-Maintained Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Marc; Bucher, Patricia; Strasser, Johannes; Liechti, Matthias E; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Dürsteler, Kenneth M

    2016-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recreational nonmedical use has been described and also occurs in patients on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). MPH has been proposed for use as replacement therapy in cocaine dependence, although evidence for efficacy is inconclusive. We conducted a cross-sectional interview study on patterns of MPH use in a sample of 20 MPH-using patients on OMT with a history of cocaine use. We assessed symptoms of depression, ADHD during childhood, and retrospective subjective-effects profiles of MPH and cocaine. Risky patterns of MPH use were common, in particular illicit acquisition, use of high doses, and parenteral administration. Sixty percent of patients reported having used MPH as a substitute for cocaine. Correspondingly, the subjective-effect profiles of MPH and cocaine showed striking parallels, with overall effects of MPH being rated more positively than those of cocaine. Proportions of patients with elevated scores for depression or childhood ADHD were large, highlighting the importance of treating dual disorders in this population. Clinical studies on MPH substitution in cocaine-dependent patients on opioid maintenance treatment could benefit from consideration of the patterns of application of MPH in this population. Results are preliminary due to small sample size. PMID:26940988

  14. Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Michael; Sikirica, Vanja; Hervas, Amaia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Harpin, Valerie; Robertson, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Guanfacine extended release (GXR) and atomoxetine (ATX) are nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As nonstimulant treatments are often used after stimulants in ADHD, GXR was assessed relative to prior stimulant treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which ATX was included as a reference arm, and in the open-label phase of a randomized-withdrawal study (RWS). Participants were 6–17 years old with ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scores ≥32 and Clinical Global Impressions – Severity scores ≥4. RCT participants received dose-optimized GXR (1–7 mg/day), ATX (10–100 mg/day), or placebo for 10–13 weeks. RWS participants received dose-optimized GXR (1–7 mg/day) for 13 weeks. Participants’ last stimulant medication prior to enrolment, and reasons for stopping this medication, were collected at baseline. Change from baseline ADHD-RS-IV score and the proportion of responders were assessed by prior stimulant exposure. Of 163 RCT and 296 RWS participants who had previously received stimulant treatment, 142 and 224, respectively, had received methylphenidate (MPH); due to the low number of participants and the heterogeneity of non-MPH treatments, we only report data for prior MPH treatment. The most frequent reasons for stopping MPH were lack of effectiveness or side effects. Placebo-adjusted ADHD-RS-IV changes from baseline were significant in participants receiving GXR (prior MPH, −9.8, P0.05, ES 0.15) participants. More participants met responder criteria with GXR versus placebo, regardless of prior treatment. GXR response was unaffected by prior stimulant treatment; ATX produced improvement only in stimulant-naïve participants relative to placebo. These findings may be relevant to clinical decision-making regarding sequencing of ADHD treatments. PMID:27226715

  15. Possible association of norepinephrine transporter -3081(A/T polymorphism with methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min-Sup

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a heritable disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Methylphenidate (MPH has been shown to block the norepinephrine transporter (NET, and genetic investigations have demonstrated that the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2 is associated with ADHD. The aims of this study were to examine the association of the SLC6A2 -3081(A/T and G1287A polymorphisms with MPH response in ADHD. Methods This study enrolled 112 children and adolescents with ADHD. A response criterion was defined based on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I score, and the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ARS score was also assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after MPH treatment. Results We found that the subjects who had the T allele as one of the alleles (A/T or T/T genotypes at the -3081(A/T polymorphism showed a better response to MPH treatment than those with the A/A genotype as measured by the CGI-I. We also found a trend towards a difference in the change of the total ARS scores and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscores between subjects with and without the T allele. No significant association was found between the genotypes of the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism and response to ADHD treatment. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for the involvement of the -3081(A/T polymorphism of SLC6A2 in the modulation of the effectiveness of MPH treatment in ADHD.

  16. Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Michael; Sikirica, Vanja; Hervas, Amaia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Harpin, Valerie; Robertson, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Guanfacine extended release (GXR) and atomoxetine (ATX) are nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As nonstimulant treatments are often used after stimulants in ADHD, GXR was assessed relative to prior stimulant treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which ATX was included as a reference arm, and in the open-label phase of a randomized-withdrawal study (RWS). Participants were 6-17 years old with ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scores ≥32 and Clinical Global Impressions - Severity scores ≥4. RCT participants received dose-optimized GXR (1-7 mg/day), ATX (10-100 mg/day), or placebo for 10-13 weeks. RWS participants received dose-optimized GXR (1-7 mg/day) for 13 weeks. Participants' last stimulant medication prior to enrolment, and reasons for stopping this medication, were collected at baseline. Change from baseline ADHD-RS-IV score and the proportion of responders were assessed by prior stimulant exposure. Of 163 RCT and 296 RWS participants who had previously received stimulant treatment, 142 and 224, respectively, had received methylphenidate (MPH); due to the low number of participants and the heterogeneity of non-MPH treatments, we only report data for prior MPH treatment. The most frequent reasons for stopping MPH were lack of effectiveness or side effects. Placebo-adjusted ADHD-RS-IV changes from baseline were significant in participants receiving GXR (prior MPH, -9.8, P0.05, ES 0.15) participants. More participants met responder criteria with GXR versus placebo, regardless of prior treatment. GXR response was unaffected by prior stimulant treatment; ATX produced improvement only in stimulant-naïve participants relative to placebo. These findings may be relevant to clinical decision-making regarding sequencing of ADHD treatments. PMID:27226715

  17. Clinical pharmacokinetics of transdermal opioids: focus on transdermal fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grond, S; Radbruch, L; Lehmann, K A

    2000-01-01

    Transdermal delivery allows continuous systemic application of opioids through the intact skin. This review analyses the pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal opioid administration in the context of clinical experience, with a focus on fentanyl. A transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) for fentanyl has been developed. The amount of fentanyl released is proportional to the surface area of the TTS, which is available in different sizes. After the first application of a TTS, a fentanyl depot concentrates in the upper skin layers and it takes several hours until clinical effects are observed. The time from application to minimal effective and maximum serum concentrations is 1.2 to 40 hours and 12 to 48 hours, respectively. Steady state is reached on the third day, and can be maintained as long as patches are renewed. Within each 72-hour period, serum concentrations decrease gradually over the second and third days. When a TTS is removed, fentanyl continues to be absorbed into the systemic circulation from the cutaneous depot. The terminal half-life for TTS fentanyl is approximately 13 to 25 hours. The interindividual variability of serum concentrations, partly caused by different clearance rates, is markedly larger than the intraindividual variability. The effectiveness of TTS fentanyl was first demonstrated in acute postoperative pain. However, the slow pharmacokinetics and large variability of TTS fentanyl, together with the relatively short duration of postoperative pain, precluded adequate dose finding and led to inadequate pain relief or, especially, a high incidence of respiratory depression; such use is now contraindicated. Conversely, in cancer pain, TTS fentanyl offers an interesting alternative to oral morphine, and its effectiveness and tolerability in this indication has been demonstrated by a number of trials. Its usefulness in chronic pain of nonmalignant origin remains to be confirmed in controlled trials. In general, TTS fentanyl produces the same

  18. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  19. Comparison of Two brands of Methylphenidate (Stimdate® vs. Ritalin®) in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Khodadust, Naser; Jalali, Amir-Hossein; Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud; Khademolreza, Noushin; Shirazi, Elham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of the methylphenidate produced in Iran (Stimdate®) with its original brand (Ritalin®) in children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with ADHD who were 6 to 16 years old, were divided into two groups: 15 in Stimdate® and 15 in Ritalin® group. The two groups were compared for side effects profile, Conner’s Parent’s Rating Scale-Persion version (CPRS-R), ...

  20. Sudden hearing loss associated with methylphenidate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapinar, Ugur; Saglam, Omer; Dursun, Engin; Cetin, Bilal; Salman, Nergis; Sahan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old child diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented to our Department of Otolaryngology 4 days after suffering hearing loss, loss of balance, tinnitus, and fullness sensation of the left ear. Her symptoms occured with the first dose of methylphenidate. The medical history and physical examination revealed no other diseases associated with sudden hearing loss. The audiogram revealed a total hearing loss on the left ear. Stapedial reflexes, distortion product and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions were absent in left ear. The absence of clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of a possible cause for complaints, an association between methylphenidate and sudden hearing loss was suggested. The patient received a standard course of oral corticosteroid and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Weekly otological and audiological examinations were performed. Conservative and medical treatments offered no relief from hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss is a serious and irreversible adverse effect of methylphenidate. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss should be taken into consideration when initiating methylphenidate therapy.

  1. Methylphenidate Enhances Extinction of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…

  2. The effect of methylphenidate on oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder O efeito do metilfenidato sobre o transtorno opositivo-desafiador comórbido com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of methylphenidate on the diagnosis of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHOD: We conducted an open-label study in which 10 children and adolescents with a dual diagnosis of ODD and ADHD were assessed for their ODD symptoms and treated with methylphenidate. At least one month after ADHD symptoms were under control, ODD symptoms were reevaluated with the Parent form of the Children Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (P-ChIPS. RESULTS: Nine of the 10 patients no longer fulfilled diagnostic criteria for ODD after they were treated with methylphenidate for ADHD. CONCLUSION: Methylphenidate seems to be an effective treatment for ODD, as well as for ADHD itself. The implications for the treatment of patients with ODD not comorbid with ADHD needs further investigation.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do metilfenidato sobre o diagnóstico de transtorno opositivo-desafiador (TOD comórbido com transtorno do déficit de atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH. MÉTODO: Conduzimos um estudo aberto em que 10 crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de TOD e TDAH foram avaliados para seus sintomas de TOD e tratados com metilfenidato. Pelo menos um mês após os sintomas e TDAH estarem controlados, os sintomas de TOD foram reavaliados com a entrevista P-ChIPS (Children Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent form. RESULTADOS: Nove dos dez pacientes não preenchiam mais critérios diagnósticos para TOD após serem tratados com metilfenidato para TDAH. CONCLUSÃO: Metilfenidato parece ser um tratamento eficaz para TOD, além de para TDAH. As implicações para o tratamento de pacientes com TOD não comórbido com TDAH necessita mais investigação.

  3. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural) to syntheti...

  4. Microprocessor controlled transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, J Anand; Sharma, Ashutosh; Phipps, J B

    2006-07-01

    Transdermal drug delivery via iontophoresis is reviewed with special focus on the delivery of lidocaine for local anesthesia and fentanyl for patient controlled acute therapy such as postoperative pain. The role of the microprocessor controller in achieving dosimetry, alternating/reverse polarity, pre-programmed, and sensor-based delivery is highlighted. Unique features such as the use of tactile signaling, telemetry control, and pulsatile waveforms in iontophoretic drug delivery are described briefly.

  5. Transport numbers in transdermal iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, Blaise; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

    2006-04-15

    Parameters determining ionic transport numbers in transdermal iontophoresis have been characterized. The transport number of an ion (its ability to carry charge) is key to its iontophoretic delivery or extraction across the skin. Using small inorganic ions, the roles of molar fraction and mobility of the co- and counterions present have been demonstrated. A direct, constant current was applied across mammalian skin in vitro. Cations were anodally delivered from either simple M(+)Cl(-) solutions (single-ion case, M(+) = sodium, lithium, ammonium, potassium), or binary and quaternary mixtures thereof. Transport numbers were deduced from ion fluxes. In the single-ion case, maximum cationic fluxes directly related to the corresponding ionic aqueous mobilities were found. Addition of co-ions decreased the transport numbers of all cations relative to the single-ion case, the degree of effect depending upon the molar fraction and mobility of the species involved. With chloride as the principal counterion competing to carry current across the skin (the in vivo situation), a maximum limit on the single or collective cation transport number was 0.6-0.8. Overall, these results demonstrate how current flowing across the skin during transdermal iontophoresis is distributed between competing ions, and establish simple rules with which to optimize transdermal iontophoretic transport.

  6. Kinderen met ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins

    1999-01-01

    An ever increasing number of hyperactive and impulsive children receive the diagnosis Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The relatively high prevalence, negative prognosis, and assumed inheritable nature of this behavioral disorder make ADHD one of the most prominent child diagnoses to

  7. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in young children. http://bit.ly/1nCUenn , http://bit.ly/1UYugZ8 Discuss with parents the benefits ... the country. Visit this page for more help: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/finding-therapy.html . ...

  8. ADHD er ikke hysteri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Anders; Tranæs, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan.......Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan....

  9. Effect of Methylphenidate on Cardiorespiratory Responses in Hyperactive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Richard A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Recognition by the physical education teacher that the cardiovascular dynamics of the hyperactive child are augmented during methylphenidate (Ritalin) medication is warranted when planning strenuous physical activity. (JD)

  10. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    impairment in time in people with ADHD is manifested in an embodied experience of being out of sync and I will argue that the experience of ADHD is both characterised as 1) an inner restlessness and bodily arrhythmia; 2) an intersubjective desynchronisation between the individual and its surroundings; and 3...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience......) a feeling of lacking behind socially due to difficulties in social skills. I will end my presentation by opening up for a discussion about ADHD as not only a disorder located in the individual but also as an intersubjective phenomenon....

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled methylphenidate, p-hydroxy-methylphenidate, ritalinic acid and p-hydroxyritalinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of threo-dl-methylphenidate (Ritalin 1), threo-dl-p-hydroxy-methylphenidate (3), threo-dl-ritalinic acid (2), and threo-dl-p-hydroxyritalinic acid (4) with deuterium incorporated in the piperidine ring is described. These compounds were synthesized for use as internal standards for mass fragmentographic assays of methylphenidate and its metabolites. The synthetic scheme described resulted in less than 0.05% 2H0 in the piperidine ring in any of the preparations. (author)

  12. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled methylphenidate, p-hydroxy-methylphenidate, ritalinic acid and p-hydroxyritalinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, K.; Kilts, C.; Breese, G. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-04-01

    The synthesis of threo-dl-methylphenidate (Ritalin 1), threo-dl-p-hydroxy-methylphenidate (3), threo-dl-ritalinic acid (2), and threo-dl-p-hydroxyritalinic acid (4) with deuterium incorporated in the piperidine ring is described. These compounds were synthesized for use as internal standards for mass fragmentographic assays of methylphenidate and its metabolites. The synthetic scheme described resulted in less than 0.05% /sup 2/H/sub 0/ in the piperidine ring in any of the preparations.

  13. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    measures of impulsiveness and inattention, suggesting that timing problems are key to the clinical behavioural profile of ADHD. Emerging evidence shows that the most common treatment of ADHD with the dopamine agonist and psychostimulant Methylphenidate attenuates most timing deficits in ADHD and normalises the abnormally blunted recruitment of the underlying fronto-striato-cerebellar networks. Timing function deficits in ADHD, therefore, next to executive function deficits, form an independent impairment domain, and should receive more attention in neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and pharmacological basic research as well as in translational research aimed to develop pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment of abnormal timing behaviour and cognition in ADHD.

  14. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  15. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone or in combination

    OpenAIRE

    Hysek, C M; Simmler, L. D.; Schillinger, N.; De Meyer, N.; Schmid, Y; Donzelli, M; Grouzmann, E.; Liechti, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') are widely misused psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate increases brain dopamine and norepinephrine levels by blocking the presynaptic reuptake transporters. MDMA releases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine through the same transporters. Pharmacodynamic interactions of methylphenidate and MDMA are likely. This study compared the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone ...

  16. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyandt LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and

  17. First-Trimester Exposure to Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Andersen, Jon T;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The use of methylphenidate to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has risen dramatically in Western countries, and it is increasingly used by adults, including women of childbearing age. Very little is known about potential hazards of in utero exposure to methylphenidate. We...... subjects with respect to maternal age, smoking status, body mass index, length of education, calendar year of completion of pregnancy, and concomitant use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. RESULTS: We included 222 exposed and 2,220 unexposed...... pregnancies in the analysis. There was no statistically significant increase in major malformations (point prevalence ratio = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-1.8) or cardiac malformations (point prevalence ratio = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.2-3.0). Sensitivity analyses using different definitions of exposure or previous users...

  18. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  19. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  20. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  1. Determinants of physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Van Hal, Guido; Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement becomes a more and more common practice among college and university students. Although physicians are a source of access, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might lead to physicians' intention and behaviour of prescribing methylphenidate to improve students' academic performance. Applying Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we tested whether attitudes, subjective norms (controllability and self-efficacy) and perceived behavioural control predicted the intention and the prescribing behaviour of physicians. Participants were 130 physicians (62.3% males). Structural equation modelling was used to test the ability of TPB to predict physicians' behaviour. Overall, the present study provides support for the TPB in predicting physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement. Subjective norms, followed by attitudes, are the strongest predictors of physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate. To a lesser extent, controllability predicts the intention of physicians, and self-efficacy predicts the self-reported behaviour. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians seem to have more negative attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, feel less social pressure and perceive more control over their behaviour. Intervention programmes that want to decrease physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate for improving academic performance should primarily focus on alleviating the perceived social pressure to prescribe methylphenidate and on converting physician neutral or positive attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate into negative attitudes. PMID:23713799

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Early Career Psychiatrists Become a Member Advocacy Life Members International Maintenance of Certification Clinical Practice Center ... school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  4. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children to share their experiences and concerns. Support groups may also share information and referrals to specialists, and invite experts to speak. Contents What is ADHD? How ... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Without treatment, a child with ADHD ... Together Resources Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  9. What Is ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disability. The most common learning problems affect reading ( dyslexia ) and handwriting . Although ADHD isn't categorized as ... child does well — whether it's sports, art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous ...

  10. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL), school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news ... Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Practice Center Award Opportunities CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources ... untreated ADHD have higher rates of divorce and job loss. They also have higher rates of cigarette ...

  13. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... stimulates you, but these medicines have the opposite effect on kids with ADHD. If you take medication ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Become a Member ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  15. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL, school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  16. Optimised transdermal delivery of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Cornel; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, Jan L; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-12-30

    Wiechers' programme "Formulating for Efficacy" initiated a new strategy to optimise the oil phase of topical formulations in order to achieve optimal transdermal drug delivery. This new approach uses the "Delivery Gap Theory" on any active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to test if it could enhance transdermal drug delivery. The aim of the study was to formulate six different semi-solid formulations (three creams and three emulgels) with 2% pravastatin as the API in order to investigate the "Delivery Gap Principle", by determining which formulation would deliver pravastatin best to the target-site (system circulation). The three cream- and three emulgel formulations had different polarities, i.e. a formulation with polarity equal to that of the stratum corneum (optimised), a non-polar (lipophilic)- and a polar (hydrophilic)-formulation. Franz cell diffusion studies were executed over 12h and the optimised emulgel (2.578μg/cm(2)) had the highest median amount per area obtained. Tape stripping followed the diffusion studies and in the stratum corneum-epidermis, the hydrophilic emulgel (1.448μg/ml) contained the highest median pravastatin concentration and the epidermis-dermis the optimised emulgel (0.849μg/ml) depicted the highest pravastatin concentration. During this study, it was observed that when both emulgel and cream formulations were compared; the emulgels enhanced the delivery of pravastatin more than the creams. PMID:26505148

  17. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural to synthetic ones (Polybutadiene, Polysiloxane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinyl alcohol etc.. TDDS are of many types varying from single layer drug in adhesive to multi layer drug in adhesive and others are reservoir and the matrix systems. The market value of TDDS products are increasing with rapid rate, more than 35 products have now been approved for sale in US, and approximately 16 active ingredients are approved globally for use as a TDDS. Transdermal drug delivery is a recent technology which promises a great future it has a potential to limit the use of needles for administering wide variety of drugs but cost factor is a important thing to consider since developing nations like INDIA have second highest population, but due to higher cost TDDS are the hidden part of therapy used in general population.

  18. 盐酸哌甲酯控释片治疗注意缺陷多动障碍不同临床亚型患儿疗效的对比研究%To Compare the Effects of Methylphenidate Extended-release Tablets(OROS MPH ) in Treating Different Clinical Type of attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思渊; 麦坚凝; 杜志宏

    2007-01-01

    目的 比较盐酸哌甲酯控释片(专注达)治疗注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的不同临床亚型儿童的疗效.方法 采用自身前后对照试验设计.按照ADHD的DSM-Ⅳ诊断标准,分别收集注意缺陷为主型(IT)患儿、冲动为主型(HT)患儿以及混合型(CT)患儿各20例,分成三组,分别接受治疗各7天,并于治疗期末评定主要疗效评定指标:家长评定的Conners量表、教师评定的Conners量表.次要疗效指标:儿童行为量表.结果 疗效:哌甲酯控释片治疗7天后,不同临床亚型患儿的主要疗效评定指标和次要疗效指标均出现明显改善,其中注意缺陷为主型(IT)患儿在学习问题、不注意-被动以及注意力的改善程度等方面明显优于其他两组儿童(P<0.05);冲动-多动为主型(HT)患儿在品行问题、心身障碍、冲动-多动以及多动指数的改善明显优于其他两组儿童(P<0.05),同时对于CBCL中的交往不良、多动、攻击性和违纪的改善也明显优于其他两组儿童(P<0.05);混合型主要在多动指数和焦虑方面呈现较大改善.结论 盐酸哌甲酯控释片对于不同亚型的注意力缺陷多动障碍儿童的疗效存在差异.

  19. The acute effect of methylphenidate on cerebral blood flow in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szobot, Claudia M.; Ketzer, Carla; Kapczinski, Flavio [Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cunha, Renato D. [Service of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (Brazil); Parente, Maria A. [Department of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Langleben, Daniel D. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Acton, Paul D. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Rohde, Luis A.P. [Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Servico de Psiquiatria da Infancia e Adolescencia, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, CEP 90035-003, RS Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2003-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The therapeutic mechanisms of MPH are not, however, fully understood. We studied the effects of MPH on brain activity in male children and adolescents with ADHD, using the blood flow radiotracer technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled (MPH group, n=19; placebo group, n=17), Radiotracer was administered during the performance of the Continuous Performance Test and before and after 4 days of MPH treatment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) analysis showed a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow in the left parietal region in the MPH group compared with the placebo group (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Our findings suggest that the posterior attentional system, which includes the parietal cortex, may have a role in the mediation of the therapeutic effects of MPH in ADHD. (orig.)

  20. Effects of methylphenidate on executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, H G H; Reneman, L; Huizenga, H M; Geurts, H M

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adulthood is often treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH). However, it is unknown whether cognitive effects of MPH depend on age in individuals with ADHD, while animal studies have suggested age-related effects. In this meta-analysis, we first determined the effects of MPH on response inhibition, working memory and sustained attention, but our main goal was to examine whether these effects are moderated by age. A systematic literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and MEDLINE for double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with MPH resulted in 25 studies on response inhibition (n = 775), 13 studies on working memory (n = 559) and 29 studies on sustained attention (n = 956) (mean age range 4.8-50.1 years). The effects of MPH on response inhibition [effect size (ES) = 0.40, p executive functions are independent of age in children and adults with ADHD. However, adolescent studies are lacking and needed to conclude a lack of an age-dependency across the lifespan.

  1. The acute effect of methylphenidate on cerebral blood flow in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The therapeutic mechanisms of MPH are not, however, fully understood. We studied the effects of MPH on brain activity in male children and adolescents with ADHD, using the blood flow radiotracer technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled (MPH group, n=19; placebo group, n=17), Radiotracer was administered during the performance of the Continuous Performance Test and before and after 4 days of MPH treatment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) analysis showed a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow in the left parietal region in the MPH group compared with the placebo group (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Our findings suggest that the posterior attentional system, which includes the parietal cortex, may have a role in the mediation of the therapeutic effects of MPH in ADHD. (orig.)

  2. Effects of methylphenidate on executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, H G H; Reneman, L; Huizenga, H M; Geurts, H M

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adulthood is often treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH). However, it is unknown whether cognitive effects of MPH depend on age in individuals with ADHD, while animal studies have suggested age-related effects. In this meta-analysis, we first determined the effects of MPH on response inhibition, working memory and sustained attention, but our main goal was to examine whether these effects are moderated by age. A systematic literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and MEDLINE for double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with MPH resulted in 25 studies on response inhibition (n = 775), 13 studies on working memory (n = 559) and 29 studies on sustained attention (n = 956) (mean age range 4.8-50.1 years). The effects of MPH on response inhibition [effect size (ES) = 0.40, p attention (ES = 0.42, p children and adults with ADHD. However, adolescent studies are lacking and needed to conclude a lack of an age-dependency across the lifespan. PMID:27019103

  3. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: A TECHNICAL WRITEUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Yadav

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery is another system which provides controlled and continuous delivery of the drug through the skin into the systemic circulation. Topical application which involves drug transport to viable epidermal and/or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. Transdermal route provides many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery such as avoids first pass metabolism, improve patient compliance, maintance steady state plasma concentration. This article provides an overview of skin permeation pathways, types of transdermal drug delivery system, methods of preparation with different methods of evaluation, and the recent advancement in transdermal drug delivery, which includes Transfersomes, Magnetophoresis, Controlled Heat Aided Drug Delivery System, Laser Radiation, Medicated Tattoos, Laser radiation.

  4. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  5. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: A TECHNICAL WRITEUP

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Yadav; Sipai Altaf Bhai. M; Mamatha Y; Prasanth V.V

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is another system which provides controlled and continuous delivery of the drug through the skin into the systemic circulation. Topical application which involves drug transport to viable epidermal and/or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. Transdermal route provides many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery such as avoids fir...

  6. Percutaneous penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Inderjeet; Sri Prasanthi

    2010-01-01

    The transdermal route has numerous advantages over the more traditional drug delivery routes. These include high bioavailability, absence of first pass hepatic metabolism, steady drug plasma concentrations, and the fact that therapy is non-invasive. The main obstacle to permeating drug molecules is the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Consequently, research into enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD) by overcoming this layer, is an area of prime interest. This review artic...

  7. Essential fatty acids as transdermal penetration enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zyl, Lindi; du Preez, Jan; Gerber, Minja; Du Plessis, Jeanetta; Viljoen, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different penetration enhancers, containing essential fatty acids (EFAs), on the transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen. Evening primrose oil (EPO), vitamin F and Pheroid™ technology all contain fatty acids and were compared using a cream-based formulation. This selection was to ascertain whether EFAs solely, or EFAs in a Pheroid™ delivery system, would have a significant increase in the transdermal delivery of a compound. Membrane release ...

  8. Update on optimal use of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaan V

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vishal Madaan, Venkata Kolli, Durga P Bestha, Manan J ShahDepartment of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Family Psychiatry, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Lisdexamfetamine (LDX has been a recent addition to the treatment armamentarium for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. It is unique among stimulants as it is a prodrug, and has been found to be safe and well-tolerated medication in children older than 6 years, adolescents and adults. It has a smooth onset of action, exerts its action up to 13 hours and may have less rebound symptoms. LDX has proven to be effective in the treatment of ADHD in placebo controlled trials, and improved performance in simulated academic and work environments have been noticed. Both stimulant naïve and stimulant-exposed patients with ADHD appear to benefit from LDX. It has also shown some promise in improving emotional expression and executive function of patients with ADHD. Adverse effects such as decrease in sleep, loss of appetite and others have been reported with LDX use, just as with other stimulant formulations. Since most such studies exclude subjects with preexisting cardiac morbidity, prescribing precautions should be taken with LDX in such subjects, as with any other stimulant. Study subjects on LDX have been reported to have low scores on drug likability scales, even with intravenous use; as a result, LDX may have somewhat less potential for abuse and diversion. There is a need for future studies comparing other long acting stimulants with LDX in ADHD; in fact clinical trials comparing LDX with OROS (osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system methylphenidate are currently underway. Furthermore, the utility of this medication in other psychiatric disorders and beyond ADHD is being investigated.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine, ADHD, functional impairment, pharmacotherapy

  9. ADHD-problematikkens sociale aspekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsbro, Kjeld; Eskelinen, Leena; Andersen, Maja Lundemark;

    Denne forskningsrapport sammenfatter resultaterne fra en undersøgelse af den sociale indsats overfor mennesker med en ADHD-problematik. Den bidrager til en øget forståelse for, hvordan ADHD-problematikken påvirker familiers og individers relationer til arbejdsmarkedet og samfundet, samtidig med at...... indsats over for mennesker med ADHD....

  10. Summarization of Treating ADHD by Using MPH with Neuro - feedback%哌甲酯联合神经反馈治疗儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芳; 谢维爵; 钟昆

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate(MPH)is a key drug to treat children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disor-der(ADHD),and neuro - feedback(NF)is a new technique for the treatment of ADHD,MPH and NF have their own advantages and limitations in treating ADHD. In recent years,in order to explore the better treatment effect for the ADHD,clinical doctors and researchers have reported the present situations of application and re-searches relating to MPH combined with NF in the treatment of ADHD. The paper summarizes the documents a-bout ADHD treatment in use of MPH combined NF,analyzes and comments on several factors which influence the effect,aiming at offering some references for combination therapy research about ADHD.%哌甲酯(Methylphenidate,MPH)是目前治疗儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(Attention - deficit/ hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)的一线药物,神经反馈(Neuro - feedback,NF)是治疗 ADHD 的新技术。两种方法在治疗 ADHD 方面具有不同优势和局限性。近年来,为了探讨更好的 ADHD 治疗效果,临床工作者和研究者报道了 MPH 联合 NF治疗 ADHD 的临床应用与研究情况。文章综述了 MPH 联合 NF 治疗 ADHD 的相关文献,分析和评述了影响其疗效的各种可能因素。旨在为不断完善 ADHD 综合治疗研究提供一定的参考。

  11. Comparison of Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR and Beta Training on Selective Attention and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD: A Trend Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of two neurofeedback protocols (SMR/theta and beta/theta on ADHD symptoms, selective attention and EEG (electroencephalogram parameters in children with ADHD.  Method:The sample consisted of 16 children (9-15 year old: 13 boys; 3 girls with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C. All of children used methylphenidate (MPH during the study. The neurofeedback training consisted of two phases of 15 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes. In the first phase, participants were trained to enhance sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz and reduce theta activity (4-8 Hz at C4 and in the second phase; they had to increase beta (15-18 Hz and reduce theta activity at C3. Assessments consisted of d2 attention endurance test, ADHD rating scale (parent form at three time periods: before, middle and the end of the training. EEG signals were recorded just before and after the training . Result:Based on parents’ reports, inattention after beta/theta training, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were improved after the end of the training. All subscales of d2 test were improved except for the difference between maximum and minimum responses. However, EEG analysis showed no significant differences . Conclusion:Neurofeedback in conjunction with Methylphenidate may cause further improvement in ADHD symptoms reported by parents and selective attention without long-term impact on EEG patterns. However, determining the exact relationship between EEG parameters, neurofeedback protocols and ADHD symptoms remain unclear.

  12. Nuorten ADHD : Nuorisonetti

    OpenAIRE

    Heinänen, Pirkko; Sjöman, Jutta

    2011-01-01

    ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) on lievä aivotoiminnan häiriö, joka aiheuttaa ylivilkkautta tarkkaavaisuus häiriöitä sekä impulssikontrollin puuttumista. Suomalaisista lapsista noin 4-10%:lla esiintyy ADHD:ta ja se on yleisempää pojilla kuin tytöillä. Nuoruudessa häiriön luonne muuttuu ja ylivilkkausoireet vähenevät. Sisäinen levottomuus ja sääntöjä vastaan kapinointi on tyypillistä nuoruuden käytöshäiriöissä. Nuori tarvitsee tukea selvitäkseen yhteiskunnan haasteista ADHD dia...

  13. 哌甲酯治疗不同亚型注意缺陷多动障碍患儿的疗效及影响因素%Efficacy and Factors of Methylphenidate on Children with Different Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 姜玉武; 边旸; 侯绍荣; 李明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate on children with different subtypes of attention deficit hy-peractivity disorder( ADHD) ,and further explore potential factors which may contribute to the prognosis of ADHD. Methods The diagnostic assessment of ADHD was performed according to the recommendations of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD for Chinese children. Efficacy of medication on ADHD was evaluated by means of ADHD parent rating scale scores, Conners' parent rating scale, and continuous performance test(CPT). ADHD children were given methylphenidate dose titration systematically and followed up for 6 months. Factors were collected including symptom severity, intelligence quotient, learning achievement, which may contribute to the prognosis of ADHD. Results 1. The differences between before and after treatment were statistically significant, including the results of ADHD parent rating scale scores, Conners' parent rating scale, and CPT. 2. Comparison of efficacy in different subtypes; (1) Reduction rate of ADHD parent rating scale scores:The differences between combined type (ADHD - CT) and predominantly inattentive type ( ADHD - PI) had no statistical significance; compared with ADHD - CT or ADHD - PI, hyperactive - impulsive type (ADHD - HI) had lower reduction rate; (2 ) Reduction rate of Conners' parent rating scale;the differences between ADHD - CT, ADHD - PI or ADHD - HI had no statistical significance; (3) Reduction rate of CPT:the differences between ADHD - CT, ADHD - PI or ADHD - HI had no statistical significance; (4) Effective rate and effectual rate:effectual rate of ADHD - CT was 68. 25% , while effectual rate of ADHD - CT was 55. 56% ; effectual rate of ADHD - PI was 75. 82% , while effectual rate of ADHD - PI was 56.04% ; effectual rate of ADHD - HI was 63. 64% , while effectual rate of ADHD - HI was 45.45%. 3. Factors influencing the efficacy: the severity of symptoms and intelligence quotient were related to the

  14. Can attention deficits predict a genotype? Isolate attention difficulties in a boy with klinefelter syndrome effectively treated with methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Antonella; Germanò, Eva; Benedetto, Loredana; Masi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a 17-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (XXY) at the age of 16 years. Although cognitive level was absolutely normal, he showed attentional difficulties that negatively affected school adjustment. He was successfully treated with methylphenidate. A significant improvement was observed in the ADHD Rating Scale IV and in the inattention subscale score of the Conners Scales. The CGI-S score improved from 3 to 1, and the CGI-I score at the end point was 1 (very much improved). Also attention measures, particularly forward and backward digit span, improved with MPH treatment. Given the widely variable and often aspecific features, KS may run undiagnosed in a large majority of affected patients. A close attention to the cognitive phenotype may favour a correct diagnosis, and a timely treatment.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of amphetamine for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD drug treatment is based on psychostimulants, and methylphenidate is still the most widely used one. Other psychostimulants used include amphetamines, hence the importance of knowing both its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of amphetamine in ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of studies that evaluated the effectiveness of interventions comparing amphetamine to methylphenidate was conducted. The outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 114 studies found initially, four were included, among which a systematic review, a primary article and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: The evidence on amphetamine for ADHD treatment recommends its use as an alternative to MPH. Further good-quality studies are needed.

  16. Functional MRI in ADHD: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2007-10-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fast developing and very complex field. Every study appears to show differences in patterns of brain activation between cases and controls, but the interpretation of such differences is not as straightforward as it may seem. We present here a systematic review of the fMRI literature in ADHD; areas covered include executive functions, reward processing, the effects of methylphenidate, comorbidity and spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. To facilitate the interpretation of research in this area, we discuss important conceptual issues, such as the need to take group differences in performance into account or to consider the role of errors. We present common themes that emerge from these studies and we discuss possible reasons for the many discrepancies that were observed. Finally, based on existing literature and current advancements in fMRI research, we discuss the role that fMRI could play in the future as a diagnostic tool or in treatment outcome predictions, and we make predictions for the future directions of research in this field. PMID:17939771

  17. ADHD stigma among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda Chi; Lefler, Elizabeth K

    2016-03-01

    The current study examined ADHD stigma within a college-enrolled young adult population, including the debate regarding the cause of stigma: label or behavior. In Phase 1, 135 college students rated stigma toward one of the four fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD alone, the behaviors associated with ADHD alone, the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or neither the label nor behaviors. In Phase 2, 48 college students rated stigma toward one of the two assigned fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or the label of Depression and a set of behaviors associated with Depression. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the label and the behaviors would cause the highest levels of ADHD stigma and that ADHD would elicit more stigma than Depression. In Phase 1, stigma was associated with the behaviors of ADHD, but not the label. In Phase 2, ADHD and Depression were found to be equally stigmatized. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26135022

  18. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  19. Attention in Hyperactive Children and the Effect of Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Donald H.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Hyperactive children treated with methylphenidate (ritalin) showed a significant improvement in all aspects of performance in an experimenter-paced task when compared to a control group of hyperactive children given a placebo. (Author/WY)

  20. Music and Sound Elements in Time Estimation and Production of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogerio Jorgensen Carrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants age 6 to 14 years, recruited at NANI-Unifesp/SP, sub-divided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds and time estimation with music. Results: 1. Performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms were statistically lower than control group (p<0,05; 2. In the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7s, ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

  1. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  2. Processing of continuously provided punishment and reward in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. METHODS: 15 Methylphenidate (Mph-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditions: no-feedback, gain and loss. Event Related Potentials (ERPs time-locked to feedback and errors were computed. RESULTS: All groups performed more accurately with gain and loss than without feedback. Feedback-related ERPs demonstrated no group differences in the feedback P2, but an enhanced late positive potential (LPP to feedback stimuli (both gains and losses for Mph-free children with ADHD compared to controls. Feedback-related ERPs in Mph-treated children with ADHD were similar to controls. Correlational analyses in the ADHD groups revealed that the severity of inattention problems correlated negatively with the feedback P2 amplitude and positively with the LPP to losses and omitted gains. CONCLUSIONS: The early selective attention for rewarding and punishing feedback was relatively intact in children with ADHD, but the late feedback processing was deviant (increased feedback LPP. This may explain the often observed positive effects of continuous reinforcement on performance and behaviour in children with ADHD. However, these group findings cannot be generalised to all individuals with the ADHD, because the feedback-related ERPs were associated with the severity of the inattention problems. Children with ADHD-combined type with more inattention problems showed both deviant early attentional selection of feedback stimuli, and deviant late processing of non-reward and punishment.

  3. Transdermal drug delivery system: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS is one of the systems lying under the category of controlled drug delivery, in which the aim is to deliver the drug through the skin in a predetermined and controlled rate. It has various advantages, like prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side-effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. The stratum corneum is considered as the rate limiting barrier in transdermal permeation of most molecules. There are three main routes of drug penetration, which include the appendageal, transcellular and intercellular routes. Skin age, condition, physicochemical factors and environmental factors are some factors that are to be considered while delivering drug through this route. Basic components of TDDS include polymer matrix, membrane, drug, penetration enhancers, pressure-sensitive adhesives, backing laminates, release liner, etc. Transdermal patches can be divided into various systems like reservoir system, matrix system and micro-reservoir system, which are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via the skin. After preparation of transdermal patches, consistent methodology are adopted to test the adhesion properties, physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro skin permeation studies, skin irritation studies and stability studies. According to the duration of therapy, various drugs are commercially available in the form of transdermal patches.

  4. Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Today, ∼74% of drugs are taken orally and are not found to be as effective as desired. To improve such characteristics, transdermal drug delivery was brought to existence. This delivery system is capable of transporting the drug or macromolecules painlessly through skin into the blood circulation at fixed rate. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive techniques of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are prevention from hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. Human skin surface, as a site of drug application for both local and systemic effects, is the most eligible candidate available. New controlled transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) technologies (electrically-based, structure-based and velocity-based) have been developed and commercialized for the transdermal delivery of troublesome drugs. This review article covers most of the new active transport technologies involved in enhancing the transdermal permeation via effective drug delivery system. PMID:25006687

  5. Transdermal Delivery of Nisoldipine: Refinement of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraby, Gamal M; Ahmed, Amal A; Osman, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    Nisoldipine is used for the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. However, it has very low bioavailabil-ty, which is attributed to extensive pre-systemic metabolism. In addition, nisol-ipine is highly potent (used at a low dose). Taking into consideration the fact that transdermal delivery avoids the pre-systemic metabolism and is only suit-ble for potent drugs, nisoldipine can be considered as an excellent candidate for transdermal delivery. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to optimize nisoldipine transdermal delivery. That was achieved initially by investigating the effect of vehicles on skin penetration. The tested vehicles were ranked with respect to transdermal flux of nisoldipine as isopropyl myristate > oleic acid > propylene glycol > water > polyethylene glycol 400. A combination of oleic acid with propylene glycol was synergistic with a ratio of 1:2 w/w being the best. These results were taken further to develop microemulsion systems using either oleic acid or isopropyl myristate as the oil phase. Both cases employed polyoxy-thylene sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant with propylene glycol being uti-ized as a cosurfactant in the case of oleic acid and ethanol in the case of isopropyl myristate. The developed microemulsions produced significant enhancement in nisoldipine transdermal delivery with the flux being even greater than that obtained from the corresponding pure vehicles. This achieve-ent was recorded in optimum microemulsion formulations which contained a cosurfactant. The study provided stepwise optimization of a vehicle for trans-ermal delivery of nisoldipine.

  6. Working Memory Capacity Predicts Effects of Methylphenidate on Reversal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    van der Schaaf, Marieke E; Fallon, Sean J.; ter Huurne, Niels; Buitelaar, Jan; Cools, Roshan

    2013-01-01

    Increased use of stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate, by healthy college students has raised questions about its cognitive-enhancing effects. Methylphenidate acts by increasing extracellular catecholamine levels and is generally accepted to remediate cognitive and reward deficits in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the cognitive-enhancing effects of such ‘smart drugs' in the healthy population are still unclear. Here, we investigated effects of methyl...

  7. Differential effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on social cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M.; Simmler, Linda D.; Crockett, Molly J.; Quednow, Boris B.; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgm...

  8. Dopamine D4 receptors modulate brain metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum at rest and in response to methylphenidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Pascau, J.; Gispert, J.-D.; Delis, F.; Grandy, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Desco, M.; Rubinstein, M.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-07-16

    Methylphenidate (MP) is widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Variable number of tandem repeats polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (D{sub 4}) gene have been implicated in vulnerability to ADHD and the response to MP. Here we examined the contribution of dopamine D4 receptors (D4Rs) to baseline brain glucose metabolism and to the regional metabolic responses to MP. We compared brain glucose metabolism (measured with micro-positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) at baseline and after MP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in mice with genetic deletion of the D{sub 4}. Images were analyzed using a novel automated image registration procedure. Baseline D{sub 4}{sup -/-} mice had lower metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and greater metabolism in the cerebellar vermis (CBV) than D{sub 4}{sup +/+} and D{sub 4}{sup +/-} mice; when given MP, D{sub 4}{sup -/-} mice increased metabolism in the PFC and decreased it in the CBV, whereas in D{sub 4}{sup +/+} and D{sub 4}{sup +/-} mice, MP decreased metabolism in the PFC and increased it in the CBV. These findings provide evidence that D4Rs modulate not only the PFC, which may reflect the activation by dopamine of D4Rs located in this region, but also the CBV, which may reflect an indirect modulation as D4Rs are minimally expressed in this region. As individuals with ADHD show structural and/or functional abnormalities in these brain regions, the association of ADHD with D4Rs may reflect its modulation of these brain regions. The differential response to MP as a function of genotype could explain differences in brain functional responses to MP between patients with ADHD and healthy controls and between patients with ADHD with different D{sub 4} polymorphisms.

  9. Response to methylphenidate by adult and pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Spanish multicenter DIHANA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdizán-Usón JR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JR Valdizán-Usón,1 A Cánovas-Martínez,2 MT De Lucas-Taracena,3 F Díaz-Atienza,4 LS Eddy-Ives,5 A Fernández-Jaén,6 M Fernández-Pérez,7 M García-Giral,8 P García-Magán,9 M Garraus-Oneca,10 MA Idiazábal-Alecha,11 M López-Benito,12 G Lorenzo-Sanz,13 J Martínez-Antón,14 MA Martínez-Granero,15 F Montañés-Rada,16 F Mulas-Delgado,17 G Ochando-Perales,18 E Ortega-García,19 A Pelaz-Antolín,20 JA Ramos-Quiroga,21 FC Ruiz-Sanz,22 J Vaquerizo-Madrid,23 A Yusta-Izquierdo241Unidad Trastornos Neurofuncionales, Clínica Montpellier, Zaragoza, 2Hospital Dr Peset, Valencia, 3Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 4Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, 5Centre Mèdic Sant Ramon, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Barcelona, 6Hospital Universitario Quirón, Madrid, 7Centro de Salud La Felguera, Langreo, Asturias, 8Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, 9Unidad Salud Mental, Talavera de la Reina, 10Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, 11Hospital Ntra. Sra. del Pilar, Barcelona, 12Centro Salud Contrueces, Gijón, 13Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 14Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya, Málaga, 15Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, 16Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, 17Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, 18Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, 19Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, 20Centro Salud Mental, Alcalá de Henares, 21Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. CIBERSAM. Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 22Hospital General Rio Carrión, Palencia, 23Hospital Materno-Infantil, Badajoz, 24Hospital Universitario, Guadalajara, SpainBackground: The purpose of this multicenter Spanish study was to evaluate the response to immediate-release methylphenidate by children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, as well as to obtain information on current therapy patterns and safety characteristics.Methods: This multicenter

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Annual Review Course Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Learning on Demand Sign In My Profile Publications Donate ... help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they can’t communicate ... plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn to use point systems or charts ...

  12. Developmental aspects of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J. van

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, both in its clinical presentation (phenotype) and the underlying aetiology. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to identify causal pathways that link the phenotype to brain structure and functioning. In an attempt to go beyond th

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Annual Review Course Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Learning on Demand Sign In My Profile Publications Donate ... a child with ADHD gain a better self-image. The therapist can help the child identify his ...

  14. Cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine Ida Elise

    2003-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is an impairing childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder, highly influenced by (multi)genetic factors. The precise genetic constellation of ADHD is still unknown. Since it is increasingly recognized that the traditional nosological categories described in th

  15. Kids' Quest: ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they are doing at school and at home. Matt Morgan Matt is a pro wrestler. Matt talks about how he has been diagnosed with ... or not supported in this browser The Blueprint Matt Morgan On ADHD Â Return to Steps Movies ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a child becomes too unruly or loses control, families can ... find opportunities to praise their child for appropriate behavior. Talk therapy can help children with ADHD feel better about themselves. The child ...

  17. The presence of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses high quality register-data to study the spillover effects on firstborns from having a younger sibling suffering from ADHD. Using OLS and cousin fixed effects analyses it is found that the educational outcomes of healthy firstborn children are significantly reduced by the presence...

  18. Motor Incoordination in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between motor performance, attention deficit, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity in 42 school-aged children with ADHD (36 males, 6 females; mean age 8 years 2 months; range 6-11 years) was studied at National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  20. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  1. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for…

  2. The NICE ADHD health technology assessment: A review and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlander Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health technology assessments (HTAs by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE enjoy high levels of international attention. The present analysis addresses NICE's appraisal of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and dexamphetamine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents, published in March 2006. Methods A qualitative study of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 was done focusing on the >600-page technology assessment report, which aimed at evaluating ADHD treatment strategies by a clinical effectiveness review and an economic analysis using meta-analytical techniques and a cost-effectiveness model. Results The technology assessment was unable to differentiate between the various drugs in terms of efficacy, and its economic model was ultimately driven by cost differences. While the assessment concluded that the economic model "clearly identified an optimal treatment strategy" with first-line dexamphetamine, the NICE appraisal committee subsequently found it impossible to distinguish between the different strategies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Analyzing the assessment reveals gaps and inconsistencies concerning data selection (ultimately relying on a small number of short-term studies only, data synthesis (pooling of heterogeneous study designs and clinical endpoints, and economic model structure (identifying double-counting of nonresponders as a likely source of bias, alongside further methodological anomalies. Conclusion Many conclusions of the NICE technology assessment rest on shaky grounds. There remains a need for a new, state-of-the-art systematic review of ADHD treatment strategies including economic evaluation, which ideally should address outcomes beyond children's health-related quality of life, such as long-term sequelae of the disorder and caregiver burden.

  3. Effetti del Metilfenidato sulla crescita in bambini e adolescenti ADHD. Revisione sistematica e monitoraggio prospettico a lungo termine dei parametri auxologici: analisi preliminari dei risultati dello studio europeo di farmacovigilanza ADDUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Carucci, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Stimulant medications represent the main effective treatment in improving the core symptoms of ADHD. However, in the last 30 years, there has been increasing concern about the risks associated with these medications in particular with respect to possible growth deficits, due to their impact on weight, height and BMI. The aim of this work was to provide an extensive update of the literature on methylphenidate (MPH) long-term adverse effects on growth and pubertal maturation in A...

  4. A REVIEW: TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY OF NICOTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Ravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been the leading cause of premature death and illness in many industrialized country in the world, while the U.S. alone registers more than 4,00,000 deaths each year. The nicotine patch serves to deliver a constant dose of nicotine across the skin that helps to relieve the symptoms which are associated with tobacco withdrawal. Further, the use of carbon nanotube membranes and micro needle based transdermal drug delivery has lead to the great advancements. Some of the main advantages of transdermal drug delivery are bypassing of hepatic first pass metabolism, maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug and enhancement of therapeutic efficiency.

  5. Percutaneous penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transdermal route has numerous advantages over the more traditional drug delivery routes. These include high bioavailability, absence of first pass hepatic metabolism, steady drug plasma concentrations, and the fact that therapy is non-invasive. The main obstacle to permeating drug molecules is the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Consequently, research into enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD by overcoming this layer, is an area of prime interest. This review article is written to provide a coverage commentary of the recent advancements in TDD enhancement techniques.

  6. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Rebecca M.C. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task k...

  7. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Stephanie A; Howell, Kristin K; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2014-01-16

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development.

  8. Environmental enrichment has no effect on the development of dopaminergic and GABAergic fibers during methylphenidate treatment of early traumatized gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuchert-Noodt Gertraud

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is widely believed, that environmental factors play a crucial role in the etiology and outcome of psychiatric diseases such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. A former study from our laboratory has shown that both methylphenidate (MP and handling have a positive effect on the dopaminergic fiber density in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of early traumatized gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus. The current study was performed to investigate if enriched environment during MP application has an additional influence on the dopaminergic and GABAergic fiber densities in the PFC and amygdala in this animal model. Animals received a single early dose of methamphetamine (MA; 50 mg/kg; i.p. on postnatal day (PD 14, which is known to cause multiple changes in the subsequent development of several neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic systems, and were then treated with oral daily applications of MP (5 mg/kg from PD30–60. Animals treated this way were either transferred to an enriched environment after weaning (on PD30 or were kept under impoverished rearing conditions. There was no effect of an enriched environment on the dopaminergic or GABAergic fiber density neither in the PFC nor in the amygdala. With regard to former studies these results underline the particular impact of MP in the treatment of ADHD.

  9. Understanding ADHD through entification

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Mikka

    2014-01-01

    How do we perceive ourselves and what explanations are we drawing upon in order to understand ourselves as morally acting individuals? In this presentation, I focus on how we live with, accept, and work on parts of ourselves that we find less desirable or even pathological. Based on interviews with adults diagnosed with ADHD, I illustrate how the process of entification (transforming a trait, temperament, emotion, or some other psychological phenomenon into a thing or agent) can be a way to u...

  10. Immune modulation using transdermal photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julia G.; Chowdhary, R. K.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Waterfield, Douglas; Obochi, Modestus; Leong, Simon; Hunt, David W. C.; Chan, Agnes H.

    1995-01-01

    The photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (VerteporfinR or BPD) has maximum absorption characteristics (690 nm) and biodistribution characteristics which permit activation of the drug in capillaries of the skin without causing skin photosensitivity (transdermal PDT). This permits targeting of cells in the circulation for selective ablation. Since BPD has been shown to accumulate preferentially in activated lymphocytes and monocytes, studies have been undertaken to determine the effect of transdermal PDT on murine models for rheumatoid arthritis (the MRL/lpr adjuvant enhanced model) and multiple sclerosis (the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in PL mice). Localized transdermal PDT with BPD was found to be completely successful in preventing the development of adjuvant enhanced arthritis in the MRL/lpr mouse as well as improving the underlying arthritic condition of these animals. In the EAE model, in which an adoptive transfer system was used, it was found that transdermal PDT of recipients was effective in preventing EAE if treatments were implemented up to 24 hours after cell transfer but was not effective if given later, indicating the requirement for circulating T cells for effective treatment.

  11. Navigating sticky areas in transdermal product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasinger, Caroline; Raney, Sam G; Tran, Doanh C; Ghosh, Priyanka; Newman, Bryan; Bashaw, Edward D; Ghosh, Tapash; Shukla, Chinmay G

    2016-07-10

    The benefits of transdermal delivery over the oral route to combat such issues of low bioavailability and limited controlled release opportunities are well known and have been previously discussed by many in the field (Prausnitz et al. (2004) [1]; Hadgraft and Lane (2006) [2]). However, significant challenges faced by developers as a product moves from the purely theoretical to commercial production have hampered full capitalization of the dosage forms vast benefits. While different technical aspects of transdermal system development have been discussed at various industry meetings and scientific workshops, uncertainties have persisted regarding the pharmaceutical industry's conventionally accepted approach for the development and manufacturing of transdermal systems. This review provides an overview of the challenges frequently faced and the industry's best practices for assuring the quality and performance of transdermal delivery systems and topical patches (collectively, TDS). The topics discussed are broadly divided into the evaluation of product quality and the evaluation of product performance; with the overall goal of the discussion to improve, advance and accelerate commercial development in the area of this complex controlled release dosage form. PMID:27117457

  12. A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Szobot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-SODAS on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in an outpatient sample of adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD. Secondary goals were to evaluate the tolerability and impact on drug use of MPH-SODAS. This was a 6-week, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessing efficacy of escalated doses of MPH-SODAS on ADHD symptoms in 16 adolescents with ADHD/SUD. Participants were randomly allocated to either group A (weeks 1-3 on MPH-SODAS, weeks 4-6 on placebo or group B (reverse order. The primary outcome measures were the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. We also evaluated the adverse effects of MPH-SODAS using the Barkley Side Effect Rating Scale and subject reports of drug use during the study. The sample consisted of marijuana (N = 16; 100% and cocaine users (N = 7; 43.8%. Subjects had a significantly greater reduction in SNAP-IV and CGI scores (P < 0.001 for all analyses during MPH-SODAS treatment compared to placebo. No significant effects for period or sequence were found in analyses with the SNAP-IV and CGI scales. There was no significant effect on drug use. MPH-SODAS was well tolerated but was associated with more severe appetite reduction than placebo (P < 0.001. MPH-SODAS was more effective than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms in a non-abstinent outpatient sample of adolescents with comorbid SUD. Randomized clinical trials, with larger samples and SUD intervention, are recommended.

  13. Control study on methylphenidate treatment in epilepsy comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%癫痫共患注意缺陷多动障碍儿童哌甲酯治疗对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 陈燕惠; 林桂秀

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究癫痫共患注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)儿童应用哌甲酯治疗的意义. [方法]从本院小儿神经专科门诊中收集癫痫共患ADHD患儿58例,根据癫痫类型以及是否服用哌甲酯进行分组,治疗3个月以后,比较同一癫痫发作类型服用哌甲酯与未服用哌甲酯组之间脑电图异常变化值、癫痫发作次数变化情况以及ADHD症状改善情况. [结果]同一癫痫发作类型服用哌甲酯与未服用哌甲酯组之间脑电图异常变化值、癫痫发作次数减少值比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);各癫痫发作类型未服用哌甲酯组3个月治疗前、后SNAP-Ⅳ评分比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),而服用哌甲酯组3个月治疗后SNAP-Ⅳ评分较前明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). [结论]哌甲酯对脑电图异常评分以及发作减少次数没有影响,未发现该药加重癫痫病情现象.%[Objective] To investigate the clinical significance of methylphenidate treatment in epilepsy comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children in the disorder in children medication.[Methods] From our hospital specialist outpatients pediatric neurologist,58 cases of children epilepsy comorbid ADHD were collected and divided groups according to the type of epilepsy and whether taking methylphenidate.After 3 months of treatment.Electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormality rate change value,changes in seizure frequency and improvement of ADHD symptoms among the groups.[Results] After three months’ treatment,between the groups of the same type of seizures were compared,EEG abnormality rate and the reduced value of seizure frequency were no statistical differenees(P>0.05).Comparison of SNAPⅣ scale scores in not taking methylphenidate groups before and after treatment was no statistical difference (P>0.05),while taking methylphenidate groups’ SNAP-Ⅳ score was significantly decreased after

  14. Clinical utility of guanfacine extended release in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello NT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas T Bello Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common psychiatric illness in children and adolescents. Several stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives, are available to treat ADHD in pediatric patients. Nonstimulant medications are more preferred by some parents, other caregivers, and patients because they lack the abuse potential of stimulant medications. In the US, one available nonstimulant option is guanfacine extended release (XR. As a selective α2A adrenergic receptor, guanfacine acts on the central noradrenergic pathways and cortical noradrenergic targets to improve working memory and attention. The XR formulation of guanfacine, compared with the immediate-release formulation, is more effective for the long-term management of ADHD and is associated with fewer adverse effects. Available data also indicate that guanfacine XR is superior to atomoxetine and is as effective as the nonselective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine XR. The most common adverse effects associated with guanfacine XR are somnolence, fatigue, bradycardia, and hypotension. Somnolence is the most often cited reason for discontinuation. Guanfacine XR is also labeled for use as an adjuvant to stimulant treatment for ADHD. A similar profile of adverse effects as reported with monotherapy is reported when guanfacine XR is “added on” to stimulant therapy with somnolence as the most commonly reported adverse event. This review discusses the clinical efficacy and patient preference of guanfacine XR based on available published data on the safety, relative effectiveness, and tolerance of this medication to treat ADHD. Keywords: Intuniv, norepinephrine, prefrontal cortex, locus coeruleus, impulsivity, inattentive

  15. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  16. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, James (University of California, Irvine)

    2010-04-28

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also

  17. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    OpenAIRE

    Reshmy Rajan; Shoma Jose; V P Biju Mukund; Deepa T Vasudevan

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes a...

  18. A Comprehensive Review on: Transdermal drug delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kharat, Rekha; Bathe, Ritesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. Despite their relatively higher costs, transdermal delivery systems have proved advantageous for delivery of selected drugs, such as estrogens, testosterone, clonidine and nitro-glycerine. Transdermal delivery provides a leading edge over injectable and oral routes by increasing patient compliance and avoiding first pass metabolism respectively. Topical  administration  of  therap...

  19. Effects of developmental methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on monoamine neurochemistry of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, John J; O'Callaghan, James P; Miller, Diane B; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 4-5% of the adult human population (Kessler et al., 2006; Willcutt, 2012). Often prescribed to attenuate ADHD symptoms (Nair and Moss, 2009), methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) can have substantial positive effects. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding its use during pregnancy. Thus, adult women with ADHD face a difficult decision when contemplating pregnancy. In this study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated a total of 0 (water), 6 (low), 18 (medium), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg body weight/day (divided into three doses) on gestational days 6-21 (i.e., the low dose received 2 mg MPH/kg body weight 3×/day). Offspring were orally treated with the same daily dose as their dam (divided into two doses) on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. One offspring/sex/litter was sacrificed at PND 22 or PND 104 (n=6-7/age/sex/treatment group) and the striatum was quickly dissected and frozen. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a Photo Diode Array detector (PDA) was used to analyze monoamine content in the striatum of one side while a sandwich ELISA was used to analyze tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the other side. Age significantly affected monoamine and metabolite content as well as turnover ratios (i.e., DA, DOPAC, HVA, DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA); however, there were no significant effects of sex. Adult rats of the low MPH group had higher DA levels than control adults (p<0.05). At both ages, subjects of the low MPH group had higher TH levels than controls (p<0.05), although neither effect (i.e., higher DA or TH levels) exhibited an apparent dose-response. PND 22 subjects of the high MPH treatment group had higher ratios of HVA/DA and DOPAC/DA than same-age control subjects (p<0.05). The increased TH levels of the low MPH group may be related to the increased DA levels of adult rats. While developmental MPH treatment appears to have some effects on monoamine

  20. Familier og ADHD-problematikker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maja Lundemark

    Denne rapport henvender sig til alle – borgere, professionelle i det sociale og sundhedsfaglige arbejde, forskere og politikere – som interesserer sig for forståelsen og betydningen af ADHD-problematikker i familiers daglige liv. Rapporten har særligt fokus på brugernes egne perspektiver på ADHD......-problematikker, og der er lagt vægt på en ressourceorienteret tilgang. Rapporten viser, på baggrund af observationer og interview med familier, hvor ADHD-problematikker er en del af de daglige udfordringer, at ADHD opleves meget differentieret af de forskellige individer, hvilket tyder på, at det kan være en idé, at...... familiernes oplevelser af samarbejde med de professionelle inden for det sociale og pædagogiske arbejde en diskussion af muligheder for at øge kvaliteten i mødet mellem velfærdssystemer og familier med ADHD-problematikker....

  1. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  2. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  3. Analysis on the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride based on the prescription for outpatients%盐酸哌甲酯门诊处方应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦克莹; 刘雪飞; 凌科; 张建民

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析盐酸哌甲酯的门诊使用情况,评价其使用的合理性.方法 采用回顾性调查方法,收集我院门诊药房2010年1~5月盐酸哌甲酯处方336张,按姓名、年龄、性别、药名、数量、服用方法、处方编号等处方内容进行统计;以限定日剂量(DDD)、药物利用指数(DUI)为指标进行分析、评价,判断其使用的合理性.结果 336张处方共涉及患儿168例,男138例,女30例,男女比例为4.6:1;8~9岁患儿最多;盐酸哌甲酯片的处方36张,DUI为0.94,盐酸哌甲酯控释片的处方300张,DUI为0.76.结论 我院门诊患儿盐酸哌甲酯的使用基本合理,处方质量及处方调配有不足之处,医师和药师需注意改进.%Objective To analyze the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride for outpatient in our hospital and evaluate the rational drug administration. Methods 336 prescriptions from outpatients during January to May in 2010 were collected, analyzed retrospectively for the prescriptions by name, age, sex, dose, way of administration, and code of prescriptions. Using the indicators of DDD and DUI, the rational drug administration for outpatients was evaluated. Results In 336 prescriptions, 138 of them were prescribed for males and 30 for females, the sex ratio was 4.6:1. Most of patients were 8~9 years old. Among the 336 prescriptions, 300 prescriptions were methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets for ADHD, the DUI of methylphenidate hydruchloride tablets was 0.94, and the DUI of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets was 0.76. Conclusion The use of methylphenidate hydrochloride for outpatients is rational in the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics, however, there is necessity for improvement in quality of prescriptions and preparation.

  4. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life

  5. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours and long-term (10 days MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally, (iii to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p. presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult

  6. Adolescent Atomoxetine Treatment in a Rodent Model of ADHD: Effects on Cocaine Self-Administration and Dopamine Transporters in Frontostriatal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Jordan, Chloe J; Kantak, Kathleen M; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine abuse and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. Preclinical research indicates that medial prefrontal (mPFC) and orbitofrontal (OFC) cortices are important neural substrates for both disorders. Using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD, we reported that adolescent treatment with the stimulant methylphenidate, a dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporter inhibitor, enhanced cocaine self-administration during adulthood, and was associated with increased DAT function in mPFC. This study investigates the effects of atomoxetine ((R)-N-methyl-γ-(2-methylphenoxy)-benzenepropanamine hydrochloride) treatment, a selective NET inhibitor, during adolescence on cocaine self-administration and on DAT function and cell-surface expression in mPFC and OFC during adulthood. SHR acquired cocaine self-administration faster than Wistar–Kyoto and Wistar. Across cocaine doses, SHR earned more cocaine infusions and had higher progressive-ratio breakpoints than Wistar–Kyoto and Wistar, demonstrating that the SHR phenotype models comorbid ADHD and cocaine abuse. Prior atomoxetine treatment did not augment cocaine self-administration in SHR, but acquisition was enhanced in Wistar–Kyoto. No strain differences were found for DAT kinetic parameters or cellular localization in the vehicle controls. Atomoxetine did not alter DAT kinetic parameters or localization in SHR mPFC. Rather, atomoxetine decreased Vmax and DAT cell surface expression in SHR OFC, indicating that inhibition of NET by atomoxetine treatment during adolescence indirectly reduced DAT function and trafficking to the cell surface in OFC, specifically in the ADHD model. Thus, atomoxetine, unlike methylphenidate, does not enhance vulnerability to cocaine abuse in SHR and may represent an important alternative for teens with ADHD when drug addiction is a concern. PMID:23822950

  7. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2012-06-19

    AbstractBackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care.MethodsThe Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD\\/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex.ResultsThe source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6); 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8); 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3); 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2.1 fold

  8. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. Methods The Health Improvement Network (THIN database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. Results The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male. A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1 to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6; 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9 to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8; 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3 to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3; 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03 to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10; >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01 to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03. Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2

  9. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults – health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a mental disorder. Symptoms include hyperactivity, lack of attentiveness, and frivolousness. This disorder always begins in childhood, but can remain through adulthood. ADHD affects all areas of life and limits the quality of life due to its symptoms and the high rate of associated disorders that can develop. An established form of therapy is using stimulant medications, most commonly, containing Methylphenidate as the active ingredient. However, in Germany this ingredient is not approved for adults suffering from ADHD. Therefore, many adults cannot obtain appropriate medication to treat this disorder. Objective: The following report (Health Technology Assessment [HTA] examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the medical treatment of ADHD in adults as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects thereof. Methods: In August 2009, a systematic literature search is performed in all relevant scientific databases. The selected citations fulfill predetermined inclusion criteria. The data in the publications is then systematically extracted, reviewed and assessed. A manual search of citations is conducted as well. Results: Nineteen studies fulfill the inclusion criteria: nine randomised controlled studies (RCT, five meta-analyses, three economic studies and two studies relevant to the legal aspects of the HTA.All RCT reveal that adult patients who receive medication containing a stimulant (Methylphenidate and Amphetamine and Atomoxetine, see a reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to the placebo-treated patients. The drug response rate among the control group ranges from 7 to 42%; in the treatment group from 17 to 59.6%. The meta-analyses confirm the findings of the RCT. In light of the control group, it can be ascertained that there are higher annual costs (both direct and indirect for patients with ADHD. The average annual medical expenses for an adult with ADHD were 1,262 $ in

  10. Causative Factors for ADHD: Role of Copy Number Variants in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; John J Millichap

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from Brazil determined if copy number variants (CNVs) in glutamate metabotropic receptor genes (GRM) were overrepresented in 1038 individuals with ADHD compared to 1057 subjects without ADHD.

  11. Topical and transdermal delivery of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, L.; Lane, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is administered topically and transdermally for a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and it is also used as a model hydrophilic compound in dermal risk assessment studies. This review considers the physicochemical and permeation properties of caffeine with reference to its delivery to and through the skin. Since it has been used as a model compound the findings have implications for the delivery of many hydrophilic compounds having similar properties. Various passive...

  12. Proniosomes for Penetration Enhancement in Transdermal System

    OpenAIRE

    Samita Singla; S. L. Harikumar; Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years an inclusive research has been done over provesicular approach for transdermal drug delivery. Skin has a very tough diffusion barrier inhibiting penetration of drug moiety which is rate limiting barrier for penetration of drugs. There are several approaches that deal with penetration enhancement across the skin. Vesicular and provesicular systems are promising amongst them. Vesicular systems including (niosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes and liposomes) are promising sys...

  13. Transdermal drug delivery: approaches and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, SATHYANARAYANA

    2012-01-01

    S Narasimha MurthyDepartment of Pharmaceutics, The University of Mississippi, USATransdermal drug delivery systems deliver drugs through the skin as an alternative to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous, and transmucosal routes. Potential advantages of transdermal delivery include, but are not limited to, elimination of first-pass metabolism, steady delivery/blood levels, better patient compliance, reduced systemic drug interactions, possible dose intervention, avoidance of medically assisted d...

  14. Transdermal electrical stimulation in sensorineural tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    S Maini; Deoganonkar, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    In 73 patients, comprising of 84 ears, with persistent decompensated tinnitus and sensorineu-ral deafness, tinnitus suppression was attempted with low frequency, low ampere transdermal electrical stimula-tion (TDES). The causes of tinnitus were presbyacusis, unknown aetiology, noise exposure, otosclerosis, ototoxic drugs, endolymphatic hydrops, labyrinthitis and post head injury. Reduction of tinnitus was achieved in 38 of 84 ears. Results i.e. improvement were achieved in patients in the fol...

  15. Modeling of Ethanol Metabolism and Transdermal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Gregory Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 14,500 people were killed in traffic crashes where the driver was legally intoxicated in 2005, constituting 33% of all traffic fatalities that year. While social efforts to reduce the number of traffic fatalities have shown to be moderately successful, alcohol has remained a factor in 40% of all traffic deaths over the past decade. Transdermal ethanol detection is a promising method that could prevent drunk driving if integrated into an ignition interlock system; potentially ...

  16. Methylphenidate exposure induces dopamine neuron loss and activation of microglia in the basal ganglia of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sadasivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH is a psychostimulant that exerts its pharmacological effects via preferential blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT and the norepinephrine transporter (NET, resulting in increased monoamine levels in the synapse. Clinically, methylphenidate is prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; although lately, there has been an increased incidence of its use in individuals not meeting the criteria for these disorders. MPH has also been misused as a "cognitive enhancer" and as an alternative to other psychostimulants. Here, we investigate whether chronic or acute administration of MPH in mice at either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, affects cell number and gene expression in the basal ganglia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through the use of stereological counting methods, we observed a significant reduction (∼20% in dopamine neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc following chronic administration of 10 mg/kg MPH. This dosage of MPH also induced a significant increase in the number of activated microglia in the SNpc. Additionally, exposure to either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MPH increased the sensitivity of SNpc dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonian agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Unbiased gene screening employing Affymetrix GeneChip® HT MG-430 PM revealed changes in 115 and 54 genes in the substantia nigra (SN of mice exposed to 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPH doses, respectively. Decreases in the mRNA levels of gdnf, dat1, vmat2, and th in the substantia nigra (SN were observed with both acute and chronic dosing of 10 mg/kg MPH. We also found an increase in mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory genes il-6 and tnf-α in the striatum, although these were seen only at an acute dose of 10 mg/kg and not following chronic dosing. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggest that chronic MPH usage in mice at doses spanning the therapeutic range in humans, especially at

  17. Increased performance uncertainty in children with ADHD? - Elevated post-imperative negative variation (PINV over the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resch Franz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the influences of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD on response evaluation, as reflected by the postimperative negative variation (PINV, a slow event-related potential. Methods We investigated PINV as an indicator of performance uncertainty in an audio-visual contingent negative variation (CNV paradigm with an interstimulus interval of 3 seconds. A constant, unilateral, quick motor reaction with either the right or the left thumb was required after an auditory forewarned (S1 visual imperative stimulus (S2. We examined 18 ADHD patients (combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtype aged between 8 and 14 years and an age-, sex and IQ-matched control group of 19 healthy subjects using 64-channel high-density EEG. A first run was recorded drug-free, a second one under methylphenidate (MPH medication in the ADHD group. Results We found a significantly increased negativity of the PINV-component over the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in ADHD children compared to the healthy control group. PINV amplitude was influenced by movement side, most likely due to the slightly more difficult task when left hand responses were required. After the intake of MPH, PINV amplitudes of ADHD children normalized. Conclusions We conclude that children with ADHD are likely to be more uncertain about the correctness of their performance and interpret the increased PINV as a hint towards compensatory mechanisms for a deficit in the evaluation of contingencies. Further studies are needed to assess the exact extent to which remainders of eye-movement related potentials contribute to PINV amplitude despite the correction for eye-artifacts.

  18. ADHD - en risikofaktor i trafikken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Tidligere undersøgelser tyder på, at personer med ADHD har større risiko for at blive involveret i et færdselsuheld, når de kører bil, end personer, der ikke har ADHD. Tidligere undersøgelsesresultater har dog været meget forskellige, ikke mindst fordi man har benyttet forskellige metoder og...... inddraget forskellige aspekter. En ny metaanalyse viser, at personer med ADHD har øget uheldsrisiko, men at risikoen er mindre end hidtil antaget....

  19. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil: comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-07-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed. PMID:23914751

  20. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  1. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  2. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  3. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    Ointment showed a transdermal transfer of morphine over time comparable to 25% of the most efficient modern transdermal opioid patches, while hardly any morphine was able to penetrate the skin when applied mixed in PBS. We conclude that OVDO is very efficient in its composition and may carry some forgotten...

  4. TRANSFEROSOMES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ravi; Manvir Singh; Rajni bala; Nimrata seth; A C Rana

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system appears to be most promising delivery system due to their merits over conventional delivery systems. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular system (liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes). Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. T...

  5. Assistive Technologies to Empower Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The prevalence of ADHD is approximately 5-7% for all school age children and 2-3% for adults. The disorder is associated with both social and academic impairments, increased risk of criminal convictions, as well as poor quality of life. This signals a great loss for society......, and an even greater loss for the individual with ADHD, as this handicap will affect them for the rest of their lives. ADHD is a major societal challenge and the annual estimated societal cost of ADHD (for children) has been estimated to be up to $52.4 billion in the United States alone. The research objective...... of this dissertation has therefore been to contribute to the limited research on assistive technologies for the ADHD domain, in order to address the societal and personal challenges associated with ADHD. A design framework for the ADHD domain was developed through interdisciplinary collaborations with ADHD domain...

  6. 哌甲酯对注意缺陷多动障碍患儿事件相关电位的影响%Effects of Methylphenidate on Event Related Potential in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕴岚; 段敬利; 杨庆南; 郭蕴琦; 王家勤; 寇根生; 高志涛; 宁夔; 张志亮; 王业民; 邓智建

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较哌甲酯对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患儿治疗前后事件相关电位的影响.方法 ADHD患儿32例口服哌甲酯后应用丹迪Keypoint肌电-诱发电位仪进行Go/Nogo任务的事件相关电位检测,以30名健康儿童作为健康对照组,对事件相关电位主成分进行比较.应用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 ADHD患儿服药后Go-P3潜伏期(355.16±17.04)ms,短于服药前(366.66±19.32)ms,但长于健康对照组(333.70±23.57)ms(Pa<0.05);波幅(5.88±1.72)μV,高于服药前(4.82±2.14)μV,但低于健康对照组(7.19±1.87)μV(Pa<0.05);ADHD患儿服药后Nogo-P3波幅(6.13±1.68)μV,高于服药前(5.04±1.76)μV,但低于健康对照组(8.32±2.03)μV(P<0.05,0.01).结论哌甲酯能改善ADHD患儿的注意性及抑制性执行功能.%Objective To investigate the effect of methylphenidate on event related potential(ERP) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Methods Thirty -two children with ADHD (ADHD group)were treated for oral using methylphenidate and observed for 2 hours, scale for the assessment of methylphenidate were evaluated with the P300 ERP in Go/Nogo task. Thirty healthy children ( healthy control group) were controls, to compare the differences of ERP main components. Results The latency [ ( 355.16 ± 17.04 ) ms ]and amplitude[ (5.88 ± 1.72) μV] of Go - P3 in ADHD group after treatment were significantly shorter and higher than before treatment [ ( 366.66 ± 19.32 ) ms and (4.82 ± 2.14) μV,Pa < 0.05 ], but longer and lower than those in healthy control group[ ( 333.70 ± 23.57 ) ms and ( 7.19 ± 1.87 ) μV ,Pa < 0.05 ]. The amplitude [ ( 6.13 ± 1.68 ) μV ] of Nogo - P3 in ADHD group after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment [ ( 5.04 ± 1.76) μV,P < 0.05 ], but lower than that in healthy control group [ ( 8.32 ± 2.03 ) μV, P < 0.05 ] .Conclusion Methylphenidate can improve the attention and inhibitive executive functions in

  7. An Open-label, Self-control, Prospective Study on Cognitive Function, Academic Performance, and Tolerability of Osmotic-release Oral System Methylphenidate in Children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zheng; Jian-Min Liang; Hong-Yun Gao; Zhi-Wei Yang; Fu-Jun Jia; Yue-Zhu Liang; Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common mental and behavioral disorder in school-aged children.This study evaluated the effect of osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on cognitive function and academic performance of Chinese school-aged children with ADHD.Methods: This 12-week, prospective, multicenter, open-label, self-controlled study enrolled 153 Chinese school-aged children with ADHD and 41 non-ADHD children.Children with ADHD were treated with once-daily OROS-MPH (18 mg, 36 mg, or 54 mg).The primary endpoints were Inattention/Overactivity (I/O) with Aggression Conners Behavior Rating Scale (IOWA) and Digit Span Test at week 12 compared with baseline.Secondary endpoints included opposition/defiant (O/D) subscale of IOWA, Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Coding Test, Stroop Color-word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), academic performance on teacher-rated school examinations,and safety at week 12 compared with baseline.Both non-ADHD and ADHD children received the same frequency of cognitive operational test to avoid the possible bias caused by training.Results: A total of 128 patients were evaluated with cognitive assessments.The OROS-MPH treatment significantly improved IOWA Conners I/O subscale scores at week 12 (3.8 ± 2.3) versus baseline (10.0 ± 2.4;P < 0.0001).Digit Span Test scores improved significantly (P < 0.0001) with a high remission rate (81.1%) at week 12 versus baseline.A significant (P < 0.0001) improvement was observed in O/D subscale of IOWA, CGI, Coding Test, Stroop Color-word Test, WCST, and academic performance at week 12 versus baseline.Very few practice-related improvements were noticed in the non-ADHD group at week 12 compared with baseline.No serious adverse events and deaths were reported during the study.Conclusions: The OROS-MPH treatment effectively controlled symptoms of ADHD and significantly improved academic performance and cognitive function of Chinese

  8. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188

  9. Sleep and Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential relationships between objectively measured sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral function in a community cohort of 5- to 7-year old children with parentally reported symptoms of ADHD were investigated at the University of Louisville, KY.

  10. Prospective, naturalistic study of open-label OROS methylphenidate treatment in Chinese school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi; GONG Mei-en; YIN Qing-yun; MAI Jian-ning; JING Jin; LUO Xiang-yang; MA Hong-wei; LI Hai-bo; XIE Ling; LI Yan; Kuang Gui-fang; WANG Yu-feng; YI Ming-ji; WANG Feng; ZHU Xiao-hua; YAO Yah-bin; QIN Jiong; WANG Li-wen; ZOU Li-ping; JIN Xing-ming; XU Tong; WANG Yi; QI Yuan-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders during childhood,characterized by the core symptoms of hyperactivity,impulsivity and inattention and puts great burden on children themselves,their families and the society.Osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) is a once-daily controlled-release formulation developed to overcome some of the limitations associated with immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH).It has been marketed in China since 2005 but still lacks data from large-sample clinical trials on efficacy and safety profiles.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of OROS-MPH in children aged 6 to 16 years with ADHD under naturalistic clinical setting.Methods This 6-week,multi-center,prospective,open-label study enrolled 1447 ADHD children to once-daily OROS-MPH (18 mg,36 mg or 54 mg) treatment.The effectiveness measures were parent-rated Inattention and Overactivity With Aggression (IOWA) Conners I/O and O/D subscales,physician-rated CGI-I and parent-rated global efficacy assessment scale.Blood pressure,pulse rate measurement,adverse events (AEs) and concomitant medications and treatment review were conducted by the investigator and were served as safety measures.Results A total of 1447 children with ADHD (mean age (9.52±2.36) years) were enrolled in this trial.Totally 96.8%children received an OROS-MPH modal dose of 18 mg,3.1% with 36 mg and 0.1% with 54 mg at the endpoint of study.The parent IOWA Conners I/O score at the end of week 2 showed statistically significant (P <0.001) improvement with OROS-MPH (mean:6.95±2.71) versus the score at baseline (10.45±2.72).The change in the parent IOWA Conners O/D subscale,CGI-I and parent-rated global efficacy assessment scale also supported the superior efficacy for OROS-MPH treatment.Fewer than half of 1447 patients (511 (35.3%)) reported AEs,and the majority of the events reported were mild (68.2

  11. [Study on preparation of testosterone undecanoate ethosomes and its in vitro transdermal penetration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shu; Yang, Li-Qun; Ma, Li-Ying; Guo, Jing; Li, Miao; Yang, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Ethosomes, as a new vector for transdermal drug delivery, could obviously improve the transdermal penetration of drugs. In this study, we prepared testosterone undecanoate ethosomes, with TU ethosomes as the basic remedy, to determine its appearance, particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE) and membrane fluidity. Meanwhile, a transdermal test was conducted in mice, in order to determine the permeability characteristics of ethosomes as a vector for transdermal drug delivery, and compare transdermal behaviors of TU ethosomes, liposomes and their ethanol solutions. PMID:23944071

  12. [Study on preparation of testosterone undecanoate ethosomes and its in vitro transdermal penetration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shu; Yang, Li-Qun; Ma, Li-Ying; Guo, Jing; Li, Miao; Yang, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Ethosomes, as a new vector for transdermal drug delivery, could obviously improve the transdermal penetration of drugs. In this study, we prepared testosterone undecanoate ethosomes, with TU ethosomes as the basic remedy, to determine its appearance, particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE) and membrane fluidity. Meanwhile, a transdermal test was conducted in mice, in order to determine the permeability characteristics of ethosomes as a vector for transdermal drug delivery, and compare transdermal behaviors of TU ethosomes, liposomes and their ethanol solutions.

  13. ADHD in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Daphne; Hadijikoumi, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Core symptoms of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, although other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD, including developmental disorders (especially motor, language, social communication, and specific learning disabilities) and psychiatric disorders (especially oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, anxiety, and depressive disorders). Symptoms must be present for at least 6 months, are generally observed in children before the age of 7 years, and cause clinic...

  14. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....

  15. Methylphenidate improves performance on the radial arm maze in periadolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dow-Edwards, Diana L.; Weedon, Jeremy C.; Hellmann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin; MPD) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in childhood and adolescence and many clinical studies have documented its efficacy. Due to the limitations of conducting invasive research in humans, animal models can be beneficial for studying drug effects. However, few animal studies have demonstrated the effects of methylphenidate on cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to find a dose of methylphenidate that was effective in improving performance ...

  16. Cardiac Arrest following a Myocardial Infarction in a Child Treated with Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kim; Gormsen, Lise Kirstine; Kim, Won Yong;

    2015-01-01

    -years, did not report any cases of myocardial infarction in current users of methylphenidate, and the risk of serious adverse cardiac events was not found to be increased. We present a case with an 11-year-old child, treated with methylphenidate, who suffered cardiac arrest and was diagnosed with a remote...... myocardial infarction. This demonstrates that myocardial infarction can happen due to methylphenidate exposure in a cardiac healthy child, without cardiovascular risk factors....

  17. Functional improvement in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after methylphenidate treatment%哌甲酯控释剂对注意缺陷多动障碍功能的改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 金星明; 张丽珊

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨哌甲酯控释剂对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)儿童核心症状与细化功能的改善作用及两者的相关性.方法 156例确诊为ADHD的患儿,治疗前完成SNAP-Ⅳ量表(中文版)评定;随后给予盐酸哌甲酯控释剂18 mg口服,1次/d,连续1个月;治疗后进行SNAP-Ⅳ量表的二次评定,同时完成细化功能改善问卷评定.观察核心症状与细化功能改善情况,并分析两者的相关性.结果 哌甲酯控释剂治疗后,ADHD患儿SNAP-Ⅳ量表各因子原始平均分均较治疗前明显降低(P50%),其次是多动冲动因子和注意缺陷因子;患儿在校学习、在家作业和社会行为功能都有所改善,且细化功能改善程度明显.注意缺陷因子的减分与在校学习和在家作业情况的改善显著相关(P50%), followed by ADHD-H/Im and ADHD-In. The performance of school study, homework doing and social behavioral function was improved, and the detailed function was significantly improved. The reduction rate in ADHD-In factor was significantly correlated with improvement of school study and homework doing (P<0.01). The reduction rate in ADHD-H/Im factor was significantly correlated with improvement of social behavioral function(P<0.05). Conclusion Methylphenidate extended-release tablets play a role in both core symptoms reduction and detailed function improvement in children with ADHD, and core symptoms reduction is related to detailed function improvement to some degree. Methylphenidate extended-release tablets exert different effects on different detailed function.

  18. Efeito do metilfenidato no processamento auditivo em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do deficit de atenção/hiperatividade Effects of methylphenidate in auditory processing evaluation of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cavadas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho em teste de avaliação do processamento auditivo (PA num grupo de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH pré e pós-metilfenidato. MÉTODO: Foram aplicados testes comportamentais padronizados de avaliação do PA em 29 indivíduos com TDAH na faixa etária de 7 a 15 anos, de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se um grupo de comparação de 29 indivíduos sem déficit de atenção, com e sem transtornos de aprendizado. RESULTADOS: O grupo com TDAH apresentou desempenho nos testes de PA semelhante ao grupo controle sem transtornos do aprendizado sendo seus resultados ainda melhores na ocasião pós-medicação. O grupo sem déficit de atenção e com problemas de aprendizagem apresentou o pior desempenho nos testes de PA e o grupo sem déficit de atenção e sem problemas de aprendizagem foi o que apresentou o melhor desempenho. CONCLUSÃO: O teste de PA não permitiu diferenciar portadores de TDAH de controles pareados; o metilfenidato se associou a melhora do desempenho nos testes de PA nos portadores de TDAH.PURPOSE: To compare the performance of a group of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD pre and post-methylphenidate use in a behavioral auditory processing test battery (AP. METHOD: Twenty-nine subjects, male and female, ranging from 7 to 15 years old have undergone different behavioral auditory processing tests. A control group composed of 29 subjects with and without learning disabilities was also evaluated. RESULTS: The group with ADHD had a performance similar to the control group without learning disabilities which improved after medication. The group with learning disabilities and without ADHD had the worst performance in tests while the group without learning disabilities and without ADHD exhibited the best ones. CONCLUSION: The AP battery was unable to distinguish ADHD patients from paired controls; the use of

  19. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  20. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  1. Attention and Neurocognitive Impairment in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Specific executive functions (EFs and attention deficit patterns in ADHD subtypes were studied in 50 boys (ages 8-14 years, mean 10.42 with ADHD and 44 controls, at the University of Rome, Italy.

  2. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  3. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  4. Influence of monoolein on progesterone transdermal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Souza Cardoso Quintão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This work aimed to investigate in vitro the influence of monoolein (MO on progesterone (PG transdermal delivery and skin retention. Information about the role of MO as an absorption enhancer for lipophilic molecules can help on innovative product development capable of delivering the hormone through the skin in a consistent manner, improving transdermal therapy of hormonal replacement. MO was dispersed in propylene glycol under heat at concentrations of 0% (control, 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w. Then, 0.6% of PG (w/w was added to each formulation. Permeation profile of the hormone was determined in vitro for 48 h using porcine skin in Franz diffusion cells. PG permeation doubled when 5% (w/w of MO was present in formulation in comparison to both the control and higher MO concentrations (10% and 20% w/w. An equal trend was observed for PG retention in stratum corneum (SC and reminiscent skin (E+D. PG release rates from the MO formulations, investigated using cellulose membranes, revealed that concentrations of MO higher than 5% (w/w hindered PG release, which indeed negatively reflected on the hormone permeation through the skin. In conclusion, this work demonstrated the feasibility of MO addition (at 5% w/w in formulations as a simple method to increase transdermal PG delivery for therapies of hormonal replacement. In contrast, higher MO concentrations (from 10% to 20% w/w can control active release, and this approach could be extrapolated to other lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecules.

  5. A REVIEW: TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY OF NICOTINE

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Ravi; Sharma P. K; Bansal M

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been the leading cause of premature death and illness in many industrialized country in the world, while the U.S. alone registers more than 4,00,000 deaths each year. The nicotine patch serves to deliver a constant dose of nicotine across the skin that helps to relieve the symptoms which are associated with tobacco withdrawal. Further, the use of carbon nanotube membranes and micro needle based transdermal drug delivery has lead to the great advancements. Some of the mai...

  6. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  7. Childhood ADHD : A Stepped Diagnosis Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Pijl, Sipjan; Van Tol, Donald G.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    Since publication of DSM-IV in 1994, the prevalence of parent-reported diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has tripled to more than 10% of children. Although it is hard to know for sure whether ADHD is overdiagnosed, underdiagnosed, or misdiagnosed, it is argued that ADHD is es

  8. Vesicular system: Versatile carrier for transdermal delivery of bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deependra; Pradhan, Madhulika; Nag, Mukesh; Singh, Manju Rawat

    2015-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained immense interest for pharmaceutical researchers. The major hurdle for diffusion of drugs and bioactives through transdermal route is the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Currently, various approaches such as physical approach, chemical approach, and delivery carriers have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. This review provides a brief overview of mechanism of drug transport across skin, different lipid vesicular systems, with special emphasis on lipid vesicular systems including transfersomes, liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, virosomes, and pharmacosomes and their application for the delivery of different bioactives. PMID:24564350

  9. Assessment of potential cardiovascular risks of methylphenidate in comparison with sibutramine: do we need a SCOUT (trial)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antel, Jochen; Albayrak, Özgür; Heusch, Gerd; Banaschewski, Tobias; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    With the recent approval of methylphenidate (MPH) for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, the number of patients exposed will increase tremendously. The ongoing debate on the cardiovascular safety of MPH has triggered two large retrospective cohort studies in children and adolescents as well as in young to middle-aged adults. These studies looked into serious cardiovascular events (sudden cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and stroke) as primary endpoints and concluded that MPH was safe after a mean duration of 2.1 years of follow-up in children and adolescents and mean duration of 0.33 years of current use in adults. The results are encouraging with respect to the short- and medium-term use of MPH. Without the inherent limitations of retrospective cohort studies, a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in individuals stratified for cardiovascular risk factors would allow for an optimized risk assessment. With many millions of patients treated per year and drawing parallels to the lately discovered risks of sibutramine, another sympathomimetic with an overlapping mode of action and similar side effects on heart rate and blood pressure, we hypothesize that such a trial might be a dedicated risk mitigation strategy for public health. A critical assessment of cardiovascular side effects of MPH appears particularly warranted, because ADHD is associated with obesity, smoking and poor health in general. We summarize recent findings with the focus on cardiovascular risks of MPH in humans; we additionally analyze the limited number of rodent studies that have addressed cardiovascular risks of MPH. PMID:25149468

  10. Effects of perinatal methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on postweaning behaviors of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Delbert Law, C; Sahin, Leyla; Montenegro, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment for adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, little information exists regarding its safety during pregnancy and thus, women with ADHD face difficult decisions regarding continued use during pregnancy. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated 3×/day with 0 (control), 6 (low), 18 (mid), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg/day (i.e., 0, 2, 6, or 14mg/kg at each treatment time) on gestational days 6-21. All offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose their dam had received on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. After weaning, offspring were assessed for adolescent play behavior, locomotor activity, motor coordination, Barnes maze performance, acoustic startle response, novel object recognition, residential running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, home cage behavior, water maze performance, elevated plus maze behavior, locomotor response to an MPH challenge, and passive avoidance. At euthanasia, whole brain and striatal weights as well as serum hormone levels were measured. Body weights of the high MPH group were reduced in both sexes. Males of the high MPH group were less active than control males in open field assessments on PNDs 40-42. Latency to maximum acoustic startle was significantly altered in females of the medium and high MPH groups and residential running wheel activity of females of the low and medium MPH groups was lower than control females. Open arm entries in the elevated plus maze were increased in subjects of the medium MPH group. Females of the low MPH group were less sensitive to the locomotor-increasing effects of an acute 5mg/kg MPH challenge. Serum hormone levels and whole brain and striatal weights were not altered by prior MPH treatment. These results indicate that MPH treatment during development has sporadic effects on postweaning behaviors and those effects were generally exhibited by females. PMID:25514582

  11. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit attention-deficit behavior and an abnormal response on methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Ishisaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.. In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p., but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

  12. ADHD-problematikkens sociale aspekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Nichlas Permin

    Undersøgelsen belyser, hvad ADHD-diagnosen betyder for voksne kriminelles identitet og selvforståelse, og hvordan de oplever mødet med Kriminalforsorgen og det øvrige offentlige hjælpesystem i forbindelse med løsladelse og udslusning. Undersøgelsen belyser også, hvordan frontmedarbejdere i to af...... Kriminalforsorgens institutioner (Kriminalforsorgen i Frihed, KiF, og et åbent fængsel) møder voksne med diagnosen ADHD, eller hvor der er mistanke om en ADHD-problematik. Undersøgelsen bygger på et større kvalitativt studium, hvor der er foretaget fokusgruppeinterview med frontmedarbejdere, individuelle interview...... med voksne kriminelle med en ADHD-diagnose under tilsyn af KiF, med ledelsesrepræsentanter samt observationer af interaktioner mellem frontmedarbejdere og klienter. Undersøgelsen viser, at ADHD-diagnosen har særlig betydning for både de, der fik den stillet i barndommen, og for de, der fik den...

  13. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted...... not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed....... categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were...

  14. Use of methylphenidate among medical students: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Finger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of methylphenidate on cognitive enhancement, memory, and performance in medical students. METHODS: A review of four databases (LILACS, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SciELO, analyzing the title and of all articles published between 1990 and 2012 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Selected articles were read in entirety, including in the review those that met the established criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of use among medical students reached 16%, with no gender difference. Most students began using the drug after entering the university, and the reasons cited to justify it are related to enhancing academic performance. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence in the literature that the use of methylphenidate is beneficial in terms of memory or learning. The drug simply increases wakefulness and alertness, reducing the time of sleep.

  15. Use of methylphenidate among medical students: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Finger; Emerson Rodrigues da Silva; Asdrubal Falavigna

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of methylphenidate on cognitive enhancement, memory, and performance in medical students. METHODS: A review of four databases (LILACS, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SciELO), analyzing the title and of all articles published between 1990 and 2012 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Selected articles were read in entirety, including in the review those that met the established criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of use among medical students reached 16%, with no gen...

  16. Attention enhancing effects of methylphenidate are age-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Shevon E.; Shumsky, Jed S.; Waterhouse, Barry D.

    2014-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®) is used to treat a variety of cognitive disorders. MPH is also popular among healthy individuals, including the elderly, for its ability to focus attention and improve concentration, but these effects have not been shown to be comparable between aged and adult subjects. Thus, we tested whether MPH would improve performance in sustained attention in both adult and aged rats. In addition, we tested the impact of visual distraction on performan...

  17. Hypersensitivity vasculitis after treatment with methylphenidate - case report

    OpenAIRE

    de Sá, Mário Correia; Faria, Carolina; Alves, Marta; Macedo, Liliana; Carvalho, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hypersensitivity vasculitis is the small blood vessels’ inflammation secondary to the formation and endothelial deposition of immune complexes.Case Report: We describe a case of a 15 year-old female, recently medicated with methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who presented recurrent episodes of feet pain and purpuric lesions on the toes. The lesions’ histopathological study showed findings consistent with lymphocytic vasculitis.Discussion: The clinical a...

  18. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III). PMID:25225947

  19. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia. PMID:17405199

  20. Changes of Visual P300 and Mismatch Negativity of Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder before and after Methylphenidate Treatment%哌甲酯治疗前后注意缺陷多动障碍患儿视觉P300和非匹配负波的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜亚松; 陈兴时; 龚云; 刘漪; 郭晓莉; 肖泽萍; 赵志民; 楼翡璎; 陈冲; 蒋良函

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患儿视觉P300和非匹配负波(MMN)的异常以及哌甲酯治疗前后P300和MMN的变化.方法 应用美国脑电生理仪,检测41例未服药ADHD患儿和(ADHD组)35例健康儿童(NC组)的P300和MMN,对ADHD患儿给予哌甲酯(10~16 mg.d-1,口服,平均12mg·d-1)治疗.治疗0.5a,对36例ADHD患儿进行随访,复查P300和MMN,按照国际脑电图学会标准,在检查前停服哌甲酯3~7d.结果 1.ADHD患儿P300-N2潜伏期和P3靶潜伏期[(275±21)ms、(340±20) ms]均长于NC组[(259±17) ms、(327±16) ms],二组比较差异有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);P300-P3靶波幅低于NC组[(3.0±1.8) μVvs (5.2±1.5) μV,P<0.05].2.与NC组比较,ADHD患儿MMN潜伏期后移[(199±20) mavs (180±23) ms,P<0.01],波幅降低[(3.2±1.5)μVvs(5.6±1.7) μV,P<0.01].3.经哌甲酯治疗0.5a,ADHD患儿随多动症状改善,P300-N2潜伏期[治疗前(275 +21) ms vs治疗后(261±19) ms,P<0.01]和P3靶潜伏期均缩短[治疗前(340 +20) ms,治疗后vs(329±19)ms,P<0.05],P3靶波幅升高[治疗前(3.0±1.8) μVvs治疗后(4.7±2.0)μV,P<0.01].结论 ADHD患儿视觉P300和MMN存在变异.经哌甲酯治疗后,ADHD患儿脑诱发电位有一定变化,提示ADHD患儿注意缺陷等症状可以通过哌甲酯治疗得以改善.%Objective To assess the characteristics of visual P300 and mismatch negativity(MMN) of patients with attention deficit hy-peractivity disorder (ADHD) before and after methylphenidate treatment. Methods 1. Forty - one ADHD patients(ADHD group), 35 healthy children( NC group) were selected in this study. Optical P300 and mismatch negativity of them were tested,using an American Instrument. All ADHD patients received methylphenidate treatment(10-16mg·d-1,take orally,average 12 mg·d-1). Thirty - six ADHD patients were followed up after 6 months treatment, Optical P300 and MMN were examined. According to the international society of EEG standards, ADHD patients stopped to take

  1. Effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions; psychostimulants are first choice. Other alternatives have been used such as alpha agonists (clonidine, hence it is important to know its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists in treating ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing alpha agonists to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, Lilacs, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 34 studies found initially, three were included, among which a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Clonidine is considered an effective second and third line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but it is less effective than stimulants. Its use is associated with many side effects.

  2. First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    , The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy...

  3. Methylphenidate Amplifies Long-Term Plasticity in the Hippocampus via Noradrenergic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommett, Eleanor J.; Henderson, Emma L.; Westwell, Martin S.; Greenfield, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate treatment is used for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and can improve learning and memory. Previously, improvements were considered a by-product of increased attention; however, we hypothesize that methylphenidate directly alters mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and therefore examined its effects on hippocampal…

  4. Effect of Methylphenidate on Retention and Retrieval of Passive Avoidance Memory in Young and Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies showed that dopamine and norepinephrine improve retention and retrieval of memory. Methylphenidate is an enhancer of dopamine and norepinephrine in brain. Objectives In the present study, the effect of methylphenidate was evaluated on retention and retrieval of memory in young and aged mice using passive avoidance apparatus. Materials and Methods Animals were divided into groups (n = 8 as follows: test groups received electric shock plus methylphenidate (2.5, 5 and 10mg kg-1, i. P., control group received electric shock plus normal saline and blank group received only electric shock. In all groups, step-down latency for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. Methylphenidate was administered immediately after receiving electric shock in the retention test, but methylphenidate was administered 23.5 hours after receiving electric shock in the retrieval test. Results The mean of step-down latency on day 4 was significantly higher compared to day 2 (P < 0.05 in all young and aged groups of mice. The best response was attained with 5 mg/kg of methylphenidate. In memory retention test, the mean of step-down latency in young groups that received 2.5 and 5 mg/kg methylphenidate was significantly longer(P < 0.05 than aged groups. However, this difference was not significant in memory retrieval test. Conclusions Methylphenidate may improve memory retention and retrieval.

  5. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  6. Ginkgo biloba as an adjunct to methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: review of articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Hebrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. The medications which inhibit the reuptake of noradrenline and dopamine including psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine and non-stimulating pre-frontal cortex noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor such as atomoxetine, are the standard treatment of ADHD. Adverse effects of stimulants have been reported in thirty percent of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. More than fifty percent of the parents of these children have tried one or more complementary or alternative medicines including vitamins in their children. Ginkgo biloba has been described to be effective for various neuropsychiatric symptoms. It was assumed that ginkgo biloba might improve some symptoms of attention deficit disorder as well. Nevertheless, no systematic study reported a possible efficacy of ginkgo biloba in attention deficit disorder. This review article evaluates the available evidence on the efficacy of ginkgo biloba medication in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children to present an appropriate guidance for this common child disorder.

  7. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XinLing; LIU Fang; WU XingWen; LI BaoMing

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolaterel nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at '0' or 6 h post-treining. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h poet-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD '0' h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  8. Effects of methylphenidate on resting-state brain activity in normal adults: an fMRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Zhu; Bin Gao; Jianming Hua; Weibo Liu; Yichao Deng; Lijie Zhang; Biao Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Although several studies have evaluated the effects of MPH on human brain activation during specific cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),few studies have focused on spontaneous brain activity.In the current study,we investigated the effect of MPH on the intra-regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity during the resting state in 18normal adult males.A handedness questionnaire and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were applied before medication,and a resting-state fMRI scan was obtained 1 h after medication (20 mg MPH or placebo,order counterbalanced between participants).We demonstrated that:(1) there were no significant differences in the performance of behavioral tasks between the MPH and placebo groups; (2) the left middle and superior temporal gyri had stronger MPH-related regional homogeneity (ReHo); and (3) the left lingual gyrus had weaker MPH-related ReHo.Our findings showed that the ReHo in some brain areas changes with MPH compared to placebo in normal adults,even though there are no behavioral differences.This method can be applied to patients with mental illness who may be treated with MPH,and be used to compare the difference between patients taking MPH and normal participants,to help reveal the mechanism of how MPH works.

  9. ROLE OF ADHESIVES IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad bashir Khan et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS also commonly known as “patches” are dosage forms designed to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of drug across a patient’s skin. The therapeutic performance of a transdermal delivery system (TDS can be affected by the quality of contact between the patch and the skin. The adhesion of the TDS to the skin is obtained by using pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs, which are defined as adhesives capable of bonding to surfaces with the application of light pressure. This article provides an overview of types of transdermal, the anatomical considerations and role of adhesion, the possible adhesion failure modes and how adhesion can be measured. Several in vitro techniques have been used to monitor adhesive performance such as peel adhesion, tack and shear strength. This article provides a frame work for further discussion and scientific work to improve transdermal adhesive performance.

  10. Transdermal Delivery of Piroxicam by Surfactant Mediated Electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAN Jia; JIANG Guoqiang; LIN Ying; TAN Fengping; DING Fuxin

    2005-01-01

    A lipophilic, nonsteroidal antiinflammation drug, piroxicam, was administered by skin electroporation using short, high-voltage pulses. The transdermal delivery of piroxicam during the electroporation was buffered due to the higher partition in skin lipids than in aqueous environments, which is called entrapment. Entrapment is the main resistance to transdermal delivery of lipophilic drugs. Two types of surfactants were used to enhance the skin electroporation. Tween 80 (0.2 g/L) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, 3 mg/mL) improve the solubility and diffusion rate of the drug in the hydrophobic local transport regions and reduce the entrapment of piroxicam in the skin. The transdermal delivery rate of piroxicam is increased 30- to 50-fold. However, the entrapment of piroxicam in the skin still occurred when Tween 80 was added. The SDS provides higher and more stable transdermal delivery rates of piroxicam than Tween 80, and also reduces the entrapment of piroxicam in the skin.

  11. ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed. PMID:26825556

  12. ADHD in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr

    The most frequent reason for referral to the child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals in Denmark is the suspicion that a child or an adolescent may have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this dissertation was to assess how often ADHD has been diagnosed in Denmark......, to assess the validity of the ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents, to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Danish children and adolescents with ADHD, and to assess their long-term risk for crimes. In the years under investigation, the incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD...... had significantly increased and the majority of ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents could be confirmed and were given based on high-quality clinical assessments. Results supported that children and adolescents with ADHD constitute a heterogeneous group that often have comorbid psychiatric...

  13. Comprehensive phenotype/genotype analyses of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2 in ADHD: relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta A Thakur

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite strong pharmacological evidence implicating the norepinephrine transporter in ADHD, genetic studies have yielded largely insignificant results. We tested the association between 30 tag SNPs within the SLC6A2 gene and ADHD, with stratification based on maternal smoking during pregnancy, an environmental factor strongly associated with ADHD. METHODS: Children (6-12 years old diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria were comprehensively evaluated with regard to several behavioral and cognitive dimensions of ADHD as well as response to a fixed dose of methylphenidate (MPH using a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial. Family-based association tests (FBAT, including categorical and quantitative trait analyses, were conducted in 377 nuclear families. RESULTS: A highly significant association was observed with rs36021 (and linked SNPs in the group where mothers smoked during pregnancy. Association was noted with categorical DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (Z=3.74, P=0.0002, behavioral assessments by parents (CBCL, P=0.00008, as well as restless-impulsive subscale scores on Conners'-teachers (P=0.006 and parents (P=0.006. In this subgroup, significant association was also observed with cognitive deficits, more specifically sustained attention, spatial working memory, planning, and response inhibition. The risk allele was associated with significant improvement of behavior as measured by research staff (Z=3.28, P=0.001, parents (Z=2.62, P=0.009, as well as evaluation in the simulated academic environment (Z=3.58, P=0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: By using maternal smoking during pregnancy to index a putatively more homogeneous group of ADHD, highly significant associations were observed between tag SNPs within SLC6A2 and ADHD diagnosis, behavioral and cognitive measures relevant to ADHD and response to MPH. This comprehensive phenotype/genotype analysis may help to further understand this complex disorder and improve its treatment

  14. O metifenidato no Brasil: uma década de publicações Methylphenidate in Brazil: a decade of publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O metilfenidato é um estimulante comercializado desde os anos 50 na Suíça, na Alemanha e nos EUA. Mas foi somente a partir de sua associação com o Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH que suas vendas alavancaram, tornando-se o estimulante mais consumido no mundo. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma análise das publicações brasileiras sobre os usos do metilfenidato no Brasil, ao longo da última década. Com isto, visa compreender como as informações são apresentadas ou omitidas nos diferentes espaços de divulgação impressa. Para tal análise, foram pesquisadas publicações científicas, nos principais periódicos de psiquiatria brasileiros, e reportagens de jornais e revistas nacionais destinados ao público em geral. A pesquisa inclui as publicações do período de 1998 a 2008. Destaca-se como ponto relevante da análise a importante participação dos laboratórios no financiamento dos grupos e pesquisas sobre TDAH. Os achados indicam que a combinação do uso do medicamento com psicoterapias, a dependência do medicamento e a ideia de que existe excesso de prescrição no Brasil são temas controversos nas publicações analisadas.Methylphenidate is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, though this psychostimulant has been on the market in Switzerland, Germany and the US since the 1950s. After its association with ADHD, Ritalin has become the world's most widely used psychostimulant. The scope of this article is to present the results of an analysis of publications concerning the use of Methylphenidate in Brazil over a decade. It seeks to understand how the information is presented or omitted in the different printed materials. For the analysis, the most important Brazilian psychiatric journals as well as major Brazilian newspapers and magazines for the general public for the 1998-2008 period were consulted. One important point that resulted

  15. Formulation effects of topical emulsions on transdermal and dermal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, A.; J du Plessis; Wiechers, J W

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that the vehicle in which a permeant is applied to the skin has a distinctive effect on the dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. The cutaneous and percutaneous absorptions can be enhanced, e.g. by an increase in thermodynamic activity, supersaturation and penetration modifiers. Furthermore, dermal and transdermal delivery can be influenced by the interactions that may occur between the vehicle and the skin on the one hand, and interactions between the ...

  16. Performance of transdermal therapeutic systems: Effects of biological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Inderjeet; Morris, Andrew Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is a technique that is used to deliver a drug into the systemic circulation across the skin. This mechanism of drug delivery route has many advantages, including steady drug plasma concentrations, improved patient compliance, elimination of hepatic first pass, and degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last 30 years, many transdermal products have been launched in the market. Despite the inherent advantages of TDD and the growing list of transderma...

  17. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  18. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch: A Review in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-07-01

    Rotigotine transdermal patch (Leganto(®), Neupro(®)) is indicated for the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS); this article reviews the pharmacological properties of rotigotine transdermal patch and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in patients with RLS. The transdermal patch allows for a continuous, stable release of rotigotine (avoiding first-pass metabolism), which in turn leads to continuous receptor stimulation, believed to closely mimic physiological striatal dopamine receptor function. In short-term and 6-month studies, especially at the higher dosages of 2 and 3 mg/24 h, rotigotine transdermal patch was generally associated with a significantly greater improvement in IRLS total score and CGI-S total score than placebo, and rotigotine recipients were generally more likely to respond to treatment and enter remission. In noncomparative extension studies, efficacy was sustained for ≤5 years. Rotigotine transdermal patch is generally well tolerated, and appears to have a tolerability profile that is similar to that of other non-ergolinic dopamine-receptor agonists. The most common adverse events in clinical trials included application-site reactions, nausea, headache and asthenic conditions. The drug has a relatively low risk of clinically significant augmentation of restless legs syndrome symptoms. In conclusion, rotigotine transdermal patch offers continuous administration of the drug in a daily treatment, and is a useful treatment option in patients with RLS. PMID:27324269

  19. Methylphenidate use among medical students at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Givon Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methylphenidate is a psychotropic agent commonly used for the treatment of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity and narcolepsy in children and adults. The awareness to attention deficit disorder as well as the non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement has increased during the past years. Objectives: To evaluate the medical and non-medical use of methylphenidate among medical students in the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Materials and Methods: Medical students were asked to report methylphenidate use, symptoms and diagnosis of attention deficit disorder using a structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 229 students participated in the study, out of which 105 (45.9% were in the pre-clinical years of medical school. Twenty-two students (9.6% were previously diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Lifelong use of methylphenidate was reported by 39 (17% students, while 31 students (13.5% reported using methylphenidate during the preceding 12 month. In the beginning of medical school, only 7% of the students used methylphenidate, most of them began using it during pre-clinical academic years. Discussion: High rates of attention deficit disorder compared to the general population were reported by medical students. The rate of methylphenidate use is similar to recent report from a US medical school, and is considerably higher than in college students population. Conclusions: Many medical students are using methylphenidate without a medical indication. Further study is needed to evaluate the effect of methylphenidate on academic performance of healthy adults.

  20. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  1. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  3. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  4. ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of 131 children with ADHD (101 males, 30 females; mean age 5 years, range 3 to 7 years with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD was determined in a prospective study at the University of Goteborg, Sweden.

  5. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  6. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  7. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  8. Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through α2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Anne G

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPH is the classic treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic actions remain unclear. Recent studies have identified an oral, MPH dose regimen which when given to rats produces drug plasma levels similar to those measured in humans. The current study examined the effects of these low, orally-administered doses of MPH in rats performing a delayed alternation task dependent on prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that is dysfunctional in ADHD, and is highly sensitive to levels of catecholamines. The receptor mechanisms underlying the enhancing effects of MPH were explored by challenging the MPH response with the noradrenergic α2 adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, and the dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH23390. Results MPH produced an inverted U dose response whereby moderate doses (1.0–2.0 mg/kg, p.o. significantly improved delayed alternation performance, while higher doses (2.0–3.0 mg/kg, p.o. produced perseverative errors in many animals. The enhancing effects of MPH were blocked by co-administration of either the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, or the dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH23390, in doses that had no effect on their own. Conclusion The administration of low, oral doses of MPH to rats has effects on PFC cognitive function similar to those seen in humans and patients with ADHD. The rat can thus be used as a model for examination of neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MPH on executive functions in humans. The efficacy of idazoxan and SCH23390 in reversing the beneficial effects of MPH indicate that both noradrenergic α2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor stimulation contribute to cognitive-enhancing effects of MPH.

  9. 药物加行为治疗儿童注意缺陷多动障碍的临床研究%Clinical observation of Methylphenidate Combined with Behavior Treatment in Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克苗

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨中枢兴奋荆哌甲酯与行为治疗相结合对儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder A DHD)的临床疗效.方法:将符合ADHD诊断标准的100例患儿随机分为两组:哌甲酯加行为治疗55例为治疗组,单纯行为治疗45例为对照组.治疗4周后观察临床三大核心症状消退情况及半年后脑电图的变化.结果:治疗组临床显效率(63.6%)及总有效率(90.9%)均高于对照组,(33.3%,60.0%),两组差异显著(P<0.01),半年后治疗组脑电图异常率(21.8%)低于对照组(73.3%),两组差异显著(P<0.01).结论:哌甲酯与行为治疗相结合对注意缺陷多动障碍的疗效优于单纯行为治疗.%Objective: To explore the effectiveness of Methylphenidate and behavior treatment on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) in children. Method: 100 ADHD in children were divided randomly into two groups: treatment group with methylpbenidate combined with behavior treatment ( n = 55 ) ;control group without methylphenidate treatment (n=45 ). The changes of three central symptoms operation 4 weeks after and electroencephalogram (EEG) half year later in two groups were recorded. Result: In treatment group , the clinical markedly effective rate(63.6% )and effective rate (90.9%)were higher than those in control group(33.3% ,60.0% ,P <0.01 ). The unusual rate of EEG in treatment group (21.8%) was lower than those in control group (73.3%, P <0.01 ). Conclusion: Methylphenidate combine with behavior treatment is superior to behavior treatment in treating ADHD in children.

  10. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Haj-Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  11. Proniosomes for Penetration Enhancement in Transdermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samita Singla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years an inclusive research has been done over provesicular approach for transdermal drug delivery. Skin has a very tough diffusion barrier inhibiting penetration of drug moiety which is rate limiting barrier for penetration of drugs. There are several approaches that deal with penetration enhancement across the skin. Vesicular and provesicular systems are promising amongst them. Vesicular systems including (niosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes and liposomes are promising systems to cross this permeation barrier. But their major drawback is their unstability, which can be overcome by using provesicular approaches like proniosomes, protransfersomes and proliposomes. Provesicular approaches have been proposed to enhance the stability of vesicles. These approaches may overcome skin barrier properties and enhance percutaneous absorption. In these systems both type of drugs, hydrophilic and lipophillic drugs can be incorporated. The focus of this review is to bring together different aspects related to mechanism of skin permeation of provesicular system, proniosomes preparation and its applications as a carrier system

  12. Enhanced transdermal delivery of ketobemidone with prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Fullerton, A.; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving transdermal delivery of the opioid analgesic ketobemidone was assessed in human skin penetration studies in vitro using both ketobemidone itself and three carbonate ester prodrugs formed at the phenolic hydroxyl group. Whereas ketobemidone itself only showed a limited...... ability to permeate the skin from either polar or apolar vehicles the ester prodrugs very readily penetrated through the skin from solutions in isopropyl myristate and, in particular, from ethanol and ethanol-water solutions. Thus, steady-state fluxes in the range of 40-140 μg ketobemidone base/cm per h...... were observed for the ketobemidone esters from 20% w/v solutions in ethanol and ethanol-water (3:1 and 1:1 v/v) vehicles. The esters were rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug in the presence of skin enzymes and only from ketobemidone was detected in the receptor phase. The study demonstrates...

  13. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CARVEDILOL TRANSDERMAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Sonjoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing carvedilol with different ratios of hydrophilic (HPMC and hydrophobic polymeric (Eudragit RS100 combinations plasticized with glycerin and dibutyl pthalate by the solvent evaporation technique. Effect of surfactant (PEG-400 and Tween 80 and permeation enhancers (DMSO and DMF were studied. The interference of the polymers were ruled out by infrared and uv spectroscopic methods. Viscosity of the polymers was determined using Brookfield viscometer (LVDV-E. The partition coefficient study was performed using n-octanol as the organic phase and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as an aqueous phase. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight, and drug content uniformity, swelling index, water vapour transmission, folding endurance, and tensile strength. In vitro release studies of carvedilol-loaded patches in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4 exhibited drug release in the range of 80.70 to 98.56 % in 24 h. Data of in vitro release from patches were fit in to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. The models used were zero and first-order equations, Hixon-Crowell, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Based on physicochemical and in vitro release studies, patches containing HPMC and Eudragit RS 100 (DMSO as permeation enhancer were chosen for in vitro skin permeation studies which were performed using a modified diffusion cell across rat abdominal skin and showed first order release mechanism. Skin studies for the transdermal patches were assessed and were found to be free of irritation. The patches were subjected to short term stability studies and were found stable. Good correlation was observed (R2 = 0.810 with in vitro release Vs in vitro skin permeation studies.

  15. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies.

  16. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies. PMID:16188729

  17. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  18. The impact of synapsin III gene on the neurometabolite level alterations after single-dose methylphenidate in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başay Ö

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ömer Başay,1 Burge Kabukcu Basay,1 Huseyin Alacam,2 Onder Ozturk,1 Ahmet Buber,1 Senay Gorucu Yilmaz,3 Yılmaz Kıroğlu,4 Mehmet Emin Erdal,5 Hasan Herken2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, 4Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, 5Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey Objective: To investigate the neurometabolite level changes according to synapsin III gene rs133945G>A and rs133946C>G polymorphisms by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Fifty-seven adults diagnosed with ADHD were recruited for the study. The participants were examined by single-voxel 1H MRS when medication naïve and 30 minutes after oral administration of 10 mg methylphenidate (Mph. Those who had been on a stimulant discontinued the medication 48 hours before MRS imaging. Spectra were taken from the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline, and creatine levels were examined. For genotyping of the synapsin III gene polymorphisms, DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. The effects of age, sex, and ADHD subtypes were controlled in the analyses.Results: After a single dose of Mph, choline levels increased significantly in the striatum of rs133945G>A polymorphism-GG genotypes (P=0.020 and NAA levels rose in the anterior cingulate cortex of rs133946C>G polymorphism-CG genotypes (P=0.014. Both rs133945G>A and rs133946C>G polymorphisms were found to statistically significantly affect the alteration of NAA levels in response to Mph in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with

  19. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  20. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  1. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Causes of ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Scientists ... research discounts this theory than supports it. Diagnosing ADHD Children mature at different rates and have different ...

  2. Attachment, recalled parental rearing, and ADHD symptoms predict emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Edel, Susanne; Krüger, Marie; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the aricle is to study the relationship between attachment, parental rearing behavior, and (infant and current) ADHD symptoms with emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD. Methods Attachment, parental behavior, and ADHD variables were tested for predictive value regarding emotion processing and alexithymia in the total sample, the pooled ADHD groups (with inattentive type and combined type, each with n = 26) and a control group (n = 26). Comparisons were p...

  3. Effects of methylphenidate and MDMA on appraisal of erotic stimuli and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Preller, Katrin H; Bosch, Oliver G; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Rogers, Robert D; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate mainly enhances dopamine neurotransmission whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") mainly enhances serotonin neurotransmission. However, both drugs also induce a weaker increase of cerebral noradrenaline exerting sympathomimetic properties. Dopaminergic psychostimulants are reported to increase sexual drive, while serotonergic drugs typically impair sexual arousal and functions. Additionally, serotonin has also been shown to modulate cognitive perception of romantic relationships. Whether methylphenidate or MDMA alter sexual arousal or cognitive appraisal of intimate relationships is not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of methylphenidate (40 mg) and MDMA (75 mg) on subjective sexual arousal by viewing erotic pictures and on perception of romantic relationships of unknown couples in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 healthy adults. Methylphenidate, but not MDMA, increased ratings of sexual arousal for explicit sexual stimuli. The participants also sought to increase the presentation time of implicit sexual stimuli by button press after methylphenidate treatment compared with placebo. Plasma levels of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone were not associated with sexual arousal ratings. Neither MDMA nor methylphenidate altered appraisal of romantic relationships of others. The findings indicate that pharmacological stimulation of dopaminergic but not of serotonergic neurotransmission enhances sexual drive. Whether sexual perception is altered in subjects misusing methylphenidate e.g., for cognitive enhancement or as treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is of high interest and warrants further investigation. PMID:25498417

  4. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research.

  5. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  6. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  7. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  8. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  9. Methylphenidate decreased the amount of glucose needed by the brain to perform a cognitive task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    Full Text Available The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by increasing efficiency, we measured the effects of methylphenidate on brain glucose utilization in healthy adults. We measured brain glucose metabolism (using Positron Emission Tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in 23 healthy adults who were tested at baseline and while performing an accuracy-controlled cognitive task (numerical calculations given with and without methylphenidate (20 mg, oral. Sixteen subjects underwent a fourth scan with methylphenidate but without cognitive stimulation. Compared to placebo methylphenidate significantly reduced the amount of glucose utilized by the brain when performing the cognitive task but methylphenidate did not affect brain metabolism when given without cognitive stimulation. Whole brain metabolism when the cognitive task was given with placebo increased 21% whereas with methylphenidate it increased 11% (50% less. This reflected both a decrease in magnitude of activation and in the regions activated by the task. Methylphenidate's reduction of the metabolic increases in regions from the default network (implicated in mind-wandering was associated with improvement in performance only in subjects who activated these regions when the cognitive task was given with placebo. These results corroborate prior findings that stimulant medications reduced the magnitude of regional activation to a task and in addition document a "focusing" of the activation. This effect may be beneficial when neuronal resources are diverted (i.e., mind-wandering or impaired (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but it could be detrimental when

  10. Methylphenidate decreases regional cerebral blood flow in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Fowler, J.S.; Ferrieri, R.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.; Warner, D.; Wolf, A.P.; Pappas, N.; King, P.; Wong, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hitzemann, R.J. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Lieberman, J. (Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    To assess the effects of methylphenidate (MP) on cerebral blood flow (CBF), 5 healthy males were studied using [sup 15]O-water and positron emission tomography before and after MP (0.5mg/kg iv). MP significantly decreased whole brain CBF at 5-10 minutes (25[+-]11%) and at 30 minutes (20[+-]10%) after its administration. Decrements in CBF were homogeneous throughout the brain (regional decrements 23-30%) and probably reflect the vasoactive properties of MP. The vasoactive properties of MP should be considered when prescribing this drug chronically and/or when giving it to subjects with cerebrovascular compromise.

  11. Examining the Relationship Between Ostracism and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Bastien, Myla

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (Cincinnati Children’s, 2013). Much of ADHD research focuses on the potential social consequences of ADHD such as ostracism. More detailed research goes on to examine the impact of ostracism on affect, such as increased depression and anxiety among ostracized individuals. However, recent ostracism research indicates that feelingsof social exclusion may cause a ...

  12. Fænomenet ADHD: Problematikker i folkeskolen

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Helene Madsen; Nielsen, Louise; Kjeldergaard, Nadja Birgitte; Nielsen, Maria Frederikke Søndergaard; Hansen, Stine Widing

    2016-01-01

    Our interest in this project started when we investigated the critique of society’s tendency to increasingly diagnose children with ADHD. We decided to investigate how two different psychological standpoints would understand and help children, diagnosed with ADHD, in a school setting. The two standpoints came to be neuropsychology and critical psychology. We found two issues that we wanted to analyze from the different approaches. The issues are how children with ADHD are excluded in a school...

  13. Katla ADHD greiningartækni og alvarleiki ADHD einkenna

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja Níelsdóttir 1987

    2014-01-01

    Greining ADHD felst í klínísku mati með skimunar- og spurningarlistum sem og ítarlegum greiningarviðtölum. Skiptar skoðanir hafa verið á nákvæmni og hagkvæmni þessarar greiningaraðferða enda tímafrekar, kostnaðarsamar og vandmeðfarnar. Leitast hefur verið við að þróa greiningartækni sem byggir á lífmörkum sem mótvægi. Sýnt hefur verið fram á að heilalínuritsmælingar geta aðgreint einstaklinga með og án ADHD út frá heilalínuriti þeirra. Katla ADHD greiningartæknin byggir á heilalínuritsmæling...

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition in the medial prefrontal cortex mediates paradoxical amphetamine action in a mouse model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun eYen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants show therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. It is generally assumed that they ameliorate ADHD symptoms via interfering with monoaminergic signaling. We combined behavioral pharmacology, neurochemistry and molecular analyses to identify mechanisms underlying the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine in low trait anxiety behavior (LAB mice, a novel multigenetic animal model of ADHD. Amphetamine (1 mg/kg and methylphenidate (10 mg/kg elicited similar dopamine and norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and in the striatum of LAB mice. In contrast, amphetamine decreased, while methylphenidate increased locomotor activity. This argues against changes in dopamine and/or norepinephrine release as mediators of amphetamine paradoxical effects. Instead, the calming activity of amphetamine corresponded to the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β activity, specifically in the mPFC. Accordingly, not only systemic administration of the GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8 (20 mg/kg, but also local microinjections of TDZD-8 and amphetamine into the mPFC, but not into the striatum, decreased locomotor activity in LAB mice. Amphetamine effects seem to depend on NMDA receptor signaling, since pre- or co-treatment with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg abolished the effects of amphetamine (1 mg/kg on the locomotion and on the phosphorylation of GSK3β at the level of the mPFC. Taken together, the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine in hyperactive LAB mice concurs with a decreased GSK3β activity in the mPFC. This effect appears to be independent of dopamine or norepinephrine release, but contingent on NMDA receptor signaling.

  15. Selvitys ADHD:n kuntoutuksesta rikosseuraamusalalla

    OpenAIRE

    Siltanen, Maija

    2009-01-01

    ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) on neurobiologinen oireyhtymä, jolla tarkoi-tetaan tarkkaavaisuus- ja ylivilkkaushäiriötä. ADHD:n kuntoutusmuodot herättävät paljon keskustelua, vaikka ne ovat yksi yleisimmin diagnosoiduista neurologisista poikkeavuuksista, ja erityisesti vankien hoitamattomaan ADHD:seen on alettu viime aikoina kiinnittää entistä enemmän huomiota. Useissa tutkimuksissa on saatu tuloksia, joissa ADHD:n voidaan todeta vaikuttavan jollain tavalla rikollisuuteen. N...

  16. Synthesis and transdermal properties of acetylsalicylic acid and selected esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Minja; Breytenbach, Jaco C; Hadgraft, Jonathan; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2006-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the transdermal penetration of acetylsalicylic acid and some of its derivatives, to establish a correlation, if any, with selected physicochemical properties and to determine if transdermal application of acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives will give therapeutic drug concentrations with respect to transdermal flux. Ten derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid were prepared by esterification of acetylsalicyloyl chloride with ten different alcohols. The experimental aqueous solubility, logD and transdermal flux values were determined for acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives at pH 4.5. In vitro penetration was measured through excised female human abdominal skin in diffusion cells. The experimental aqueous solubility of acetylsalicylic acid (6.56 mg/ml) was higher than that of the synthesised acetylsalicylate derivatives (ranging from 1.76 x 10(-3) to 3.32 mg/ml), and the logD of acetylsalicylic acid (-0.85) was lower than that of its derivatives (ranging from -0.25 to 1.95). There was thus an inverse correlation between the aqueous solubility data and the logD values. The experimental transdermal flux of acetylsalicylic acid (263.83 nmol/cm(2)h) was much higher than that of its derivatives (ranging from 0.12 to 136.02 nmol/cm(2)h).

  17. Transdermal iontophoretic delivery of timolol maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Patni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal iontophoresis would be a promising method for the systemic delivery of water soluble and ionic drugs of relatively high molecular size, including peptides. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of biological variable such as guinea pig and human cadaver skin and other variables like drug concentration, current density on the transdermal iontophoretic transport of timolol maleate. The permeation profile of drug using solution and gel formulation was studied and compared. For better bioavailability, better patient compliance, and enhanced delivery, an iontophoretic drug delivery system of a timolol maleate matrix gel was formulated using Carbopol 974P. The study was conducted using silver-silver chloride electrodes across the guinea pig and human cadaver skin. Viscosity measurements and flux calculations indicated the suitability of the Carbopol 974P gel for transdermal iontophoretic delivery of timolol maleate. Anodal iontophoresis with silver-silver chloride electrode significantly increased the timolol maleate skin permeation as compared with the passive permeation study. The amount of timolol maleate transported during iontophoresis was significantly different among the different skins. However, iontophoretic gel formulations provided required flux of drug through human cadaver skin.A iontoforese transdérmica seria um método promissor para a liberação sistêmica de fármacos solúveis em água e iônicos de relativamente elevado tamanho molecular, incluindo peptídeos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito da variável biológica, tais como cobaia e pele de cadáver humano, e outras variáveis como concentração do fármaco, densidade de corrente sobre o transporte transdérmico iontoforético de maleato de timolol. Comparou-se o perfil de permeação do fármaco usando a formulação de solução e de gel. Para melhor biodisponibilidade, melhor adesão do paciente e libera

  18. Juvenile methylphenidate reduces prefrontal cortex plasticity via D3 receptor and BDNF in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early drug intervention in childhood disorders aims to maximize individual potential in the short- and long-term. Consistently, juvenile exposure to psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH, reduces risk for substance use in animals and sub-populations of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We investigated the effects of MPH on brain plasticity via dopamine receptor D3 (D3R and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in developing rats. Methods: Between postnatal days 20-35, rat pups were administered saline vehicle (Veh or MPH (2 mg/kg, the D3R-preferring agonist ± 7-OHDPAT, or the antagonist nafadotride (0.05 mg/kg alone, or in combination with MPH twice a day. In adulthood, subjects were challenged to Veh or cocaine (10 mg/kg for two days. The prefrontal cortex was analyzed for protein and mRNA levels of total BDNF, its splice variants I, IIc, III/IV, and IV/VI, and D3 receptors. A separate group of subjects was assessed for splice variants at 20, 35, 40 and 60 days. Results: Across age strong correlations were evident between Drd3 and Bdnf mRNA levels (r=0.65 and a negative relationship between Drd3 and exon IIc after MPH exposure (r=-0.73. BDNF protein levels did not differ between Veh- and MPH subjects at baseline, but were significantly lower in MPH-treated and cocaine challenged subjects (30.3 ± 9.7%. Bdnf mRNA was significantly higher in MPH subjects, and reversed upon exposure to cocaine. This effect was blocked by nafadotride. Furthermore, Bdnftotal and Bdnf splice variants I, IIc, III/IV, and IV/VI changed across the transitions between juvenility and late adolescence. Conclusions: These data suggest a sensitive window of vulnerability to modulations of BDNF expression around adolescence, and that compared to normal animals, juvenile exposure to MPH permanently reduces prefrontal BDNF transcription and translation upon cocaine exposure in adulthood by a D3R

  19. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  20. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  1. Recent trends in challenges and opportunities of Transdermal drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.Patil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery system relates to the production of a drug, its delivery medium, and the way of administration. Drug delivery systems are even used for administering nitroglycerin. Transdermal drug delivery system is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Various types of transdermal patches are used. There are various methods to enhance the transdermal drug delivery system. But using microfabricated microneedles drugs are delivered very effectively to skin patch. There has been great progress in the Transdermal drug delivery system for the delivery of different forms and our aim is to collect the information about what progressed have done in Transdermal drug delivery system and developments in Transdermal drug delivery systems in theoretical form. Also, to collect the information about the advantages and application of the Transdermal drug delivery systems.

  2. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles.

  3. Ethosomes as delivery system for transdermal administration of vinpocetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan-Ting; Hua, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiang-Guo; Zhu, Dong-Xue; Li, Feng; Gui, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Yong-Xing

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel transdermal vinpocetine patch containing a stable formulation and with good entrapment efficiency, and percutaneous absorption which via ethosome. Ethosome was found to be a more efficient delivery carrier with high encapsulation capacities (79.5% +/- 1.8%) and nanometric size (180.7 +/- 1.5 nm). In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of vinpocetine through abdominal skin of Sprague Dawley was significantly increased when ethosome was used. The vinpocetine transdermal fluxes from ethosome gel (3.56 +/- 0.13 microg/cm2/h) were 6.72 and 3.10 times higher than that of vinpocetine gel solution and vinpocetine aueous solution, respectively. Furthermore, the AUC(0 --> infinity), and eliminiation half-life by the transdermal administration were significantly higher than those by the intragastric administration (P ethosome is a promising vesicular carrier for enhancing percutaneous absorption of vinpocetine. PMID:23802438

  4. Ethosomes as delivery system for transdermal administration of vinpocetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan-Ting; Hua, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiang-Guo; Zhu, Dong-Xue; Li, Feng; Gui, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Yong-Xing

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel transdermal vinpocetine patch containing a stable formulation and with good entrapment efficiency, and percutaneous absorption which via ethosome. Ethosome was found to be a more efficient delivery carrier with high encapsulation capacities (79.5% +/- 1.8%) and nanometric size (180.7 +/- 1.5 nm). In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of vinpocetine through abdominal skin of Sprague Dawley was significantly increased when ethosome was used. The vinpocetine transdermal fluxes from ethosome gel (3.56 +/- 0.13 microg/cm2/h) were 6.72 and 3.10 times higher than that of vinpocetine gel solution and vinpocetine aueous solution, respectively. Furthermore, the AUC(0 --> infinity), and eliminiation half-life by the transdermal administration were significantly higher than those by the intragastric administration (P ethosome is a promising vesicular carrier for enhancing percutaneous absorption of vinpocetine.

  5. Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iti Som

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations. In recent years, surfactants have been employed to enhance the permeation rates of several drugs via transdermal route. The application of transdermal route to a wider range of drugs is limited due to significant barrier to penetration across the skin which is associated with the outermost stratum corneum layer. Surfactants have effects on the permeability characteristics of several biological membranes including skin. They have the potential to solubilize lipids within the stratum corneum. The penetration of the surfactant molecule into the lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum is strongly dependent on the partitioning behavior and solubility of surfactant. Surfactants ranging from hydrophobic agents such as oleic acid to hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate have been tested as permeation enhancer to improve drug delivery. This article reviews the status of surfactants as permeation enhancer in transdermal drug delivery of various drugs.

  6. Exogenous pubertal induction by oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, Lisa; Balachandar, Sadana; Prasad, Kris; Shah, Bina

    2013-04-01

    Hypogonadal adolescent girls need estrogen therapy for the induction of puberty. For years, oral conjugated estrogens have been used for this purpose, starting at a very low dose, with gradual increments over time, to allow for the maturation of the reproductive organs, in order to mimic physiologic conditions. Several concerns, mainly due to first pass through the liver, are manifest with oral estrogen therapy. With the advent of transdermal estrogens and its improved efficacy profile as well as reduced side effects, it seems reasonable to consider it for pubertal induction. The primary objective of this study was to compare and contrast oral versus transdermal estrogen with regard to metabolism and physiology and to review current available data on transdermal estrogens with respect to exogenous pubertal induction. PMID:22112543

  7. Transdermal Delivery of Drugs with Microneedles—Potential and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery offers a number of advantages including improved patient compliance, sustained release, avoidance of gastric irritation, as well as elimination of pre-systemic first-pass effect. However, only few medications can be delivered through the transdermal route in therapeutic amounts. Microneedles can be used to enhance transdermal drug delivery. In this review, different types of microneedles are described and their methods of fabrication highlighted. Microneedles can be fabricated in different forms: hollow, solid, and dissolving. There are also hydrogel-forming microneedles. A special attention is paid to hydrogel-forming microneedles. These are innovative microneedles which do not contain drugs but imbibe interstitial fluid to form continuous conduits between dermal microcirculation and an attached patch-type reservoir. Several microneedles approved by regulatory authorities for clinical use are also examined. The last part of this review discusses concerns and challenges regarding microneedle use.

  8. Effects of Combining Methylphenidate and a Classroom Token System in Modifying Hyperactive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Donald E.

    1975-01-01

    The combined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a token reinforcement program in controlling the classroom behavior of 16 hyperactive, institutionalized retarded youngsters (9- to 15-years-old) was investigated. (Author)

  9. Methylphenidate, Atomoxetine, and Caffeine: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Kruer, Jessica L.; Ogg, Julia A.; Mathiason, Jacob B.; Magen, Jed

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments is essential to carrying out roles and responsibilities within school-based practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the level of support for three psychotropic drugs reported in the literature to treat symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).…

  10. Functional outcomes from a head-to-head, randomized, double-blind trial of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and an inadequate response to methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Häge, Alexander; Coghill, David R; Caballero, Beatriz; Adeyi, Ben; Anderson, Colleen S; Sikirica, Vanja; Cardo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in multiple domains of patients' lives. A secondary objective of this randomized, active-controlled, head-to-head, double-blind, dose-optimized clinical trial was to compare the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and atomoxetine (ATX) on functional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD. Patients aged 6-17 years with an ADHD Rating Scale IV total score ≥ 28 and an inadequate response to methylphenidate treatment (judged by investigators) were randomized (1:1) to once-daily LDX or ATX for 9 weeks. Parents/guardians completed the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) at baseline and at week 9 or early termination. p values were nominal and not corrected for multiple comparisons. Of 267 randomized patients, 200 completed the study (LDX 99, ATX 101). At baseline, mean WFIRS-P total score in the LDX group was 0.95 [standard deviation (SD) 0.474; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87, 1.03] and in the ATX group was 0.91 (0.513; 0.82, 1.00). Scores in all WFIRS-P domains improved from baseline to endpoint in both groups, with least-squares mean changes in total score of -0.35 (95% CI -0.42, -0.29) for LDX and -0.27 (-0.33, -0.20) for ATX. The difference between LDX and ATX was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the Learning and School (effect size of LDX vs ATX, 0.43) and Social Activities (0.34) domains and for total score (0.27). Both treatments reduced functional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD; LDX was statistically significantly more effective than ATX in two of six domains and in total score.

  11. Microemulsions based transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Harini C; Narendran, Hyndavi; Nagaswaram, Tejeswari; Yaga, Gowri; Thanniru, Jyotsna; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of microemulsions by Jack H Schulman, there has been huge progress made in applying microemulsion systems in plethora of research and industrial process. Microemulsions are optically isotropic systems consisting of water, oil and amphiphile. These systems are beneficial due to their thermodynamic stability, optical clarity, ease of preparation, higher diffusion and absorption rates. Moreover, it has been reported that the ingredients of microemulsion can effectively overcome the diffusion barrier and penetrate through the stratum corneum of the skin. Hence it becomes promising for both transdermal and dermal drug delivery. However, low viscosity of microemulsion restrains its applicability in pharmaceutical industry. To overcome the above drawback, the low viscous microemulsions were added to viscous gel bases to potentiate its applications as topical drug delivery systems so that various drug related toxic effects and erratic drug absorption can be avoided. The present review deals with the microemulsions, various techniques involved in the development of organic nanoparticles. The review emphasized on microemulsion based systems such as hydrogels and organogels. The physicochemical characteristics, mechanical properties, rheological and stability principles involved in microemulsion based viscous gels were also explored. PMID:25466399

  12. Microfluidic-enabled liposomes elucidate size-dependent transdermal transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee R Hood

    Full Text Available Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31-41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs.

  13. Characterization of the transdermal transport of flurbiprofen and indomethacin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukio; Sai, Yoshimichi; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Transdermal permeation of two types of NSAIDs, [3H] flurbiprofen and [14C] indomethacin, was examined by use of the Ussing-type chamber method. We found that the transdermal permeability in the absorptive direction (Pabs) of [3H] flurbiprofen was significantly higher than that of [14C] indomethacin. A lower pH (5.0) on the epidermal side increased the accumulation and the Pabs of [ 3H] flurbiprofen (18-fold and 50-fold, respectively) and [ 14C] indomethacin (18-fold and 22-fold, respectively)...

  14. Treatment of neuropathic pain: a new method, transdermic route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Iorno

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapy of neuropathic pain is difficult due to the lack of reliable classification. This pain can be defined as peripheral, central, mixed or based on the underlying mechanisms. Following this last criterium, we selected 44 patients affected by peripheral neuropathic pain. The not invasive care consisted in giving a pharmacological cocktail by a transdermal hydroelectrophoretic technique. 34% of all patients showed a pain relief between 70 and 99% (good results, while 9% had a complete resolution of pain (very good results. We concluded suggesting the transdermic hydroelectrophoretic techniques as useful and efficient in drugs administration to patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  15. SSRI antidepressants potentiate methylphenidate (Ritalin)-induced gene regulation in the adolescent striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waes, Vincent; Beverley, Joel; Marinelli, Michela; Steiner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (Ritalin) is used in conjunction with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of medical conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with anxiety/depression comorbidity and major depression. Co-exposure also occurs in patients on SSRIs that use psychostimulant “cognitive enhancers”. Methylphenidate is a dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that produces altered gene expression in the forebrain; these effects pa...

  16. Acute Dose-Related Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Murine Cystometric Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Tack; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Methylphenidate is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, few studies have assessed its effects on voiding. Various doses of methylphenidate were investigated for their effects on cystometric parameters in conscious mice. Methods Ten male C57BL/6 mice, weighing between 20 and 23 g, were used in this study. To compare the acute drug responses before and after the oral medication was administered in the a...

  17. Classroom Management and the ADHD Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the academic needs of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be taxing on teachers and students. This research highlights classroom management strategies that general education teachers might include in their teaching to support the academic growth students with ADHD, while continuing to support all students in…

  18. Is neurofeedback effectief bij kinderen met ADHD?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. de Hen; H.M. Geurts

    2008-01-01

    Kan neurofeedback verantwoord ingezet worden bij de behandeling van kinderen met ADHD? Omdeze vraag te beantwoorden worden zeven recente onderzoeken naar de effectiviteit van neurofeedback bij kinderen met ADHD geanalyseerd. Ondanks dat de resultaten in eerste instantie lijken te suggereren dat neur

  19. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...

  1. Language Characteristics of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Okmi H.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2000-01-01

    Language characteristics of 11 children (ages 6-8) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 typically developing children were compared for semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language skills. Findings indicated no differences on receptive vocabulary, but children with ADHD performed worse on tests of expressive speech and…

  2. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  3. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  4. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  5. ADHD - et voksende problem for voksne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anthon Sand

    2013-01-01

    Mindst 1000.000 voksne opfylder ADHD-diagnosekriterierne, og en stor del af disse kan risikere at ende i kriminalitet, misbrug eller stå uden job......Mindst 1000.000 voksne opfylder ADHD-diagnosekriterierne, og en stor del af disse kan risikere at ende i kriminalitet, misbrug eller stå uden job...

  6. Agomelatine Treatment with Adolescents with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…

  7. ADHD-like behavior and entrepreneurial intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); J.H. Block (Jörn); K. Burmeister-Lamp (Katrin); A.R. Thurik (Roy); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Turturea (Roxana)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLittle is known about the relation between entrepreneurship and the extent of psychiatric symptoms. Validated psychiatric symptom scores are seldom used for non-clinical reasons. One prevalent symptom that deserves our interest is Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD

  8. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals...... with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian...

  9. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  10. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  11. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  12. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  13. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  14. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  15. MicroPET/CT assessment of FDG uptake in brain after long-term methylphenidate treatment in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Newport, G D; Callicott, R; Liu, S; Thompson, J; Berridge, M S; Apana, S M; Slikker, W; Wang, C; Paule, M G

    2016-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant commonly used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the long-term effects of this drug on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood, we conducted microPET/CT scans on young adult male rhesus monkeys (n=4/group) to gather information on brain metabolism using the uptake of [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) as a marker. Approximately two-year old, male rhesus monkeys were treated orally with MPH twice per day, five days per week (M-F) over a 6-year period. Subjects received MPH at either 2.5 or 12.5mg/kg/dose or vehicle (Prang). To minimize the acute effects of MPH on FDG uptake, microPET/CT scans were scheduled on Mondays before their first daily dosing of the week (approximately 68h since their last treatment). FDG (370±8.88MBq) was injected intravenously and 30min later microPET/CT images were obtained over 60min. Radiolabeled tracer accumulation in regions of interest (ROIs) in the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum and cerebellum were converted into Standard Uptake Values (SUVs). Compared to the control group, the uptake of FDG in the cerebellum was significantly decreased in both the low and high dose groups. These preliminary data demonstrate that microPET imaging is capable of distinguishing differences in retention of FDG in the brains of NHPs treated chronically with MPH and suggests that this approach may provide a minimally invasive biomarker for exploring the effects of chronic MPH treatment on aspects of brain function. PMID:27307090

  16. ADHD among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Pre-pathway influences

    OpenAIRE

    Neece, Cameron; Baker, Bruce; Lee, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at heightened risk for developing ADHD. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for youth with ID remains controversial. To advance research on validity, the present study examined the hypothesized precursors to ADHD in typically developing adolescents (TD) and adolescents with ID, specifically with regard to family history of ADHD, molecular genetics, and neuropsychological functioning. Results indicated that youth ADHD sy...

  17. TRIMETAZIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCH: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfaraz Md; Reddy Jayendra A; Hiremath Doddayya; Udupi R H

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing trimetazidine hydrochloride with polymers such as carboxymethyl chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 5cps) by solvent evaporation technique with glycerin, as plasticizer. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance and tensile strength. The partition coefficient stud...

  18. Ionic liquid-assisted transdermal delivery of sparingly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Tahara, Yoshiro; Tamura, Miki; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    We report the first successful application of a novel IL-assisted non-aqueous microemulsion stabilized by a blend of two nontoxic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80), and sorbitan laurate (Span-20) for transdermal delivery of acyclovir, which is insoluble or sparingly soluble in water and most common organic liquids. PMID:20162145

  19. Enhanced transdermal delivery of salbutamol sulfate via ethosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bendas, Ehab R.; Tadros, Mina I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to compare the transdermal delivery of salbutamol sulfate (SS), a hydrophilic drug used as a bronchodilator, from ethosomes and classic liposomes containing different cholesterol and dicetylphosphate concentrations. All the systems were characterized for shape, particle size, and entrapment efficiency percentage, by image analysis optical microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, laser diffraction, and ultracentrifugation, respectively. In vitr...

  20. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V P Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T

    2011-07-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  1. NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2000-01-01

    ), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through...

  2. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  3. Practice guidelines for transdermal opioids in malignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Tracy L

    2004-01-01

    Patients with moderate-to-severe malignancy-related pain require opioid pharmacotherapy. Many cancer patients continue to be prescribed subtherapeutic doses of pain medications resulting in undue suffering and diminished quality of life. Pain associated with malignancy and its treatment may exacerbate other symptoms associated with cancer, including nausea, fatigue, weakness, dyspnoea, constipation and impaired cognition. The choice of analgesic pharmacotherapy should be individualised and based on the intensity of pain reported by the patient, rather than its specific aetiology. When selecting pain management pharmacotherapy, the healthcare provider should consider the patient's pain level, activity level and any comorbid illness. Intolerable adverse effects, ineffective pain relief or a change in the patient's clinical status can dictate the need for a new pain management regimen. Healthcare providers must be able to readily quantify the relative analgesic potency when converting from one opioid to another or from one route of administration to another. Transdermal formulations of fentanyl and buprenorphine are effective pharmacotherapy that can be safely used for cancer patients with pain. However, clinicians need to be cognisant that the US/UK manufacturer's recommendations for equianalgesic dose administration of transdermal fentanyl may result in initial doses that produce subtherapeutic concentrations and unrelieved pain in some patients. A less conservative dose administration algorithm for transdermal fentanyl using a 2:1 (mg/day of oral morphine : microg/h of transdermal fentanyl) conversion ratio that considers both a review of the literature and clinical experience should help clinicians individualise cancer pain pharmacotherapy. PMID:15537367

  4. Sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system for the acute treatment of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikelis, Michail; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Rapoport, Alan M

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY We will describe the pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy and safety data of the sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system (Zecuity®, NuPathe Inc., PA, USA), recently approved for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults, by the US FDA. This transdermal system utilizes a low-level electrical current to deliver sumatriptan transdermally and circumvents the GI tract. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that iontophoretic delivery of sumatriptan achieves detectable plasma concentrations 15 min after activation with a maximum mean serum concentration of 22 ng/ml. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial demonstrated minimal triptan-related side effects and superior efficacy versus placebo. The pain-free rate at 2 h postdose was 18% of patients applying the sumatriptan patch versus 9% using the placebo (p = 0.0092). This sumatriptan transdermal system may be a good choice for migraineurs with severe nausea or vomiting, those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events and/or those not responding optimally to oral medications. PMID:24641436

  5. Nanovesicles for transdermal delivery of felodipine: Development, characterization, and pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Mohd; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The research traces development of nanovesicles to attain enhanced transdermal delivery of felodipine and also investigates parameters for optimization of variable membrane compositions containing soya- and egg lecithin and edge activator. Materials and Methods: Rotary evaporation sonication method was employed to obtain tranfersomal formulation that was characterized for vesicle shape and size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency, deformability ...

  6. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  7. Enhanced transdermal delivery of evodiamine and rutaecarpine using microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong YT

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Tai Zhang, Ji-Hui Zhao, Su-Juan Zhang, Yang-Zi Zhong, Zhi Wang, Ying Liu, Feng Shi, Nian-Ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: The purpose of this study was to improve skin permeation of evodiamine and rutaecarpine for transdermal delivery with microemulsion as vehicle and investigate real-time cutaneous absorption of the drugs via in vivo microdialysis.Methods: Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate microemulsion regions with various surfactants and cosurfactants. Nine formulations of oil in water microemulsions were selected as vehicles for assessing skin permeation of evodiamine and rutaecarpine in ex vivo transdermal experiments. With a microdialysis hollow fiber membrane implanted in the skin beneath the site of topical drug administration, dialysis sampling was maintained for 10 hours and the samples were detected directly by high performance liquid chromatography. Real-time concentrations of the drugs in rat skin were investigated and compared with those of conventional formulations, such as ointment and tincture. Furthermore, the drugs were applied to various regions of the skin using microemulsion as vehicle.Results: In ex vivo transdermal experiments, cutaneous fluxes of evodiamine and rutaecarpine microemulsions were 2.55-fold to 11.36-fold and 1.17-fold to 6.33-fold higher, respectively, than those of aqueous suspensions. Different drug loadings, microemulsion water content, and transdermal enhancers markedly influenced the permeation of evodiamine and rutaecarpine. In microemulsion application with in vivo microdialysis, the maximum concentration of the drugs (evodiamine: 18.23 ± 1.54 ng/mL; rutaecarpine: 16.04 ± 0.69 ng/mL were the highest, and the area under the curve0–t of evodiamine and rutaecarpine was 1.52-fold and 2.27-fold higher than ointment and 3.06-fold and 4.23-fold higher than tincture, respectively

  8. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  9. Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD?

    OpenAIRE

    Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised to be a familial and heritable disorder, little is known about the broader family characteristics of having a parent with ADHD problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parent ADHD problems, child clinical presentation and family functioning in a sample of children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 570 children with ADHD. Child psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured dia...

  10. Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A.; Martinsen, Egil W.; Klungsoyr, Ole; Faraone, Stephen V.; Peleikis, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high sc...

  11. Home environment: association with hyperactivity/impulsivity in children with ADHD and their non-ADHD siblings.

    OpenAIRE

    Anney, Richard

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED We wished to ascertain if there is an association between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and home environment in children with ADHD and non-ADHD siblings, controlling for other environmental measures. METHODS: 96 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) and their siblings participated in the study. Parent and teacher Conners' rating scales were completed and home environment was assessed using the middle childhood and early adolescent Home Ob...

  12. Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Pathways in Cocaine Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cocaine addiction is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity among regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathways. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, an indirect dopamine agonist, normalizes task-related regional brain activity and associated behavior in cocaine users; however, the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate in this population have not yet been described. Objective To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine changes in mesocorticolimbic connectivity with methylphenidate and how connectivity of affected pathways relates to severity of cocaine addiction. Design Randomized, placebo-controlled, before-after, crossover study. Setting Clinical research center. Participants Eighteen nonabstaining individuals with cocaine use disorders. Interventions Single doses of oral methylphenidate (20 mg) or placebo were administered at each of 2 study sessions. At each session, resting scans were acquired twice: immediately after drug administration (before the onset of effects [baseline]) and 120 minutes later (within the window of peak effects). Main outcomes and Measures Functional connectivity strength was evaluated using a seed voxel correlation approach. Changes in this measure were examined to characterize the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate; severity of cocaine addiction was assessed by interview and questionnaire. Results Short-term methylphenidate administration reduced an abnormally strong connectivity of the ventral striatum with the dorsal striatum (putamen/globus pallidus), and lower connectivity between these regions during placebo administration uniquely correlated with less severe addiction. In contrast, methylphenidate strengthened several corticolimbic and corticocortical connections. Conclusions and Relevance These findings help elucidate the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate and suggest that short-term methylphenidate can, at least transiently

  13. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. PMID:25175495

  14. Characteristics of patients with ADHD in psychiatric and pediatric ADHD clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Dusan; Hechtman, Lily; Francoeur, Emmett; Paterson, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. This study explores whether the child psychiatry ADHD clinic and the pediatric ADHD clinic serve different population of patients regarding the patient characteristics, severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid disorders, thereby testing the efficacy of a triage system set up to direct patients referred for Attention Deficit Disorder symptoms to the appropriate clinics. Charts of 163 children and adolescents treated in two clinical settings were analyzed with regard to demographic char...

  15. ADHD & Eating Pathology: Is there an association between ADHD & eating disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Mancaruso, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation will examine the association between ADHD & eating pathology, a link that has gone unnoticed for decades. Many females tend to internalise ADHD symptoms, most commonly reported in the form of depression, anxiety, and mood disorders; however, the literature review will provide evidence that suggests the development of an eating disorder may be the result of internalising ADHD symptoms. This dissertation will take the form of an autoethnography combined with an extended, criti...

  16. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication. PMID:26882332

  17. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and 18FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic inhibition

  18. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-07-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and {sup 18}FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue

  19. Methylphenidate alters flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, and behavior in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Meckel, Katherine R; Stickle, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC) and superior colliculus (SC) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, as well as on body temperature and open field behavior. FEPs were recorded at 10, 20 and 40 min following intraperitoneal injections of saline, and of doses of 0.7, 2.9, and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate on separate days. The 0.7 mg/kg dose did not produce significant effects. In the VC, following administration of the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate the amplitude of components P83, N146, and P232 decreased, the amplitude of component N64 briefly increased and components P23, N30, N40, and P48 were unchanged in amplitude. In the SC, component P29 was unaffected, while components P38 and N51 were reduced in amplitude by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. Peak latencies of components N40, P48, P83, and N146 in the VC and component P38 in the SC were increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. When body temperature was recorded 45 min after drug administration, a mild dose-dependent hypothermia was found with the 2.9 and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate doses, suggesting that this may have contributed to the increased latencies. In subsequent open field observations, both line crossings and rearings were significantly increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose. Increased movement into the center of the testing area was also observed, which could be a sign of increased exploration and reduced anxiety following methylphenidate.

  20. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    Full Text Available Dopamine (phasic release is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function was measured with PET and (18FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg. The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68% and with methylphenidate (64%. In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005 in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005, amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05. This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes, which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic