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Sample records for adhd synergistic effect

  1. Gene × environment interactions for ADHD: synergistic effect of 5HTTLPR genotype and youth appraisals of inter-parental conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin genes have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; prior work suggests that serotonin may interact with psychosocial stressors in ADHD, perhaps via mechanisms involved in emotional dysregulation. Because the development of behavioral and emotional regulation depends heavily both on the child's experience within the family context and the child's construals of that experience, children's appraisals of inter-parental conflict are a compelling candidate potentiator of the effects of variation within the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR on liability for ADHD. Method 304 youth from the local community underwent a multi-informant diagnostic assessment procedure to identify ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls. Youth also completed the Children's Perception of Inter-Parental Conflict (CPIC scale to assess appraisals of self-blame in relation to their parents' marital disputes. The trialleic configuration of 5HTTLPR (long/short polymorphism with A> G substitution was genotyped and participants were assigned as having high (La/La N = 78, intermediate (La/Lg, La/short, N = 137, or low (Lg/Lg, Lg/short, short/short, N = 89 serotonin transporter activity genotypes. Teacher reported behavior problems were examined as the target outcome to avoid informant overlap for moderator and outcome measures. Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated significant 5HTTLPR × self-blame interactions for ADHD symptoms. Examination of the interactions indicated positive relations between reports of self-blame and ADHD symptoms for those with the high and low serotonin activity genotypes. There was no relation between self-blame and ADHD for those with intermediate activity 5HTTLPR genotypes. Conclusion Both high and low serotonergic activity may exert risk for ADHD when coupled with psychosocial distress such as children's self-blame in relation to

  2. Gene x environment interactions for ADHD: synergistic effect of 5HTTLPR genotype and youth appraisals of inter-parental conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Waldman, Irwin; Jernigan, Katherine; Nigg, Joel T

    2010-04-16

    Serotonin genes have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); prior work suggests that serotonin may interact with psychosocial stressors in ADHD, perhaps via mechanisms involved in emotional dysregulation. Because the development of behavioral and emotional regulation depends heavily both on the child's experience within the family context and the child's construals of that experience, children's appraisals of inter-parental conflict are a compelling candidate potentiator of the effects of variation within the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) on liability for ADHD. 304 youth from the local community underwent a multi-informant diagnostic assessment procedure to identify ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls. Youth also completed the Children's Perception of Inter-Parental Conflict (CPIC) scale to assess appraisals of self-blame in relation to their parents' marital disputes. The trialleic configuration of 5HTTLPR (long/short polymorphism with A> G substitution) was genotyped and participants were assigned as having high (La/La N = 78), intermediate (La/Lg, La/short, N = 137), or low (Lg/Lg, Lg/short, short/short, N = 89) serotonin transporter activity genotypes. Teacher reported behavior problems were examined as the target outcome to avoid informant overlap for moderator and outcome measures. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated significant 5HTTLPR x self-blame interactions for ADHD symptoms. Examination of the interactions indicated positive relations between reports of self-blame and ADHD symptoms for those with the high and low serotonin activity genotypes. There was no relation between self-blame and ADHD for those with intermediate activity 5HTTLPR genotypes. Both high and low serotonergic activity may exert risk for ADHD when coupled with psychosocial distress such as children's self-blame in relation to inter-parental conflict. Results are discussed in relation to

  3. Gene × environment interactions for ADHD: synergistic effect of 5HTTLPR genotype and youth appraisals of inter-parental conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Serotonin genes have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); prior work suggests that serotonin may interact with psychosocial stressors in ADHD, perhaps via mechanisms involved in emotional dysregulation. Because the development of behavioral and emotional regulation depends heavily both on the child's experience within the family context and the child's construals of that experience, children's appraisals of inter-parental conflict are a compelling candidate potentiator of the effects of variation within the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) on liability for ADHD. Method 304 youth from the local community underwent a multi-informant diagnostic assessment procedure to identify ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls. Youth also completed the Children's Perception of Inter-Parental Conflict (CPIC) scale to assess appraisals of self-blame in relation to their parents' marital disputes. The trialleic configuration of 5HTTLPR (long/short polymorphism with A> G substitution) was genotyped and participants were assigned as having high (La/La N = 78), intermediate (La/Lg, La/short, N = 137), or low (Lg/Lg, Lg/short, short/short, N = 89) serotonin transporter activity genotypes. Teacher reported behavior problems were examined as the target outcome to avoid informant overlap for moderator and outcome measures. Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated significant 5HTTLPR × self-blame interactions for ADHD symptoms. Examination of the interactions indicated positive relations between reports of self-blame and ADHD symptoms for those with the high and low serotonin activity genotypes. There was no relation between self-blame and ADHD for those with intermediate activity 5HTTLPR genotypes. Conclusion Both high and low serotonergic activity may exert risk for ADHD when coupled with psychosocial distress such as children's self-blame in relation to inter-parental conflict

  4. The effects of ADHD on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesdotter, Emma; Cervin, Matti; Åkerlund, Sofia; Råstam, Maria; Lindvall, Magnus

    2018-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computerized test battery with standardized procedures and solid psychometric properties targeting multiple neuropsychological functions. The aim of this study was to look at the effects of ADHD on cognitive performance using CANTAB expressed as a statistical interaction term in regression modeling. We assessed 112 drug-naïve subjects (age: 7-18 years) with ADHD based on DSM IV criteria and compared them to 95 control subjects (age: 7-18 years). All participants were administered five CANTAB tasks designed to capture different aspects of executive functioning: Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), Intra/Extra dimensional shift (IED), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Simple Reaction Time (SRT) and Stop Signal Task (SST). T-tests showed a difference between ADHD and control subjects in all cognitive measures except SOC. The majority of measures showed a non-linear effect of age. SWM strategy and SST direction errors showed a linear effect of age. ADHD diagnosis had a statistically significant effect on performance. For all tests except SOC, ADHD produced the main effect without interaction with age. For all CANTAB measures, ADHD diagnosis had a significant effect on performance and produced this effect without interaction with age in all tests except SOC, indicating that the developmental trajectories were parallel in both groups. The results indicate that cognitive performance is impaired in youth with ADHD and that CANTAB can be a valuable tool in the diagnostic assessment of ADHD.

  5. ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD What's in this article? ... With ADHD? Print en español TDAH What Is ADHD? Everyone has trouble at times with paying attention, ...

  6. ADHD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder, affecting 4% to 5% of South African children. Recent studies reveal that 30% to 70% of children continue to experience problems related to ADHD in adulthood. Adults are becoming increasingly aware of adult. ADHD as a result of public ...

  7. Synergistic effects in plasma surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible synergistic effects which can contribute to plasma surface interaction phenomena in fusion devices are reviewed. These effects include the influence of reactive ions, surface modification, temperature, radiation damage, and external forces and fields on erosion yields, hydrogen retention and release, and other surface processes. The important synergistic effects are described in terms of surface and edge conditions encountered in present fusion devices and expected in future reactors. Priority data needs include the chemical erosion of graphite at high particle fluxes, melt-layer stability under disruption-induced eddy current forces, the influence of bulk neutron damage on hydrogen retention, and an in-situ evaluation of synergistic effects in operating fusion devices

  8. Parent-of-Origin Effects in ADHD: Distinct Influences of Paternal and Maternal ADHD on Neuropsychological Functioning in Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD

  9. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects...

  10. ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process may include a checklist for rating ADHD symptoms and taking a history of the child from parents, teachers, and sometimes, the child. What can I do if I think my child may have ADHD? Talk with your child’s doctor or nurse. If ...

  11. ADHD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was once thought that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (ADHD) did not persist into adolescence, but results from two prospective studies suggest otherwise.1-3. The results of a meta-analysis suggest a 15% persistence rate of ADHD into adolescence when the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of.

  12. SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF STEM BARK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were ...

  13. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...... the strongest effects was most often linked to conjugative transmission of natural plasmids carried by the E. coli isolates (70%). Thus, the capacity of an isolate to promote the biofilm through cocultivation was (i) transferable to the K-12 strain, (ii) was linked with the acquisition of conjugation genes...

  14. The joint effect of bilingualism and ADHD on executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Billy; Yitzhaki-Amsalem, Sarin; Prior, Anat

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigated the combined effect of ADHD, previously associated with executive function (EF) deficits, and of bilingualism, previously associated with EF enhancement, on EF. Eighty University students, Hebrew monolinguals and Russian Hebrew bilinguals, with and without ADHD participated. Inhibition tasks were a Numeric Stroop task and a Simon arrows task. Shifting tasks were the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a task-switching paradigm. Participants with ADHD performed worse than controls, but we did not find a bilingual advantage in EF. The negative impact of ADHD was more pronounced for bilinguals than for monolinguals, but only in interference suppression tasks. Bilingual participants with ADHD had the lowest performance. Bilingualism might prove to be an added burden for adults with ADHD, leading to reduced EF abilities. Alternatively, the current findings might be ascribed to over- or under-diagnosis of ADHD due to cultural differences between groups. These issues should be pursued in future research. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  15. Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-01-01

    Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.

  16. Obesity and bipolar disorder: synergistic neurotoxic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Celina S; Carvalho, André F; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that is typified by a complex illness presentation, episode recurrence and by its frequent association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Over the past decade, obesity has emerged as one of many comorbidities generating substantial concern in the BD population due to important prognostic implications. This comprehensive review details the bidirectional relationship between obesity and BD as evidenced by alterations in the structure and function of the central nervous system, in addition to greater depressive recurrence, cognitive dysfunction and risk of suicidality. Drawing on current research results, this article presents several putative mechanisms underlying the synergistic toxic effects and provides a framework for future treatment options for the obesity-BD comorbidity. There is a need for more large-scale prospective studies to investigate the bidirectional relationships between obesity and BD.

  17. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Synergistic neurotrophic effects of piracetam and thiotriazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the synergy between the nootropic drug piracetam and the metabolic agent thiotriazoline that maintains energy metabolism and survival of neurons and other types of cells. Piracetam, a nootropic drug, a chemical pyrrolidone derivative, is used in neurological, psychiatric, and narcological practice. There is evidence on the positive effect of piracetam in elderly and senile patients with coronary heart disease. This drug is supposed to stimulate redox processes, to enhance glucose utilization, and to improve regional blood flow in the ischemic brain regions. Due to its action, the drug activates glycolytic processes and elevates ATP concentrations in brain tissue. Thiotriazoline is a compound that has antioxidant, anti-ischemic properties. The co-administration of piracetam and thiothriazoline is an innovation area in the treatment of stroke and other brain damages, especially in insulin resistance and high blood glucose levels. The paper considers the neurobiological properties of thiotriazoline and piracetam, which synergistically exert neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.

  19. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on

  20. Effect of Methylphenidate on Sleep Parameters in Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Heon; Seo, Wan Seok; Sung, Hyung Mo; Choi, Tae Young; Kim, So Yeun; Choi, So-Jeong; Koo, Bon Hoon; Lee, Jong Hun

    2012-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the acute impact of methylphenidate (MPH) on sleep parameters in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. The second aim was to investigate the different effects of intermediate- and longacting MPH on sleep parameters. The third aim was to test the different effects of dose and age on sleep parameters. Methods Ninety-three ADHD children were enrolled and randomized to two different MPH preparations. Baseline and daily...

  1. A parietal biomarker for ADHD liability:As predicted by The Distributed Effects Perspective Model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sigi eHale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously hypothesized that poor task-directed sensory information processing should be indexed by increased weighting of right hemisphere (RH biased attention and visuo-perceptual brain functions during task operations, and have demonstrated this phenotype in ADHD across multiple studies, using multiple methodologies. However, in our recent Distributed Effects Model of ADHD, we surmised that this phenotype is not ADHD specific, but rather more broadly reflective of any circumstance that disrupts the induction and maintenance of an emergent task-directed neural architecture. Under this view, increased weighting of RH biased attention and visuo-perceptual brain functions is expected to generally index neurocognitive sets that are not optimized for task-directed thought and action, and when durable expressed, liability for ADHD. Method: The current study tested this view by examining whether previously identified rightward parietal EEG asymmetry in ADHD was associated with common ADHD characteristics and comorbidities (i.e., ADHD risk factors. Results: Barring one exception (non-right handedness, we found that it was. Rightward parietal asymmetry was associated with carrying the DRD4-7R risk allele, being male, having mood disorder, and having anxiety disorder. However, differences in the specific expression of rightward parietal asymmetry were observed, which are discussed in relation to possible unique mechanisms underlying ADHD liability in different ADHD RFs. Conclusion: Rightward parietal asymmetry appears to be a durable feature of ADHD liability, as predicted by the Distributed Effects Perspective Model of ADHD. Moreover, variability in the expression of this phenotype may shed light on different sources of ADHD liability.

  2. Effectiveness and Duration of Effect of Open-Label Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A; Lynch, Lauren R; Shaw, David M; Wallace, Samantha P; O'Donnell, Katherine E; Ciranni, Michael A; Briggie, Alexis M; Faraone, Stephen V

    2017-01-01

    (a) Evaluate the efficacy and duration of effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adult ADHD. (b) Assess the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Medication Smoothness of Effect Scale (AMSES) and Adult ADHD Medication Rebound Scale (AMRS). Adults ( N = 40) with ADHD were treated with LDX for up to 12 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). The psychometric properties of the AMSES and AMRS are analyzed and compared with the ADHD-RS, ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS). ADHD-RS scores were significantly improved with LDX. The AMSES and AMRS had high internal consistency and were correlated with the ADHD-RS, ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and TASS. LDX is effective in treating adult ADHD and has a smooth drug effect throughout the day with limited symptom rebound. The AMSES and AMRS are valid and reliable measures.

  3. [Feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training in adults with ADHD: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hepark, S.; Kan, C.C.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. AIM: To conduct a pilot study which examines the feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training for adults with ADHD. METHOD: Eleven adults with ADHD participated in a mindfulness training scheme lasting 10 weeks. ADHD symptoms...

  4. Is emotion recognition the only problem in ADHD? effects of pharmacotherapy on face and emotion recognition in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Esra; Erdogan, Ayten

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. The reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET) and Benton face recognition test (BFRT) were applied to all participants before and after treatment. The patients with ADHD had a significantly lower number of correct answers in child and adolescent RMET and in BFRT than the healthy controls. Among the ADHD subtypes, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in the RMET than the inattentive subtypes, and the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in short and long form of BFRT than the combined and inattentive subtypes. Male and female patients with ADHD did not differ significantly with respect to the number of correct answers on the RMET and BFRT. The patients showed significant improvement in RMET and BFRT after treatment with OROS-MPH or atomoxetine. Patients with ADHD have difficulties in face recognition as well as emotion recognition. Both OROS-MPH and atomoxetine affect emotion recognition. However, further studies on the face and emotion recognition are needed in ADHD.

  5. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus.......619±8.555μgL(-1)) and 0.122±0.0417μM (40.236±13.75μgL(-1)), respectively, in the 14-days tests. Testing synergy in relation to concentration addition provided the most conservative values. The threshold values for the vertical assessments in tests where the two could be compared were in general 1.2 to 4.......7 fold higher than the horizontal assessments. Using passive dosing rather than dilution series or spiking did not lower the threshold significantly. Below the threshold for synergy, slight antagony could often be observed. This is most likely due to induction of enzymes active in metabolization of alpha...

  6. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas; Nørgaard, Katrine Banke; Mayer, Philipp; Cedergreen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Though only occurring rarely, synergistic interactions between chemicals in mixtures have long been a point of focus. Most studies analyzing synergistic interactions used unrealistically high chemical concentrations. The aim of the present study is to determine the threshold concentration below which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test using passive dosing for constant chemical exposure concentrations, and a 14-day test. Synergy was defined as occuring in mixtures where either EC 50 values decreased more than two-fold below what was predicted by concentration addition (horizontal assessment) or as mixtures where the fraction of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration, however, decreased with increasing test duration from 0.026±0.013μM (9.794±4.897μgL -1 ), 0.425±0.089μM (145.435±30.46μgL -1 ) and 0.757±0.253μM (249.659±83.44μgL -1 ) for prochloraz, propiconazole and epoxiconazole in standard 48h toxicity tests to 0.015±0.004μM (5.651±1.507μgL -1 ), 0.145±0.025μM (49.619±8.555μgL -1 ) and 0.122±0.0417μM (40.236±13.75μgL -1 ), respectively, in the 14-days tests. Testing synergy in relation to concentration addition provided

  7. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  8. Effects of Methylphenidate on Attention in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60 children aged 8-12 years with ADHD treated with two doses of methylphenidate (MPH, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, and placebo, a linear improvement was obtained at both doses in alertness and focused and sustained attention.

  9. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-02-01

    Although several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness. This article uses a longitudinal national sample, including sibling pairs, to show the important labor market outcome consequences of ADHD. The employment reduction is between 10 and 14 percentage points, the earnings reduction is approximately 33%, and the increase in social assistance is 15 points, figures that are larger than many estimates of the Black people/White people earnings gap and the gender earnings gap. A small share of the link is explained by educational attainments and co-morbid health conditions and behaviors. The results also show important differences in labor market consequences by family background and age of onset. These findings, along with similar research showing that ADHD is linked with poor education outcomes and adult crime, suggest the importance of treating childhood ADHD to foster human capital. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a

  11. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: possible synergistic effect of stress hyperglycemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress on the renal tubules has been implicated as a mechanism of injury in both stress hyperglycemia and contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of these effects has a synergistic effect on accentuating renal tubular apoptosis and therefore increasing the risk of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  12. Effect of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate on Sleep in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, John M.; Strobel, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential effects of short-term treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on both subjective and objective sleep characteristics in children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 24) with ADHD. Method: Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraph measures as well as assessments of subjective sleep parameters were examined in…

  13. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  15. The effectiveness of mindfulness training for children with ADHD and mindful parenting for their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Bögels, S.M.; Peijnenburg, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for children aged 8-12 with ADHD and parallel mindful parenting training for their parents. Parents (N = 22) completed questionnaires on their child’s ADHD and ODD symptoms, their own ADHD symptoms, parenting stress, parental

  16. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Water is an absolute necessity for all forms of animal and plant life. As man's requirements for water increase, the need for better methods of purification also increase. Technology has been slow to develop new methods of water treatment for the direct utilization of waste-water. Many new construction projects are at a standstill because waste-water treatment methods have not been developed to handle adequately the ever-increasing flow of sewage. Theoretical considerations of the use of high-level radiation in the treatment of waste-water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron, and the potential of the possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen and irradiation. An extensive testing programme at the University Center for Pollution Research of the Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste-water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programmes have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and faecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for faecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the relationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor from the turbidity of the waste-water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to offset significantly the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste-water. (author)

  17. Effect of handedness on auditory attentional performance in ADHD students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt SL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sergio L Schmidt,1,2 Ana Lucia Novais Carvaho,3 Eunice N Simoes2 1Department of Neurophysiology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Neurology Department, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Psychology, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Brazil Abstract: The relationship between handedness and attentional performance is poorly understood. Continuous performance tests (CPTs using visual stimuli are commonly used to assess subjects suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, auditory CPTs are considered more useful than visual ones to evaluate classroom attentional problems. A previous study reported that there was a significant effect of handedness on students’ performance on a visual CPT. Here, we examined whether handedness would also affect CPT performance using only auditory stimuli. From an initial sample of 337 students, 11 matched pairs were selected. Repeated ANOVAs showed a significant effect of handedness on attentional performance that was exhibited even in the control group. Left-handers made more commission errors than right-handers. The results were interpreted considering that the association between ADHD and handedness reflects that consistent left-handers are less lateralized and have decreased interhemispheric connections. Auditory attentional data suggest that left-handers have problems in the impulsive/hyperactivity domain. In ADHD, clinical therapeutics and rehabilitation must take handedness into account because consistent sinistrals are more impulsive than dextrals. Keywords: attention, ADHD, consistent left-handers, auditory attention, continuous performance test

  18. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the synergistic effect of trehalose and saccharose pretreatment on maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and re-hydrated. Prior to lyophilization and after re hydration, RBC parameters, ...

  19. Synergistic antibacterial effect of stem bark extracts of Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were screened for ...

  20. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effects were observed when mixtures of ethanolic plant extract against food-borne pathogen bacteria were used, so this may be a better way to design alternative pathogen control methodologies for food-borne pathogen bacteria. Keywords: Larrea tridentate, Flourensia cernua, Opuntia ficus-indica, ethanolic ...

  1. Synergistic Effect of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on Changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic Effect of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on Changes in Soil Structural Indices of a Sandy-Clay Loam Ultisol. ... Decreases in bulk density occurred as a result of increase in amendment applied, the trend was 8t>4t>2t for all the amendments. However, only the application of 8t/ha of poultry manure decrease bulk ...

  2. Synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have studied the synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentrate) on isoprenaline-induced infarction in rats with respect to changes in the levels of plasma diagnostic marker enzymes and myocardial antioxidant defense system. Intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline caused a ...

  3. The Indirect Effects of Childhood ADHD on Alcohol Problems in Adulthood through Unique Facets of Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A.P.; Harty, Seth C.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Research has not studied unique impulsivity dimensions as prospective links between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol problems. We examined the association between childhood ADHD, 5 facets of impulsivity and alcohol problems in adulthood, and the indirect effects of childhood ADHD-to-impulsivity-to-alcohol problems. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants were from a longitudinal study (N = 289, MAge = 28.67) of individuals with (n = 170) and without (n = 119) childhood ADHD. The ADHD sample, as part of an ADHD summer treatment program, was initially diagnosed in childhood (1987–1996, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) via structured parent interview and standardized parent/teacher ratings. The ADHD sample and demographically similar individuals without ADHD (living in the greater Pittsburgh area) were recruited to participate in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) between 1999 and 2003. Measurements Self-reported impulsivity (UPPS-P) and alcohol-related problems were assessed in adulthood (2011 – 2014). Findings Adults with, compared with those without, childhood ADHD had more alcohol problems (β = .34, p facets (except sensation seeking) were related to number of alcohol problems (β’s = .34–.61, p’s < .05). Negative (b = .26, p < .01) and positive (b = .27, p < .01) urgency mediated the association between childhood ADHD and number of adult alcohol problems. Conclusions Elevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may place children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood. PMID:26999438

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ... for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication for ADHD will continue to benefit ...

  5. Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Eelco V; von Rhein, Daniel; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are continuously distributed throughout the population, and ASD symptoms are also frequently observed in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both ASD and ADHD have been linked to alterations in reward-related neural processing. However, whether both symptom domains interact and/or have distinct effects on reward processing in healthy and ADHD populations is currently unknown. We examined how variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms in individuals with ADHD and healthy participants was related to the behavioural and neural response to reward during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Participants (mean age: 17.7 years, range: 10-28 years) from the NeuroIMAGE study with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (n = 136), their unaffected siblings (n = 83), as well as healthy controls (n = 105) performed an MID task in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. ASD and ADHD symptom scores were used as predictors of the neural response to reward anticipation and reward receipt. Behavioural responses were modeled using linear mixed models; neural responses were analysed using FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) proprietary mixed effects analysis (FLAMEO). ASD and ADHD symptoms were associated with alterations in BOLD activity during reward anticipation, but not reward receipt. Specifically, ASD scores were related to increased insular activity during reward anticipation across the sample. No interaction was found between this effect and the presence of ADHD, suggesting that ASD symptoms had no differential effect in ADHD and healthy populations. ADHD symptom scores were associated with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activity during reward anticipation. No interactions were found between the effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward processing. Variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms separately influence neural processing during reward anticipation in both individuals with (an increased risk of) ADHD and healthy

  6. Differential effects of anxiety and depressive symptoms on working memory components in children and adolescents with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrin, Maite; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-12-01

    Working memory (WM) deficits have been shown to be associated with core ADHD symptoms, worse academic achievement and peer-relationship problems. Internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, have also been associated with impaired WM performance. However, the association of anxiety and depression and WM performance remains unclear for children and adolescents with ADHD. Further, it is unknown how these comorbid conditions might affect WM performance in the two main ADHD subtypes. The association of anxiety and depression and the specific components of spatial (SWM) and verbal working memory (VWM) were examined in 303 children and adolescents with ADHD, combined type (ADHD-CT) and 77 ADHD, inattentive type (ADHD-IA) compared to 128 age- and gender-matched typically developing participants. The relationship between anxiety and depression and WM was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses and separate simple regression analyses. Higher levels of anxiety/depression were associated with (1) increased between-search errors in the typically developing participants alone, (2) a better strategy performance in the ADHD-CT group, and (3) a better spatial span performance in the ADHD-IA group. VWM was equally impaired in the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA groups, independent of the levels of anxiety and depression. The results suggest that the effects of internalizing symptoms on WM differ in typically developing children and adolescents compared to those with ADHD. Further, high levels of anxiety and depression modified WM performance differently according to the specific ADHD subtypes. This might help explain contradictory findings observed in previous studies of mixed samples of participants with ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA.

  7. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help find most effective treatment for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ...

  9. Synergistic effect of Glomus fasciculatum and Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of two soil amendments of tannery sludge (10% and 20%) on growth and metal uptake of Helianthus annuus L. was studied under three treatments of rhizosphere and mycorrhizal fungi. Trichoderma pseudokoningii Rifai was used as rhizosphere fungal inoculum (F) and Glomus fasciculatum (Thax.) Gerd.

  10. Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of Lepidium Sativum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to ...

  11. Synergistic chemopreventive effects of nobiletin and atorvastatin on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Song, Mingyue; Qiu, Peiju; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Li, Fang; Gao, Zili; Cai, Xiaokun; Wang, Minqi; Xu, Fei; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang

    2017-04-01

    Different cancer chemopreventive agents may act synergistically and their combination may produce enhanced protective effects against carcinogenesis than each individual agent alone. Herein, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of nobiletin (NBT, a citrus polymethoxyflavone) and atorvastatin (ATST, a lipid-lowering drug) in colon cancer cells/macrophages and an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis rat model. The results demonstrated that co-treatments of NBT/ATST produced enhanced growth inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects on the colon cancer cells and macrophages, respectively. Isobologram analysis confirmed that these interactions between NBT and ATST were synergistic. NBT/ATST co-treatment also synergistically induced extensive cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Oral administration of NBT (0.1%, w/w in diet) or ATST (0.04%, w/w in diet) significantly decreased colonic tumor incidence and multiplicity in AOM-treated rats. Most importantly, co-treatment of NBT/ATST at their half doses (0.05% NBT + 0.02% ATST, w/w in diet) resulted in even stronger inhibitory effects on colonic tumor incidence and multiplicity than did NBT or ATST alone at higher doses. Statistical analysis confirmed that the enhanced chemopreventive activities against colon carcinogenesis in rats by the NBT/ATST combination were highly synergistic. Our results further demonstrated that NBT/ATST co-treatment profoundly modulated key cellular signaling regulators associated with inflammation, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis in the colon of AOM-treated rats. In conclusion, for the first time, our results demonstrated a strong synergy in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis produced by the co-treatment of NBT and ATST, which provided a scientific basis for using NBT in combination with ATST for colon cancer chemoprevention in humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  12. Effect of interactive metronome training on children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, R J; Jacokes, L E; Cassily, J F; Greenspan, S I; Tuchman, R F; Stemmer, P J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a specific intervention, the Interactive Metronome, on selected aspects of motor and cognitive skills in a group of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 56 boys who were 6years to 12 years of age and diagnosed before they entered the study as having ADHD. The participants were pretested and randomly assigned to one of three matched groups. A group of 19 participants receiving 15 hr of Interactive Metronome training exercises were compared with a group receiving no intervention and a group receiving training on selected computer video games. A significant pattern of improvement across 53 of 58 variables favoring the Interactive Metronome treatment was found. Additionally, several significant differences were found among the treatment groups and between pretreatment and posttreatment factors on performance in areas of attention, motor control, language processing, reading, and parental reports of improvements in regulation of aggressive behavior. The Interactive Metronome training appears to facilitate a number of capacities, including attention, motor control, and selected academic skills, in boys with ADHD.

  13. Effects of ADHD on Writing Composition Product and Process in School-Age Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Celestino; Torrance, Mark; Betts, Lucy; Cerezo, Rebeca; García, Trinidad

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between ADHD and writing performance. Students in Grades 3 to 7, 84 with ADHD and 135 age- and gender-matched controls completed a writing task (including process logs), and measures of working memory and attention. Students with ADHD wrote texts of similar length but with poorer structure, coherence, and ideation. In all, 6.7% of the variance in writing quality was explained by whether or not the student had an ADHD diagnosis, after control for IQ and age-within-year, with ADHD students producing text that was less coherent, well structured, and ideationally rich, and spending less time thinking about and reviewing their text. Half of the effect on text quality could be attributed to working memory and sustained attention effects. ADHD has some effect on writing performance, which can, in part, be explained by working memory and attentional deficits.

  14. The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M E; Szeibel, P J; Koplewicz, H S

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of extra-task stimulation on the academic task performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 nondisabled boys worked on an arithmetic task during high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech), and no stimulation (silence). The music "distractors" were individualized for each child, and the arithmetic problems were at each child's ability level. A significant Group x Condition interaction was found for number of correct answers. Specifically, the nondisabled youngsters performed similarly under all three auditory conditions. In contrast, the children with ADHD did significantly better under the music condition than speech or silence conditions. However, a significant Group x Order interaction indicated that arithmetic performance was enhanced only for those children with ADHD who received music as the first condition. The facilitative effects of salient auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of the children with ADHD provide some support for the underarousal/optimal stimulation theory of ADHD.

  15. What is Life? Among Other Things, It's a Synergistic Effect!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corning

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been many different ways of characterizing and describing the phenomenon of life over the years. One aspect that has not often been stressed is lifersquo;s emergent propertiesmdash;the synergies that are produced when many elements or parts combine to produce distinctive new ldquo;wholesrdquo;. Indeed, complex living systems represent a multi-leveled, multi-faceted hierarchy of synergistic effects that has evolved over several billion years. Some of the many examples of synergy at various levels of life are briefly described, and it is emphasized that life is still creating itself and still exploring its potentialities.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Lupenone and Caryophyllene Oxide against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glendy Polanco-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro trypanocidal activity of a 1 : 4 mixture of lupenone and caryophyllene oxide confirmed a synergistic effect of the terpenoids against epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi (IC50=10.4 μg/mL, FIC = 0.46. In addition, testing of the terpenoid mixture for its capacity to reduce the number of amastigote nests in cardiac tissue and skeletal muscle of infected mice showed a reduction of more than 80% at a dose level of 20.8 mg·kg−1·day−1.

  17. Synergistic Effects of PPARγ Ligands and Retinoids in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Shimizu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The activation of PPARs by their specific ligands is regarded as one of the promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell growth. However, recent clinical trials targeting several common cancers showed no beneficial effect when PPAR ligands are used as a monotherapy. Retinoid X receptors (RXRs, which play a critical role in normal cell proliferation as a master regulator for nuclear receptors, preferentially form heterodimers with PPARs. A malfunction of RXRα due to phosphorylation by the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway is associated with the development of certain types of human malignancies. The activation of PPARγ/RXR heterodimer by their respective ligands synergistically inhibits cell growth, while inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells when the phosphorylation of RXRα was inhibited. We herein review the synergistic antitumor effects produced by the combination of the PPAR, especially PPARγ, ligands plus other agents, especially retinoids, in a variety of human cancers. We also focus on the phosphorylation of RXRα because the inhibition of RXRα phosphorylation and the restoration of its physiological function may activate PPAR/RXR heterodimer and, therefore, be a potentially effective and critical strategy for the inhibition of cancer cell growth.

  18. A pilot study of the effects of atomoxetine on driving performance in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A; Anderson, Deborah L; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-02-01

    There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with ADHD (M age = 37 years) using ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairment, and safe driving behavior; a virtual reality driving simulator; and ratings of simulator performance. Atomoxetine improves self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairments, safe driving behavior, and simulator driving performance. No effects of atomoxetine are evident on others' ratings of driving behavior or on the simulator. Practice effects on the simulator may have obscured those drug effects. The authors find a mixed pattern of results such that atomoxetine warrants further study for its effects on driving in this high-risk population.

  19. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  20. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  1. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  2. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  3. Children's Self-Reports on Perceived Effects on Taking Stimulant Medication for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Dahlstrom, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates children's views on positive and negative effects of stimulant medication for ADHD and the children's willingness to stop taking medication. Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 79 children with ADHD and one of each child's parents. Results/Conclusion: Swedish children treated with stimulants generally…

  4. Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Effects on Parent-Child Interaction for Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic differences in observed parenting and child behavior and the moderating effects of ethnicity on the relationship between treatment and parent and child behavior. Method: Observations of 508 children with ADHD (ages 7-9) and their caregivers, collected during the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD, were analyzed using…

  5. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  6. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Rommel

    Full Text Available While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  7. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  8. Synergistic Antipseudomonal Effects of Synthetic Peptide AMP38 and Carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudilla, Héctor; Fusté, Ester; Cajal, Yolanda; Rabanal, Francesc; Vinuesa, Teresa; Viñas, Miguel

    2016-09-12

    The aim was to explore the antimicrobial activity of a synthetic peptide (AMP38) and its synergy with imipenem against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The main mechanism of imipenem resistance is the loss or alteration of protein OprD. Time-kill and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) determinations were carried out by using clinical imipenem-resistant strains. AMP38 was markedly synergistic with imipenem when determined in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. MBEC obtained for the combination of AMP38 and imipenem was of 62.5 μg/mL, whereas the MBEC of each antimicrobial separately was 500 μg/mL. AMP38 should be regarded as a promising antimicrobial to fight MDR P. aeruginosa infections. Moreover, killing effect and antibiofilm activity of AMP38 plus imipenem was much higher than that of colistin plus imipenem.

  9. ADHD Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD Medicines KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD Medicines What's in ... para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) What Is ADHD Medicine? After someone is diagnosed with ADHD , doctors ...

  10. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  11. Acute neuropharmacological effects of atomoxetine on inhibitory control in ADHD children: A fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nagashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the current study is to explore the neural substrate for effects of atomoxetine (ATX on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. We monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of sixteen ADHD children (6–14 years old performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after ATX or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Sixteen age- and gender-matched normal controls without ATX administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the go/no-go task recruited the right inferior and middle prefrontal gyri (IFG/MFG, and this activation was absent in pre-medicated ADHD children. The reduction of right IFG/MFG activation was acutely normalized after ATX administration but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are reminiscent of the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to up-regulate reduced right IFG/MFG function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. As with methylphenidate, activation in the IFG/MFG could serve as an objective neuro-functional biomarker to indicate the effects of ATX on inhibitory control in ADHD children. This promising technique will enhance early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children, especially in those with a hyperactivity/impulsivity phenotype.

  12. Synergistic effect of fragrant herbs in Japanese scent sachets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2015-02-01

    The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Joseph; Robinson, Rachel; Hallyburton, Matt; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There has been controversy over the abuse potential of methylphenidate (MPH) in the context of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The objective of this study was to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of oral MPH in adults with and without ADHD. Materials and methods Following screening, 33 adults (n= 16 with ADHD; n=17 free from psychiatric diagnoses) completed four pairs of experimental sessions, each of which included a sampling session and a self-administration session. During sampling sessions, subjects received in randomized order 0 (placebo), 20, 40, and 60 mg MPH. During self-administration sessions, subjects completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn portions of the dose received on the corresponding sampling session. Subjective effects were recorded throughout all sessions. The main outcome measure for the study was the number of ratios completed on the PR task. Secondary measures included peak subjective effects and area-under-the-curve values for subjective effects. Results Compared to the control group, the ADHD group completed more ratios on the PR task. Both groups showed robust effects of methylphenidate on subjective endpoints. Main effects of group were noted on subjective effects involving concentration and arousal. Conclusions Compared to placebo, MPH produced reinforcing effects only for the ADHD group and not for the control group. Increases in stimulant-related subjective effects in non-ADHD subjects were not associated with drug reinforcement. PMID:19104775

  14. The effects of Children’s ADHD on Parents’ Relationship Dissolution and Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Anette Primdal; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper uses Danish register-based data for the population of children born in 1990-1997 to investigate the effects on parents of having a child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Ten years after birth, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD have a 75 % higher probability...... of having dissolved their relationship and a 7-13 % lower labor supply. Exploiting detailed information about documented risk factors behind ADHD, we find that roughly half of this gap is due to selection. However, a statistically and economically significant gap is left, which is likely related...

  15. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  16. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R; Shanahan, Jacqueline M; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O'Connell, Redmond G; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed.

  17. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  18. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT program in adults with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eSalomone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, a neuropsychiatric condition characterised by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3 months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial is needed.

  19. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro P Silva

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF. After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE and 14 without these symptoms (GC. The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE. The (GE-EF group showed similar performance (2.5% difference with the volunteers in the (GC group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  20. Effect of ADHD on the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life (QOL, measured with a Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, was evaluated in 120 untreated children, aged 6 to 12 years, with newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

  1. Effect of ADHD on the Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    The quality of life (QOL), measured with a Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), was evaluated in 120 untreated children, aged 6 to 12 years, with newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  2. No clear effects of acute tryptophan depletion on processing affective prosody in male adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabemann, M; Mette, C; Zimmermann, M; Heinrich, V; Uekermann, J; Wiltfang, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Zepf, F D; Kis, B

    2013-08-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties processing affective prosody, and research evidence demonstrates the importance of brain serotonin (5-HT) in the neurobiology of ADHD. This study aimed to investigate whether diminished brain 5-HT synthesis, as achieved by acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), can impair the processing of affective prosody in adults with ADHD. Twenty male patients with ADHD and twenty male healthy controls received ATD and a tryptophan-balanced control condition on separate days in a double-blind within-subject repeated measures crossover design. In both conditions, the Tübingen Affect Battery was administered in which subjects had to name the affective prosody of sentences with neutral, congruent, or incongruent semantic content. Participants in the group of patients with ADHD perceived affective prosody less accurately than controls. Participants with ADHD showed compromised processing of sentences, committing more errors than healthy controls when identifying affect in instances of incongruent semantic content (P = 0.031). ATD did not contribute to this effect (all P > 0.5). The difficulties male adults with ADHD have in accurately processing affective prosody may result from impairments in their ability to inhibit unwanted stimuli and impulses. No clear evidence implicates 5-HT as a cause of these impairments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Synergistic estrogenic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Hahn, Kathrin; Braun, Dominik; Warth, Benedikt; Marko, Doris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites formed by various fungal species that are found as natural contaminants in food. This very heterogeneous group of compounds triggers multiple toxic mechanisms, including endocrine disruptive potential. Current risk assessment of mycotoxins, as for most chemical substances, is based on the effects of single compounds. However, concern on a potential enhancement of risks by interactions of single substances in naturally occurring mixtures has greatly increased recently. In this study, the combinatory effects of three mycoestrogens were investigated in detail. This includes the endocrine disruptors zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) produced by Fusarium fungi and alternariol (AOH), a cytotoxic and estrogenic mycotoxin formed by Alternaria species. For evaluation of effects, estrogen-dependent activation of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and cell proliferation were tested in the adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. The estrogenic potential varied among the single substances. Half maximum effect concentrations (EC50) for AlP activation were evaluated for α-ZEL, ZEN and AOH as 37 pM, 562 pM and 995 nM, respectively. All three mycotoxins were found to act as partial agonists. The majority of binary combinations, even at very low concentrations in the case of α-ZEL, showed strong synergism in the AlP assay. These potentiating phenomena of mycotoxin mixtures highlight the urgent need to incorporate combinatory effects into future risk assessment, especially when endocrine disruptors are involved. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first investigation on synergistic effects of mycoestrogens.

  4. Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kelly, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21–25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7–9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA. We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1 individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis (n = 23; (2 individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis (n = 22; (3 comparisons who currently use cannabis (n = 15; and (4 comparisons who do not currently use cannabis (n = 15. The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and

  5. Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier; Tomaselli, Olivia; Lisdahl, Krista; Tamm, Leanne; Jernigan, Terry; Newman, Erik; Epstein, Jeffery N; Molina, Brooke S G; Greenhill, Laurence L; Potkin, Steven G; Hinshaw, Stephen; Swanson, James M

    2017-01-01

    One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1) individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis ( n  = 23); (2) individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis ( n  = 22); (3) comparisons who currently use cannabis ( n  = 15); and (4) comparisons who do not currently use cannabis ( n  = 15). The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and negative

  6. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a multicenter parallel-randomized controlled trial design, adolescents with ADHD symptoms were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (NFB + TAU, n = 45) or TAU-only (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified for age group (ages 12 through 16, 16 through 20, 20 through 24). Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Primary behavioral outcome measures included the ADHD-rating scale, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist all assessed pre- and post-intervention. Behavioral problems decreased equally for both groups with medium to large effect sizes, range of partial η2 = 0.08-0.31, p neurofeedback and TAU was as effective as TAU-only for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Considering the absence of additional behavioral effects in the current study, in combination with the limited knowledge of specific treatment effects, it is questionable whether theta/SMR neurofeedback for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice should be used. Further research is warranted to investigate possible working mechanisms and (long-term) specific treatment effects of neurofeedback.

  7. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of co-occurring ADHD symptoms on electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control in young people with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-09-01

    Efficient cognitive control is implicated in tic control in young people with Tourette syndrome (TS). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is associated with impaired cognitive control. Young people with TS and ADHD (TS+ADHD) show poorer cognitive control performance than those with TS, but how co-occurring ADHD affects underlying neural activity is unknown. We investigated this issue by examining behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of cognitive control in young people with these conditions. Participants aged 9-17 with TS (n = 17), TS+ADHD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 11), and unaffected controls (n = 20) performed a visual Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Behavioural performance measures (D-prime, RT, reaction time variability, post-error slowing) and ERP measures (N2, P3, error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe)) were analysed in a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no) × 2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial analysis to investigate the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction. The results of these analyses showed that ADHD was associated with poorer performance and reduced amplitude of all ERPs, reflecting widespread cognitive control impairments. Tourette syndrome was associated with slowed RTs, which might reflect a compensatory slowing of motor output to facilitate tic control. There was no interaction between the TS and ADHD factors for any behavioural or ERP measure, indicating the impairing effects of ADHD on behaviour and electrophysiological markers of cognitive control were present in TS+ADHD and that RT slowing associated with TS was unaffected by co-occurring ADHD symptoms. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Effect of atomoxetine on executive function impairments in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W; Padival, Anoop K; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-02-01

    To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD received either atomoxetine 25 to 100 mg/day or placebo for 6 months. Patients completed the BADDS to report their current daily functioning in 5 clusters of ADHD-related impairments of executive functioning: (1) Organizing and Activating to Work; (2) Focusing for Tasks; (3) Regulating Alertness and Effort; (4) Modulating Emotions; and (5) Utilizing Working Memory. Mean scores were significantly more improved in the atomoxetine group compared to the placebo group: total score, -27.0 versus -19.0 (p executive function impairments in adults with ADHD as assessed by the BADDS.

  10. Synergistic effect of gefitinib and rofecoxib in mesothelioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi Ada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM is an aggressive tumor that is resistant to conventional modes of treatment with chemotherapy, surgery or radiation. Research into the molecular pathways involved in the development of MM should yield information that will guide therapeutic decisions. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 are involved in the carcinogenesis of MM. Combination of COX-2 and EGFR inhibitors, therefore, could be an effective strategy for reducing cell growth in those lines expressing the two molecular markers. Results In order to verify the effect of COX-2 and EGFR inhibitors, five MM cell lines NCI-2452, MPP89, Ist-Mes-1, Ist-Mes-2 and MSTO-211 were characterized for COX-2 and EGFR and then treated with respective inhibitors (rofecoxib and gefitinib alone and in combination. Only MPP89, Ist-Mes-1 and Ist-Mes-2 were sensitive to rofecoxib and showed growth-inhibition upon gefitinib treatment. The combination of two drugs demonstrated synergistic effects on cell killing only in Ist-Mes-2, the cell line that was more sensitive to gefitinib and rofecoxib alone. Down-regulation of COX-2, EGFR, p-EGFR and up-regulation of p21 and p27 were found in Ist-Mes-2, after treatment with single agents and in combination. In contrast, association of two drugs resulted in antagonistic effect in Ist-Mes-1 and MPP89. In these cell lines after rofecoxib exposition, only an evident reduction of p-AKT was observed. No change in p-AKT in Ist-Mes-1 and MPP89 was observed after treatment with gefitinib alone and in combination with rofecoxib. Conclusions Gefitinib and rofecoxib exert cell type-specific effects that vary between different MM cells. Total EGFR expression and downstream signalling does not correlate with gefitinib sensitivity. These data suggest that the effect of gefitinib can be potentiated by rofecoxib in MM cell lines where AKT is not activated.

  11. Effects of noise and audiovisual cues on speech processing in adults with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Anne M P; Watson, Silvana M; Ash, Ivan; Ringleb, Stacie; Raymer, Anastasia

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the interplay among internal (e.g. attention, working memory abilities) and external (e.g. background noise, visual information) factors in individuals with and without ADHD. A 2 × 2 × 6 mixed design with correlational analyses was used to compare participant results on a standardized listening in noise sentence repetition task (QuickSin; Killion et al, 2004 ), presented in an auditory and an audiovisual condition as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varied from 25-0 dB and to determine individual differences in working memory capacity and short-term recall. Thirty-eight young adults without ADHD and twenty-five young adults with ADHD. Diagnosis, modality, and signal-to-noise ratio all affected the ability to process speech in noise. The interaction between the diagnosis of ADHD, the presence of visual cues, and the level of noise had an effect on a person's ability to process speech in noise. conclusion: Young adults with ADHD benefited less from visual information during noise than young adults without ADHD, an effect influenced by working memory abilities.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2). Osmotic fragility is an important factor in the maintenance of RBC integrity and normal functions [23]. Trehalose and saccharose pretreatment synergistically decreased lyophilization-rehydration-induced damage on. RBC osmotic fragility by reducing the osmotic fragility (Fig. 3). PS is only distributed in the internal side of ...

  13. Synergistic effect of Murraya koenigii and Telfairia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger zones of inhibition were observed for M. Koenigii extract than T. occidentalis extract, and larger zones of inhibition were observed by their synergy than on their separate use. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the extract ranged from 0 mm to 20.0 ± 0.03 mm, zone of inhibition of M. koenigii extract ranged from 0 mm ...

  14. Towards enhancing photocatalytic hydrogen generation: Which is more important, alloy synergistic effect or plasmonic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhe; Kibria, Md Golam; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Duchesne, Paul N.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Qingzhe; Mi, Zetian; Zhang, Peng; Govorov, Alexander O.; Mai, Liqiang; Chaker, Mohamed; Ma, Dongling

    2018-02-01

    Synergistic effect in alloys and plasmonic effect have both been explored for increasing the efficiency of water splitting. In depth understanding and comparison of their respective contributions in certain promising systems is highly desired for catalyst development, yet rarely investigated so far. We report herein our thorough investigations on a series of highly interesting nanocomposites composed of Pt, Au and C3N4 nanocomponents, which are designed to benefit from both synergistic and plasmonic effects. Detailed analyses led to an important conclusion that the contribution from the synergistic effect was at least 3.5 times that from the plasmonic effect in the best performing sample, Pt50Au50 alloy decorated C3N4. It showed remarkable turnover frequency of >1.6 mmol h-1 g-1 at room temperature. Our work provides physical insights for catalyst development by rationally designing samples to compare long-known synergistic effect with recently emerging, attractive plasmonic effect and represents the first case study in the field.

  15. Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Baohua, E-mail: bhzhu@henu.edu.cn, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Cao, Yawan; Wang, Chong; Wang, Ji; Gu, Yuzong, E-mail: bhzhu@henu.edu.cn, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Microsystem, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Fangfang [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-06-20

    CdS nanocrystals are attached on graphene nanosheets and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated by picosecond Z-scan technique at 532 nm. We found that synergistic effect between the graphene and CdS makes a major enhancement on the nonlinear optical absorption of graphene/CdS nanohybrid in comparison with cooperative effect, and the synergistic improvement is restricted by nonradiative defects in hybrid. The synergistic mechanism involving the local field theory and charge transfer evolution is proposed.

  16. The Effect of Focus Strategies on ADHD Students' English Vocabulary Learning in Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. ADHD is also among the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting school-aged children"(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000. Too many young girls are not getting the help they need because of hidden symptoms and late diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of focus strategies on vocabulary learning of ADHD students at two junior high schools. To this end, eight female ADHD and eight normal students from two public schools were assigned to the both control group and the experimental one. The quantitative data was gathered from each student and was analyzed through 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA in a factorial arrangement with two repetitions. An orthogonal test was used to compare the strategies that were used in the control group (word list and the experimental group (key word method, concentration, making sentences and fold overs. The instrument of this study contained a questionnaire sent to the parents and English teachers, an interview with a psychologist, a pre-test and a post-test. The results indicated that the four focus strategies in the experimental group increased the vocabulary learning in ADHD students for the short term retention and this increase was significant in the first focus strategy (key word method and mostly the last one (fold overs in the normal and ADHD students. The mean scores of control group were lower than the treatment group both in the normal and ADHD students. The results of delayed post-test revealed that although focus strategies improved the scores of the normal students compared to the ADHD students, this difference was not significant.

  17. Developing an Agent-Based Drug Model to Investigate the Synergistic Effects of Drug Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjie; Yin, Zuojing; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhang, Le

    2017-12-14

    The growth and survival of cancer cells are greatly related to their surrounding microenvironment. To understand the regulation under the impact of anti-cancer drugs and their synergistic effects, we have developed a multiscale agent-based model that can investigate the synergistic effects of drug combinations with three innovations. First, it explores the synergistic effects of drug combinations in a huge dose combinational space at the cell line level. Second, it can simulate the interaction between cells and their microenvironment. Third, it employs both local and global optimization algorithms to train the key parameters and validate the predictive power of the model by using experimental data. The research results indicate that our multicellular system can not only describe the interactions between the microenvironment and cells in detail, but also predict the synergistic effects of drug combinations.

  18. Effect of Rolandic Spikes on ADHD Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of Rolandic spikes with the neuropsychological profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was studied in a total of 48 patients at JW Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main; and Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany.

  19. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Li, Zhan; Li, Xiaolu; Tian, Yaomei; Fan, Yingzi; Yu, Chaoheng; Zhou, Bailing; Liu, Yi; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT)-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001) and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin) on clinical bacterial strains ( Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii , and Escherichia coli ). The AZT-resistance genes ( ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA , and msrA ) were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L). When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7-AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus strain synergistically affected by DP7-AZT showed no noteworthy morphological changes, suggesting that a molecular-level mechanism plays an important role in the synergistic action of DP7-AZT. AMP DP7 plus the antibiotic AZT or VAN is more effective, especially against highly antibiotic-resistant strains.

  20. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day. 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% ...

  1. ADHD- and Medication-Related Brain Activation Effects in Concordantly Affected Parent-Child Dyads with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Casey, B. J.; Tonev, Simon T.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M.; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Spicer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological…

  2. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  3. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  4. Synergistic Effects of Cellulosomal Xylanase and Cellulases from Clostridium cellulovorans on Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Murashima, Koichiro; Kosugi, Akihiko; Doi, Roy H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose and other polymers that are intertwined, and this complex structure presents a barrier to degradation by pure cellulases or hemicellulases. In this study, we determined the synergistic effects on corn cell wall degradation by the action of cellulosomal xylanase XynA and cellulosomal cellulases from Clostridium cellulovorans. XynA minicellulosomes and cellulase minicellulosomes were found to degrade corn cell walls synergistically b...

  5. Pharmaceutical entanglements: an analysis of the multiple determinants of ADHD medication effects in a Chilean school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Navarro, Sebastian; Vrecko, Scott

    2017-06-01

    This article draws upon findings from ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a Chilean school to explore how the effects of globally circulating ADHD medications emerge within the localized contexts of everyday users. An analysis of observations of children on ADHD medications within classroom settings is developed which challenges the assumption, pervasive within biomedical paradigms, that the effects of such medications can be understood as resulting directly from their chemical properties and biological modes of action. Our case study highlights the significance of multiple, interacting determinants of drug effects in an everyday setting, focusing in particular on classroom dynamics, teacher-student relations, and the agency of children taking the medications. We conclude that while ADHD medications may act in part by altering physiological processes, an adequate account of their effects requires that analytic attention extends to the sociomaterial contexts in which medications and users are embedded.

  6. Effects of FDA advisories on the pharmacologic treatment of ADHD, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Watson, Sydeaka; Higashi, Ashley S; Conti, Rena M; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Garfield, Craig F; Dorsey, E Ray; Huskamp, Haiden A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of public health advisories issued between 2005 and 2007 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on treatments of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and physician prescribing practices. Data obtained from the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a nationally representative audit of ambulatory physicians, were used to examine trends in office visits by children and adolescents (under age 18) during which ADHD was treated with Adderall, other psychostimulants, or atomoxetine. Segmented time series regressions were conducted to determine changes in use associated with three advisories issued between 2005 and 2007. In 2004, before the first FDA advisory, Adderall accounted for 36% of ADHD pharmacotherapy treatment visits. Other stimulants accounted for 46%, and atomoxetine accounted for 19%. Overall pharmacotherapy treatment rates were stable over the study period, but by 2008 the treatment visits accounted for by Adderall (that is, market share) declined to 24%, and the market share for atomoxetine declined to 8%. The market share for substitute therapies-clonidine, guanfacine, and bupropion-was stable over this period, ranging from 5% to 7%. Despite the declines in the use of Adderall and atomoxetine over the study period, results from the regression models suggest that the advisories did not have a statistically significant effect on ADHD medication prescribing. FDA advisories regarding potential cardiovascular and other risks of ADHD medications had little discernible incremental effect on the use of these medicines in this nationally representative ambulatory audit.

  7. Effects of FDA Advisories on the Pharmacologic Treatment of ADHD, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Watson, Sydeaka; Higashi, Ashley S.; Conti, Rena M.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Garfield, Craig F.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the effect of public health advisories issued between 2005 and 2007 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on treatments of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and physician prescribing practices. Methods Data obtained from the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a nationally representative audit of ambulatory physicians, were used to examine trends in office visits by children and adolescents (under age 18) during which ADHD was treated with Adderall, other psychostimulants, or atomoxetine. Segmented time series regressions were conducted to determine changes in use associated with three advisories issued between 2005 and 2007. Results In 2004, before the first FDA advisory, Adderall accounted for 36% of ADHD pharmacotherapy treatment visits. Other stimulants accounted for 46%, and atomoxetine accounted for 19%. Overall pharmacotherapy treatment rates were stable over the study period, but by 2008 the treatment visits accounted for by Adderall (that is, market share) declined to 24%, and the market share for atomoxetine declined to 8%. The market share for substitute therapies—clonidine, guanfacine, and bupropion—was stable over this period, ranging from 5% to 7%. Despite the declines in the use of Adderall and atomoxetine over the study period, results from the regression models suggest that the advisories did not have a statistically significant effect on ADHD medication prescribing. Conclusions FDA advisories regarding potential cardiovascular and other risks of ADHD medications had little discernible incremental effect on the use of these medicines in this nationally representative ambulatory audit. PMID:23318985

  8. The Effect of Maternal Stress during Pregnancy on IQ and ADHD Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizenko, Natalie; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Gaudreau-Simard, Mathilde; Jolicoeur, Claude; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to a decrease in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in the general population. The purpose of this study is to first examine the association between MSDP and IQ in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and second, to confirm, in a large sample, the link between MSDP and ADHD behavioral symptomatology. Four hundred ten children diagnosed with ADHD, ages six to 12, were consecutively recruited from the ADHD clinic and day hospital at the Douglas Institute from 1999 to 2013. IQ was assessed using the WISC III and IV. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Connor's Global Index for Parents (CGI-P) and Teachers (CGI-T). No significant effect of MSDP on full scale IQ was observed, but MSDP had a significant effect on CBCL and CGI scores. Elevated MSDP was significantly associated with increased CBCL internalizing scores (β=4.2, pIQ but rather on ADHD symptomatology, highlighting the importance of potentially offering psychological and social support to mothers who experience stress during pregnancy.

  9. Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Sams, Susan E.; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced…

  10. Experiences of ADHD in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    This thesis is an examination of adults’ experiences of ADHD. It is a study of life with ADHD, embodied experiences of ADHD, the implications of being diagnosed with ADHD, and ways of relating to the diagnosis. The number of people diagnosed with ADHD has increased within the last couple of decades...... and so has the number of prescriptions for drugs treating ADHD. We know, however, only little about the effects of diagnosing and about phenomenological aspects of ADHD. By analyzing how individuals experience symptoms of ADHD, interpret themselves through the diagnosis, and make use of the resources...... following the diagnosis, this thesis is a contribution to a limited literature on adults’ experiences of ADHD. The study is entirely qualitative. The analyses are based on data from interviews, conversations, and from time spent with 13 adults diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood (five men and eight women, ages...

  11. Effects of Biological Versus Psychosocial Explanations on Stigmatization of Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Rosenthal, Jessica E; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found biological conceptualizations of psychopathology to be associated with stigmatizing attitudes and prognostic pessimism. This research investigated how biological and psychosocial explanations for a child's ADHD symptoms differ in affecting laypeople's stigmatizing attitudes and prognostic beliefs. Three experiments were conducted online with U.S. adults, using vignettes that described a child with ADHD and attributed his symptoms to either biological or psychosocial causes. Dependent measures gauged social distance and expectations about the child's prognosis. Across all three studies, the biological explanation yielded more doubt about treatability but less social distance-a result that diverges from previous research with other disorders. Differences in the amount of blame ascribed to the child mediated the social distance effect. The effects of biological explanations on laypeople's views of ADHD seem to be a "double-edged sword," reducing social rejection but exacerbating perceptions of the disorder as relatively untreatable. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Long-term effects of stimulant treatment on ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweren, Lizanne; Hoekstra, Pieter; van Lieshout, Marloes; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina

    2018-03-13

    Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out. ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning and cognitive test performance were measured twice, 6 years apart, in two ADHD groups (stimulant-treated versus not stimulant-treated between baseline and follow-up). Groups were closely matched on baseline clinical and demographic variables (n = 148, 58% male, age = 11.1). A matched healthy control group was included for reference. All but two outcome measures (emotional problems and prosocial behaviour) improved between baseline and follow-up. Improvement over time in the stimulant-treated group did not differ from improvement in the not stimulant-treated group on any outcome measure. Stimulant treatment is not associated with the long-term developmental course of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning, motor control, timing or verbal working memory. Adolescence is characterised by clinical improvement regardless of stimulant treatment during that time. These findings are an important source to inform the scientific and public debate.

  13. The effect of insecticide synergists on the response of scabies mites to pyrethroid acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

    2009-01-01

    Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (presistant mites compared to sensitive mites. These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

  14. Synergistic antitumor effects of novel HDAC inhibitors and paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zuco

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies support the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi in combination with taxanes. The efficacy of combination has been mainly ascribed to a cooperative effect on microtubule stabilization following tubulin acetylation. In the present study we investigated the effect of paclitaxel in combination with two novel HDACi, ST2782 or ST3595, able to induce p53 and tubulin hyperacetylation. A synergistic effect of the paclitaxel/ST2782 (or ST3595 combination was found in wild-type p53 ovarian carcinoma cells, but not in a p53 mutant subline, in spite of a marked tubulin acetylation. Such a synergistic interaction was confirmed in additional human solid tumor cell lines harboring wild-type p53 but not in those expressing mutant or null p53. In addition, a synergistic cytotoxic effect was found when ST2782 was combined with the depolymerising agent vinorelbine. In contrast to SAHA, which was substantially less effective in sensitizing cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, ST2782 prevented up-regulation of p21(WAF1/Cip1 by paclitaxel, which has a protective role in response to taxanes, and caused p53 down-regulation, acetylation and mitochondrial localization of acetylated p53. The synergistic antitumor effects of the paclitaxel/ST3595 combination were confirmed in two tumor xenograft models. Our results support the relevance of p53 modulation as a major determinant of the synergistic interaction observed between paclitaxel and novel HDACi and emphasize the therapeutic interest of this combination.

  15. Effects of maternal and paternal smoking on attentional control in children with and without ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altink, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Xu, X.; Franke, B.; Sergeant, J.A.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on its adverse effects on cognitive functioning are sparse and inconsistent. Since the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy may be due to correlated genetic risk factors rather

  16. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  17. The Effectiveness of Mindful Parenting, Social Thinking and Exercise on Quality of Life in ADHD Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Dehkordian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundQuality of life (QOL, is the most important goal of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mindful parenting, social thinking and exercise on quality of life in ADHD children.Materials and MethodsAn experimental design was used. Samples consist of 60 students 8-12 years with the DSM-5 classification ADHD that were engaging in education in 2015-2016 in Abadan, Iran. 60 children according to criteria inclusion were randomly placed in 4 groups: mindful parenting (17 mothers of ADHD children, social thinking (n=15, exercise (n=13, and control group (n=15. Measure tools consist of Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS and Pediatric quality of life (pedQOL questionnaire. Interventions were: mindful parenting (9-session, social thinking (8 sessions and exercise (8-session.ResultsThe results showed significant change in QOL of experimental group compared with the control group (P

  18. The Effect of Simple Febrile Seizure on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Salehi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Febrile seizure is one of the most prevalent childhood convulsions. There are controversy about possible relation between febrile seizure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The aim of this study was to find the effect of simple febrile seizure on ADHD in children. Materials and Methods In a case-control study all children of 3-12 years old with febrile seizure referring Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak-Iran. Among these children, 103 of them with no corporeal or psychiatric disorders were compared to 103 children of the same age and gender admitted due to disease other than febrile seizure utilizing DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results This study shows that the hyperactivity disorder in the same order were 34.3% and 16.7%, respectively, which also denotes a significant relation between simple febrile seizure and hyperactivity(P

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of the 'Incredible Years parent training' to parents of young children with ADHD symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting. Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years® Parent Training Program (IYPT...... of children with or at risk of ADHD....

  20. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  1. Long-Term Tolerability and Effectiveness of Once-Daily Mixed Amphetamine Salts (Adderall XR) in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, James J.; Biederman, Joseph; Wigal, Sharon B.; Lopez, Frank A.; McCracken, James T.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Yuxin; Tulloch, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS XR; Adderall XR[R]) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This was a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of TWO placebo-controlled studies of MAS XR in children with ADHD aged 6 to 12…

  2. Synergistic effects of ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae family and antibiotics against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, Sasitorn; Siriyong, Thanyaluck; Na-Phatthalung, Pinanong; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 17 ethnomedicinal plants belonging to Apocynaceae family used in combination with 16 conventional antibiotics against non-multidrug resistant-, multidrug resistant (MDR)-, and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). Antibacterial activity and resistance modifying ability of 272 combinations were determined by growth inhibition assays and further confirmed by time-kill assay. Among the combinations of the antibiotics with Apocynaceae ethanol extracts on this pathogen, 15 (5%) had synergistic effects, 23 (8%) had partial synergistic effects and 234 (86%) had no effects. Synergistic activity was observed mostly when the Apocynaceae extracts were combined with rifampicin or cefazolin. Interestingly, 10 out of 17 combinations between the extracts and rifampicin displayed synergistic or partial synergistic behaviors. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract was additionally tested to restore rifampicin activity against clinical isolates of MDR and XDR A. baumannii. With respect to total or partial synergy, 70% was XDR A. baumannii isolates and 66% was MDR A. baumannii isolates. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract clearly demonstrated the ability to restore rifampicin activity against both A. baumannii ATCC19606 and clinically isolated A. baumannii. Additional studies examining its active principles as well as mechanisms of actions such as the effects on efflux pumps and outer membrane permeability alterations are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic effects of iron powder on intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of iron powder as a synergistic agent on the flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene composites (IFR-PP were studied. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and cone calorimeter (CONE were used to evaluate the synergistic effects of iron powder (Fe. The TGA data showed that Fe could enhance the thermal stability of the IFR-PP systems at high temperature and effectively increase the char residue formation. The CONE results revealed that Fe and IFR could clearly change the decomposition behavior of PP and form a char layer on the surface of the composites, consequently resulting in efficient reduction of the flammability parameters, such as heat release rate (HRR, mass loss (ML, Mass loss rate (MLR, total heat release (THR, carbon monoxide and so on. Thus, a suitable amount of Fe plays a synergistic effect in the flame retardancy of IFR composites.

  4. Antibacterial synergistic effect of chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide against Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D; Heling, I; Daniel, I; Ginsburg, I

    1999-02-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Hydrogen peroxide (HP) are potent antibacterial agents that are used in controlling dental plaque. However, both agents bear undesired side-effects. We have tested the hypothesis that an antibacterial synergistic effect can occur between the two agents against Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We have found that at several combinations of HP and CHX an antibacterial synergistic effect does occur, while at other combinations a on-significant synergism was noticed. No antagonism between the two agents was found in our experimental system. It can be postulated that the mechanism of this synergistic effect is via alteration of the bacterial cell-surface by CHX thereby allowing for an increased amount of HP to penetrate and to react with the intercellular organelles of the bacteria. These results suggest that CHX and HP can be of use in controlling the dental plaque in the oral cavity.

  5. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: a comprehensive review of methodology and current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  6. Short- and long-term effects of parent training for preschool children with or at risk of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimestad, Marie Louise; Lambek, Rikke; Zacher Christiansen, Helene

    2016-01-01

    analyzed. Parent-rated outcomes revealed moderate effect sizes (ESs; Hedges' g) of 0.51 for ADHD symptoms, 0.40 for conduct problems, and 0.64 for negative parenting. Based on independent assessment, results were only significant for negative parenting. Parent-rated outcomes were sustained at follow......-ups of 3 to 12 months. Program type, intervention modality, and child diagnostic status did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSION: PT was partially supported as an efficacious intervention for preschool children with ADHD or ADHD symptoms with moderate ESs on parent-rated outcomes, but no significant results......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesize the evidence of parent training (PT) as an early intervention for preschool children aged 2.5 to 6 years with ADHD or ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixteen studies including 1,003 children were...

  7. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Liu; Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin; Chaohui, He

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  8. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu, E-mail: liuyan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); Chaohui, He [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  9. Effects of methylphenidate on quality of life in children with both developmental coordination disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of

  10. Functioning and Participation Problems of Students with ADHD in Higher Education: Which Reasonable Accommodations Are Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Dorien; Petry, Katja; Ceulemans, Eva; van der Oord, Saskia; Noens, Ilse; Baeyens, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Students with ADHD struggle in higher education as a result of various functioning and participation problems. However, there are remaining gaps in the literature. First, it remains unclear how often and during which teaching and evaluation methods problems arise. Second, we do not yet know which reasonable accommodations are most effective to…

  11. Effects of Methylphenidate on Quality of Life in Children with Both Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and…

  12. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  13. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  14. Sustained attention in adult ADHD : time-on-task effects of various measures of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Buggenthin, Rieka; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    Neuropsychological research on adults with ADHD showed deficits in various aspects of attention. However, the majority of studies failed to explore the change of performance over time, so-called time-on-task effects. As a consequence, little is known about sustained attention performance of adults

  15. The effectiveness of mindfulness training on behavioral problems and attentional functioning in adolescents with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Formsma, A.R.; de Bruin, E.I.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7)

  16. Co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene: Synergistic effect and oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect during co-pyrolysis occurred at 400–500 °C. • Oil yield from co-pyrolysis was increased by 31.59% compared to theoretical data. • Viscosity and T.A.N. of co-pyrolysis oil were decreased by 75.96% and 216.04%. • Synergistic effect was determined by altering the compounds content in derived oil. - Abstract: Biomass from waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in order to enhance the oil yield and its fuel properties. The synergistic effects during co-pyrolysis were investigated in terms of entire pyrolysis process, products yield and properties of liquid products (aqueous phase and oil phase) using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR), physical properties analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that synergistic effect occurred at 400–500 °C resulting in an obviously increase in oil phase by 31.59% as compared to theoretical data. Positive synergistic effects on fuel properties of co-pyrolysis oil were observed, especially demonstrating dramatically decrease in viscosity and total acid number by 75.96% and 216.04% in comparison to theoretical data. WP pyrolyzed alone gives mainly oxygenated compounds in its derived oil, while HDPE give hydrocarbons. No cross reaction products appeared in co-pyrolysis oil, implying that the synergistic effects were determined by altering its compounds content rather than generating cross reaction products. Unfortunately, aqueous phase and oil phase exhibit similar composition.

  17. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhe Wu,1 Zhan Li,1 Xiaolu Li,2,3 Yaomei Tian,1 Yingzi Fan,1 Chaoheng Yu,1 Bailing Zhou,1 Yi Liu,4 Rong Xiang,5 Li Yang1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 2International Center for Translational Chinese Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Chengdu, 3Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 4Department of Microbial Examination, Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, 5Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001 and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli. The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L. When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus

  18. The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study.

  19. Investigating the synergistic antioxidant effects of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are secondary metabolites of plants which possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetes and anticancer effects. It has been established that these compounds can scavenge free radicals produced in the body. Because of this ability, not only the plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds but also, the pure compounds are used in medicinal products for prevention and treatment of many disorders. Considering that the golden aim of the pharmaceutical industries is using the most effective compounds with lower concentrations, determination of the best combination of the compounds with synergistic effects is important. In the present study, synergistic antioxidant effects of four phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and two flavonoids,  rutin and quercetin, have been investigated by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power method. The synergistic effect was assessed by comparing the experimental antioxidant activity of the mixtures with calculated theoretical values and the interactions of the compounds were determined. The results showed that combination of gallic acid and caffeic acid demonstrated considerable synergistic effects (137.8% while other combinations were less potent. Among examined substances, rutin was the only one which had no effect on the other compounds. The results of ternary combinations of compounds demonstrated antagonistic effects in some cases. This was more considerable in mixture of rutin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-21.8%, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-20%, rutin, rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (-18.5% and rutin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid (-15.8%, while, combination of quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid (59.4% and quercetin, gallic acid, rutin (55.2% showed the most synergistic effects. It was concluded that binary and ternary combination of quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid

  20. ACTH has beneficial effects on stuttering in ADHD and ASD patients with ESES: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem

    2017-02-01

    Etiology of stuttering remains unknown and no pharmacologic intervention has been approved for treatment. We aimed to evaluate EEG parameters and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in stuttering. In this retrospective study, 25 patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and comorbid stuttering were followed and treated with ACTH for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). Sleep EEGs were recorded at referral and follow-up visits and short courses of ACTH were administered when spike-wave index (SWI) was ⩾15%. The assessment of treatment effectiveness was based on reduction in SWI, and the clinician-reported improvement in stuttering, and ADHD or ASD. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between the clinical and EEG parameters. Following treatment with ACTH, a reduction in SWI in all the patients was accompanied by a 72% improvement in ADHD or ASD, and 83.8% improvement in stuttering. Twelve of the 25 patients with stuttering showed complete treatment response. Linear regressions established that SWI at final visit significantly predicted improvement in ADHD or ASD, and in stuttering. If symptoms had recurred, improvement was once again achieved with repeated ACTH therapies. Stuttering always improved prior to, and recurred following ADHD or ASD. The underlying etiology leading to ESES may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stuttering and connect stuttering to other developmental disorders. ACTH therapy has beneficial effects on stuttering and improves EEG parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-05-01

    Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear. By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12-24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012. At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08-.54; P values neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Trialregister.nl identifier: 1759. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Molybdate and Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Tap Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of nitrite and ethanolamines. Ethanolamine is one of the representative organic corrosion inhibitors and can be categorized as adsorption type. However, nitrosamines can form when amines mix with sodium nitrite. Since nitrosamine is a carcinogen, the co-addition of nitrite and ethanolamine will be not practical, and thus, a non-toxic combination of inhibitors shall be needed. In order to maximize the effect of monoethanolamine, we focused on the addition of molybdate. Molybdate has been used to alternate the addition of chromate, but it showed insufficient oxidizing power relative to corrosion inhibitors. This work evaluated the synergistic effect of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated. A high concentration of molybdate or monoethanolamine was needed to inhibit the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water, but in the case of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, a synergistic effect was observed. This synergistic effect could be attributed to the molybdate that partly oxidizes the metallic surface and the monoethanolamine that is simultaneously adsorbed on the graphite surface. This adsorbed layer then acts as the barrier layer that mitigates galvanic corrosion between the graphite and the matrix.

  3. Degradation by synergistic effect in synthetic insulators; Degradacion por efecto sinergico en aisladores sinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza M, Anibal; Montesinos S, Jose I. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    A study is presented of the main degradation phenomena experimented by synthetic insulators and the simultaneous participation of such phenomena to propitiate a synergistic effect. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio de los principales fenomenos de degradacion que sufren los aisladores sinteticos y la participacion simultanea de dichos fenomenos para propiciar un efecto sinergico.

  4. Super absorbent conjugated microporous polymers: a synergistic structural effect on the exceptional uptake of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Xu, Yanhong; Guo, Zhaoqi; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-04-21

    Conjugated microporous polymers exhibit a synergistic structural effect on the exceptional uptake of amines, whereas the dense porphyrin units facilitate uptake, the high porosity offers a large interface and the swellability boosts capacity. They are efficient in the uptake of both vapor and liquid amines, are applicable to various types of amines, and are excellent for cycle use.

  5. Synergistic effects in mechanical properties of PLA/PCL blends with optimized composition, processing, and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Fortelný, Ivan; Nevoralová, Martina; Hodan, Jiří; Kredatusová, Jana; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 120 (2015), s. 98971-98982 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biodegradable poly mer blends * synergistic effects * impact strength Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  6. Synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators was investigated upon shoot proliferation and growth of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen), an important culinary and medicinal plant species native to Ethiopia. Cultures were initiated from axillary bud explants of rhizome using Murashige and Skoog ...

  7. The effect of insecticide synergists on the response of scabies mites to pyrethroid acaricides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo Pasay

    Full Text Available Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways.To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide, DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate and DEM (diethyl maleate were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450 activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001. Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%; inhibition of GST activity (73% with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81% with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites.These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

  8. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  9. Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of nanostructured mixed films formed by functionalised gold nanoparticles and bisphthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School (Spain); Furini, L.N. [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School (Spain); Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Constantino, C.J.L. [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Saja, J.A. de [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School (Spain)

    2014-12-03

    Graphical abstract: Sensors based on gold nanoparticles and lutetium bisphthalocyanine, co-deposited using Langmuir–Blodgett technique, have demonstrated improved sensing properties towards hydroquinone due to synergistic effects. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles and lutetium bisphthalocyanine have been co-deposited using the LB technique. • Films used as voltammetric sensors provide enhanced responses towards hydroquinone. • The efficient electrocatalytic properties are due to synergistic effects. - Abstract: A synergistic electrocatalytic effect was observed in sensors where two electrocatalytic materials (functionalized gold nanoparticles and lutetium bisphthalocyanine) were co-deposited using the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Films were prepared using a novel method where water soluble functionalised gold nanoparticles [(11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol)] (SAuNPs) were inserted in floating films of lutetium bisphthalocyanine (LuPc{sub 2}) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODAB) as the amphiphilic matrix. The formation of stable and homogeneous mixed films was confirmed by π-A isotherms, BAM, UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy, as well as by SEM and TEM microscopy. The synergistic effect towards hydroquinone of the electrodes modified with LuPc{sub 2}:DODAB/SAuNP was characterised by an increase in the intensity of the redox peaks and a reduction of the overpotential. This synergistic electrocatalytic effect arose from the interaction between the SAuNPs and the phthalocyanines that occur in the Langmuir–Blodgett films and from the high surface area provided by the nanostructured films. The sensitivity increased with the amount of LuPc{sub 2} and SAuNPs inserted in the films and limits of detection in the range of 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} were attained.

  10. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) in adults - health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, Diana; Krause, Klaus-Henning; Wasem, Jürgen; Aidelsburger, Pamela

    2010-09-07

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder. Symptoms include hyperactivity, lack of attentiveness, and frivolousness. This disorder always begins in childhood, but can remain through adulthood. ADHD affects all areas of life and limits the quality of life due to its symptoms and the high rate of associated disorders that can develop. An established form of therapy is using stimulant medications, most commonly, containing Methylphenidate as the active ingredient. However, in Germany this ingredient is not approved for adults suffering from ADHD. Therefore, many adults cannot obtain appropriate medication to treat this disorder. The following report (Health Technology Assessment [HTA]) examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the medical treatment of ADHD in adults as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects thereof. In August 2009, a systematic literature search is performed in all relevant scientific databases. The selected citations fulfill predetermined inclusion criteria. The data in the publications is then systematically extracted, reviewed and assessed. A manual search of citations is conducted as well. NINETEEN STUDIES FULFILL THE INCLUSION CRITERIA: nine randomised controlled studies (RCT), five meta-analyses, three economic studies and two studies relevant to the legal aspects of the HTA. All RCT reveal that adult patients who receive medication containing a stimulant (Methylphenidate and Amphetamine) and Atomoxetine, see a reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to the placebo-treated patients. The drug response rate among the control group ranges from 7 to 42%; in the treatment group from 17 to 59.6%. The meta-analyses confirm the findings of the RCT. In light of the control group, it can be ascertained that there are higher annual costs (both direct and indirect) for patients with ADHD. The average annual medical expenses for an adult with ADHD were 1,262 $ in 1998 and 1,673 $ in 2001 (the converted and inflation

  11. Effects of a ketogenic diet on ADHD-like behavior in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma; Zanghi, Brian; Pan, Yuanlong; Volk, Holger A

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy in humans and rodent models of epilepsy can be associated with behavioral comorbidities including an increased prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and seizure frequency have been successfully reduced in humans and rodents using a ketogenic diet (KD). The aims of this study were (i) to describe the behavioral profile of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) while on a standardized nonketogenic placebo diet, to determine whether ADHD-like behaviors are present, and (ii) to examine the effect of a ketogenic medium chain triglyceride diet (MCTD) on the behavioral profile of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) compared with the standardized placebo control diet, including ADHD-like behaviors. A 6-month prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover dietary trial comparing the effects of the MCTD with a standardized placebo diet on canine behavior was carried out. Dogs diagnosed with IE, with a seizure frequency of at least 3 seizures in the past 3months (n=21), were fed the MCTD or placebo diet for 3months and were then switched to the alternative diet for 3months. Owners completed a validated behavioral questionnaire to measure 11 defined behavioral factors at the end of each diet period to report their dogs' behavior, with three specific behaviors hypothesized to be related to ADHD: excitability, chasing, and trainability. The highest scoring behavioral factors in the placebo and MCTD periods were excitability (mean±SE: 1.910±0.127) and chasing (mean±SE: 1.824±0.210). A markedly lower trainability score (mean±SE: 0.437±0.125) than that of previously studied canine populations was observed. The MCTD resulted in a significant improvement in the ADHD-related behavioral factor chasing and a reduction in stranger-directed fear (pdiet. The latter effect may be attributed to previously described anxiolytic effects of a KD. These data support the supposition that

  12. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of harmful effects in non-randomised studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakob, Storebø Ole; Nadia, Pedersen; Erica, Ramstad

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  13. Synergistic apoptotic effects of apigenin TPGS liposomes and tyroservatide: implications for effective treatment of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Youwen

    2017-01-01

    To develop an alternative treatment for lung cancer, a combination of two potent chemotherapeutic agents - liposomal apigenin and tyroservatide - was developed. The therapeutic potential of this combination was investigated using A549 cells. Apigenin and tocopherol derivative-containing D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) liposomes might improve the delivery of apigenin to tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, compared to either agent alone, the combination of apigenin TPGS liposomes and tyroservatide exhibited superior cytotoxicity, induced stronger G2 arrest, and suppressed A549 cancer cell invasion at a lower dose. The proapoptotic synergistic effects were also observed in A549 cells using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. More importantly, in vivo results showed that the combination of apigenin TPGS liposomes and tyroservatide exhibited tumor-growth inhibitory effects in A549 cell-bearing mice. In conclusion, our study showed that this combination therapy could serve as a promising synergistic therapeutic approach to improve outcomes in patients with lung cancer.

  14. Non-specific effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on cognitive ability and decision-making of ADHD and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2010-07-01

    The effect of a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognitive measures and decision-making processes was assessed in a sample of adults with ADHD and in a control sample. Thirty-two adults satisfying DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and 26 healthy controls performed several cognitive tasks. Half of the participants received MPH prior to performing the tasks, and the other half received placebo in a randomized, double-blind manner. The average digit-span test score was higher in the groups receiving MPH compared to the groups receiving placebo, while diagnosis did not have an effect upon scores. In decision-making tasks, however, MPH did not have an effect upon performance, whereas in one of the tasks the average proportion of risky choices was higher in ADHD adults compared to controls. Our data therefore demonstrates that (a) MPH is capable of enhancing specific aspects of cognitive performance and (b) this enhancement is not specific to ADHD.

  15. ADHD and Epilepsy Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of ADHD, its neurological correlates, and the effect of ADHD on health-related quality of life in 203 children (mean age 11.8 years, SD 3.8 with severe epilepsy were evaluated at British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.

  16. ADHD and Epilepsy Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of ADHD, its neurological correlates, and the effect of ADHD on health-related quality of life in 203 children (mean age 11.8 years, SD 3.8) with severe epilepsy were evaluated at British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.

  17. Synergistic effects in radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki

    1990-01-01

    A description is given on radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces, emphasizing synergistic effects arising from multi-species particle irradiation and from irradiation under complex environments. First, it is pointed out that synergisms can be treated by introducing the effects of material modification on radiation-induced particle ejection. As examples of the effects of surface modification on the sputtering induced by elastic encounters, sputtering of alloys and chemical sputtering of graphite are briefly discussed. Then the particle ejection induced by electronic encounters is explained emphasizing the difference in the behaviors from materials to materials. The possible synergistic effects of electronic and elastic encounters are also described. Lastly, we point out the importance of understanding the elementary processes of material-particle interaction and of developing computer codes describing material behaviors under irradiation. (author)

  18. Synergistic effects of microgravity and space radiation (Nimblegen)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiations and microgravity both could cause DNA damage in cells but the effects of microgravity on DNA damage response to space radiations are still...

  19. Human harvest, climate change and their synergistic effects drove the Chinese Crested Tern to the brink of extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect refers to simultaneous actions of separate factors which have a greater total effect than the sum of the individual factor effects. However, there has been a limited knowledge on how synergistic effects occur and individual roles of different drivers are not often considered. Therefore, it becomes quite challenging to manage multiple threatening processes simultaneously in order to mitigate biodiversity loss. In this regard, our hypothesis is, if the traits actually play different roles in the synergistic interaction, conservation efforts could be made more effectively. To understand the synergistic effect and test our hypothesis, we examined the processes associated with the endangerment of critically endangered Chinese Crested Tern (Thalasseus bernsteini, whose total population number was estimated no more than 50. Through monitoring of breeding colonies and investigations into causative factors, combined with other data on human activities, we found that widespread human harvest of seabird eggs and increasing frequency of typhoons are the major factors that threatened the Chinese Crested Tern. Furthermore, 28 percent of breeding failures were due to the synergistic effects in which egg harvest-induced renestings suffered the higher frequent typhoons. In such combined interactions, the egg harvest has clearly served as a proximal factor for the population decline, and the superimposition of enhanced typhoon activity further accelerated the species toward imminent extinction. Our findings suggest that species endangerment, on one hand, should be treated as a synergistic process, while conservation efforts, on the other hand, should focus principally on combatting the threat that triggers synergistic effects.

  20. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  1. Synergistic effects of ginsenoside Rg3 and cyclophosphamine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ginsenoside Rg3 alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide (CPA) on tumor growth and angiogenesis in human lung cancer, 54 female athymic mice were transplanted with lung cancer cells (A549) which then were randomly divided into 4 groups: Ginsenoside Rg3 group, CPA group, ...

  2. The synergistic effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschikoff) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ultrastructural study showed the effect of the joint application of another acyl urea diflubenzuron (= Dimlin-) and Metarhizium anisopliae on locust cuticle. Disruption of the lamellae pattern was observed in some areas of cuticle. This is consistent with localised disruption of chitin synthesized during treatment with Dimlin.

  3. Synergistic Cancer Growth-Inhibitory Effect of Emodin and Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    novel agents that can be combined with cisplatin to increase the therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects. ... natural compound extracted from various Rheum medicinal plant species, with cisplatin on human ... Biological Products Co, Ltd, China), Minimum. Essential Medium (MEM, Invitrogen Corp.,. Carlsbad, CA ...

  4. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Resistance to most antimalarial drugs has encouraged the use of herbal preparations along with prescribed orthodox drugs. Objective: this study investigated effect of co-administration of aqueous extract of T. occidentalis leaves, commonly used as antimalarial and haematinic agent in Nigeria, and ...

  5. Effect of Pycnogenol® on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaet, Annelies A J; Ceulemans, Berten; Verhelst, Helene; Van West, Dirk; De Bruyne, Tess; Pieters, Luc; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Hermans, Nina

    2017-03-28

    Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract. This phase III trial is a 10-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo and active treatment controlled multicentre trial with three parallel treatment arms to compare the effect of Pycnogenol® to MPH and placebo on the behaviour of 144 paediatric ADHD and attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. Evaluations of behaviour (measured by the ADHD-Rating Scale (primary endpoint) and the Social-emotional Questionnaire (SEQ)), immunity (plasma cytokine and antibody levels, white blood cell counts and faecal microbial composition), oxidative stress (erythrocyte glutathione, plasma lipid-soluble vitamins and malondialdehyde and urinary 8-OHdG levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression), serum zinc and neuropeptide Y level, urinary catecholamines and physical complaints (Physical Complaints Questionnaire) will be performed in week 10 and compared to baseline. Acceptability evaluations will be based on adherence, dropouts and reports of adverse events. Dietary habits will be taken into account. This trial takes into account comorbid behavioural and physical symptoms, as well as a broad range of innovative immune and oxidative biomarkers, expected to provide fundamental knowledge on ADHD aetiology and therapy. Research on microbiota in ADHD is novel. Moreover, the active control arm is rather unseen in research on nutritional supplements, but of great importance, as patients and parents are often concerned with the side effects of MPH. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT

  6. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  7. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Synergistic effect of lidocaine with pingyangmycin for treatment of venous malformation using a mouse spleen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Yuan-Zheng; Mao, Kai-Ping; Fu, Yanjie; Lin, Qiang; Xue, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether lidocaine has the synergistic effect with pingyangmycin (PYM) in the venous malformations (VMs) treatment. Methods: The mouse spleen was chosen as a VM model and injected with different concentration of lidocaine or PYM or jointly treated with lidocaine and PYM. After 2, 5, 8 or 14 days, the mouse spleen tissues were acquired for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, TUNEL assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis to examine the toxicological effects of lidocaine and PYM on splenic vascular endothelial cells. Results: 0.4% of lidocaine mildly promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells, while 2 mg/ml PYM significantly elevated the apoptotic ratios. However, the combination of 0.2% lidocaine and 0.5 mg/ml PYM notably elevated the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells and severely destroyed the configuration of spleen, compared to those of treatment with 0.5 mg/ml PYM alone. Conclusion: Lidocaine exerts synergistic effects with PYM in promoting the apoptosis of mouse splenic endothelial cells, indicating that lidocaine possibly promotes the therapeutic effects of PYM in VMs treatment via synergistically enhancing the apoptosis of endothelial cells of malformed venous lesions. PMID:24966943

  9. Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene on Diopside Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A synergetic effect between carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene on diopside (Di scaffolds was demonstrated. 3D network architecture in the matrix was formed through the 1D CNTs inlaid among the 2D graphene platelets (GNPs. The mechanical properties of the CNTs/GNPs/Di scaffolds were significantly improved compared with the CNTs/Di scaffolds and GNPs/Di scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds exhibited excellent apatite-forming ability, a modest degradation rate, and stable mechanical properties in simulated body fluid (SBF. Moreover, cell culturing tests indicated that the scaffolds supported the cells attachment and proliferation. Taken together, the CNTs/GNPs/Di scaffolds offered great potential for bone tissue engineering.

  10. The Synergistic Effects of Probiotic Microorganisms on the Microbial Production of Butyrate In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Khadija A.

    2009-01-01

    Butyrate producing microbiota perform a number of activities important in supporting the normal function of the human gastrointestinal tract. The goal of this study was to determine the synergistic effects of lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria on butyrate production in vitro co-culture. PCR was used to detect the genes butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA transferase that contribute to butyrate production, in a panel of representative gut microbiota. Preliminary data suggested that two Clost...

  11. Synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation in highly efficient photovoltaic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D-A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-) (2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian; Ashrafalsadat Hatamian-Zarmi; Ghassem Amoabediny; Fatemeh Yazdian; Ali Doryab

    2015-01-01

    AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the p...

  13. Seasonal variation of Brazilian red propolis: Antibacterial activity, synergistic effect and phytochemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueira, M S; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Costa, Maria do Socorro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Matias, Edinardo F F; de Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Menezes, Irwin R A; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dry and rainy season on the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the Brazilian red propolis. The samples were collected in rainy (RP-PER) and dry (RP-PED) seasons and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The extracts were tested alone and in association with antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The HPLC analysis identified luteolin and quercetin as the main compounds. Seasonal variation was observed according to concentrations of the compounds. The MIC values against E. coli ranged from 128 μg/mL to 512 μg/mL (EC 06 and EC ATCC). The red propolis showed MIC values of 512 μg/mL against both strains of P. aeruginosa used in our study (PA03 and PA24) and against strains of Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus the MICs ranged from 64 μg/mL to ≥1024 μg/mL (SA10). A synergistic effect was observed when we combined the RP-PED with gentamicin against all the strains tested. When we combined the RP-PED with Imipenem, we only observed synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa. According to our synergistic activity results, the utilization of red propolis collected in the drier periods can be used as an adjuvant against multiresistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic effect of eugenol with Colistin against clinical isolated Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ming Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections have become more challenging to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Combined antibiotics prove to be a relatively effective method to control such resistant strains. This study aim to investigate synergistic activity of eugenol combined with colistin against a collection of clinical isolated Escherichia coli (E.coli strains, and to evaluate potential interaction. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI of the bacteria were determined by disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, respectively. The mcr-1 mRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR. To predict possible interactions between eugenol and MCR-1, molecular docking assay was taken. Results For total fourteen strains including eight colistin-resistant strains, eugenol was determined with MIC values of 4 to 8 μg/mL. Checkerboard dilution test suggested that eugenol exhibited synergistic activity when combined with colistin (FICI ranging from 0.375 to 0.625. Comparison analysis of Real-time PCR showed that synergy could significantly down-regulate expression of mcr-1 gene. A metal ion coordination bond with catalytic zinc atom and a hydrogen bond with crucial amino acid residue Ser284 of MCR-1 were observed after molecular docking, indicating antibacterial activity and direct molecular interactions of eugenol with MCR-1 protein. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that eugenol exhibited synergistic effect with colistin and enhanced its antimicrobial activity. This might further contribute to the antibacterial actions against colistin-resistant E.coli strains. Graphical abstract Synergistic effect of eugenol with colistin against colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates.

  15. Complex effects of dyslexia risk factors account for ADHD traits: evidence from two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Trezzi, Vittoria; Giorda, Roberto; Boivin, Michel; Plourde, Vickie; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, whose etiology involves multiple risk factors. DD and ADHD co-occur in the same individuals much more often than would be expected by chance. Several studies have found significant bivariate heritability, and specific genes associated with either DD or ADHD have been investigated for association in the other disorder. Moreover, there are likely to be gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment interaction effects (G × G and G × E, respectively) underlying the comorbidity between DD and ADHD. We investigated the pleiotropic effects of 19 SNPs spanning five DD genes (DYX1C1, DCDC2, KIAA0319, ROBO1, and GRIN2B) and seven DD environmental factors (smoke, miscarriage, birth weight, breastfeeding, parental age, socioeconomic status, and parental education) for main, either (a) genetic or (b) environmental, (c) G × G, and (d) G × E upon inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. We then attempted replication of these findings in an independent twin cohort. Marker-trait association was analyzed by implementing the Quantitative Transmission Disequilibrium Test (QTDT). Environmental associations were tested by partial correlations. G × G were investigated by a general linear model equation and a family-based association test. G × E were analyzed through a general test for G × E in sib pair-based association analysis of quantitative traits. DCDC2-rs793862 was associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity via G × G (KIAA0319) and G × E (miscarriage). Smoke was significantly correlated with hyperactivity/impulsivity. We replicated the DCDC2 × KIAA0319 interaction upon hyperactivity/impulsivity in the twin cohort. DD genetic (DCDC2) and environmental factors (smoke and miscarriage) underlie ADHD traits supporting a potential pleiotropic effect. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will ... should continue to monitor your child for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication ...

  17. Phosphorus doped and defects engineered graphene for improved electrochemical sensing: synergistic effect of dopants and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Tian, Ye; Wei, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials emerged as promising metal-free catalysts have recently attracted a growing interest in electrochemical sensing applications. However, their catalytic activity and sensing performances still need to be further improved. Herein, we reported the development of unique phosphorus (P)-doped and plasma-etched graphene (denoted as PG-E) as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for dopamine (DA) sensing. It was demonstrated that introducing both P-dopants and plasma-engineered defects in graphene could synergistically improve the activity toward electrocatalytic oxidation of DA by increasing the accessible active sites and promoting the electron transport capability. The resulting PG-E modified electrode showed exceptional DA sensing performances with low detection limit, high selectivity and good stability. These results suggested that the synergistic effect of dopants and defects might be an important factor for developing the advanced graphene-based metal-free catalysts for electrochemical sensing.

  18. Co-administration of morphine and gabapentin leads to dose dependent synergistic effects in a rat model of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    dose combinations and investigate whether co-administration leads to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations in total) were evaluated in the rat...... plantar incision model using an electronic von Frey device. The percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and the area under the response curve (AUC) were used for evaluation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the drugs. Identification of synergistic interactions was based on Loewe additivity response...... surface analyses. The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response...

  19. In vitro synergistic effects of fisetin and norfloxacin against aquatic isolates of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Ruan, Jing; Xu, Ning; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common pathogenic bacterium that can cause infections in both humans and animals. It can cause a range of diseases, from slight wound infections to life-threatening bacteraemia and pneumonia. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has limited the treatment of the diseases caused by the bacterium to a great extent. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial strategies against this pathogen. Synergistic strategy is a new approach to treat the infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. In this paper, we isolated and identified the first multi-resistant pathogenic Serratia marcescens strain from diseased soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) in China. We then performed a checkerboard assay; the results showed that out of 10 tested natural products fisetin had synergistic effects against S. marcescens when combined with norfloxacin. The time-kill curve assay further confirmed the results of the checkerboard assay. We found that this novel synergistic effect could significantly reduce the dosage of norfloxacin against S. marcescens. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Combined treatment of xenon and hypothermia in newborn rats--additive or synergistic effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmen Sabir

    Full Text Available Breathing the inert gas Xenon (Xe enhances hypothermic (HT neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI in small and large newborn animal models. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement is not yet fully understood, but the combined effect of Xe and HT could either be synergistic (larger than the two effects added or simply additive. A previously published study, using unilateral carotid ligation followed by hypoxia in seven day old (P7 rats, showed that the combination of mild HT (35°C and low Xe concentration (20%, both not being neuroprotective alone, had a synergistic effect and was neuroprotective when both were started with a 4 h delay after a moderate HI insult. To examine whether another laboratory could confirm this finding, we repeated key aspects of the study.After the HI-insult 120 pups were exposed to different post-insult treatments: three temperatures (normothermia (NT NT37°C, HT35°C, HT32°C or Xe concentrations (0%, 20% or 50% starting either immediately or with a 4 h delay. To assess the synergistic potency of Xe-HT, a second set (n = 101 of P7 pups were exposed to either HT35°C+Xe0%, NT+Xe20% or a combination of HT35°C+Xe20% starting with a 4 h delay after the insult. Brain damage was analyzed using relative hemispheric (ligated side/unligated side brain tissue area loss after seven day survival.Immediate HT32°C (p = 0.042, but not HT35°C significantly reduced brain injury compared to NT37°C. As previously shown, adding immediate Xe50% to HT32°C increased protection. Neither 4 h-delayed Xe20%, nor Xe50% at 37°C significantly reduced brain injury (p>0.050. In addition, neither 4 h-delayed HT35°C alone, nor HT35°C+Xe20% reduced brain injury. We found no synergistic effect of the combined treatments in this experimental model.Combining two treatments that individually were ineffective (delayed HT35°C and delayed Xe20% did not exert neuroprotection when combined, and therefore did not show a synergistic

  1. Functional impairments in children with ADHD: unique effects of age and comorbid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Dupaul, George J; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J

    2012-04-01

    Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and social functioning of 416 children with ADHD. Children with ADHD and a comorbid externalizing disorder (with or without a concomitant internalizing comorbidity) displayed poorer social skills than those with ADHD alone. Children with ADHD and both an externalizing and internalizing comorbidity exhibited greater homework problems than their ADHD peers with fewer than two types of comorbidity. In addition, older children displayed significantly poorer social skills and greater homework problems than younger children. There was no interaction between comorbid status and age for any measure of academic or social functioning. Results underscore the need for early interventions to address social skills and homework difficulties for children with ADHD and comorbid externalizing disorders.

  2. The Effectiveness of Daily Behavior Report Cards for Children With ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iznardo, Michelle; Rogers, Maria A; Volpe, Robert J; Labelle, Patrick R; Robaey, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis examined group-design studies investigating the effectiveness of Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRC) as a school-based intervention to manage the classroom behavior of students with ADHD. A search of three article databases (PsycINFO, ERIC and Medline) identified seven group design evaluations of DBRC interventions. This meta-analysis included a total of 272 participants, with an average age of 7.9 years old. Three of the studies compared a control group to a treatment group with randomized group assignment, one study compared a control group to three treatment groups, two studies compared pre-and post-treatment scores in the same group, and one study compared pre-and post-treatment results of two intervention groups without random assignment. Dependent measures for these studies were teacher ratings (n = 5) and systematic direct observation of student academic and social behaviour (n = 2). Standardized mean differences ( Hedge's g) were calculated to obtain a pooled effect size using fixed effects. DBRCs were associated with reductions teacher-rated ADHD symptoms, with a Hedge's g of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.12-0.60, z=2.93, p ≤ .005) with low heterogeneity (Q-value: 2.40, I 2 = 0.00). This result excluded two studies that used observational coding instead of standardized tests to evaluate the effects of the intervention. A moderator analysis indicated that the effect size for systematic direct observation was large ( Hedge's G = 1.05[95% CI: 0.66-1.44, z=5.25, p ≤ .00]), with very high heterogeneity (Q-value: 46.34, I 2 : 93.53). A second moderator analysis found differences in the effects of DBRCs for comorbid externalizing symptoms with an overall effect size of 0.34 (95%CI: -0.04-0.72, z=1.76 p =0.08) with high heterogeneity (Q-value: 3.98, I 2 : 74.85). DBRCs effectively reduce the frequency and severity of ADHD symptoms in classroom settings. Additionally, they have a significant effect on co-occuring externalizing behaviors. It appears that

  3. Effects of hippotherapy on brain function, BDNF level, and physical fitness in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on brain function and levels of blood-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The hippotherapy group (HRG) included twenty children with ADHD and the control group (CG) included 19 children. All participants' physical fitness, fMRI brain scans, and blood BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy. After 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy, the body fat of the HRG was significantly decreased (-1.12 ± 4.20%) and the body fat of the CG was increased (2.38 ± 6.35%) (p=0.049). There was no significant difference of physical fitness in both groups (p>0.05). Although there was a higher decrease in the activated insular area in the HRG (-1.59 ± 0.99) than in the CG (-1.14 ± 1.41), there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05) Also, there was a higher increase in the activated cerebellum area in the HRG (1.97 ± 1.45) than in the CG (1.92 ± 1.81). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). BDNF levels showed an increased tendency in the HRG (166.29 ± 277.52pg) compared to the CG (21.13 ± 686.33pg); otherwise, there was not any significant difference in these blood levels between the two groups (p>0.05). It can be assumed that big individual differences in the level of ADHD in the study participants might not cause any significant results, although there might be positive changes in the brain function of children with ADHD. Therefore, this study suggests that hippotherapy training would need to be modified and developed to increase the efficacy of hippotherapy in children with ADHD.

  4. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior.

  5. Effects of ADHD on writing composition product and process in school-age students

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, C; Torrance, M; Betts, L; Cerezo, R; García, T

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ADHD and writing performance. Method: Students in Grades 3 to 7, 84 with ADHD and 135 age and gender-matched controls completed a writing task (including process logs), and measures of, working memory and attention. Results: Students with ADHD wrote texts of similar length but with poorer structure, coherence and ideation. 6.7% of the variance in writing quality was explained by whether or not the student had an ADHD diagnosis, after con...

  6. Effects of synergists on toxicity of six insecticides in parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Jiang, Shuren; Miyata, Tadashi

    2004-12-01

    The resistance to and the effects of synergists on the toxicity of six insecticides in Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a parasitoid of vegetable aphid collected in Jianxin at Fuzhou-City, Fujian, China, were studied. In comparison with susceptible F21 progeny, the resistance ratios in resistant F0 parents were 27.6 for methamidophos, 20.8 for fipronil, 47.5 for avermectin, 3.3 for fenvalerate, 4.5 for cypermethrin, and 74.7 for imidacloprid. Piperonyl butoxide (PB), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and diethyl maleate (DEM) were chosen to be applied in susceptible F21 progeny, as well as in resistant F11 progeny and F0 parents. Significant synergistic effects on the toxicity of the six insecticides were found by using PB, TPP, and DEM in F0 parents; on methamidophos, avermectin, and imidacloprid by PB, TPP, and DEM in F11 progeny; on fipronil by PB and DEM in F11 progeny; and on fenvalerate and cypermethrin by PB in F11 progeny. PB also showed significant synergism on the six insecticides in susceptible F21 progeny, although the synergism was far less in F21 progeny than those in resistant F0 parents. TPP and DEM showed little or no synergistic effects on the toxicity of the six insecticides in F21 progeny. Compared with TPP and DEM, the highest synergistic ratios of PB for methamidophos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and imidacloprid were observed in F0 parents, and F11 and F21 progeny. The resistance levels to methamidophos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, and cypermethrin could be inhibited strongly by applying PB in F0 parents. From the results, oxidative degradation is believed to play a critical role in resistance to methamidophos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, and cypermethrin in D. rapae. To a lesser extent, hydrolytic reactions also were partially involved in the resistance to these five insecticides by using the synergists PB, TPP, and DEM. However, although high synergism of PB, TPP, and DEM on imidacloprid

  7. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  8. The Effectiveness of Using a Multiple Gating Approach to Discriminate among ADHD Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi M.; Bullis, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the ability of Systematically Progressive Assessment (SPA), a multiple gating approach for assessing students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to discriminate between subtypes of ADHD. A total of 48 students with ADHD (ages 6-11) were evaluated with three "gates" of assessment. Logistic regression analysis…

  9. Effects of Coexisting Disorders on Cognition and Behavior in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Dewey, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of coexisting disorders affects memory, visual-motor skills, and daily functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Eighty-four boys and 18 girls (8 to 16 years old) participate in this study. Twenty children meet criteria for ADHD alone, 42 children for ADHD plus one other disorder, and 40 children for…

  10. Error monitoring and ADHD symptoms in adults : The effect of laterality and state regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh; Borger, Norbert; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that error monitoring is impaired in individuals with ADHD. The study aims to investigate the contribution of brain laterality and effort allocation/state regulation to impaired error monitoring in adults with ADHD symptoms. Based on the scores on the Conners’ Adult ADHD

  11. The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McCann, Donna; Grimshaw, Kate; Parker, Karen M; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J; Holloway, John W; Warner, John O

    2010-09-01

    Food additives can exacerbate ADHD symptoms and cause non-immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine release from circulating basophils. However, children vary in the extent to which their ADHD symptoms are exacerbated by the ingestion of food additives. The authors hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms affecting histamine degradation would explain the diversity of responses to additives. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, challenges involving two food color additive and sodium benzoate (preservative) mixtures in a fruit drink were administered to a general community sample of 3-year-old children (N = 153) and 8/9-year-old children (N = 144). An aggregate ADHD symptom measure (based on teacher and parent blind ratings of behavior, blind direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and--for 8/9-year-old children only--a computerized measure of attention) was the main outcome variable. The adverse effect of food additives on ADHD symptoms was moderated by histamine degradation gene polymorphisms HNMT T939C and HNMT Thr105Ile in 3- and 8/9-year-old children and by a DAT1 polymorphism (short versus long) in 8/9-year-old children only. There was no evidence that polymorphisms in catecholamine genes COMT Val108Met, ADRA2A C1291G, and DRD4-rs7403703 moderated the effect on ADHD symptoms. Histamine may mediate the effects of food additives on ADHD symptoms, and variations in genes influencing the action of histamine may explain the inconsistency between previous studies. Genes influencing a range of neurotransmitter systems and their interplay with environmental factors, such as diet, need to be examined to understand genetic influences on ADHD symptoms.

  12. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Requardt, Herwig [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wion, Didier [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Vial, Jean-Claude [Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, St Martin d’Hères (France); Segebarth, Christoph; Sanden, Boudewijn van der, E-mail: boudewijn.vandersanden@ujf-grenoble.fr [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-01

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion.

  13. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel; Requardt, Herwig; Wion, Didier; Vial, Jean-Claude; Segebarth, Christoph; Sanden, Boudewijn van der

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion

  14. Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Robert M; Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Palmer, Todd M; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. We factorially manipulated two principal sources of disturbance in African savannas, fire and elephants, and measured their independent and interactive effects on the numerically dominant vertebrate (the arboreal gekkonid lizard Lygodactylus keniensis) and invertebrate (a guild of symbiotic Acacia ants) animal species in a semi-arid Kenyan savanna. Elephant exclusion alone (minus fire) had negligible effects on gecko density. Fire alone (minus elephants) had negligible effects on gecko density after 4 months, but increased gecko density twofold after 16 months, likely because the decay of fire-damaged woody biomass created refuges and nest sites for geckos. In the presence of elephants, fire increased gecko density nearly threefold within 4 months of the experimental burn; this occurred because fire increased the incidence of elephant damage to trees, which in turn improved microhabitat quality for geckos. However, this synergistic positive effect of fire and elephants attenuated over the ensuing year, such that only the main effect of fire was evident after 16 months. Fire also altered the structure of symbiotic plant-ant assemblages occupying the dominant tree species (Acacia drepanolobium); this influenced gecko habitat selection but did not explain the synergistic effect of fire and elephants. However, fire-driven shifts in plant-ant occupancy may have indirectly mediated this effect by increasing trees' susceptibility to elephant damage. Our

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  18. The Effects of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Children’s Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keilow, Maria; Holm, Anders; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We use Danish register data to estimate the effect of medical treatment of ADHD on children’s academic achievement. Using a sample of 7,523 children who undergo medical treatment, we exploit plausibly exogenous variation in medical nonresponse to estimate the effect of medical treatment on school-leaving...... grades. Heckman two-stage sample selection models allow us to account for selection into the sample of children treated medically for ADHD. We find significant effects of treatment on ninth grade school-leaving grade point average (GPA). Compared to consistent treatment, part or full discontinuation...... of treatment has large significant negative effects on teacher evaluation and exam GPA, reducing grades with .18 to .19 standard deviations. A supplementary identification strategy and placebo regressions support our findings. The results demonstrate that ADHD treatment may mitigate the negative social...

  19. Synergistic immunosuppressive effects of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and the phytochemical curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, M; Hütten, H; Kaever, V

    2013-01-15

    The immunosuppressant sirolimus and curcumin, the main principle of the turmeric spice, have shown antiproliferative effects on many human and not-human cell lines. Whereas the antiproliferative effect of sirolimus is mainly mediated by inhibition of mTOR, curcumin is described to affect many molecular targets which makes it unpredictable to appraise if the effects of these both substances on cell proliferation and especially on immunosuppression are additive or synergistic. To answer this question we investigated the interaction of both these substances on OKT3-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation. OKT3-induced human PBMC proliferation was determined by measuring (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Influence of curcumin on interleukin-2 (IL-2) release and IκB-phosphorylation in PBMC was determined by ELISA and western blot, respectively. Curcumin-induced apoptosis and necrosis was analyzed by FACS analysis. Whereas curcumin completely inhibited OKT3-induced PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.8 μM, sirolimus could reduce PBMC proliferation dose-dependently only to a minimum of 28% at a concentration of 5 ng/ml (IC(50) 1.1 ng/ml). When curcumin was combined at concentrations of 1.25-2.5 μM with sirolimus at concentrations from 0.63 to 1.25 ng/ml the effects were synergistic. Combination of curcumin (1.25-2.5 μM) with sirolimus (5 ng/ml) showed additive effects. The effects after combination of curcumin at 5 μM with each sirolimus concentration and sirolimus at 10 ng/ml with each curcumin concentration were presumably antagonistic. We conclude that the immunosuppressive effects of curcumin and sirolimus in low concentrations are synergistic in OKT3-activated PBMC. Whether curcumin and sirolimus have also synergistic antiproliferative effects in tumor cells has to be shown in further experiments including animal models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Bias dependence of synergistic radiation effects induced by electrons and protons on silicon bipolar junction transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi

    2015-06-01

    Bias dependence on synergistic radiation effects caused by 110 keV electrons and 170 keV protons on the current gain of 3DG130 NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is studied in this paper. Experimental results indicate that the influence induced by 170 keV protons is always enhancement effect during the sequential irradiation. However, the influence induced by 110 keV electrons on the BJT under various bias cases is different during the sequential irradiation. The transition fluence of 110 keV electrons is dependent on the bias case on the emitter-base junction of BJT.

  1. Evaluation of synergistic anticandidal and apoptotic effects of ferulic acid and caspofungin against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canturk, Zerrin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the synergy between anticandidal and apoptotic effects of ferulic acid and caspofungin against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, with the help of a quantitative checkerboard microdilution assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) as a viability dye. Apoptotic effects of caspofungin and ferulic acid concentrations (alone and combined) were analyzed for C. albicans and C. glabrata based on annexin V-propidium iodide binding capacities using flow cytometric analysis. C. albicans showed a synergistic effect, represented by a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5). Early and late apoptotic effects of caspofungin and ferulic acid concentrations (1 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL) were calculated as 55.7% and 18.3%, respectively, while their necrotic effects were determined as 5.8% and 51.6%, respectively, using flow cytometric analyses. The apoptotic effects of the combination of caspofungin and ferulic acid at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL on C. albicans and C. glabrata were 73.0% and 48.7%, respectively. Ferulic acid also demonstrated a synergistic effect in combination with caspofungin against C. albicans. Another possibility is to combine the existing anticandidal drug with phytochemicals to enhance the efficacy of anticandidal drug. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evaluation of synergistic anticandidal and apoptotic effects of ferulic acid and caspofungin against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Canturk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the synergy between anticandidal and apoptotic effects of ferulic acid and caspofungin against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, with the help of a quantitative checkerboard microdilution assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT as a viability dye. Apoptotic effects of caspofungin and ferulic acid concentrations (alone and combined were analyzed for C. albicans and C. glabrata based on annexin V–propidium iodide binding capacities using flow cytometric analysis. C. albicans showed a synergistic effect, represented by a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5. Early and late apoptotic effects of caspofungin and ferulic acid concentrations (1 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL were calculated as 55.7% and 18.3%, respectively, while their necrotic effects were determined as 5.8% and 51.6%, respectively, using flow cytometric analyses. The apoptotic effects of the combination of caspofungin and ferulic acid at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL on C. albicans and C. glabrata were 73.0% and 48.7%, respectively. Ferulic acid also demonstrated a synergistic effect in combination with caspofungin against C. albicans. Another possibility is to combine the existing anticandidal drug with phytochemicals to enhance the efficacy of anticandidal drug.

  3. Effect of Family Oriented Early Intervention Based on Localized Play Therapy on the Clinical Symptoms of Preschool Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سعید رحیمی پردنجانی

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current study was aimed to investigate the effect of localized play therapy on reducing symptoms of attention deficiency and hyper activity/impulsivity in preschool children with ADHD. The method of this study was an applied semi-experimental study designed as pretest-posttest with control group. Twenty four mothers with ADHD children were selected through multi-stage sampling and randomly arranged in experimental or control groups. The experimental group participated in a 10 sessions Localized Play Therapy (LPT intervention program, while the control group was on the waiting list. Assessment tools were the Vanderbilt ADHD Teacher Rating Scale (Wolraich, et al., 1997 and a semiorganized clinical interview. Data were analyzed by using a repeated measure analysis of variance. The results showed that there were  significant differences between the control and experimental groups in attention deficiency and hyper activity/impulsivity scores of pre-test and post-test. In conclusion, it can be indicated that family oriented early intervention based on LPT is effective in reducing clinical symptoms of preschool children with ADHD. Therefore, this method can be considered as an effective therapeutic method for ADHD children by experts and parents

  4. Synergistic inhibitory effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with sorafenib on hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Shan Peng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy can increase tissue oxygen pressure and content to prevent the resistance, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Presently, Sorafenib is a first-line drug, targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC but effective in only a small portion of patients and can induce hypoxia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO in combination with sorafenib on hepatoma cells. METHODS: Hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7402 and SK-Hep1 were treated with HBO at 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 80 min per day or combined with sorafenib or cisplatin. At different time points, cells were tested for cell growth, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration. Finally, miRNA from the hepatoma cells was detected by microRNA array and validated by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Although HBO, sorafenib or cisplatin alone could inhibit growth of hepatoma cells, HBO combined with sorafenib or cisplatin resulted in much greater synergistic growth inhibition (cell proliferation and colony formation in hepatoma cells. Similarly, the synergistic effect of HBO and sorafenib on induction of apoptosis was also observed in hepatoma cells. HBO induced G1 arrest in SK-Hep1 not in BEL-7402 cells, but enhanced cell cycle arrest induced by sorafenib in BEL-7402 treated cells. However, HBO had no obvious effect on the migration of hepatoma cells, and microRNA array analysis showed that hepatoma cells with HBO treatment had significantly different microRNA expression profiles from those with blank control. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that HBO combined with sorafenib results in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in hepatoma cells, suggesting a potential application of HBO combined with sorafenib in HCC patients. Additionally, we also show that HBO significantly altered microRNA expression

  5. Synergistic anti-proliferative effects of gambogic acid with docetaxel in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Zhengyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Gambogic acid has a marked anti-tumor effect for gastric and colorectal cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, recent investigations on gambogic acid have focused mainly on mono-drug therapy, and its potential role in cancer therapy has not been comprehensively illustrated. This study aimed to assess the interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel on human gastrointestinal cancer cells and to investigate the mechanism of gambogic acid plus docetaxel treatment-induced apoptotic cell death. Methods MTT assay was used to determine IC50 values in BGC-823, MKN-28, LOVO and SW-116 cells after gambogic acid and docetaxel administration. Median effect analysis was applied for determination of synergism and antagonism. Synergistic interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel was evaluated using the combination index (CI method. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. Additionally, mRNA expression of drug-associated genes, i.e., β-tublin III and tau, and the apoptosis-related gene survivin, were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Gambogic acid provided a synergistic effect on the cytotoxicity induced by docetaxel in all four cell lines. The combined application of gambogic acid and docetaxel enhanced apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Moreover, gambogic acid markedly decreased the mRNA expression of docetaxel-related genes, including β-tubulin III, tau and survivin, in BGC-823 cells. Conclusions Gambogic acid plus docetaxel produced a synergistic anti-tumor effect in gastrointestinal cancer cells, suggesting that the drug combination may offer a novel treatment option for patients with gastric and colorectal cancers.

  6. Cognitive-electrophysiological indices of attentional and inhibitory processing in adults with ADHD: familial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Gráinne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. In a comparison of adults with ADHD and a matched control sample, we previously showed that abnormal inhibitory processing is typically preceded or accompanied by other processing deficits in adult ADHD. We now compare these data further to additional data from first-degree relatives (fathers of children with ADHD to identify whether this pattern of abnormal processing shares familial influences with ADHD in adults. Methods Using a family design, we compared 20 fathers of children with the combined subtype of ADHD with 21 adults with ADHD combined subtype and 20 controls in event-related potential indices of preparatory states and subsequent response inhibition processing as elicited by a cued continuous performance task. Results Fathers of children with ADHD exhibited significantly weaker orienting attention to cues and inhibitory processing than the controls but not the ADHD sample. Conclusions These findings provide evidence for the familial association of attentional orienting and response inhibition processes with ADHD in adults and indicate a familial and neurobiological link between ADHD in children and adults.

  7. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  8. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M M; McCann, D C; Thompson, M; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low 'take-up' and high 'drop-out' rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement. Many of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interventions for preschool children at high risk for ADHD: a comparative effectiveness review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Carson, Patricia; Fox, Steven; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Beckett, Julianna; Lim, Choon Guan

    2013-05-01

    The US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sponsored a comparative effectiveness review of interventions for preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Education Resources Information Center were searched from 1980 to November 24, 2011. Selected studies were comparative, and enrolled children accounting for study design, systematic error, consistency of results, directness of evidence, and certainty regarding outcome. Fifty-five studies were examined. Only studies examining PBT interventions could be pooled statistically using meta-analysis. Eight "good" studies examined PBT, total n = 424; SOE was high for improved child behavior, standardized mean difference = -0.68 (95% confidence interval: -0.88 to -0.47), with minimal heterogeneity among studies. Only 1 good study evaluated methylphenidate, total n = 114; therefore, SOE for methylphenidate was low. Combined home and school/day care interventions showed inconsistent results. The literature reported adverse effects for methylphenidate but not for PBT. With more studies consistently documenting effectiveness, PBT interventions have greater evidence of effectiveness than methylphenidate for treatment of preschoolers at risk for ADHD.

  10. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication : An ERP Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of

  11. Synergistic Anticancer Effects of Silibinin and Chrysin in T47D Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan Maasomi, Zahra; Pilehvar Soltanahmadi, Younes; Dadashpour, Mehdi; Alipour, Shahriar; Abolhasani, Somayeh; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-05-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is one of the most significant causes of female cancer death worldwide. Although several chemotherapeutics have been developed to treat this type of cancer, issues remain such as low survival rates and high reoccurrence after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To explore a chemopreventive approach to enhancing breast cancer treatment efficacy, the antiproliferative effects of a combination of chrysin and silibinin, two herbal substances, in T47D breast cancer cells were assessed. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of the agents singly and in combination was evaluated by MTT assay. Also, qRT-PCR was used to measure the expression levels of hTERT and cyclin D1 genes after 48 h treatment. Results: Cell viability assays revealed that chrysin or silibinin alone inhibited proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner, and combining the drugs synergistically induced growth inhibition in the breast cancer cell line. The precise nature of this interaction was further analyzed by the median-effect method, where the combination indices (CI) were T47D cell proliferation. qPCR results showed that the drug combination also synergistically down-regulated the mRNA levels of hTERT and cyclin D1 at all used concentrations compared with the drugs used alone after 48 h treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The data provide evidence that synergistic antiproliferative effects of Chrysin and Silibinin are linked to the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and hTERT genes, and suggest that their combination may have therapeutic value in treatment of breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Kazumasa; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Yamada, Jun; Matsukura, Yu; Abula, Kahaer; Sekiya, Ichiro; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-05-31

    Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and excessive mechanical stress (forced running) on articular cartilage homeostasis in a mouse model resembling a human postmenopausal condition. Mice were randomly divided into four groups, I: Sham, II: OVX, III: Sham and forced running (60 km in 6 weeks), and IV: OVX and forced running. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the degeneration of articular cartilage and synovitis in the knee joint. Morphological changes of subchondral bone were analyzed by micro-CT. Micro-CT analyses showed significant loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) after OVX as described previously. Forced running increased the trabecular BV/TV in all mice. In the epiphyseal region, no visible alteration in bone morphology or osteophyte formation was observed in any of the four groups. Histological analysis revealed that OVX or forced running respectively had subtle effects on cartilage degeneration. However, the combination of OVX and forced running synergistically enhanced synovitis and articular cartilage degeneration. Although morphological changes in chondrocytes were observed during OA initiation, no signs of bone marrow edema were observed in any of the four experimental groups. We report the coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration. Since no surgical procedure was performed on the knee joint directly in this model, this model is useful in addressing the molecular pathogenesis of naturally occurring OA.

  13. Osteogenic potential and synergistic effects of growth factors delivered from a bionic composite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Gomez, Alan W; Zuo, Yi; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Yubao; Hu, Jing; Li, Jihua

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has raised substantial controversy over the synergistic effects of exogenous growth factors, BMP-2 and bFGF, when used together for the treatment of bony defects. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of BMP-2 and bFGF at specified dose ratio composited with n-HA/PU40, a porous scaffold material, for repairing femoral defect in rats. Four weeks after implantation of this composite system, tissue specimens were collected for histological, immunohistochemical examinations, and µ-CT scanning. The results showed that the group DUAL/BMSCs with both the factors had better effect on repairing bone defects than the other four groups in terms of new bone formation and bone-scaffold bonding, suggesting crosstalk between these growth factors during early bone regeneration. This work demonstrates that provided that there is effective contact between cells and active proteins in the defect area, the controlled release of bFGF and BMP-2 have positive synergistic effects on early bone formation in the defect area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 659-668, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG on the proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yun; Sun, Wei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Wenming

    2018-03-22

    This study aimed to investigate synergistic effects of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor (geldanamycin derivative 17 -allylamino- 17-demethoxy -geldanamycin, 17-AAG) on the proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. MTT assays evaluated inhibitory effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG in different concentrations and treatment durations on the proliferation of RPMI8226 and U266 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration was calculated using OriginPro7.5. Synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG on apoptosis of MM cells were detected using flow cytometry at 24 and 48 h post-treatment. To evaluate synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG, the Q-value was calculated using King's formula. rmhTRAIL exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of RPMI8226 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (>50%), whereas U266 cells were not sensitive to rmhTRAIL (AAG inhibited the proliferation of RPMI8226 and U266 cells in a dose-dependent manner (>80%). Significant synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG on the proliferation of RPMI8226 cells were revealed (Q-value > 1.15), whereas synergistic effects were not evident on the proliferation of U266 cells (Q-value AAG exhibited significant synergistic effects on apoptosis of RPMI8226 and U266 cells (Q-value > 1.15). The combined application of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG revealed favorable synergistic effects in the treatment of MM.

  15. Effects of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine on Cortical Inhibition in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of methylphenidate (MPH, a psychostimulant, and atomoxetine (ATX, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on short interval-cortical inhibition (SICI were measured in motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in a study at Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center, OH, and other centers.

  16. Synergistic effect of temperature, protein and salt concentration on structures and interactions among lysozyme proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sarathi; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Synergistic effect of temperature, protein and salt concentration on structures and interactions among lysozyme proteins in solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering technique. Scattering study shows that for a particular protein concentration, with increasing temperature, short-range attraction decreases but long-range repulsion becomes system specific. In absence of salt, lower value of attractive interaction is obtained, however, in presence of salt it becomes higher and decreases with increasing temperature. For specific condition, weak long range attraction and intermediate range repulsion exists. At higher temperature (90 °C), fractal structure develops and the corresponding fractal dimension depends upon the experimental conditions.

  17. COMBINATION OF MORPHINE AND GABAPENTIN LEADS TO SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS IN A RAT MODEL OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    Postoperative pain is a complex clinical condition that is still inadequately managed. Opioids remain the first line agents for the management of postoperative pain despite their side effects. Combination treatment with non-opioid agents that act at different sites within the central and peripheral...... of hindpaw withdrawal thresholds, after subcutaneous administration of morphine (0, 1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (0, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations of the above doses) were obtained using an electronic von Frey device. Surface of synergistic interaction (SSI) analysis was used...

  18. The Effects of Stimulant Medication and Training on Sports Competence Among Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M; Bressler, Shannon; Macphee, Fiona L; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Coxe, Stefany; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika; Pelham, William E

    2017-01-19

    The current study examined the relative efficacy of behavioral sports training, medication, and their combination in improving sports competence among youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 73 youth (74% male; 81% Hispanic) between the ages of 5 and 12 diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) ADHD enrolled in a Summer Treatment Program (STP). The study consisted of a 2 (medication: methylphenidate, placebo) × 2 (sports training: instruction and practice, recreational play) between-groups design and was conducted over a 3-week period during the STP. Sports training was conducted with a novel sport, badminton, to limit previous sport knowledge and to differentiate it from concurrent sports training that occurred within the STP. Objective and subjective measures of sports skills, knowledge, and behavior were collected. Results indicated that, relative to recreational play, brief sports training improved observed and counselor-rated measures of sports competence including sports skills, knowledge, game awareness, effort, frustration, and enjoyment. During sports training, medication incrementally improved children's observed rule following behavior and counselor-rated sportsmanship relative to placebo. In the absence of sports training, medication improved behavior, effort, and sport knowledge. Training in sports skills and rules produced the largest magnitude effects on sports-related outcomes. Therefore, skills training, rather than medication alone, should be used in conjunction with behavioral intervention to teach sports to youth with ADHD. It is recommended that medication be used only as an adjunct to highly structured sports skills training for youth who display high rates of negative behavior during sports activities.

  19. The Protective Effects of Social Factors on the Academic Functioning of Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorsky, Melissa R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-03-08

    There is considerable evidence that externalizing disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) put youth at risk for a range of adverse academic outcomes. It is importantly to note that some youth avoid these negative outcomes, yet there is a gap in our understanding of these resilient youth. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate social acceptance and social skills as potential protective factors of the associations between inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, and oppositional defiant behaviors with academic outcomes. Participants included a sample of 93 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. Parents and adolescents completed ratings of social skills and perceived social acceptance. School grades and teacher-rated academic impairment were assessed 18 months later as longitudinal academic functioning outcomes. Inattention and social acceptance were associated with academic outcomes 18 months later. Regression analyses revealed that parent- and adolescent-rated social acceptance demonstrated promotive effects for grades and against teacher-rated academic impairment. Further, social acceptance significantly interacted with inattention in predicting school grades, such that high parent- and adolescent-rated social acceptance significantly attenuated the relationship between inattention and poor grades, even after controlling for baseline grades and intelligence. The presence of social acceptance was especially critical for adolescents with high levels of inattention. Specifically, adolescents with high inattention and high social acceptance had a mean grade point average of 2.5, and adolescents with high inattention and low social acceptance had a mean grade point average of 1.5. These findings demonstrate that social acceptance may be an important intervention target for improving academic outcomes among adolescents with ADHD.

  20. Few effects of far transfer of working memory training in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Egeland

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that children with ADHD profit from working memory training, although few studies have investigated transfer effects comprehensively. The current Randomized Controlled Trial analyzes transfer to other neuropsychological (NP domains, academic performance and everyday functioning at home and school. METHOD: Sixty-seven children with ADHD were randomized into a control group or a training group. The training group underwent Cogmed's RoboMemo program. All participants were assessed pre-training, immediately after and eight months later with a battery of NP tests, measures of mathematical and reading skills, as well as rating scales filled out by parents and teachers. RESULTS: There was a significant training effect in psychomotor speed, but not to any other NP measures. Reading and mathematics were improved. There were no training induced changes in symptom rating scales either at home or at school. The increased reading scores remained significant eight months later. CONCLUSION: The study is the most comprehensive study of transfer effects to date, and with mixed results compared to previous research. More research is needed regarding how to improve the training program and the conditions and thresholds for successful training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN19133620.

  1. Few effects of far transfer of working memory training in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Aarlien, Anne Kristine; Saunes, Brit-Kari

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that children with ADHD profit from working memory training, although few studies have investigated transfer effects comprehensively. The current Randomized Controlled Trial analyzes transfer to other neuropsychological (NP) domains, academic performance and everyday functioning at home and school. Sixty-seven children with ADHD were randomized into a control group or a training group. The training group underwent Cogmed's RoboMemo program. All participants were assessed pre-training, immediately after and eight months later with a battery of NP tests, measures of mathematical and reading skills, as well as rating scales filled out by parents and teachers. There was a significant training effect in psychomotor speed, but not to any other NP measures. Reading and mathematics were improved. There were no training induced changes in symptom rating scales either at home or at school. The increased reading scores remained significant eight months later. The study is the most comprehensive study of transfer effects to date, and with mixed results compared to previous research. More research is needed regarding how to improve the training program and the conditions and thresholds for successful training. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN19133620.

  2. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    that increasing medical treatment of ADHD (primarily through the use of Ritalin) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads over this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD....... These findings are provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD on children once the share of children treated exceeds a certain threshold. While a host of factors such as parental behaviors and characteristics, welfare generosity, and the female imprisonment...... rate all shape foster care caseloads, future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads....

  3. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  4. [Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Amorphigenin Combined with Cisplatin in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549/DDP Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hongzhen; Zuo, Yufang; Wu, Xin; Peng, Yan; He, Huiping; Yang, Jun; Guan, Chengnong; Xu, Zumin

    2016-12-20

    Amorphigenin, a rotenoid compouns, from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa, has been shown to possess anti-proliferation activities in several cancer cells. To explore the antitumor effects of amorphigenin on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the proliferation of A549/DDP cells; Colony formation assay was used to measure the colony formation of A549/DDP cells; Flow cytometry assay was used to detect the apoptosis rates; Western blot analysis was used to explore the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3 protein, PARP protein) and lung resistance protein (LRP). Our results demonstrated that amorphigenin could inhibit the proliferation of A549/DDP cells with a inhibition concentration of 50% cell growth (IC50) at 48 h of (2.19±0.92) μmol/L. Amorphigenin could inhibit the colony formation ability and induce apoptosis of A549/DDP cells; Furthermore, amorphigenin combined with cisplatin showed synergistic proliferation-inhibitory effect and apoptosis-promoting effect in A549/DDP cells; reduced the expression of LRP of A549/DDP cells. Amorphigenin remarkably inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. Combination of amorphigenin with cisplatin had the synergistic inhibitory effect on A549/DDP cells by downregulating the expression of LRP.
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  5. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity of biomass-petroleum coke blended char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Gong, Yan; Ding, Lu; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity was presented after complete generation of biomass ash, and gradually weakened with increasing temperature from 1000°C to 1100°C after reaching the most significant value at 1000°C. This phenomenon was well related with the appearance of molten biomass ash rich in glassy state potassium and the weakest inhibition effect on active potassium transformation during co-gasification at the temperature higher than 1000°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-pyrolysis of yinning coal and poplar sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-process of biomass and coal is perceived as a way to enhance the energy utilization by virtue of the integrated and interactive effects between different types of carbonaceous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of Yining coal and poplar sawdust, and to determine whether there is any synergistic effect in pyrolytic product yields. The coal was blended with sawdust at a mass fraction of 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 respectively. The change of char yields, maximum weight loss rate and the corresponding temperature of different coal/sawdust blends during pyrolysis were compared by thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The total tar yields during separate coal, sawdust as well as their blends pyrolysis were acquired from the low temperature aluminum retort distillation test. By compare the experimental and theoretical value of the char yields from TG and tar yields from carbonization test, it was observed that co-pyrolysis of coal/sawdust blends produced less char and tar than the total amount produced by separate coal and sawdust pyrolysis. The different product distribution suggested that there was synergy effect in gas product yields. The co-pyrolysis of demineralized and devolatilized sawdust with coal indicated that the ash in the sawdust was the main contributor to the synergistic effect.

  7. Synergistic Effects of Nucleating Agents and Plasticizers on the Crystallization Behavior of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nucleating agents and plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical performance of PLA nanocomposites was investigated with the objective of increasing the crystallinity and balancing the stiffness and toughness of PLA mechanical properties. Calcium carbonate, halloysite nanotubes, talc and LAK (sulfates were compared with each other as heterogeneous nucleating agents. Both the DSC isothermal and non-isothermal studies indicated that talc and LAK were the more effective nucleating agents among the selected fillers. Poly(D-lactic acid (PDLA acted also as a nucleating agent due to the formation of the PLA stereocomplex. The half crystallization time was reduced by the addition of talc to about 2 min from 37.5 min of pure PLA by the isothermal crystallization study. The dynamic mechanical thermal study (DMTA indicated that nanofillers acted as both reinforcement fillers and nucleating agents in relation to the higher storage modulus. The plasticized PLA studied by DMTA indicated a decreasing glass transition temperature with the increasing of the PEG content. The addition of nanofiller increased the Young’s modulus. PEG had the plasticization effect of increasing the break deformation, while sharply decreasing the stiffness and strength of PLA. The synergistic effect of nanofillers and plasticizer achieved the balance between stiffness and toughness with well-controlled crystallization.

  8. The effects of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A; DuPaul, George J; Jitendra, Asha K

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of three second-through fourth-grade students with ADHD. A controlled case study is used to evaluate the effects of the computer software on participants' mathematics performance and on-task behavior. Participants' mathematics achievement improve and their on-task behavior increase during the CAI sessions relative to independent seatwork conditions. In addition, students and teachers consider CAI to be an acceptable intervention for some students with ADHD who are having difficulty with mathematics. Implications of these results for practice and research are discussed.

  9. Combined effects of irritants and allergens. Synergistic effects of nickel and sodium lauryl sulfate in nickel- sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Tove; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Overgaard, Lene

    2002-01-01

    and allergens. Combined exposures have, however, only been studied infrequently. In the present study, the combined effect of an irritant and an allergen was evaluated in a dose-response designed experimental study. 20 nickel-sensitized subjects were exposed to patch testing with varying concentrations of NiCl2...... (nickel chloride) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) alone and in combination. Evaluation of skin reactions was performed by colorimetry, measurement of transepidermal water loss and clinical evaluation, and the data were analyzed by logistic dose-response models. A synergistic effect was found of combined...... exposure to NiCl2 and SLS, as compared to each of the substances applied separately, as evaluated by colorimetry and clinical scoring. This means that the effect produced by the combined exposure was substantially greater than the effect produced by either of the substances alone. A synergistic effect...

  10. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n=19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  11. Imitations and Transformations: On Side Effects of the ADHD Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bjarke

    2017-04-01

    The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder epidemic has been the subject of much scrutiny, especially in relation to the medicalization of children, and, to a lesser degree, to the use of Ritalin as a performance enhancer or party drug (e.g., Keane 2008; Whitaker 2010; Bowden 2013). In this article, my focus is on non-investigated side effects of this epidemic, namely the use of (prescription) Ritalin among heavy drug users. Based on fieldwork conducted in one of the largest cities in Denmark, in this article I trace the spread of intravenous use of Ritalin, and examine how different ways of ingesting Ritalin transform the drug itself, and, with this, transform treatment practices, parts of the drug scene, and the bodies of users. In my analysis, I draw on insights from anthropological theories on imitation and from material semiotics.

  12. Synergistic inhibitory effect of citral with selected phenolics against Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Carriles, Karla; Argaiz, Alvaro; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2005-03-01

    Antifungal susceptibilities of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to individual and binary mixtures of citral with selected phenolics were evaluated to identify synergistic combinations. Individual effects of citral, vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol concentrations and combined effects of citral with the other phenolic compounds on the growth of Z. bailii were evaluated in potato dextrose agar, adjusted with sucrose to a water activity of 0.99 or 0.95, and hydrochloric acid to pH 4.5 or 3.5. MICs for individual and binary antimicrobial mixtures were identified and then transformed to fractional inhibitory concentrations. Inhibitory concentrations of citral and vanillin were higher than 650 ppm, whereas for thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol, concentrations were lower than 250 ppm for several of the studied water activity-pH conditions. Combining citral with the other phenolic compounds, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and FIC(Index) varied from 0.216 to 0.582. FIC(Index) demonstrated synergistic effects on Z. bailii inhibition when citral was used in combination with vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, or eugenol. Therefore, the relative amount of antimicrobials could be greatly reduced.

  13. Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Khajuria, Anamika; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2007-07-01

    The present study revealed the synergistic effect of boswellic acid mixture (BA) and glucosamine for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in rats. Two studies were conducted, that is, acute anti-inflammatory by carrageenan edema and chronic anti-arthritic by Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis. Five groups of animals were included in each of the study: the vehicle control, positive control (ibuprofen 100mg/kg), boswellic acids (250 mg/kg), glucosamine (250 mg/kg) and a combination of boswellic acids (125 mg/kg) and glucosamine (125 mg/kg). BA when administered at 250 mg/kg in rats, carrageenan-induced paw edema and Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis were significantly inhibited. In comparison to boswellic acids, glucosamine when administered at 250 mg/kg showed a mild effect in carrageenan-induced edema and moderate inhibition of paw swelling against developing arthritis. Although the combination of boswellic acids and glucosamine did not affect the acute inflammation to a greater extent yet a significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in rats. In conclusion, a synergistic effect was observed in chronic inflammatory conditions when two chemical entities were administered in combination in preclinical study.

  14. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Psychopathology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study examined prevalence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Primary caregivers of 344 children (8–16y, M=12.28) completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (C-DISC-4.0) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Subjects comprised 4 groups: AE with ADHD (AE+, n=85) and without ADHD (AE−, n=52), and non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=74) and without ADHD (CON, n=133). The frequency of specific psychiatric disorders, number of psychiatric disorders (comorbidity), and CBCL behavioral scores were examined using chi-square and ANCOVA techniques. Results Clinical groups had greater frequency of all psychiatric disorders, except for anxiety, where the AE− and CON groups did not differ. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on conduct disorder. For Comorbidity, children with ADHD had increased psychiatric disorders regardless of AE, which did not have an independent effect on comorbidity. For CBCL scores, there were significant main effects of AE and ADHD on all scores and significant AE X ADHD interactions for Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Attention, and all Summary scores. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on Externalizing, Total Problems, and Attention Problems. Conclusion Findings indicate that ADHD diagnosis elevates children’s risk of psychiatric diagnoses, regardless of AE, but suggest a synergistic relation between AE and ADHD on conduct disorder and externalizing behavioral problems in children. Findings affirm a poorer behavioral prognosis for alcohol-exposed children with ADHD and suggest that more than one neurobehavioral profile may exist for individuals with AE. PMID:22974279

  15. Synergistic antibiotic effect of looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 with bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Yang, Ya; Tian, Zhiqiang; Lv, Jun; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan

    2017-08-22

    The treatment of drug-resistant infections is complicated and the alarming rise in infectious diseases poses a unique challenge for development of effective therapeutic strategies. Antibiotic-induced liberation of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may have immediate adverse effects promoting septic shock in patients. In the present study, we first confirmed our previous finding that looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 exerts non-specific direct antibacterial activity with no toxic to mammalian cells and second revealed that CLP-19 has synergistic effect to enhance the antibacterial activities of other conventional bactericidal (ampicillin and ceftazidime) and bacteriostatic (erythromycin and levofloxacin) agents. Third, the underlying mechanism of antibiotic effect was likely associated with stimulation of hydroxyl radical generation. Lastly, CLP-19 was shown to effectively reduce the antibiotic-induced liberation of LPS, through direct neutralization of the LPS. Thus, CLP-19 is a potential therapeutic agent for combinatorial antibiotic therapy.

  16. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  17. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) Program: Feasibility and Preliminary Support for a Psychosocial Intervention for Teenage Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Hulme, Kevin; Linke, Stuart; Nelson-Tuttle, Chris; Pariseau, Meaghan; Gangloff, Brian; Lewis, Kemper; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha; Buck, Melina

    2011-01-01

    Teenage drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at considerable risk for negative driving outcomes, including traffic citations, accidents, and injuries. Presently, no efficacious psychosocial interventions exist for teenage drivers with ADHD. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program is a…

  18. An FMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Bradley S; Potenza, Marc N; Wang, Zhishun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of psychostimulants on brain activity in children and adolescents with ADHD performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. METHOD: The authors acquired 52 functional MRI scans in 16 youths with ADHD who were known responders to stimulant medication and 20...

  19. Insights into the Synergistic Effect of Fungi and Bacteria for Reactive Red Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is a prevalent problem in fungal dye wastewater decolorization that prevents the development of this technology in practical engineering. New insight into the relationship between fungi and bacteria is given in terms of settleability, bioadsorption, and biodegradation, which all confirm their synergistic effect. Sterilization is implied to be not the only mechanism for fungi decolorization. When the fungi and bacteria isolated from the activated sludge were cocultured, fungi removed more than 70% of the reactive red through sole bioadsorption in 5 min and enhanced the settleability of the bacteria group from 7.7 to 18.4 in the aggregation index. Subsequently, the bacteria played a more significant role in dye biodegradation according to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. They further enhanced the decolorization efficiency to over 80% when cocultured with fungi. Therefore, the advanced bioadsorption and settleability of fungi, combined with the good dye biodegradation ability of bacteria, results in the synergistic effect of the coculture microorganisms.

  20. Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Tocotrienol Combined with Chemotherapeutic Agents or Dietary Components: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Eitsuka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol (T3, unsaturated vitamin E, is gaining a lot of attention owing to its potent anticancer effect, since its efficacy is much greater than that of tocopherol (Toc. Various factors are known to be involved in such antitumor action, including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, antiangiogenesis, anti-metastasis, nuclear factor-κB suppression, and telomerase inhibition. Owing to a difference in the affinity of T3 and Toc for the α-tocopherol transfer protein, the bioavailability of orally ingested T3 is lower than that of Toc. Furthermore, cellular uptake of T3 is interrupted by coadministration of α-Toc in vitro and in vivo. Based on this, several studies are in progress to screen for molecules that can synergize with T3 in order to augment its potency. Combinations of T3 with chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., statins, celecoxib, and gefitinib or dietary components (e.g., polyphenols, sesamin, and ferulic acid exhibit synergistic actions on cancer cell growth and signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the current status of synergistic effects of T3 and an array of agents on cancer cells, and discuss their molecular mechanisms of action. These combination strategies would encourage further investigation and application in cancer prevention and therapy.

  1. Tribological and antioxidation synergistic effect study of sulfonate-modified nano calcium carbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhongyi

    Full Text Available A middle base number sulphonate-modified nano calcium carbonate (SMC with an average size of 35 nm was synthesized, and its tribological and antioxidation synergistic behaviors with ashless antioxidant N-phenyl-α-naphthylamine (T531 in hydrogenated oil (5Cst were evaluated. The results demonstrate that adding this synthesized additive even at a low amount (<2.0 wt.% can evidently improve its load-carrying capacity by 1.5 times and enhance its antiwear performance; in addition, the friction-reducing effect of additive in the high load was better than that in low load. The SMC have a good synergistic antioxidation effect with T531, which verifies the nano calcium carbonate compound was a kind of multifunctional and high-performance additive. The chemical composition of the rubbing surface which formed on the boundary film was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicating that the excellent antiwear and load-carrying performance could be attributed to the forming of boundary lubrication film which composed of calcium carbonate, oxides, ferrites, sulphide and FeSO4, and so on. Its ability to increase oxidation free energy of base oil is the main reason for increasing its antioxidant collaboration property with ashless antioxidant T531.

  2. On synergistic effects in uranyl sulfate extraction by mixtures of organophosphoric acids with oil sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgov, V.G.; Us, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    Extraction properties of mixtures of organophosphoric acids (HX) of different compositions (di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric (D2EHDTPA), di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric (D2EHPA), amyl-2-ethylhexylphosphonic (A2EHPA) and diheptylphosphinic (DHPA)) with oil sulfoxides (B) with respect to uranyl sulfate in an iodide range of its concentrations were compared. The presence of cation-exchange (at low HX saturations) and noncation-exchange (after HX saturations) synergistic effects was established. Their nature is the same one and is related with urabium atom acceptor ability in acid and neutral uranyl salts to add B and UO 2 SO 4 xB respectively. HX are arranged in the following series with respect to synergistic effect: D2EHDTPA > D2EHPA > A2EHPA > DHPA. The series is opposite to the stability series of intracomplexes (IC) of HX with uranyl. A quantitative description of the process of UO 2 SO 4 xB addition to IC was given and corresponding extraction constants were determined

  3. Synergistic effect of heartwood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds on termite resistance of treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won-Joung; Kartal, S Nami; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the synergistic effect of wood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the resistance to termites of several treated wood species. Wood specimens from different natural durability classes were extracted with either hot water alone or hot water + ethanol/benzene. The extracted and unextracted wood specimens were treated with either didecyldimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) or commercial didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) solutions and then exposed to subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, for 3 weeks under laboratory conditions. The results showed that extractives of the heartwood portions of the wood species contributed to increased resistance against termite attack in the presence of either DBF or DDAC wood preservatives. The synergistic effect of wood extractives and DBF was much clearer with Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla Sarg wood samples. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the synergism between wood extractives and either DBF or DDAC using both the sapwood and heartwood portions of the same wood species. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  5. ADHD in Women: Effects on Everyday Functioning and the Role of Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Holthe, Mira Elise Glaser

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite an increasing recognition of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as common among girls and adult women, the research and following knowledge on how women experience to live with the disorder remains sparse. Likewise, the wide-spread stigma of ADHD, which has been described as an underestimated risk factor for the course and outcome of ADHD, is seldom addressed in relation to the diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how women who are dia...

  6. The effects of patient characteristics on ADHD diagnosis and treatment: a factorial study of family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley Christopher P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a costly and prevalent disorder in the U.S., especially among youth. However, significant disparities in diagnosis and treatment appear to be predicted by the race and insurance status of patients. Methods This study employed a web-based factorial survey with four ADHD cases derived from an ADHD clinic, two diagnosed with ADHD in actual evaluation, and two not. Randomized measures included race and insurance status of the patients. Participants N = (187 included clinician members of regional and national practice-based research networks and the U.S. clinical membership of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. The main outcomes were decisions to 1 diagnose and 2 treat the cases, based upon the information presented, analyzed via binary logistic regression of the randomized factors and case indicators on diagnosis and treatment. Results ADHD-positive cases were 8 times more likely to be diagnosed and 12 times more likely to be treated, and the male ADHD positive case was more likely to be diagnosed and treated than the female ADHD positive case. Uninsured cases were significantly more likely to be treated overall, but male cases that were uninsured were about half as likely to be diagnosed and treated with ADHD. Additionally, African-American race appears to increase the likelihood of medicinal treatment for ADHD and being both African-American and uninsured appears to cut the odds of medicinal treatment in half, but not significantly. Conclusions Family physicians were competent at discerning between near-threshold ADHD-negative and ADHD positive cases. However, insurance status and race, as well as gender, appear to affect the likelihood of diagnosis and treatment for ADHD in Family Medicine settings.

  7. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood and they are ty......ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment...

  8. Synergistic effect of business reputation in the result of application of innovations on the enterprises of the transport industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshin, Ivan; Diakonova, Sophia; Sharapova, Elena

    2017-10-01

    In the conditions of dynamic innovative development of the enterprises of transport branch along with maintaining economic instability it has become necessary to consider not only traditional factors at assessment of efficiency of activity and cost of business, but also consider business reputation factor, which depends on the level of innovative development of the enterprise and generates effect of synergy. Paper considers the concept of synergistic effect. Classification of types of synergistic effects is cited. Estimation procedure for influence of the technical level and innovative development of transport enterprises on the value of business reputation is considered. Functional dependence of the cost of business reputation on the innovative development and synergistic effect is defined.

  9. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN CENTRAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoica Luburić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on two very important and current approaches to management: Total Quality Management (TQM and Operational Risk Management (ORM. As a paradigm of business success, TQM provides the key assumptions for survival, development and success of an organisation, regardless of any limitations whatsoever. ORM, on the other hand, is predetermined to be an irreplaceable managerial tool that enables organisations to survive in any environment. In times of accelerated political, economic and technological changes, frequent natural disasters, acts of terrorism and other external events, a successful risk management has been gaining importance and becomes one of the key competitive advantages of an organisation. The ultimate objective is to make TQM and ORM, as two rather compatible and complementary approaches to risk management, harmonized, efficient and functional in order to get their synergistic effects in an organisation in full swing and practice. Various organisations, and thus central banks as conservative institutions, have an innovative opportunity to timely minimize their operational risk through preventive, comprehensive and synergistic operation of TQM and ORM and thus significantly contribute to improving their business performance.

  10. Synergistic sub-lethal effects of a biocide mixture on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Lisbeth; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Jensen, John

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of three biocides, esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan, on adult survival and recruitment of juveniles was studied in the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, both in single and mixture experiments. Recruitment of juveniles was more sensitive to biocide exposure than adult survival. The concepts of concentration addition and independent action returned almost identical toxicity predictions, though both models failed to predict the observed toxicity due to synergistic deviations at high exposure concentrations. A comparison with a similar study on earthworms showed that response-patterns were species-specific. Consequently, there is no single reference concept which is applicable for all species of one ecosystem, which in turn questions the usefulness of such mixture prediction concepts in ecological risk assessment. -- Highlights: • Toxicity of esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan to Folsomia fimetaria was assessed. • Both, the single biocides and the mixture affected recruitment stronger than survival. • Concentration addition and independent action predictions were almost identical. • Inhibition of recruitment after mixture exposure was stronger than predicted. • Comparison with an earthworm study showed that responses are species-specific. -- The concepts of concentration addition and independent action failed to predict mixture toxicity due to dose-dependent synergistic effects

  11. Synergistic effect between ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite on flame-retarded poly(butylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhou; Ren, Jiawei; Wei, Ting; Guo, Weihong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the synergistic effect of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and expandable graphite (EG) on flame-retarded poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was systermically investigated using limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 testing, microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). PBT composites containing 20 wt% of APP: EG (1:3) combinations exhibits a high LOI value of 29.8 and reaches V-0 rating in UL-94 testing, indicating that the flame retardant property is greatly enhanced compared to the composites solely with APP or EG. SEM images show that the combination of APP and EG could promote the formation of a compact char layer. The compact char layer protects the PBT resin efficiently by preventing penetration of heat flux inside the matrix and retards the decomposition of PBT, consequently improves the thermal stability of PBT materials as revealed by TGA. All of the results demonstrate that APP and EG are high efficiency synergists for improving the flame retardation of PBT materials.

  12. Synergistic flame retardant effects between sepiolite and magnesium hydroxide in ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some customers are reluctant to change, because the halogen-free solutions may have higher cost. This is one of the reasons that the synergistic effect is always the subject for researchers to pursue. The synergy between sepiolite and magnesium hydroxide (MH in halogen-free flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA copolymer was investigated in the paper through some common facilities, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI, UL-94 test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA and cone calorimeter test (CCT. In the wake of the positive results from the LOI and UL-94 tests, the CCT data indicated not only the reduction of heat release rate (HRR and mass loss rates (MLR, but also prolonged ignition time (TTI and depressed smoke release (SR were observed during combustion. Simultaneously, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the system were also much better improved with the increase of sepiolite added due to the hydrogen bonds between silanol groups attached to the sepiolite molecules and the ester groups of EVA. The synergistic mechanism has been discussed in the paper in terms of the barrier mechanism in the condensed phase.

  13. Synergistic sporicidal effect of ethanol on a combination of orthophthalaldehyde and didecyldimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, G; Wei, Q; Tie, J; Wang, C; Rao, L; Zhang, W

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential synergistic effect of ethanol on a combination of orthophthalaldehyde (OPA) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) against the spores of Bacillus subtilis var. Niger. The quantitative carrier test for sporicidal testing of high-level disinfectants according to the guideline of China (Technical Standard for Disinfection 2002) was used as method. Considerable synergistic effect was observed after a 30-min treatment at 20°C. There was an augment in mean log reduction as the concentration of DDAC was increased ranging from 0·2 to 3 g l(-1) in combination with 6 g l(-1) OPA. Ten and 20% ethanol in combination with 6 g l(-1) OPA and 2 g l(-1) DDAC caused more than a 3-log reduction while either 6 g l(-1) OPA, 2 g l(-1) DDAC and 20% ethanol alone or a combination of two of the three agents produced less than a 1-log reduction. Further, 40-min exposure time of combination of OPA, DDAC and 20% ethanol led to greater than a 5-log reduction in spores, and no spore growth was observed following 60- and 90-min exposures. Orthophthalaldehyde (OPA) is very effective at concentrations far lower than its recommended in-use concentration of 0·5% (w/v) and is equally effective against both the gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. However, it shows lower activity against spores. The synergistic sporicidal effect exhibited by ethanol on a combination of OPA and DDAC can be considered to enhance sporicidal activity for using in situations of sterilization, to reduce in-use concentration of OPA used alone, which may minimize its side effect. OPA may be a more satisfactory and the first-choice agent to replace glutaraldehyde (GTA) as a high-level disinfectant for medical devices. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A

    1998-01-01

    Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15...... of reactions was carried out on day 3 by clinical grading and laser Doppler flowmetry, and the extent of the reaction was measured in millimetres. The data were analysed by logistic dose-response models. It was found that the combination of two allergens in individuals allergic to both substances had...... a synergistic effect on the elicitation response evaluated by all three methods. The 1 : 1 mixtures of the two allergens elicited responses as if the doses were three to four times higher than those actually used, which is significantly more than expected if an additive effect had been present. In the control...

  15. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal eDubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, natural, therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period.Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  16. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Cham-Fai Leung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis (SB is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX. Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F. nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A. actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P. gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM. This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care.

  17. Theory of synergistic effects: Hill-type response surfaces as 'null-interaction' models for mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael

    2017-08-02

    The classification of effects caused by mixtures of agents as synergistic, antagonistic or additive depends critically on the reference model of 'null interaction'. Two main approaches are currently in use, the Additive Dose (ADM) or concentration addition (CA) and the Multiplicative Survival (MSM) or independent action (IA) models. We compare several response surface models to a newly developed Hill response surface, obtained by solving a logistic partial differential equation (PDE). Assuming that a mixture of chemicals with individual Hill-type dose-response curves can be described by an n-dimensional logistic function, Hill's differential equation for pure agents is replaced by a PDE for mixtures whose solution provides Hill surfaces as 'null-interaction' models and relies neither on Bliss independence or Loewe additivity nor uses Chou's unified general theory. An n-dimensional logistic PDE decribing the Hill-type response of n-component mixtures is solved. Appropriate boundary conditions ensure the correct asymptotic behaviour. Mathematica 11 (Wolfram, Mathematica Version 11.0, 2016) is used for the mathematics and graphics presented in this article. The Hill response surface ansatz can be applied to mixtures of compounds with arbitrary Hill parameters. Restrictions which are required when deriving analytical expressions for response surfaces from other principles, are unnecessary. Many approaches based on Loewe additivity turn out be special cases of the Hill approach whose increased flexibility permits a better description of 'null-effect' responses. Missing sham-compliance of Bliss IA, known as Colby's model in agrochemistry, leads to incompatibility with the Hill surface ansatz. Examples of binary and ternary mixtures illustrate the differences between the approaches. For Hill-slopes close to one and doses below the half-maximum effect doses MSM (Colby, Bliss, Finney, Abbott) predicts synergistic effects where the Hill model indicates 'null

  18. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD : Depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.J.; Agelink van Rentergem, J.A.; Koole, A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Popma, A.; Bexkens, A.; Stoffelsen, R.; Diekmann, A.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether

  19. Hyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Someren, E.J.W. van

    2007-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythm, as well as the effects of methylphenidate on these variables, in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: 1) Baseline group comparison; 2) Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over medication trial. SETTING: Data collection

  20. Effects of Computer Collaborative Group Work on Peer Acceptance of a Junior Pupil with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teck Shuenn; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of computer collaborative group work, facilitated by an adult, on peer acceptance of a junior boy with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It aimed to ascertain whether collaborative group work on a computer, with the facilitation of an adult, could help to raise his peer acceptance among his…

  1. Effectiveness of behavioral parent training for children with ADHD in routine clinical practice : A randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to routine clinical care (RCC). Method: After a first phase of RCC, 94 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ages 4-12, all referred to a Dutch outpatient mental health clinic, were

  2. Mixed-Effects Modeling of Neurofeedback Self-Regulation Performance: Moderators for Learning in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zuberer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurofeedback (NF has gained increasing popularity as a training method for children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, it is unclear to what extent children learn to regulate their brain activity and in what way NF learning may be affected by subject- and treatment-related factors. Methods. In total, 48 subjects with ADHD (age 8.5–16.5 years; 16 subjects on methylphenidate (MPH underwent 15 double training sessions of NF in either a clinical or a school setting. Four mixed-effects models were employed to analyze learning: training within-sessions, across-sessions, with continuous feedback, and with transfer in which performance feedback is delayed. Results. Age and MPH affected the NF performance in all models. Cross-session learning in the feedback condition was mainly moderated by age and MPH, whereas NF learning in the transfer condition was mainly boosted by MPH. Apart from IQ and task types, other subject-related or treatment-related effects were unrelated to NF learning. Conclusion. This first study analyzing moderators of NF learning in ADHD with a mixed-effects modeling approach shows that NF performance is moderated differentially by effects of age and MPH depending on the training task and time window. Future studies may benefit from using this approach to analyze NF learning and NF specificity. The trial name Neurofeedback and Computerized Cognitive Training in Different Settings for Children and Adolescents With ADHD is registered with NCT02358941.

  3. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern dependence in synergistic effects of total dose on single-event upset hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongxia; Ding Lili; Xiao Yao; Zhang Fengqi; Luo Yinhong; Zhao Wen; Wang Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    The pattern dependence in synergistic effects was studied in a 0.18 μm static random access memory (SRAM) circuit. Experiments were performed under two SEU test environments: 3 MeV protons and heavy ions. Measured results show different trends. In heavy ion SEU test, the degradation in the peripheral circuitry also existed because the measured SEU cross section decreased regardless of the patterns written to the SRAM array. TCAD simulation was performed. TID-induced degradation in nMOSFETs mainly induced the imprint effect in the SRAM cell, which is consistent with the measured results under the proton environment, but cannot explain the phenomena observed under heavy ion environment. A possible explanation could be the contribution from the radiation-induced GIDL in pMOSFETs. (paper)

  5. Synergistic effects of atmospheric pressure plasma-emitted components on DNA oligomers: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edengeiser, Eugen; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Bründermann, Erik; Schneider, Simon; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E; Havenith, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have become of increasing importance in sterilization processes especially with the growing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria. Albeit the potential for technological application is obvious, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation. X-jet technology separates plasma-generated reactive particles and photons, thus allowing the investigation of their individual and joint effects on DNA. Raman spectroscopy shows that particles and photons cause different modifications in DNA single and double strands. The treatment with the combination of particles and photons does not only result in cumulative, but in synergistic effects. Profilometry confirms that etching is a minor contributor to the observed DNA damage in vitro. Schematics of DNA oligomer treatment with cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synergistic effects of interfacial modifiers enhance current and voltage in hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Weickert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To unleash the full potential of hybrid solar cells, it is imperative to get significant photocurrent contribution from both the sensitizing dye and the polymeric hole transporter. Here we report on the interfacial modifier 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP, which induces controlled orientation of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT, the most widely used hole transporting polymer for hybrid solar cells, at the interface. 4-MP optimizes the charge separating interface between P3HT and a squaraine dye-decorated TiO2, inducing enhanced contribution to photocurrent generation by the polymer. In combination with 4-tert-butylpyridine, which enhances the open circuit potential in dye-sensitized and hybrid solar cells but reduces the photocurrent, a synergistic effect is observed and it is possible to enhance both open circuit voltage and photocurrent simultaneously. Similar effects on device performance are also found for two other commonly used dye molecules, a fullerene derivative and a common indoline dye.

  7. Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Eelco V.; von Rhein, Daniel; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are continuously distributed throughout the population, and ASD symptoms are also frequently observed in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both ASD and ADHD have been linked to alterations in reward-related neural

  8. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water–surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface–water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of

  9. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Hashemi, Maryam; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

    2017-09-18

    The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R 2 =0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed

  10. Synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on batch anaerobic digestion of maize straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Shailendra; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Zhang, Wanqin; Li, Jiaxi; Dong, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect of NaOH treatment and Fe dosage to maize straw was investigated. • Combining NaOH treatment and Fe dosing resulted in 57% and 56% higher biogas and methane yield respectively. • Combined treatment shortened the technical digestion time from 48 days to 7 days. • Methane content did not differ significantly among the straw treatments. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated using mesophilic batch reactors. Three straw treatments were investigated as follows: NaOH (4% and 6%) pretreatment, Fe dosage (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg/L), and combined NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage. Compared to the control, NaOH pretreatment alone increased methane yield by 3.5% (313.3 mL CH 4 /gVS) and 22.5% (370.9 mL CH 4 /gVS) and shortened the technical digestion time (TDT) from 48 days to 19 days and 10 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. Moreover, Fe dosing (200–1000 mg/L) alone gave a methane yield higher (9.4%) than that obtained from 4% NaOH and 7.5% less than the methane yield from 6% NaOH pretreatment; however, the TDT was 10 days longer. Combining NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage (200–1000 mg/L) significantly increased the methane yield even further to 21.8% (368.8 mL CH 4 /gVS) and 56.2% (472.9 mL CH 4 /gVS), and shortened TDT from 48 days to 13 days and 7 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. This synergistic effect may be attributed to the fact that the alkaline treatment improved accessibility of the biodegradable fraction of the straw while Fe contributed to increased microbial enzyme activity.

  11. Processing of continuously provided punishment and reward in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditions: no-feedback, gain and loss. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) time-locked to feedback and errors were computed. All groups performed more accurately with gain and loss than without feedback. Feedback-related ERPs demonstrated no group differences in the feedback P2, but an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) to feedback stimuli (both gains and losses) for Mph-free children with ADHD compared to controls. Feedback-related ERPs in Mph-treated children with ADHD were similar to controls. Correlational analyses in the ADHD groups revealed that the severity of inattention problems correlated negatively with the feedback P2 amplitude and positively with the LPP to losses and omitted gains. The early selective attention for rewarding and punishing feedback was relatively intact in children with ADHD, but the late feedback processing was deviant (increased feedback LPP). This may explain the often observed positive effects of continuous reinforcement on performance and behaviour in children with ADHD. However, these group findings cannot be generalised to all individuals with the ADHD, because the feedback-related ERPs were associated with the severity of the inattention problems. Children with ADHD-combined type with more inattention problems showed both deviant early attentional selection of feedback stimuli, and deviant late processing of non-reward and punishment.

  12. Processing of continuously provided punishment and reward in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. METHODS: 15 Methylphenidate (Mph-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditions: no-feedback, gain and loss. Event Related Potentials (ERPs time-locked to feedback and errors were computed. RESULTS: All groups performed more accurately with gain and loss than without feedback. Feedback-related ERPs demonstrated no group differences in the feedback P2, but an enhanced late positive potential (LPP to feedback stimuli (both gains and losses for Mph-free children with ADHD compared to controls. Feedback-related ERPs in Mph-treated children with ADHD were similar to controls. Correlational analyses in the ADHD groups revealed that the severity of inattention problems correlated negatively with the feedback P2 amplitude and positively with the LPP to losses and omitted gains. CONCLUSIONS: The early selective attention for rewarding and punishing feedback was relatively intact in children with ADHD, but the late feedback processing was deviant (increased feedback LPP. This may explain the often observed positive effects of continuous reinforcement on performance and behaviour in children with ADHD. However, these group findings cannot be generalised to all individuals with the ADHD, because the feedback-related ERPs were associated with the severity of the inattention problems. Children with ADHD-combined type with more inattention problems showed both deviant early attentional selection of feedback stimuli, and deviant late processing of non-reward and punishment.

  13. An FMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Bradley S; Potenza, Marc N; Wang, Zhishun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of psychostimulants on brain activity in children and adolescents with ADHD performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. METHOD: The authors acquired 52 functional MRI scans in 16 youths with ADHD who were known responders to stimulant medication and 20...... healthy comparison youths. Participants with ADHD were scanned on and off medication in a counterbalanced design, and comparison subjects were scanned once without medication. RESULTS: Stimulant medication significantly improved suppression of default-mode activity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex...... in the ADHD group. When off medication, youths with ADHD were unable to suppress default-mode activity to the same degree as comparison subjects, whereas when on medication, they suppressed this activity to comparison group levels. Greater activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex when off medication...

  14. Synergistic effects of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and glutamic acid in inhibition assembly against copper corrosion in acidic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinzhe; Zhang, Daquan; Zeng, Huijing; Xie, Bin; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2015-11-01

    A self-assembled multilayer (SAM) from sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (SLS) and glutamic acid (GLU) is formed on copper surface. Its inhibition ability against copper corrosion is examined by electrochemical analysis and weight loss test. In comparison to SAM formed by just SLS or GLU, a synergistic effect is observed when the coexistence of SLS and GLU in SAM. The SLS/GLU SAM has an acicular multilayer structure, and SAM prepared under the condition of 5 mM SLS and 1 mM GLU shows the best protection efficiency. PM6 calculation reveals that the synergistic effect stems from interactions between SLS, GLU and cupric ions.

  15. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  16. [Feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training in adults with ADHD: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepark, S.; Kan, C.C.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. AIM: To conduct a pilot study which

  17. An Examination of the Effects of ADHD Coaching on University Students' Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David R.; Hoffman, Sharon Field; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Rolands, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Seven undergraduates at a selective Midwestern university participated in a semester-long pilot study regarding the impact of ADHD coaching services on their academic experiences. Coaches in the study had extensive qualifications, including specific training to address the needs of college students with ADHD. Three major themes emerged from…

  18. The Effect of Ritalin on Response to Reward and Punishment in Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Groups of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children taking a placebo, high dose, or low dose of Ritalin were compared in their responses to reward and punishment. Results suggest that Ritalin may improve the ability of ADHD children to withhold inappropriate responding by dampening their response to reward cues and, possibly, making…

  19. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

  20. ADHD medication prescription: effects of child, sibling, parent and general practice characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Bruggers, I.; Dijk, L. van; Korevaar, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Many children receive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, but factors that determine medication prescription are largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the relative impact of factors on the child, family and general practitioner (GP) practice level on ADHD medication

  1. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  2. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  3. Synergistic effect of DSA and MSCTA in interventional therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Liaohe; Xiao Xiangsheng; Jia Ningyang; Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the synergistic effect of DSA and MSCTA in interventional therapy for lung cancer. Methods Interventional therapy was performed in 46 patients with lung cancer. With real time helical thin slice CT scanning, MSCTA of tumor feeding artery was performed in 26 patients. Images obtained from enhanced MSCT scanning were processed at the console workstation. Spatial anatomical characteristics of tumor feeding artery were observed by using different rotations of view. DSA study and the interventional therapy were followed up in 26 patients with lung cancer. Results: All tumor feeding arteries in 26 patients with lung cancer were observed by using VR, MIP and MPR, which could exactly display the origin, course and diameter of the vessels. DSA had a high consistency with MSCTA in displaying the tumor vascularity, tumor stain, and the origin of tumor-feeding artery in the patients who received MSCTA and the interventional therapy. The number of catheter used, the dosage of contrast medium, the sequence of subtraction, the fluoroscopic time and operation time in the group with use of CTA was less than that in the group without use of CTA, and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion: The anatomical characteristics of tumor-feeding artery in patients with lung cancer can be stereoscopically and clearly displayed on preoperative routine MSCTA, providing useful information and thus making the interventional procedure more safe and effective. Simultaneous use of DSA and MSCTA is reasonable and practicable, which has synergistic effect in interventional therapy for lung cancer. (authors)

  4. Synergistic effects of remote perconditioning with terminal blood cardioplegia in an in vivo piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki; Morita, Kiyozo; Shinohara, Gen; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Masako

    2017-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that remote perconditioning offers effective and synergistic cardioprotection to terminal warm blood cardioplegia for prompt ventricular recovery after prolonged cardioplegic arrest in an in vivo piglet model. Twenty-four piglets were subjected to 120 min of single-dose cardioplegic arrest and were divided into 4 groups according to the mode of reperfusion: control (simple aortic unclamp), remote perconditioning, terminal warm blood cardioplegia or remote perconditioning + terminal warm blood cardioplegia; remote perconditioning (4 cycles of 5-min ischaemia-reperfusion of the lower limb) was applied prior to aortic unclamping. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by pressure-volume loop analysis at baseline and after 60 min of reperfusion. Biochemical injury was evaluated by plasma troponin T level. The control group showed decreased end-systolic elastance, preload recruitable stroke work and inverse of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship of 51.3 ± 14.0%, 46.1 ± 22.5% and 34.8 ± 14.9%, respectively. Percentage recovery of end-systolic elastance and preload recruitable stroke work were significantly better with terminal warm blood cardioplegia (with or without remote perconditioning) (end-systolic elastance: 95% confidence interval, 38.6-84.1; preload recruitable stroke work: 95% confidence interval, 0.4-54.3). Percentage recovery of inverse of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship was significantly better in the remote perconditioning groups (with or without terminal warm blood cardioplegia) (95% confidence interval, 1.6-41.6). No synergistic effects of remote perconditioning and terminal warm blood cardioplegia on troponin T release were noted. Remote perconditioning offers promising synergistic cardioprotection to terminal warm blood cardioplegia, implicating potential clinical benefit by contributing to prompt left ventricular functional recovery during paediatric open

  5. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  6. Effect of additional auditory and visual stimuli on continuous performance test (noise-generated CPT) in AD/HD children -- usefulness of noise-generated CPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masaaki; Abe, Junko; Sawai, Chihiro; Sakaue, Yuhko; Nishitani, Atsushi; Yasuda, Yuriko; Tsuzuki, Kento; Takano, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Masaki; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    The continuous performance test (CPT) is designed to measure sustained attention quantitatively. Several CPTs are used clinically. We have made changes to the conventional type of visual CPT, by displaying auditory and visual noise along with target or non-target stimuli. By influencing the recognition of the subjects in this way, the changes were intended to increase the sensitivity of detection of inattention and impulsiveness, to make CPT more useful for diagnosis, and to examine the effect of noise on AD/HD children during CPT performance. Its usefulness for AD/HD diagnosis and the reaction of AD/HD children to noise were examined using newly developed computer software. Using this CPT analysis, a significant difference was observed in all measurements, except mean reaction time, between the control and AD/HD groups, showing that it was useful as a supplementary diagnostic method for AD/HD, and was more useful in the younger age group than in the older age group, as the same for conventional CPTs. As compared to no-noise sessions, commission and omission errors both increased significantly in auditory and visual noise sessions. Thus, analyzing the changes in measurements during noise sessions will improve the diagnosis of inattention and combined AD/HD subtypes. Furthermore, it was suggested that analysis of the effects of noise on AD/HD children will benefit their handling in an educational environment. Since omission errors were decreased in AD/HD children by noise during the CPT performance as compared to the control group, noise may induce attention in AD/HD children. The present study presents new findings on the responses to noise of AD/HD children during the CPT.

  7. Synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide on flammability behaviour of aerospace epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardancy of mono-component epoxy resin (RTM6, widely used for aerospace composites, treated with zinc borate (ZB, aluminium trihydroxide (ATH and their mixtures at different concentrations have been investigated by morphological and thermal characterization. Cone calorimeter data reveal that combustion behaviour, heat release rate peak (PHRR and heat release rate average (HRR Average of RTM6 resin decrease substantially when synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide intervene. Thermogravimetric (TGA results and analysis of the residue show that addition higher than 20% w/w of ZB, ATH, and their mixture greatly promotes RTM6 char formation acting as a barrier layer for the fire development. Depending upon the different used flame additives, SEM micrographs indicate that the morphology of residual char could vary from a compact amalgam-like structure, for the RTM6+ZB system, to a granular structure, characterized by very small particles of degraded resin and additive for the ATH.

  8. Intramolecular synergistic effect of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine against copper corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daquan, E-mail: zhdq@sh163.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Xie Bin; Gao Lixin; Cai Qirui [Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Joo, Hyung Goun; Lee, Kang Yong [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-31

    The corrosion protection of copper by glutamic acid, cysteine, glycine and their derivative (glutathione) in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution has been studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The inhibition efficiency of the organic inhibitors on copper corrosion increases in the order: glutathione > cysteine > cysteine + glutamic acid + glycine > glutamic acid > glycine. Maximum inhibition efficiency for cysteine reaches about 92.9% at 15 mM concentration level. The glutathione can give 96.4% inhibition efficiency at a concentration of 10 mM. The molecular structure parameters were obtained by PM3 (Parametric Method 3) semi-empirical calculation. The intramolecular synergistic effect of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine moieties in glutathione is attributed to the lower energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}) level and to the excess hetero-atom adsorption centers and the bigger coverage on the copper surface.

  9. A rank-based statistical test for measuring synergistic effects between two gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yuichi; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Miyano, Satoru

    2011-09-01

    Due to recent advances in high-throughput technologies, data on various types of genomic annotation have accumulated. These data will be crucially helpful for elucidating the combinatorial logic of transcription. Although several approaches have been proposed for inferring cooperativity among multiple factors, most approaches are haunted by the issues of normalization and threshold values. In this article, we propose a rank-based non-parametric statistical test for measuring the effects between two gene sets. This method is free from the issues of normalization and threshold value determination for gene expression values. Furthermore, we have proposed an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo method for calculating an approximate significance value of synergy. We have applied this approach for detecting synergistic combinations of transcription factor binding motifs and histone modifications. C implementation of the method is available from http://www.hgc.jp/~yshira/software/rankSynergy.zip. yshira@hgc.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuming; Wu, Lina; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Pingping; Feng, Cuiyun

    2013-01-01

    A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state

  11. Synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Bretthauer, E.W.

    1975-06-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to test the possible synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Appropriate techniques were developed to expose the rats to cigarette smoke through mouth-breathing and to add known amounts of polonium-210 to the cigarette smoke. The findings from this experiment included: (1) lung deposition of polonium-210 was 31 plus or minus 2%, (2) early retention of polonium was two-phased with half-times of 4 and 84 hours, and (3) bronchitis, emphysema and lung tumors were observed in the experimental animals. Though the spontaneous occurrence of two lung tumors in the number of animals at risk was highly improbable, any conclusion that this resulted from the exposure to cigarette smoke must be highly qualified

  12. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Zaganas, Ioannis D.

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural...... was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L−1, due to low methane production (only 39%) compared to the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatised inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible “synergistic effect” which led to a more efficient AD of poultry...... manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure....

  13. Intramolecular synergistic effect of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine against copper corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daquan; Xie Bin; Gao Lixin; Cai Qirui; Joo, Hyung Goun; Lee, Kang Yong

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion protection of copper by glutamic acid, cysteine, glycine and their derivative (glutathione) in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution has been studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The inhibition efficiency of the organic inhibitors on copper corrosion increases in the order: glutathione > cysteine > cysteine + glutamic acid + glycine > glutamic acid > glycine. Maximum inhibition efficiency for cysteine reaches about 92.9% at 15 mM concentration level. The glutathione can give 96.4% inhibition efficiency at a concentration of 10 mM. The molecular structure parameters were obtained by PM3 (Parametric Method 3) semi-empirical calculation. The intramolecular synergistic effect of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine moieties in glutathione is attributed to the lower energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E LUMO ) level and to the excess hetero-atom adsorption centers and the bigger coverage on the copper surface.

  14. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  15. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Eran; Lachmi, Bat-El; Keren, Adi; Barnea, Ada; Marcus, Hadar; Cohen, Shoshana; David, Alon Ben; Zichel, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc) of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  16. Radioactive EGFR Antibody Cetuximab in Multimodal Cancer Treatment: Stability and Synergistic Effects With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Wolff, Christian; Nadrowitz, Roger; Breunig, Christian; Schild, Steven E.; Baehre, Manfred; Meller, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Systemic therapies when added to whole brain radiotherapy have failed to improve the survival of patients with multiple brain metastases. The epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab is an attractive option, if it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This might be proven with molecular imaging if the radiolabeled antibody is stable long enough to be effective. This study investigated the stability of radiolabeled cetuximab (Erbitux) ( 131 I-Erbi) and potential synergistic effects with radiotherapy in vitro. Methods and Materials: Two cell lines were investigated, A431 with numerous epidermal growth factor receptors, and JIMT without epidermal growth factor receptors. We labeled 0.4 mg cetuximab with 50 MBq of [ 131 I] iodide. Stability was determined for 72 h. The cell cultures were incubated with 131 I-Erbi or cold cetuximab for 72 h. Uptake and cell proliferation were measured every 24 h after no radiotherapy or irradiation with 2, 4, or 10 Gy. Results: The radiolabeling yield of 131 I-Erbi was always >80%. The radiochemical purity was still 93.6% after 72 h. A431 cells showed a 131 I-Erbi uptake about 100-fold greater than the JIMT controls. After 48 h, the A431 cultures showed significantly decreased proliferation. At 72 h after irradiation, 131 I-Erbi resulted in more pronounced inhibition of cell proliferation than the cold antibody in all radiation dose groups. Conclusion: 131 I-Erbi was stable for ≤72 h. Radiotherapy led to increased tumor cell uptake of 131 I-Erbi. Radiotherapy and 131 I-Erbi synergistically inhibited tumor cell proliferation. These results provide the prerequisite data for a planned in vivo study of whole brain radiotherapy plus cetuximab for brain metastases.

  17. Synergistic Effects of Crizotinib and Temozolomide in Experimental FIG-ROS1 Fusion-Positive Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arabinda; Cheng, Ron Ron; Hilbert, Megan L T; Dixon-Moh, Yaenette N; Decandio, Michele; Vandergrift, William Alex; Banik, Naren L; Lindhorst, Scott M; Cachia, David; Varma, Abhay K; Patel, Sunil J; Giglio, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan) fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB)-ROS1. As such, these could be attractive targets for GB therapy. The study subjects consisted of 19 patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of GB tissues. Our in vitro and ex vivo models promisingly demonstrated that treatments with crizotinib (PF-02341066: dual ALK/c-Met inhibitor) and temozolomide in combination induced synergistic antitumor activity on FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells. Our results also showed that ex vivo FIG-ROS1+ slices (obtained from GB patients) when cultured were able to preserve tissue architecture, cell viability, and global gene-expression profiles for up to 14 days. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that combination blockade of FIG, p-ROS1, p-ALK, and p-Met augmented apoptosis, which mechanistically involves activation of Bim and inhibition of survivin, p-Akt, and Mcl-1 expression. However, it is important to note that we did not see any significant synergistic effect of crizotinib and temozolomide on FIG-ROS1-negative GB cells. Thus, these ex vivo culture results will have a significant impact on patient selection for clinical trials and in predicting response to crizotinib and temozolomide therapy. Further studies in different animal models of FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells are warranted to determine useful therapies for the

  18. Synergistic Effects of Crizotinib and Temozolomide in Experimental FIG-ROS1 Fusion-Positive Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabinda Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB-ROS1. As such, these could be attractive targets for GB therapy. The study subjects consisted of 19 patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of GB tissues. Our in vitro and ex vivo models promisingly demonstrated that treatments with crizotinib (PF-02341066: dual ALK/c-Met inhibitor and temozolomide in combination induced synergistic antitumor activity on FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells. Our results also showed that ex vivo FIG-ROS1+ slices (obtained from GB patients when cultured were able to preserve tissue architecture, cell viability, and global gene-expression profiles for up to 14 days. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that combination blockade of FIG, p-ROS1, p-ALK, and p-Met augmented apoptosis, which mechanistically involves activation of Bim and inhibition of survivin, p-Akt, and Mcl-1 expression. However, it is important to note that we did not see any significant synergistic effect of crizotinib and temozolomide on FIG-ROS1-negative GB cells. Thus, these ex vivo culture results will have a significant impact on patient selection for clinical trials and in predicting response to crizotinib and temozolomide therapy. Further studies in different animal models of FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells are warranted to determine useful therapies for

  19. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  20. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Christopher; Weiss, Margaret D.; Goodman, David W.; Hodgkins, Paul S.; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST) study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI), inattentive (IA) and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and hea...

  1. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  2. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panáček, Aleš; Smékalová, Monika; Kilianová, Martina; Prucek, Robert; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Večeřová, Renata; Kolář, Milan; Havrdová, Markéta; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Chojniak, Joanna; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2015-12-28

    The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  3. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Panáček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  4. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxalylglycine and butyrate incorporated into α-calcium sulfate on bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung Mi; Jung, Hong-Moon; Oh, Joung-Hwan; Rahman, Saeed Ur; Kim, Soung Min; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis is closely related to angiogenesis, and the combined delivery of angiogenic and osteogenic factors has been suggested to enhance bone regeneration. Small molecules have been explored as alternatives to growth factors for tissue regeneration applications. In this study, we examined the effects of the combined application of angiogenic and osteogenic small molecules on bone regeneration using a prolyl hydroxylase, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, butyrate. In a critical size bone defect model in rats, DMOG and butyrate, which were incorporated into α calcium sulfate (αCS), resulted in synergistic enhancements in bone and blood vessel formation, eventually leading to bone healing, as confirmed by micro-CT and histological analyses. In MC4 pre-osteoblast cultures, DMOG and butyrate enhanced the pro-angiogenic responses and osteoblast differentiation, respectively, which were evaluated based on the levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein and the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules (VEGF, home oxidase-1, glucose transporter-1) and by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteoblast phenotype marker molecules (ALP, α1(I)col, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein). DMOG combined with butyrate synergistically improved osteoblast differentiation and pro-angiogenic responses, the levels of which were drastically increased in the cultures on αCS disks. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that αCS increased the level of HIF-1α and as a consequence VEGF expression, and supported osteoblast differentiation through the release of calcium ions from the αCS. Altogether, the results of this study provide evidence that a combination treatment with the small molecules DMOG and butyrate can expedite the process of bone regeneration and that αCS can be an efficient delivery vehicle for the small molecules for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yufei, E-mail: zhang.yu.fei@stu.xjtu.edu.cn; Shen, Huiyuan; Liu, Yanhua, E-mail: yhliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Building Environment and Services Engineering, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts co-doped with F and Fe were synthesized by a sol–gel method. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in the co-doped TiO{sub 2} were verified by NH{sub 3} decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, and was analyzed by the simulation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The results from NH{sub 3} decomposition confirmed that the cooperation of F and Fe broadened the optical response of TiO{sub 2} to visible light region and also enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} under ultraviolet light. XRD patterns, SEM and HRTEM images showed that the co-doped samples were nanometric anatase with an average particle size of 25 nm. Co-doping with F and Fe inhibited the grain growth of TiO{sub 2} from anatase to rutile and resulted in a larger lattice defect. XPS analysis exhibited that the doped F and Fe atoms were into the TiO{sub 2} lattice. UV–Vis absorption spectra showed that its optical absorption edge was moved up to approximately 617 nm and its ultraviolet absorption was also enhanced. The DFT results indicated that the cooperation of Fe 3d and O 2p orbits narrowed the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and F 2p orbit widened the upper valence bands. The synergistic electron density around F and Fe in co-doped TiO{sub 2} was capable to enhance the photo-chemical stability of TiO{sub 2}.

  6. Studies on The Synergistic Effect of Some Irradiated Essential Oils in Some Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cumin, rosemary and thyme essential oils were gamma irradiated. Then, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were studied to measure the synergistic effect of their essential oils mixtures. 4, 6 and 4 kGy were the recommended doses for cumin, rosemary and thyme, respectively according to antimicrobial activity (agar well-diffusion) against S. typhimurium, S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli. There were no changes in the physiochemical properties due to irradiation but, some changes occurred in the GC/MS analysis where, the amount of oxygenated compounds increased in cumin and thyme essential oils while, the oxygenated compounds decreased in rosemary essential oil. The mixture made from non-irradiated cumin (C 0 ) and rosemary (R 0 ) essential oils were showed the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coil and B. cereus at 50 μl. Mixtures made from non-irradiated cumin and thyme (T 0 ) essential oils showed the highest antimicrobial activity against B. cereus. Mixtures made form irradiated cumin at dose 4 kGy (C 4 ) and rosemary at dose 6 kGy (R 6 ) essential oils introduced promising antimicrobial activity as well as C 0 XR 0 mixture. Fraction inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were studied against selected four bacterial strains for measuring synergistic activity however, (FIC) represented indifference in all essential oils mixtures but, the C 0 X R 0 mixture against B. cereus (0.375) and E. coli (0.375) was synergy (below 0.5). Furthermore, the FIC shows addition in case of R 0 XT 0 , C 2 XR 6 , C 4 XR 6 and R 6 XT 4 against B. cereus. And in case of C 4 XR 6 against S. typhimurium. Preliminary experiment represented that 0.2, 0.4 and 0.1% were the acceptable odor in sunflower oil supplemented with rosemary, cumin and thyme essential oils, respectively.

  7. Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidantadditives: Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly (ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days du...

  8. Effects of inter- and extramuscular myofascial force transmission on adjacent synergistic muscles: assessment by experiments and finite-element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopmans, H.J.M.F; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of inter- and extramuscular myofascial force transmission on muscle length force characteristics were studied in rat. Connective tissues at the bellies of the experimental synergistic muscles of the anterior crural compartment were left intact. Extensor digitorium longus (EDL) muscle was

  9. Synergistic effect of polyaspartic acid and iodide ion on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in H2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Bei; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Meng; Hou, Baorong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Polyaspartic acid acts as a modest cathodic inhibitor for mild steel in H 2 SO 4 . •Results revealed synergistic effect between polyaspartic acid and iodide ion. •Inhibition efficiency depends on the temperature of H 2 SO 4 medium. •XPS analysis revealed co-adsorption of polyaspartic acid and iodide ion. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of polyaspartic acid (PASP) and its synergistic effect with KI on mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution are studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of PASP and increases further with the presence of 1 mM KI. Result of the zero charge potential measurement shows that iodide ion promotes the film formation of PASP greatly. The mild steel surfaces after immersion test were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An adsorption model is proposed to elucidate the synergistic mechanism of synergistic effect

  10. Synergistic androgenic effect of a petroleum product caused by the joint action of at least three different types of compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Candido, Angelica; Vrabie, Cozmina M; Scarlett, Alan G; Rowland, Steven J

    In a previous study, we found a dose-dependent synergistic effect in recombinant yeast stably transfected with the human androgen receptor (AR), in response to co-exposure to testosterone and a commercially-available lubricant (engine) oil for cars. As there is relatively little knowledge on

  11. Synergistic Effect of Dofetilide and Mexiletine on Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guizhi; Xue, Xiaolin; Gao, Chuanyu; Huang, Jiaqi; Qi, Datun; Zhang, Yanzhou; Dong, Jian-Zeng; Ma, Chang-Sheng; Yan, Gan-Xin

    2017-05-18

    Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common abnormal heart rhythm and its prevalence continues to rise, there is a marked paucity of effective and safe antiarrhythmic drugs for AF. This study was done to test whether combined use of dofetilide and mexiletine exhibits not only a synergistic effect on AF suppression but also a safer profile in drug-induced ventricular proarrhythmias. The effects of dofetilide plus mexiletine on atrial effective refractory period (ERP), AF inducibility, QT, and QT-related ventricular arrhythmias were studied using the isolated arterially perfused rabbit atrial and ventricular wedge preparations. Dofetilide or mexiletine alone mildly to moderately prolonged atrial ERP, but their combined use produced a markedly rate-dependent increase in atrial ERP. Dofetilide (3 nmol/L) plus mexiletine (10 μmol/L) increased the ERP by 28.2% from 72.2±5.7 to 92.8±5.9 ms (n=9, P atrial ERP and effectively suppresses AF inducibility, but also markedly reduces QT liability and torsade de pointes risk posed by dofetilide alone. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Synergistic combinatorial antihyperlipidemic study of selected natural antioxidants; modulatory effects on lipid profile and endogenous antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peer Abdul; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Ullah, Irfan; Ullah, Safi

    2016-09-09

    Hyperlipidemia, a major pathological condition associated with disrupted lipid levels and physiological redox homeostasis. The excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to enhanced lipid peroxidation, aggravated atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Integration of natural antioxidant blends in alone or with conventional treatments can alleviate these issues synergistically contributing least side effects. Published literature reported the efficacy of natural antioxidants as individual and in combinations in various conditions but less data is available on their evaluation in low dose ratio blends particularly in hypercholesterolemic diet. Antihyperlipidemic effects of selected natural antioxidants; the phenolic oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and pterostilbene (PT) with niacin (NA) were investigated in current study. Their effects on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and their aptitude to establish redox state between oxidants and antioxidants in body were evaluated in high cholesterol diet fed animal model. Male albino rabbits (n = 6) weighing 1.2-1.6 kg, supplemented with high cholesterol diet (400 mg/kg) for 12 weeks were used in the experiment. Antioxidants were administered individual high (100 mg/kg) and in low dose combinations (total dose = 100 mg/kg). Student's t test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet's test were used as statistical tools for evaluation. The results showed synergistic effects of low dose antioxidant blends. Therapies retarded elevation in blood lipid levels, lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidant depletion and consequently contributed in reestablishing redox homeostasis. The LDL/HDL ratio and atherogenic index were suppressed significantly in blend therapies with maximum effects of 59.3 and 25 % (p >0.001) observed in 50:30:20 ratios of OPC, NA and PT, compared to individual therapies 37 and 18 % max respectively. Moreover the results were also in close proximity with the statin

  13. Synergistic Effect of Forbesione From Garcinia hanburyi in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil on Cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueroy, Parichart; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonmars, Thidarut; Saensa-ard, Sunitta; Wattanawongdon, Wareeporn; Kongsanthia, Charuphan; Salao, Kanin; Wongwajana, Suwin; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2017-12-29

    Background: Chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely ineffective; thus innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of forbesione combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamster cholangiocarcinoma (Ham-1) cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor effects of 5-FU combined with forbesione in vitro were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the effects in vivo were assessed in transplanted Ham-1 allograph models. Using ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining, the morphological changes of apoptotic cells was investigated. The expressions of apoptosis-related molecules after combined treatment with forbesione and 5-FU were determined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Forbesione or 5-FU alone inhibited proliferation of Ham-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and their combination showed a synergistic proliferation inhibitory effect in vitro. In vivo studies, forbesione in combination with 5-FU exhibited greater inhibition of the tumor in the hamster model compared with treatment using either drug alone. Forbesione combined with 5-FU exerted stronger apoptotic induction in Ham-1 cells than did single drug treatment. The combination of drugs strongly suppressed the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 while enhancing the expression of p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase-9 and caspase-3, compared with single drug treatments. These results explained the decreased expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) positive cells and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in Ham-1 cell tumor tissues of the treated hamsters. There was no apparent systemic toxicity observed in the treated animals compared with the control groups. Forbesione combined with 5-FU strongly induced apoptosis in Ham-1 cells. The growth

  14. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults – health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a mental disorder. Symptoms include hyperactivity, lack of attentiveness, and frivolousness. This disorder always begins in childhood, but can remain through adulthood. ADHD affects all areas of life and limits the quality of life due to its symptoms and the high rate of associated disorders that can develop. An established form of therapy is using stimulant medications, most commonly, containing Methylphenidate as the active ingredient. However, in Germany this ingredient is not approved for adults suffering from ADHD. Therefore, many adults cannot obtain appropriate medication to treat this disorder. Objective: The following report (Health Technology Assessment [HTA] examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the medical treatment of ADHD in adults as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects thereof. Methods: In August 2009, a systematic literature search is performed in all relevant scientific databases. The selected citations fulfill predetermined inclusion criteria. The data in the publications is then systematically extracted, reviewed and assessed. A manual search of citations is conducted as well. Results: Nineteen studies fulfill the inclusion criteria: nine randomised controlled studies (RCT, five meta-analyses, three economic studies and two studies relevant to the legal aspects of the HTA.All RCT reveal that adult patients who receive medication containing a stimulant (Methylphenidate and Amphetamine and Atomoxetine, see a reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to the placebo-treated patients. The drug response rate among the control group ranges from 7 to 42%; in the treatment group from 17 to 59.6%. The meta-analyses confirm the findings of the RCT. In light of the control group, it can be ascertained that there are higher annual costs (both direct and indirect for patients with ADHD. The average annual medical expenses for an adult with ADHD were 1,262 $ in

  15. Effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions; psychostimulants are first choice. Other alternatives have been used such as alpha agonists (clonidine, hence it is important to know its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists in treating ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing alpha agonists to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, Lilacs, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 34 studies found initially, three were included, among which a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Clonidine is considered an effective second and third line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but it is less effective than stimulants. Its use is associated with many side effects.

  16. Sweat it out? The effects of physical exercise on cognition and behavior in children and adults with ADHD : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Thome, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver

    As attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disorders in childhood, effective yet safe treatment options are highly important. Recent research introduced physical exercise as a potential treatment option, particularly for children with

  17. A randomized controlled trial into the effects of neurofeedback, methylphenidate, and physical activity on EEG power spectra in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.W.P.; Bink, M.; Gelade, K.; van Mourik, R.; Maras, A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical and neurophysiological effects of neurofeedback (NF) as treatment for children with ADHD are still unclear. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra before and after NF compared to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment and physical

  18. Synergistic Effects of a Smac Mimetic with Doxorubicin Against Human Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Etsuko; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Minoda, Masaya; Morishita, Masayuki; Takemori, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Shuichi; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) is a proapoptogenic mitochondrial protein that antagonizes inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), resulting in induction of apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the effects of a Smac mimetic in combination with doxorubicin against osteosarcoma. In vitro effects of the combination of a Smac mimetic AT-406 and doxorubicin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines were examined using cell proliferation assays, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analyses. For in vivo experiments, human osteosarcoma xenografts were treated with combination of the two substances, and tumor volume and apoptotic activity in treated tumors were assessed. In vitro studies revealed that combination of the two substances significantly inhibited osteosarcoma proliferation with decreased cIAP1 expression and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Combination of the two substances significantly suppressed osteosarcoma growth in vivo. Moreover, decreased cIAP1 expression and increased apoptotic activity were observed in tumors treated by their combination of the substances. The Smac mimetic AT-406 showed an apoptotic effect and a synergistic antitumor effect with doxorubicin on osteosarcoma. The combination of AT-406 and doxorubicin may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic protective effect ofN-acetylcysteine and taurine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Wessam M; Moussa, Farouzia I; Saad, Najwa A

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug, but it has limitations because of its nephrotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of N -acetylcysteine (NAC) and taurine (TAU), both individually and in combination, against CDDP nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 48 male rats were assigned into eight groups (n=6) as follows: 1) control group, 2) NAC group, 3) TAU group, 4) NAC-TAU group, 5) CDDP group, 6) CDDP-NAC group, 7) CDDP-TAU group, and 8) CDDP-NAC-TAU group. Cisplatin was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 6 mg/kg. Three days after CDDP administration, NAC (50 mg/kg) and/or TAU (50 mg/kg) were administered three times weekly for four consecutive weeks. Kidney function markers in serum, urinary glucose and protein, as well as oxidant and antioxidant parameters in renal tissue were assessed. Administration of CDDP significantly elevated urinary glucose and protein, as well as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, CDDP enhanced lipid peroxidation and suppressed the major enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Treatment with NAC or TAU protected against the alterations in the serum, urine, and renal tissue when used individually along with CDDP. Furthermore, a combined therapy of both was more effective in ameliorating CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which points out to their synergistic effect.

  20. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with low doses of glucocorticoids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanqin; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Leiming; Du, Yuan; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are usually used to treat inflammatory diseases. However, they cause severe and irreversible side effects, which limit the use of these compounds. Ginsenoside Rg1 had been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. The present study was designed to investigate whether Rg1 exhibits synergistic anti-inflammatory effects when combined with glucocorticoids. After stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), murine macrophagic RAW264.7 cells were treated with Rg1, corticosterone (Cort) or Rg1 and Cort. Then nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression were measured. The results showed that Rg1 or Cort could reduce the production of NO and TNF-α, and Rg1 dose-dependently up-regulated GR expression, while Cort dose-dependently down-regulated GR expression. The combination of low concentrations of Rg1 with Cort, which alone could not markedly inhibit the release of inflammatory factors, inhibited the secretion of NO and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, and up-regulated the expression of GR. The findings suggested Rg1 can synergize with glucocorticoid to enhance its anti-inflammatory effect. © 2013.

  1. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner. PMID:23303545

  2. How synergistic or antagonistic effects may influence the mutual hazard ranking of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of various agents, including humic materials, nanomaterials, microplastics, or simply specific chemical compounds, may cause changes in the apparent persistence, bioaccumulation, and/or toxicity (PBT of a chemical compound leading to an either increased or decreased PBT characteristics and thus an increased or decreased hazard evaluation. In the present paper, a series chloro-containing obsolete pesticides is studied as an illustrative example. Partial order methodology is used to quantify how changed P, B, or T characteristics of methoxychlor (MEC influences the measure of the hazard of MEC, relative to the other 11 compounds in the series investigated. Not surprisingly, an increase in one of the three indicators (P, B, or T lead to an increased average order and thus an increased relative hazard as a result of a synergistic effect. A decrease in one of the indicator values analogously causes a decreased average order/relative hazard through an antagonistic effect; the effect, however, being less pronounced. It is further seen that the effect of changing the apparent value of the three indicators is different. Thus, persistence apparently is more important that bioaccumulation which again appears more important than toxicity, which is in agreement with previous work. The results are discussed with reference to the European chemicals framework on registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH framework.

  3. Synergistic effects of plasma-activated medium and chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Yu; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Cheng, Yi-Jing

    2018-04-01

    Chemotherapy is an important treatment method for metastatic cancer, but the drug-uptake efficiency of cancer cells needs to be enhanced in order to diminish the side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and improve survival. The use of a nonequilibrium low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has been demonstrated to exert selective effects in cancer therapy and to be able to enhance the uptake of molecules by cells, which makes an APPJ a good candidate adjuvant in combination chemotherapy. This study estimated the effects of direct helium-based APPJ (He-APPJ) exposure (DE) and He-APPJ-activated RPMI medium (PAM) on cell viability and migration. Both of these treatments decreased cell viability and inhibited cell migration, but to different degrees in different cell types. The use of PAM as a culture medium resulted in the dialkylcarbocyanine (DiI) fluorescent dye entering the cells more efficiently. PAM was combined with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Doxo) to treat human heptocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells. The results showed that the synergistic effects of combined PAM and Doxo treatment resulted in stronger lethality in cancer cells than did PAM or Doxo treatment alone. To sum up, PAM has potential as an adjuvant in combination with other drugs to improve curative cancer therapies.

  4. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-07

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner.

  5. Synergistic Effect of Nanophotocatalysis and Nonthermal Plasma on the Removal of Indoor HCHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanwei Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis is an effective method of air purification at the condition of a higher pollutant concentration. However, its wide application in indoor air cleaning is limited due to the low level of indoor air contaminants. Immobilizing the nanosized TiO2 particles on the surface of activated carbon filter (TiO2/AC film could increase the photocatalytic reaction rate as a local high pollutant concentration can be formed on the surface of TiO2 by the adsorption of AC. However, the pollutant removal still decreased quickly with the increase in flow velocity, which results in a decrease in air treatment capacity. In order to improve the air treatment capacity by the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO method, this paper used formaldehyde (HCHO as a contaminant to study the effect of combination of PCO with nonthermal plasma technology (NTP on the removal of HCHO. The experimental results show that HCHO removal is more effective with line-to-plate electrode discharge reactor; the HCHO removal and the reaction rate can be enhanced and the amount of air that needs to be cleaned can be improved. Meanwhile, the results show that there is the synergistic effect on the indoor air purification by the combination of PCO with NTP.

  6. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation Between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Brown, Hallie R.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children’s ADHD. PMID:27752934

  7. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available bjective: This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms .Method:Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day plus folic (5mg/day, and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus placebo. Parent-reported ADHD symptoms and Overt Aggression Scale score were the outcome measures. Quality of life was assessed as well. Assessments were performed at pre-intervention, and at one month and two months after starting the interventions using repeated measure analysis Results:The mean age of children was 9.6(2.7 years. Age and gender were not associated with the groups. ADHD symptoms significantly decreased in both groups during the trial. However, no difference was observed between the groups. Moreover, aggression non-significantly decreased in both groups. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the two groups in efficacy for treating different types of aggressive behaviors including: verbal aggression, physical aggression against people, physical aggression against properties or objects, and aggression against self (self-injurious behavior. While methylphenidate improved quality of life of children with ADHD, folic acid did not improve it more than placebo. Both medications were well tolerated.Conclusion:considering the marked limitations of this trial, this primarily report suggests that methylphenidate may improve ADHD symptoms and the quality of life of children with ADHD. Current evidence does not support that folic acid as an adjuvant is effective for treating ADHD symptoms or aggression, or the improving quality of life of children with ADHD.

  8. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Piepmeier

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: children with and without ADHD realize benefits in speed of processing and inhibitory control in response to a session of acute exercise, but do not experience benefits in planning or set shifting.

  9. The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Escolano , Carlos; Navarro-Gil , Mayte; Garcia-Campayo , Javier; Congedo , Marco; Minguez , Javier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individual...

  10. A pharmacoproteomic study confirms the synergistic effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamia, Valentina; Mateos, Jesús; Fernández-Puente, Patricia; Lourido, Lucía; Rocha, Beatriz; Fernández-Costa, Carolina; Montell, Eulalia; Vergés, Josep; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Blanco, Francisco J

    2014-06-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common age-related rheumatic disease. Chondrocytes play a primary role in mediating cartilage destruction and extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown, which are main features of the OA joint. Quantitative proteomics technologies are demonstrating a very interesting power for studying the molecular effects of some drugs currently used to treat OA patients, such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and glucosamine (GlcN). In this work, we employed the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) technique to assess the effect of CS and GlcN, both alone and in combination, in modifying cartilage ECM metabolism by the analysis of OA chondrocytes secretome. 186 different proteins secreted by the treated OA chondrocytes were identified. 36 of them presented statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between untreated and treated samples: 32 were increased and 4 decreased. The synergistic chondroprotective effect of CS and GlcN, firstly reported by our group at the intracellular level, is now demonstrated also at the extracellular level.

  11. The synergistic effects of radiation and caffeine on embryonic development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The combined action of radiation with caffeine has been studied in mouse embryos. Radiation and/or caffeine were administered to ICR mice on day 7 of gestation, at which time the embryos were in the early stage of organogenesis. Intrauterine death, gross malformation, body weight and sex ratio were selected as indicators of effects. Doses of gamma irradiation were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy and those of caffeine were 0.10 and 0.25 mg/g of body weight. Intrauterine mortality increased with increasing radiation dose and this trend was more remarkable in combination with caffeine. The malformation such as parietal hernia, exencephalia, hydrocephalia and cleft palate appeared frequently in the fetuses treated with both radiation and caffeine compared to the fetuses treated with each agent separately. Fetal body weight was a sensitive indicator of the effects on growth retardation of radiation and/or caffeine. The sex ratio of live fetuses did not change by means of treatment with radiation and/or caffeine. Intrauterine mortality and frequency of malformations in mice treated with both radiation and caffeine were higher than the sum of those induced by radiation and those by caffeine separately. The results demonstrated that the combined effects of radiation and caffeine were synergistic. (author)

  12. Synergistic anticancer effects of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin and ABT-737 in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Risberg

    Full Text Available In cancer, combinations of drugs targeting different cellular functions is well accepted to improve tumor control. We studied the effects of a Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE-based immunotoxin, the 9.2.27PE, and the BH-3 mimetic compound ABT-737 in a panel of melanoma cell lines. The drug combination resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity, and the cell death observed was associated with apoptosis, as activation of caspase-3, inactivation of Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and increased DNA fragmentation could be prevented by pre-treatment with caspase and cathepsin inhibitors. We further show that ABT-737 caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress with increased GRP78 and phosphorylated eIF2α protein levels. Moreover, treatment with ABT-737 increased the intracellular calcium levels, an effect which was enhanced by 9.2.27PE, which as a single entity drug had minimal effect on calcium release from the ER. In addition, silencing of Mcl-1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA enhanced the intracellular calcium levels and cytotoxicity caused by ABT-737. Notably, the combination of 9.2.27PE and ABT-737 caused growth delay in a human melanoma xenograft mice model, supporting further investigations of this particular drug combination.

  13. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Doxorubicin and Tacrolimus (FK506 on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Capone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and shows a complex clinical course, poor response to pharmacological treatment, and a severe prognosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether tacrolimus (FK506 has synergistic antitumor effects with doxorubicin on two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2. Cell viability was analyzed by Sulforhodamine B assay and synergic effect was evaluated by the software CalcuSyn. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V and Dead Cell assay. Apoptosis-related protein PARP-1 cleaved and autophagy-related protein expressions (Beclin-1 and LC3B were measured by western blotting analysis. Cytokines concentration in cellular supernatants after treatments was studied by Bio-Plex assay. Interestingly the formulation with doxorubicin and tacrolimus induced higher cytotoxicity level on tumor cells than single treatment. Moreover, our results showed that the mechanisms involved were (i a strong cell apoptosis induction, (ii contemporaneous decrease of autophagy activation, understood as prosurvival process, and (iii downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, future studies could relate to the doxorubicin/tacrolimus combination effects in mice models bearing HCC in order to see if this formulation could be useful in HCC treatment.

  14. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  15. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  16. Synergistic anti-tumor effects of bevacizumab and tumor targeted polymerized VEGF siRNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Goo; Jo, Sung Duk; Yhee, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Suk; Lee, So Jin; Park, Sung Gurl; Kang, Sun-Woong; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2017-07-15

    A variety of VEGF inhibitors have been reported to treat cancers by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal VEGF antibody, was the first FDA approved anti-angiogenic agent for cancer treatments. However, bevacizumab shows modest therapeutic efficiency and often cause resistant problem in significant populations of cancer patients. To solve these problem, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of siRNA drugs targeting VEGF and combination of the RNAi drug with bevacizumab for cancer treatments. For efficient VEGF siRNA delivery, chemically polymerized siRNAs were complexed with thiolated-glycol chitosan (psi(VEGF)/tGC). The poly-VEGF siRNA and thiolated-glycol chitosan formed stable nanoparticles via electrostatic interaction and chemical crosslinking, and showed high accumulation in tumor tissues resulting in efficient gene silencing. Both VEGF siRNA nanoparticles and bevacizumab had efficient therapeutic effects in tumor xenograft mouse models. Interestingly, most pronounced therapeutic efficacy was observed when the two distinct VEGF inhibitors were treated in combination revealing synergistic effects. The results showed that the psi(VEGF)/tGC nanoparticle mediated knockdown of VEGF exerts anti-tumor effects and the combination treatments with bevacizumab can extend the treatments options to conventional bevacizumab treatments for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini Biasi-Garbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio. Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections.

  18. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSteckbauer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of ocean acidification and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms of the coastline of central Chile (33°30’S, 71°37’W to hypoxia and ocean acidification within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2 and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  19. The presence of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses high quality register-data to study the spillover effects on firstborns from having a younger sibling suffering from ADHD. Using OLS and cousin fixed effects analyses it is found that the educational outcomes of healthy firstborn children are significantly reduced by the presence...

  20. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  1. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  2. Synergistic effects of dietary bioactive compounds and investigation of Nrf2/HO-1 axis in HIV-1 transgenic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Davinelli, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the combinatorial effect dietary bioactive compounds may be useful in preventing or reducing aging features. Therefore, a synergistic multi-target approach in dietary intervention may be effective in slowing down the aging process and increase healthy aging. Functional foods and nutraceuticals can exert specific anti-aging benefits such as improvement in mitochondrial function or induce neuroprotective effects to counteract the deleterious consequences of o...

  3. The role of sleep quality and quantity in moderating the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash-Conway, Jessica; Gendron, Melissa; Corkum, Penny

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined: (1) whether long-acting stimulant medication is effective in improving performance on measures of memory, attention, and academic productivity; and (2) whether sleep impacts the relationship between medication and performance. Participants were 21 newly diagnosed, medication-naïve children (mean age = 9.1 years) with ADHD, who participated in a 4-week blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial of long-acting MPH. Participants underwent assessments of sleep (i.e., polysomnography) and of cognitive performance. Long-acting stimulant medication was found to be an effective treatment for enhancing alerting attention, executive attention, working memory, and academic productivity, but resulted in poorer sleep. Moreover, sleep duration was found to impact the treatment response to medication, in that longer sleep duration at baseline was related to improved executive attention. These results underscore the importance of evaluating and monitoring sleep when prescribing stimulant medication as a treatment for ADHD in children.

  4. Acute effects of methylphenidate on impulsivity and attentional behavior among adolescents comorbid for ADHD and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Olvera, Rene L; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Ryan, Stacy R; Mathias, Charles W

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) experience deficits in neuropsychological measures of attention, inhibition, and reward processes. Methylphenidate treatment for ADHD and CD has acute effects on these processes. Some of these same aspects of performance are separately described in the Behavioral Model of Impulsivity, which uses a modified approach to measurement. This study characterized the acute effects of methylphenidate attention, initiation, inhibition, and reward processes described in this model of impulsivity. Thirty-one adolescents from the United States of America with comorbid ADHD and CD completed measures of impulsivity (response initiation, response inhibition, and consequence) and attention following placebo, 20 mg, and 40 mg of a long-acting dose of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate effects on attentional performance was more robust than on any of the measures of impulsivity. Adolescent performance from this behavioral perspective is interpreted in the context of divergence from previous neuropsychological tests of acute methylphenidate effects. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness and safety of amphetamine for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD drug treatment is based on psychostimulants, and methylphenidate is still the most widely used one. Other psychostimulants used include amphetamines, hence the importance of knowing both its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of amphetamine in ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of studies that evaluated the effectiveness of interventions comparing amphetamine to methylphenidate was conducted. The outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 114 studies found initially, four were included, among which a systematic review, a primary article and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: The evidence on amphetamine for ADHD treatment recommends its use as an alternative to MPH. Further good-quality studies are needed.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Pharmacological treatment is necessary for most patients. Antidepressants are an option so it is important to know about their effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing antidepressants to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes assessed were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. We searched the following databases up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 37 studies found initially, three were included, a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: The available evidence on the use of antidepressants in ADHD suggests that they are not first choice; their indication is subject to comorbidities and context. Further good-quality studies are needed.

  7. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous wastes with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onenc, Sermin; Retschitzegger, Stefan; Evic, Nikola; Kienzl, Norbert; Yanik, Jale

    2018-01-01

    This study presents combustion behavior and emission results obtained for different fuels: poultry litter (PL) and its char (PLC), scrap tires (ST) and its char (STC) and blends of char/lignite (PLC/LIG and STC/LIG). The combustion parameters and emissions were investigated via a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method and experiments in a lab-scale reactor. Fuel indexes were used for the prediction of high temperature corrosion risks and slagging potentials of the fuels used. The addition of chars to lignite caused a lowering of the combustion reactivity (anti-synergistic effect). There was a linear correlation between the NO x emissions and the N content of the fuel. The form of S and the concentrations of alkali metals in the fuel had a strong effect on the extent of SO 2 emissions. The use of PL and PLC in blends reduced SO 2 emissions and sulphur compounds in the fly ash. The 2S/Cl ratio in the fuel showed that only PLC and STC/PLC would show a risk of corrosion during combustion. The ratio of basic to acidic oxides in fuel indicated that ST, STC and STC/LIG have low slagging potential. The molar (Si+P+K)/(Ca+Mg) ratio, which was used for PL, PLC and PLC containing blends, showed that the ash melting temperatures of these fuels would be higher than 1000 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synergistic effect of certain insecticides combined with Bacillus thuringiensis on mosquito larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Narkhede

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For effective vector control it is essential to formulate new preparations having multiple action against the vector pest. Developing combined formulation of biopesticide and chemical pesticide is one of the novel concept to fight against the vectors with new weapons; however, compatibility of biopesticide i.e. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt and chemical pesticide is a real hurdle. In this investigation, local isolate Bacillus thuringiensis SV2 (BtSV2 was tested for its compatibility with various available mosquito larvicides. Temephos was most compatible with BtSV2 than with other tested pesticides. These two compatible agents were tested for larvicidal potential. Our study revealed that the synergistic effect of both agents reduces LC50 value by 30.68 and 22.36% against the Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The larvicidal potential increased when compared to individual pesticides. It was also observed a biochemical change in larvae after the TBT (Temephos + Bacillus thuringiensis combination treatment; it involves decreased level of alpha esterase, acetylcholine esterase and protein while level of beta esterase and acid phosphatase was unchanged and alkaline phosphatase activity was increased. Increased potential of combined formulation may be due to altered physiological condition.

  9. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic Effect of Hyperglycemia and Suppression on Adult Mouse Islet Beta Cell Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Tah Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complementary role of hyperglycemia and suppression on islet beta cell regeneration was investigated in a syngeneic mouse model. gene silencing was performed by infecting islets of C57BL/6 with shRNA lentiviral particles. At 54 hours after viral infection, protein content in cultured targeting islets was 22% of that in freshly isolated islets. Six days after transplantation to diabetic mice, targeting islet graft had considerably more cells with Ki67-staining nuclei than nontargeting islets. The mice in the targeting-islet group had a significantly shorter duration of temporary hyperglycaemia than mice in the non-targeting-islet group. The long-term ex vivo beneficial effect of silencing on graft function was also indicated by the significantly higher cumulative cure rate for diabetes in mice receiving 200 targeting islets than that in mice receiving 200 non-targeting islets. Our data suggest that hyperglycemia and persistent suppression have a synergistic effect on islet beta cell replication in adult mice.

  11. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gomes

    Full Text Available The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.

  12. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S; Hernandez, Gilberto E; Papp, Suzanne L; Head, Steven R; Michel, Valérie; David, Leonor; Gärtner, Fátima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A

    2012-01-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x). These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.

  13. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin (Arc) and quercetin (Q) increases the anticarcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of Arc and Q alone or in combination for 48 h. The antiproliferative activity of Arc was 10- to 20-fold stronger than Q in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arc demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. The combination of Arc and Q that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin and quercetin increases the anti-carcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Methods and results Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of arctigenin and quercetin alone or in combination for 48h. The anti-proliferative activity of arctigenin was 10-20 fold stronger than quercetin in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arctigenin demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. Conclusion The combination of arctigenin and quercetin, that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. PMID:25380086

  15. Synergistic effects between natural histone mixtures and polyethylenimine in non-viral gene delivery in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Anne; Buyens, Kevin; Giese, Matthias; Sanders, Niek; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2010-11-15

    Nanoparticles made of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and cationic polymers are promising strategies for non-viral gene delivery. However, many cationic polymers are toxic to cells when used in higher concentrations. Positively charged proteins, such as histones, are biodegradable and a good alternative, especially for potential in vivo applications. It has previously been shown that histones are able to complex DNA and mediate transfection of cells. To investigate possible synergistic effects between the different histone types and to avoid the use of recombinant proteins, we analysed whether natural histone mixtures would be functional as gene carriers. Core and linker histones from calf thymus and from chicken erythrocytes were used to transfect different cell lines. The protein mixtures efficiently complexed the pDNA, and the resulting particles entered the cells. However, only marginal expression of the gene encoded by the pDNA was observed. Transfection rates increased drastically when minimal amounts of the basic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) were added to the particles. Neither PEI nor histones alone mediated any transfection under the conditions where a combination of both worked efficiently, and the combined particles were well tolerated by the cells. These results demonstrate that histone mixtures from natural sources in combination with minimal amounts of PEI can be used as gene carriers. This might have consequences for the development of novel gene delivery strategies, such as DNA vaccines, with minimal side-effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Origin of synergistic effect over Ni-based bimetallic surfaces: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen; Zhu, Yi-An; Xu, Yue; Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Chen, De

    2012-07-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been conducted to explore the physical origin of the synergistic effect over Ni-based surface alloys using methane dissociation as a probe reaction. Some late transition metal atoms (M = Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Pt, and Au) are substituted for surface Ni atoms to examine the variation in electronic structure and adsorption property of Ni(111). Two types of threefold hollow sites, namely, the Ni2M and Ni3 sites, are taken into account. The calculated results indicate that the variation in the CHx adsorption energy at the Ni2M and Ni3 sites is dominated by the ensemble and ligand effect, respectively, and the other factors such as surface and adsorbate distortion and electrostatic interaction affect the catalytic properties of the bimetallic surfaces to a smaller extent. Both the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationship and the scaling correlation hold true on the Ni-based bimetallic surfaces. With the combination of these two linear energy relations, the corrected binding energy of atomic C is found to be a good descriptor for representing the catalytic activity of the alloyed surfaces. Considering the compromise between the catalytic activity and catalyst stability, we suggest that the Rh/Ni catalyst is a good candidate for methane dissociation.

  17. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Anne Taylor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs: zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  18. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caitlin; Bufford, Daniel; Muntifering, Brittany; Senor, David; Steckbeck, Mackenzie; Davis, Justin; Doyle, Barney; Buller, Daniel; Hattar, Khalid

    2017-09-29

    Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM) offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs): zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  19. Synergistic effect of divalent cations in improving technological properties of cross-linked alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Andrea; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Granata, Veronica; Sala, Marina; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Paola

    2017-08-01

    Gelling solution parameters are some of the most important variables in ionotropic gelation and consequently influence the technological characteristics of the product. To date, only a few studies have focused on the simultaneous use of multiple cations as gelling agents. With the aim to deeply explore this possibility, in this research we investigated the effect of two divalent cations (Ca 2+ and Zn 2+ ) on alginate beads formation and properties. Alginate beads containing prednisolone (P) as model drug were prepared by prilling technique. The main critical variables of the ionotropic gelation process i.e. composition of the aqueous feed solutions (sodium alginate and prednisolone concentration) and cross-linking conditions (Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ or Ca 2+ +Zn 2+ ), were studied. The obtained beads were characterized and their in vitro release performances were assessed in conditions simulating the gastrointestinal environment. Results evidenced a synergistic effect of the two cations, affecting positively both the encapsulation efficiency and the ability of the alginate polymeric matrix to control the drug release. A Ca 2+ /Zn 2+ ratio of 4:1, in fact, exploited the Ca 2+ ability of establish quicker electrostatic interactions with guluronic groups of alginate and the Zn 2+ ability to establish covalent-like bonds with carboxylate groups of both guluronic and mannuronic moieties of alginate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synergistic effect of multiple indoor allergen sources on atopic symptoms in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W-Y.; Tseng, H-I.; Wu, M-T.; Hung, H-C.; Wu, H-T.; Chen, H-L.; Lu, C.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Accumulating data show that the complex modern indoor environment contributes to increasing prevalence of atopic diseases. However, the dose-response relationship between allergic symptoms and complexity of indoor environmental allergen sources (IEAS) has not been clearly evaluated before. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate the overall effect of multiple IEAS on appearance of asthma (AS), allergic rhinitis (AR), and eczema (EC) symptoms in 1472 primary school children. Among various IEAS analyzed, only stuffed toys, cockroaches, and mold patches fit the model of 'more IEAS, higher odds ratio (OR) of association'. The association of IEAS and AR increased stepwise as more IEAS appeared in the environment (1.71, 2.47, to 2.86). In AS and EC, the association was significant only when all three IEAS were present (1.42, 1.98, to 4.11 in AS; 1.40, 1.76, to 2.95 in EC). These results showed that different IEAS had a synergistic effect on their association with atopic symptoms and also suggest that there is a dose-response relationship between kinds of IEAS and risk of appearance of atopic diseases

  1. Synergistic effects of the combination of galangin with gentamicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seob; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Oh, You-Chang; Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Jong Hak; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2008-06-01

    The antimicrobial killing activity toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious emerging global issue. New effective antimicrobials and/or new approaches to settle this issue are urgently needed. The oriental herb, Alpinia officinarum, has been used in Korea for several hundreds of years to treat various infectious diseases. As it is well known, one of the active constituents of Alpinia officinarum is galangin. Against the 17 strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of galangin (GAL) were in the range of 62.5 ~ 125 microg/ml, and the MICs of gentamicin (GEN) ranged from 1.9 microg/ml to 2,000 microg/ml. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) of GAL, in combination with GEN, against 3 test strains were 0.4, 3.9, and 250 microg/ml, and were all 15.62 microg/ml in GEN. The FIC index showed marked synergism in the value range of 0.19 to 0.25. By determining time-kill curves, also confirmed the low synergism of the GAL and GEN combination against 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h cultured MRSA. The time-kill study results indicated a low synergistic effect against 3 test strains. Thus, the mixture of GAL and GEN could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against MRSA infection.

  2. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on reactive aggression in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zimmermann

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT has been linked to the underlying neurobiology of aggressive behavior, particularly with evidence from studies in animals and humans. However, the underlying neurobiology of aggression remains unclear in the context of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, a disorder known to be associated with aggression and impulsivity. We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD, and the resulting diminished central nervous serotonergic neurotransmission, on reactive aggression in healthy controls and adults with ADHD.Twenty male patients with ADHD and twenty healthy male controls were subjected to ATD with an amino acid (AA beverage that lacked tryptophan (TRP, the physiological precursor of 5-HT and a TRP-balanced AA beverage (BAL in a double-blind, within-subject crossover-study over two study days. We assessed reactive aggression 3.25 hours after ATD/BAL intake using a point-subtraction aggression game (PSAG in which participants played for points against a fictitious opponent. Point subtraction was taken as a measure for reactive aggression. Lowered rates of reactive aggression were found in the ADHD group under ATD after low provocation (LP, with controls showing the opposite effect. In patients with ADHD, trait-impulsivity was negatively correlated with the ATD effect on reactive aggression after LP. Statistical power was limited due to large standard deviations observed in the data on point subtraction, which may limit the use of this particular paradigm in adults with ADHD.Together with previous findings, the data provide preliminary evidence of an inverse association between trait-impulsivity and the ATD effect on reactive aggression after LP (as assessed by the PSAG in patients with ADHD and that this relationship can be found in both adolescents and adults. Because of limited statistical power larger sample sizes are needed to find main effects of ATD/BAL administration on reactive

  3. Synergistic effects of coralyne and paclitaxel on cell migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Seema; Badana, Anil Kumar; Mohan, G Murali; Shailender Naik, G; Malla, RamaRao

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer in woman. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most aggressive form of breast cancer. There is a growing interest in the use of natural products in combinational chemotherapy to improve the effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. Here, we hypothesized that coralyne in combination with paclitaxel may exhibit synergistic effect on inhibition of proliferation, migration and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. MTT and BrdU incorporation assays were performed to study the effect of drugs alone and in combination on cell cytotoxicity and proliferation of the breast cancer cell lines, respectively. Adhesion and wound healing assays were performed to study the cell and extracellular matrix interactions. In addition, expression of proliferation marker ki-67 and apoptotic markers Bax and Bcl-2 was determined to study the effect of coralyne in combination with paclitaxel by reverse transcriptase PCR and confirmed by Western blot. The results indicated the synergism between coralyne and paclitaxel on proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell lines. This study also showed that combinational drug treatment decreased the expression of ki-67 and there was an increase in pro apoptotic factor Bax with decreased in expression of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 in breast cancer cell lines with negligible effect on normal breast cell line. Overall, our data described the promising therapeutic potential of coralyne in combination with paclitaxel in treating breast cancer at lower effective dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification of suppressor additives based on synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekmann, P.; Fluegel, A.; Emnet, C.; Arnold, M.; Roeger-Goepfert, C.; Wagner, A.; Hai, N.T.M.; Mayer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. → These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. → In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). - Abstract: Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). While the type-I suppressor selectively forms efficient barriers for copper inter-diffusion on chloride-terminated electrode surfaces we identified a type-II suppressor that interacts non-selectively with any kind of anions chemisorbed on copper (chloride, sulfate, sulfonate). Type-I suppressors are vital for the superconformal copper growth mode in Damascene processing and show an antagonistic interaction with SPS (Bis-Sodium-Sulfopropyl-Disulfide) which involves the deactivation of this suppressor chemistry. This suppressor deactivation is rationalized in terms of compositional changes in the layer of the chemisorbed anions due to the competition of chloride and MPS (Mercaptopropane Sulfonic Acid) for adsorption sites on the metallic copper surface. MPS is the product of the dissociative SPS adsorption within the preexisting chloride matrix on the copper surface. The non-selectivity in the adsorption behavior of the type-II suppressor is rationalized in terms of anion/cation pairing effects of the poly-cationic suppressor and the anion

  5. Effectiveness and safety of atomoxetine for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions such as psychostimulants. The most used widely used one is methylphenidate followed by atomoxetine. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of atomoxetine in ADHD treatment in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness of atomoxetine compared with placebo and methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes assessed were educational functioning, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The search was done up to February 2012 in English and Spanish in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles were independently evaluated by two investigators. Results: Of the 108 studies found initially, 11 were included, among which five systematic reviews, one primary article and 5 clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Atomoxetine is recommended as a second option in ADHD and was found to be superior to placebo. Its use is recommended when methylphenidate fails or comorbidities are present.

  6. New Mechanism on Synergistic Effect of Nitrite and Triethanolamine Addition on the Corrosion of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we compared the different inhibition mechanisms of organic inhibitor with that of anodic inhibitor. When triethanolamine or nitrite was added separately to tap water for inhibiting the corrosion of ductile cast iron, large amounts of inhibitor were needed. This is because the corrosion inhibitors had to overcome the galvanic corrosion that occurs between graphite and matrix. In this work, we investigated the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water with/without inhibitors. The corrosion rate was measured using chemical immersion test and electrochemical methods, including anodic polarization test. The inhibited surface was analyzed using EPMA and XPS. Test solutions were analyzed by performing FT-IR measurement. When triethanolamine and nitrite coexisted in tap water, synergistic effect built up, and the inhibition effect was ca. 30 times more effective than witnessed with single addition. This work focused on the synergistic effect brought about by nitrite and triethanolamine and its novel mechanism was also proposed.

  7. Combined effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child ADHD behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Wheelock, Kylie; Wang, Ya; Tang, Deliang; Margolis, Amy E; Badia, Gladys; Cowell, Whitney; Miller, Rachel L; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Herbstman, Julie B

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogenic and neurotoxic combustion by-products commonly found in urban air. Exposure to PAH is disproportionately high in low income communities of color who also experience chronic economic stress. In a prospective cohort study in New York City (NYC) we previously found a significant association between prenatal PAH exposure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) behavior problems at age 9. Here, we have evaluated the joint effects of prenatal exposure to PAH and prenatal/childhood material hardship on ADHD behavior problems. We enrolled nonsmoking African-American and Dominican pregnant women in New York City between 1998 and 2006 and followed their children through 9 years of age. As a biomarker of prenatal PAH exposure, PAH-DNA adducts were measured in maternal blood at delivery and were dichotomized at the limit of detection (to indicate high vs. low exposure). Maternal material hardship (lack of adequate food, housing, utilities, and clothing) was self-reported prenatally and at multiple time points through child age 9. Latent variable analysis identified four distinct patterns of hardship. ADHD behavior problems were assessed using the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised. Analyses adjusted for relevant covariates. Among 351 children in our sample, across all hardship groups, children with high prenatal PAH exposure (high adducts) generally had more symptoms of ADHD (higher scores) compared to those with low PAH exposure. The greatest difference was seen among the children with hardship persisting from pregnancy through childhood. Although the interactions between high PAH exposure and hardship experienced at either period ("persistent" hardship or "any" hardship) were not significant, we observed significant differences in the number of ADHD symptoms between children with high prenatal PAH exposure and either persistent hardship or any hardship compared to the others. These differences were most

  8. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sayyari, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH) with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms. Method Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day) plus folic (5mg/day), and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus place...

  9. Synergistic effect of the interaction between curcumin and diclofenac on the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paz-Campos, Marco A; Ortiz, Mario I; Chávez Piña, Aracely E; Zazueta-Beltrán, Liliana; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2014-10-15

    The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with certain plant extracts can increase antinociceptive activity, permitting the use of lower doses and thus limiting side effects. Therefore, the aim objective of the current study was to examine the effects of curcumin on the nociception and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in rats. Antinociception was assessed using the formalin test. Diluted formalin was injected subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. Nociceptive behavior was quantified as the number of flinches of the injected paw during 60 min after injection, and a reduction in formalin-induced flinching was interpreted as an antinociceptive response. Rats were treated with oral diclofenac (1-31 mg/kg), curcumin (3.1-100 mg/kg) or the diclofenac-curcumin combination (2.4-38.4 mg/kg). To determine the possibility of a pharmacokinetic interaction, the oral bioavailability of diclofenac (10 mg/kg) was studied in presence and the absence of curcumin (31 mg/kg). Diclofenac, curcumin, or diclofenac-curcumin combination produced an antinociceptive effect on the formalin test. ED30 values were estimated for the individual drugs, and an isobologram was constructed. The derived theoretical ED30 for the antinociceptive effect (19.2 mg/kg) was significantly different from the observed experimental ED30 value (9.8 mg/kg); hence, the interaction between diclofenac and curcumin that mediates the antinociceptive effect was synergistic. Notwithstanding, the interaction does not appear to involve pharmacokinetic mechanisms, as oral curcumin failed to produce any significant alteration in oral diclofenac bioavailability. Data suggest that the diclofenac-curcumin combination can interact at the systemic level and may have therapeutic advantages for the clinical treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic effect of intrathecal fentanyl and bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Pratima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potentiating the effect of intrathecal local anesthetics by addition of intrathecal opiods for intra-abdominal surgeries is known. In this study by addition of fentanyl we tried to minimize the dose of bupivacaine, thereby reducing the side effects caused by higher doses of intrathecal bupivacaine in cesarean section. Methods Study was performed on 120 cesarean section parturients divided into six groups, identified as B8, B10 and B 12.5 8.10 and 12.5 mg of bupivacaine mg and FB8, FB10 and FB 12.5 received a combination of 12.5 μg intrathecal fentanyl respectively. The parameters taken into consideration were visceral pain, hemodynamic stability, intraoperative sedation, intraoperative and postoperative shivering, and postoperative pain. Results Onset of sensory block to T6 occurred faster with increasing bupivacaine doses in bupivacaine only groups and bupivacaine -fentanyl combination groups. Alone lower concentrations of bupivacaine could not complete removed the visceral pain. Blood pressure declined with the increasing concentration of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl. Incidence of nausea and shivering reduces significantly whereas, the postoperative pain relief and hemodynamics increased by adding fentanyl. Pruritis, maternal respiratory depression and changes in Apgar score of babies do not occur with fentanyl. Conclusion Spinal anesthesia among the neuraxial blocks in obstetric patients needs strict dose calculations because minimal dose changes, complications and side effects arise, providing impetus for this study. Here the synergistic, potentiating effect of fentanyl (an opiod on bupivacaine (a local anesthetic in spinal anesthesia for cesarian section is presented, fentanyl is able to reduce the dose of bupivacaine and therefore its harmful effects.

  11. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids Gallic Acid Rutin Quercetin And Mannitol On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and Its prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MICMBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Bacillus subtilis Klebsiella pneumonae Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin rutin and gallic acid mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore Its gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

  12. Synergistic effects of alkylated graphene oxide on the properties of polypropylene-based carbon nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo; Pyo, Hye-Ri; Lee, Jae Yun; Chin, In-Joo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2013-10-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/carbon black (CB)-alkylated graphene oxide (AGO) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared via solution process and the synergistic effects of AGO on the properties of the PP/CB nanocomposites were investigated. AGO at a content of only 0.2 wt% formed an overlapped network structure in the PP matrix and affected the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the PP/CB nanocomposites. Specifically, PP/CB (5 wt%)-AGO (0.2 wt%) nanocomposites exhibited an electrical percolation threshold at lower CB contents than the PP/CB nanocomposites did, and the sheet resistance was decreased to 2.3 x 10(7) omega/sq. The thermal degradation temperature and recrystallization temperature of the PP/CB (10 wt%) nanocomposites were increased by 11.3 and 1.6 degrees C, respectively, by the addition of 0.2 wt% AGO. In addition, the Young's modulus of the PP/CB (10 wt%) nanocomposite was increased from 438.1 to 540.1 MPa.

  13. Acaricidal Activity and Synergistic Effect of Thyme Oil Constituents against Carmine Spider Mite (Tetranychus Cinnabarinus (Boisduval)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lipeng; Huo, Xin; Zhou, Xiaolong; Zhao, Duoyong; He, Weizhong; Liu, Shenghong; Liu, Hejiang; Feng, Ting; Wang, Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Studies examining the use of essential oils as replacements for synthetic insecticides require an understanding of the contribution of each constituent present, interactions among these components, and how they relate to overall toxicity. In the present study, the chemical composition of commercial thyme oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thyme oil and blends of its major constituents were tested for their acaricidal activitities against carmine spider mites ( Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) ) using a slide-dip bioassay. Natural thyme oil showed greater toxicity than any single constituent or blend of constituents. Thymol was the most abundant component (34.4%), and also possessed the strongest acaricidal activity compared with other single constituents. When tested individually, four constituents (linalool, terpinene, p -cymene and carvacrol) also had activity, while α-pinene, benzoic acid and ethyl gallate had almost no activity. The toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated a synergistic effect among the putatively active and inactive constituents, with the presence of all constituents necessary to reach the highest toxicity. The results indicated that thyme oil and some of its major constituents have the potential to be developed into botanical acaricides.

  14. 17β-estradiol and xenoestrogens reveal synergistic effect on mitochondria of human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibińska, Izabela; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Borysiak, Karolina; Jędrzejczak, Piotr; Kotwicka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of 17β-estradiol (main endogenous estrogen) and selected xenoestrogens (genistein, bisphenol-A), individually and in combination, on the mitochondrial function of human sper-matozoa. In natural environment, human beings are exposed to multiple xenoestrogens, so their impact is combined with endogenous steroids. The effects of ligands on human spermatozoa were assessed regarding the following phenomena: spermatozoa vitality (propidium iodide staining), phosphatidylserine membrane translocation (staining with annexin V marked with fluorescein), mitochondrial membrane potential (using JC-1 fluorochrome), and production of superoxide anion in mitochondria (using MitoSOX RED dye). Two-hour incubation of spermatozoa with 17β-estradiol, genistein, and bisphenol-A neither altered cell vitality nor stimulated phosphatidylserine membrane translocation. Incubation of spermatozoa with 17β-estradiol or bisphenol-A sepa-rately, as well as incubation with the three ligands simultaneously, resulted in altered mitochondrial membrane potential. Spermatozoa incubation with the three ligands significantly increased the mitochondrial superoxide anion level. It seems safe to conclude that human spermatozoa mitochondria are target cell structures for both, 17β-estradiol and xenoestrogens. The reaction to the 17β-estradiol and xenoestrogens mixture suggests a synergistic mechanism of action. Xenoestrogens may increase the sensitivity of spermatozoa to 17β-estradiol.

  15. Synergistic Effects in the Gas Sensitivity of Polypyrrole/Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Thien

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole/single wall carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using pyrrole (PPy as precursor and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs as additive component. Electron microscope images reveal that SWNTs component acts as nucleation sites for PPy growth in the form of spherical and cylindrical core-shell structures. The SWNTs/PPy core-shell results in thin n-p junctions which modify the PPy bandgap and reduce the work function of electrons. As a result of the strong coupling, Raman and IR spectra show that the PPy undergoes a transition from polaron to bipolaron state, i.e., indicating an increase in the conductivity. In the UV-Vis spectra, the 340 nm adsorption band (π*-π transition exhibits a red shift, while the 460 nm adsorption band (bipolaron transition experiences a blue shift indicating a change in electronic structure and a relocation of polaron levels in the band gap of PPy. The modification in PPy electronic structure brings in a synergistic effect in sensing feature. Upon exposure to oxygen (an oxidizing agent and NH3 gas (a reducing agent, the PPy/SWNTs nanocomposite shows an enhancement in sensitivity exceeding ten folds in comparison with those of PPy or SWNTs.

  16. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  17. Synergistic effects of iodine and silver ions co-implanted in 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, A.; Zhu, Z.; Nandasiri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behaviour has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 °C for 30 h in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  18. Synergistic effect of carbon nanotube and clay for improving the flame retardancy of ABS resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Haiyun [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Tong Lifang [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu Zhongbin [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fang Zhengping [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-09-19

    Synergistic effect between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and clay on improving the flame retardancy of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin was studied. Flammability properties measured by a cone calorimeter revealed that incorporation of clay and MWNTs into ABS resin significantly reduced the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and slowed down the whole combustion process compared to the individually filled system based on clay or MWNTs. The flame retardancy of the ABS/clay/MWNTs nanocomposites was strongly affected by the formation of a network structure. Linear viscoelastic properties of the ABS nanocomposites showed that the coexistence of clay and MWNTs can enhance the network structure which can hinder the movement of polymer chains and improve flame retardancy. From transmission electron microscope analysis, MWNTs were shortened after combustion and there was no significant change in their diameters. For chars of ABS/clay/MWNTs nanocomposites, some MWNTs ran across between clay layers, indicating a strong interaction existed between clay and MWNTs. The existence of clay enhanced the graphitization degree of MWNTs during combustion. Clay can assist the elimination of dislocations and defects and the rearrangement of crystallites. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, one of the components of clay, acts as the catalyst of graphitization.

  19. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the production of ganoderic acid derived from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom in a shaken flasks using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal dose of methyl jasmonate and asprin significantly impacts on the amount of ganoderic acid production as a response (p<0.05. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 0.085 mg/ml in which the optimal concentrations obtained for methyl jasmonate and asprin were 250mM and 4.4mM, respectively. Also the influence of ganoderic acid production on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and squalene synthase (two important metabolic pathway genes in ganoderic acid was investigated, and the results showed that these genes’ expression has increased by 10 and 11 folds, respectively.  

  20. Synergistic effect of high pressure processing and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against pressure resistant Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate combinations of high pressure processing (HPP) and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes strains with variation in pressure resistance in culture and in a food model. In culture, combination of HPP (350 MPa, for 1-20 min) and Lb. casei cell extract (CE, 32 CEAU/ml) showed a significant synergistic bactericidal effect (P5 log(10)CFU/ml. Synergy between CE and HPP was most evident in the pressure-resistant strain, OSY-8578. Similar result was observed in meat products where high pressure (500 MPa for 1 min), and high-activity CE (100 CEAU/g) caused >5 log reduction in the viability of L. monocytogenes Scott A. The combination treatment resulted in the absence of peaks associated with cellular components in DSC thermogram suggesting that the presence of CE may have caused a considerable damage to cellular components during the high pressure treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic effect of electric field and lipid oxidation on the permeability of cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, M; Van der Paal, J; Neyts, E C; Bogaerts, A

    2017-04-01

    Strong electric fields are known to affect cell membrane permeability, which can be applied for therapeutic purposes, e.g., in cancer therapy. A synergistic enhancement of this effect may be accomplished by the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as generated in cold atmospheric plasmas. Little is known about the synergy between lipid oxidation by ROS and the electric field, nor on how this affects the cell membrane permeability. We here conduct molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the dynamics of the permeation process under the influence of combined lipid oxidation and electroporation. A phospholipid bilayer (PLB), consisting of di-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine molecules covered with water layers, is used as a model system for the plasma membrane. We show how oxidation of the lipids in the PLB leads to an increase of the permeability of the bilayer to ROS, although the permeation free energy barriers still remain relatively high. More importantly, oxidation of the lipids results in a drop of the electric field threshold needed for pore formation (i.e., electroporation) in the PLB. The created pores in the membrane facilitate the penetration of reactive plasma species deep into the cell interior, eventually causing oxidative damage. This study is of particular interest for plasma medicine, as plasma generates both ROS and electric fields, but it is also of more general interest for applications where strong electric fields and ROS both come into play. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  3. Synergistic Effect of Cobalt and Iron in Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengkai; Sliozberg, Kirill; Sinev, Ilya; Antoni, Hendrik; Bähr, Alexander; Ollegott, Kevin; Xia, Wei; Masa, Justus; Grünert, Wolfgang; Cuenya, Beatriz Roldan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin

    2017-01-10

    Co-based layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalysts with Fe and Al contents in the range of 15 to 45 at % were synthesized by an efficient coprecipitation method. In these catalysts, Fe 3+ or Al 3+ ions play an essential role as trivalent species to stabilize the LDH structure. The obtained catalysts were characterized by a comprehensive combination of surface- and bulk-sensitive techniques and were evaluated for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on rotating disk electrodes. The OER activity decreased upon increasing the Al content for the Co- and Al-based LDH catalysts, whereas a synergistic effect in Co- and Fe-based LDHs was observed, which resulted in an optimal Fe content of 35 at %. This catalyst was spray-coated on Ni foam electrodes and showed very good stability in a flow-through cell with a potential of approximately 1.53 V at 10 mA cm -2 in 1 m KOH for at least 48 h. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synergistic effect of histamine and TNF-α on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

    2013-04-01

    The histamine level is high during allergic attacks, and patients with allergy may have chronic inflammatory conditions at which tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is extensively released by macrophages. Here, in vitro static and microfluidic flow assays were conducted to investigate the combined influence of histamine and TNF-α on adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In a static assay, histamine stimulation of TNF-α-activated HUVEC elevated the number of attached THP-1 cells. In a flow assay, the number of crawling and firmly adherent THP-1 cells was higher on TNF-α + histamine activated HUVEC than on HUVEC activated by TNF-α alone. This synergistic effect of histamine and TNF-α is caused by the increased endothelial surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin. Since the exposure of TNF-α-activated endothelium to histamine favors monocyte recruitment, it may be a serious risk factor for atherosclerosis and other inflammatory disorders.

  5. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, Bianca Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  6. Synergistic effects of surface erosion on tritium inventory and permeation in metallic plasma facing armours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Holland, D.F.; Matera, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the next generation of DT fuelled tokamaks, i.e., the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) implantation of energetic DT particles on some portions of the plasma facing components (PFCs) will take place along with significant erosion of the armour surfaces. As a result of the simultaneous removal of material from the front surface, the build-up of tritium inventory and the start of permeation originating in the presence of large densities of neutron-induced traps is expected to be influenced considerably and special provisions could be required to minimise the consequences on the design. This paper reports on the results of a tritium transport modelling study based on a new model which describes the migration of implanted tritium across the bulk of metallic plasma facing materials containing neutron-induced traps which can capture it and includes the synergistic effects of surface erosion. The physical basis of the model is summarised, but emphasis is on the discussion of the results of a comparative study performed for beryllium and tungsten armours for ranges of design and operation conditions similar to those anticipated in the divertor of ITER. (orig.)

  7. Homogeneous sonophotolysis of food processing industry wastewater: Study of synergistic effects, mineralization and toxicity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; Gómez, P

    2013-03-01

    The mineralization of industrial wastewater coming from food industry using an emerging homogeneous sonophotolytic oxidation process was evaluated as an alternative to or a rapid pretreatment step for conventional anaerobic digestion with the aim of considerably reducing the total treatment time. At the selected operation conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=11,750ppm, pH=8, amplitude=50%, pulse length (cycles)=1), 60% of TOC is removed after 60min and 98% after 180min when treating an industrial effluent with 2114ppm of total organic carbon (TOC). This process removed completely the toxicity generated during storing or due to intermediate compounds. An important synergistic effect between sonolysis and photolysis (H(2)O(2)/UV) was observed. Thus the sonophotolysis (ultrasound/H(2)O(2)/UV) technique significantly increases TOC removal when compared with each individual process. Finally, a preliminary economical analysis confirms that the sono-photolysis with H(2)O(2) and pretreated water is a profitable system when compared with the same process without using ultrasound waves and with no pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Why Do Lithium-Oxygen Batteries Fail: Parasitic Chemical Reactions and Their Synergistic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiahui; Dong, Qi; Cheng, Qingmei; Wang, Dunwei

    2016-09-12

    As an electrochemical energy-storage technology with the highest theoretical capacity, lithium-oxygen batteries face critical challenges in terms of poor stabilities and low charge/discharge round-trip efficiencies. It is generally recognized that these issues are connected to the parasitic chemical reactions at the anode, electrolyte, and cathode. While the detailed mechanisms of these reactions have been studied separately, the possible synergistic effects between these reactions remain poorly understood. To fill in the knowledge gap, this Minireview examines literature reports on the parasitic chemical reactions and finds the reactive oxygen species a key chemical mediator that participates in or facilitates nearly all parasitic chemical reactions. Given the ubiquitous presence of oxygen in all test cells, this finding is important. It offers new insights into how to stabilize various components of lithium-oxygen batteries for high-performance operations and how to eventually materialize the full potentials of this promising technology. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Oxidative stress reduced by a green tea concentrate and Capsicum combination: synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Greg B; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species that are produced by aerobic metabolism and signaling cascades have the potential to play important roles in maintaining homeostatic redox and cell proliferation. When the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species is perturbed toward production, the result is oxidative stress. High levels of oxidative stress are a general characteristic of cancer. The altered redox state within a tumor microenvironment confers a growth advantage through increased proliferation rates, evasion of apoptosis, and increased resistance to therapeutic compounds. We have tested a synergistic combination of green tea-Camellia sinensis-concentrate and powdered Capsicum powder (TeaFense™/Capsol-T™) as a dietary supplement to reduce oxidative stress as an approach to elimination of malignant cells. Here, we demonstrate that the green tea-powdered Capsicum mixture effectively reduces levels of oxidative stress in both cancer (HeLa) and noncancer (MCF-10A) cells as determined from measurements of levels of the oxidative stress indicator Nrf-2 by western blot analysis. Nrf-2 is a transcription factor that controls an antioxidant response element. Increased expression of Nrf-2 is linked to high levels of oxidative stress and vice versa. Based on levels of Nrf-2, the mixture of green tea concentrate plus powdered Capsicum reduced oxidative stress by more than 50% compared with 15% by the green tea concentrate alone.

  10. Synergistic effects of parental and embryonic exposure to predation risk on prey offspring size at emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-01-01

    Cues signaling predation risk can strongly influence prey phenotypes both within and between generations. Parental and embryonic effects have been shown to operate independently in response to predation risk, but how they interact to shape offspring life history traits remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted experiments to examine the synergistic impacts of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on offspring size at emergence in the snail, Nucella lapillus, which is an ecologically important intermediate consumer on rocky intertidal shores. We found that when embryos were exposed to predation risk, the offspring of risk-experienced parents emerged larger than those of parents that had no risk experience. This response was not the result of increased development time, greater resource availability, or fewer emerging offspring, but may have occurred because both parental and embryonic experiences with risk increased growth efficiency, perhaps by reducing embryonic respiration rates under risk. Our results highlight the potential for organisms to be influenced by a complex history of environmental signals with important consequences for individual fitness and predator-prey interactions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Synergistic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and lipopolysaccharide on preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Ma, Zhenguo; Kou, Hao; Sun, Rongze; Yang, Hanxiao; Smith, Charles Vincent; Zheng, Jiang; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-29

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death for newborn infants, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used to induce preterm delivery in experimental animals. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread and occur in foods, herbs, and other plants. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of LPS and two representative PAs, retrorsine (RTS) and monocrotaline (MCT), on preterm delivery and fetal death. Pregnant Kunming mice were divided into seven groups: control, RTS, MCT, LPS, RTS+LPS and two MCT+LPS groups. Animals in PAs and PAs+LPS groups were dosed intragastrically with RTS (10mg/kg) or MCT (20 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD16; mice given LPS were injected intraperitoneally with 150 μg/kg on GD15.5. Latencies to delivery, numbers of pups live and dead at birth were recorded, and livers of live neonates were collected. The incidence of LPS-induced preterm birth was enhanced in dams pretreated with MCT, and combination of PAs and LPS increased fetal mortality from PAs. The enhancement of LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal demise in animals exposed chronically to PAs and other substances found in foods and beverages consumed widely by humans merits further focused investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M.; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad

    2015-07-01

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  13. Acaricidal Activity and Synergistic Effect of Thyme Oil Constituents against Carmine Spider Mite (Tetranychus Cinnabarinus (Boisduval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the use of essential oils as replacements for synthetic insecticides require an understanding of the contribution of each constituent present, interactions among these components, and how they relate to overall toxicity. In the present study, the chemical composition of commercial thyme oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thyme oil and blends of its major constituents were tested for their acaricidal activitities against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval using a slide-dip bioassay. Natural thyme oil showed greater toxicity than any single constituent or blend of constituents. Thymol was the most abundant component (34.4%, and also possessed the strongest acaricidal activity compared with other single constituents. When tested individually, four constituents (linalool, terpinene, p-cymene and carvacrol also had activity, while α-pinene, benzoic acid and ethyl gallate had almost no activity. The toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated a synergistic effect among the putatively active and inactive constituents, with the presence of all constituents necessary to reach the highest toxicity. The results indicated that thyme oil and some of its major constituents have the potential to be developed into botanical acaricides.

  14. Assembly of graphene oxide on nonconductive nonwovens by the synergistic effect of interception and electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kunyan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Xianhua; Shan, Mingjing; Xu, Zhiwei; Jiao, Yanan

    2015-09-01

    Electrophoretic deposition has always been an attractive method to deposit nanoparticles on conductive materials, while most fiber-based materials have poor conductivity which limits the application of electrophoretic deposition in assembling nanoparticles onto fiber-based materials. A new approach to assemble graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on nonconductive nonwovens via the synergistic effect of electrophoresis and fiber interception was reported in this study. To improve surface wettability, polypropylene (PP) nonwovens were modified by acrylic acid and subsequent N2 plasma treatment. Then GO nanosheets were anchored onto modified nonwovens by electrophoresis process and nonwoven interception. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) manifested that etching and grafting simultaneously occurred on the surface of modified PP nonwovens, resulting in a great improvement of nonwoven hydrophily, which corresponded to the results of water contact angle. Furthermore, the results of X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, SEM, and FTIR indicated that different amounts of GO nanosheets were successfully assembled onto modified PP nonwovens. This method provides a new avenue for incorporating carbon nanoparticles with nonconductive fiber-based materials, and modified PP nonwovens assembled with GO nanosheets show good air filtration performance for sodium chloride aerosol with a filtration efficiency of 87.9 % and a pressure drop of 36.4 mmH2O, and the reduced GO/PP composite nonwovens exhibit enhanced conductivity.

  15. Assembly of graphene oxide on nonconductive nonwovens by the synergistic effect of interception and electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Kunyan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Xianhua; Shan, Mingjing; Xu, Zhiwei; Jiao, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition has always been an attractive method to deposit nanoparticles on conductive materials, while most fiber-based materials have poor conductivity which limits the application of electrophoretic deposition in assembling nanoparticles onto fiber-based materials. A new approach to assemble graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on nonconductive nonwovens via the synergistic effect of electrophoresis and fiber interception was reported in this study. To improve surface wettability, polypropylene (PP) nonwovens were modified by acrylic acid and subsequent N 2 plasma treatment. Then GO nanosheets were anchored onto modified nonwovens by electrophoresis process and nonwoven interception. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) manifested that etching and grafting simultaneously occurred on the surface of modified PP nonwovens, resulting in a great improvement of nonwoven hydrophily, which corresponded to the results of water contact angle. Furthermore, the results of X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, SEM, and FTIR indicated that different amounts of GO nanosheets were successfully assembled onto modified PP nonwovens. This method provides a new avenue for incorporating carbon nanoparticles with nonconductive fiber-based materials, and modified PP nonwovens assembled with GO nanosheets show good air filtration performance for sodium chloride aerosol with a filtration efficiency of 87.9 % and a pressure drop of 36.4 mmH 2 O, and the reduced GO/PP composite nonwovens exhibit enhanced conductivity

  16. Assembly of graphene oxide on nonconductive nonwovens by the synergistic effect of interception and electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kunyan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Xianhua; Shan, Mingjing; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Jiao, Yanan [Tianjin Polytechnic University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Braided Composites, Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-09-15

    Electrophoretic deposition has always been an attractive method to deposit nanoparticles on conductive materials, while most fiber-based materials have poor conductivity which limits the application of electrophoretic deposition in assembling nanoparticles onto fiber-based materials. A new approach to assemble graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on nonconductive nonwovens via the synergistic effect of electrophoresis and fiber interception was reported in this study. To improve surface wettability, polypropylene (PP) nonwovens were modified by acrylic acid and subsequent N{sub 2} plasma treatment. Then GO nanosheets were anchored onto modified nonwovens by electrophoresis process and nonwoven interception. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) manifested that etching and grafting simultaneously occurred on the surface of modified PP nonwovens, resulting in a great improvement of nonwoven hydrophily, which corresponded to the results of water contact angle. Furthermore, the results of X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, SEM, and FTIR indicated that different amounts of GO nanosheets were successfully assembled onto modified PP nonwovens. This method provides a new avenue for incorporating carbon nanoparticles with nonconductive fiber-based materials, and modified PP nonwovens assembled with GO nanosheets show good air filtration performance for sodium chloride aerosol with a filtration efficiency of 87.9 % and a pressure drop of 36.4 mmH{sub 2}O, and the reduced GO/PP composite nonwovens exhibit enhanced conductivity.

  17. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III).

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... long-acting medication can control symptoms throughout the day and into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should continue to monitor your ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for ADHD are wellestablished and effective. There are two main types : stimulant and non-stimulant medications. Scientists have studied psychostimulants extensively, and doctors have been prescribing them for more than 60 years. More recently, non-stimulant medications have become available ...

  1. Synergistic protective effect of N-acetylcysteine and taurine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Wahab WM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wessam M Abdel-Wahab,1,2 Farouzia I Moussa,2 Najwa A Saad3 1Department of Biology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt; 3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya Abstract: Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP is an effective anticancer drug, but it has limitations because of its nephrotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and taurine (TAU, both individually and in combination, against CDDP nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 48 male rats were assigned into eight groups (n=6 as follows: 1 control group, 2 NAC group, 3 TAU group, 4 NAC–TAU group, 5 CDDP group, 6 CDDP–NAC group, 7 CDDP–TAU group, and 8 CDDP–NAC–TAU group. Cisplatin was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 6 mg/kg. Three days after CDDP administration, NAC (50 mg/kg and/or TAU (50 mg/kg were administered three times weekly for four consecutive weeks. Kidney function markers in serum, urinary glucose and protein, as well as oxidant and antioxidant parameters in renal tissue were assessed. Administration of CDDP significantly elevated urinary glucose and protein, as well as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, CDDP enhanced lipid peroxidation and suppressed the major enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Treatment with NAC or TAU protected against the alterations in the serum, urine, and renal tissue when used individually along with CDDP. Furthermore, a combined therapy of both was more effective in ameliorating CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which points out to their synergistic effect. Keywords: cisplatin, nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, N-acetylcysteine, taurine

  2. Synergistic anticancer effects of andrographolide and paclitaxel against A549 NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huihui; Sun, Bo; Gao, Feng; Lan, Minbo

    2016-11-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment; however, it has some serious side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae). The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of PTX combined with Andro against A549 cells. The effects of 24-48 h treatment with 0.48-60.75 nM PTX and 5.10-328.0 μM Andro on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by sulphorhodamine B assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection, PI staining and ROS assay, respectively. Synergy was determined using combination index. The antitumour efficacy of 20 mg/kg PTX with 100 mg/kg Andro was studied in a xenograft murine model. IC 50 value of the PTX combined with Andro against A549 cells was 0.5-7.4 nM, which was significantly lower than that of PTX (15.9 nM). PTX with 10 μM Andro caused (1.22-1.27)-fold apoptosis and 1.7-fold ROS accumulation compared with PTX alone. N-Acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, blocked this synergy in vitro. In contrast, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest resulting from PTX was not potentiated by Andro. Moreover, PTX in combination with Andro inhibited the growth of A549 transplanted tumours by 98%. The results indicate that the combination of PTX and Andro exert significant synergistic anticancer effect on A549 cells in vitro and in vivo. The synergy may be the result of the accumulation of ROS. The combination of Andro and PTX represents a potential strategy for the treatment of A549 cells.

  3. Surface oxygen vacancies on WO{sub 3} contributed to enhanced photothermo-synergistic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingying; Wang, Changhua; Zheng, Han; Wan, Fangxu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: WO{sub 3−x} acts as efficient and stable photothermocatalyst for detoxification of gaseous acetaldehyde. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} was annealed under air and hydrogen atomsphere. • Phase transition from WO{sub 3} to WO{sub 2.72} to WO{sub 2} was observed after hydrogen treatment. • WO{sub 3−x} with optimized degree of oxygen deficiency displayed significant photothermocatalytic activity against degradation of acetaldehyde. • Mechanism operating in photocatalytic and thermal effects is discussed. - Abstract: Photothermooxidation has demonstrated a high efficiency in the removal of volatile organic compounds in air. Among photothermocatalysts, attention is presently focused on composites of noble metal/metal oxide or metal oxide/metal oxide. Instead, in this work, we present a case of single oxide WO{sub 3} subjected to hydrogen treatment as photothermocatalyst. With the increase of hydrogen treatment temperature, the color of WO{sub 3} changes from yellow to blue to dark blue and a phase transition from WO{sub 3} to WO{sub 2.72} to WO{sub 2} is accompanied, suggesting an increase of concentration of oxygen vacancy. Photothermocatalytic test against degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde at 60 °C under UV light shows that WO{sub 3−x} sample with low concentration of oxygen vacancy displays the most significant synergetic effect between photocatalysis and thermocatalysis. Its photothermocatalytic activity in terms of CO{sub 2} evolution rate is 5.2 times higher than that of photocatalytic activity. However, WO{sub 3}–WO{sub 2.72} and WO{sub 2} with high degree of oxygen deficiency show insignificant synergetic effect between photocatalysis and thermocatalysis. The reason for the different synergistic effect over above samples is believed to lie in balance between decreased activation energy of lattice oxygen and recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes induced by oxygen deficiency.

  4. Synergistic Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression and Radiotherapy on Cell Death of Human Prostate LNCaP Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Zarei, M; Takhshid, M A; Behzad Behbahani, A; Hosseini, S Y; Okhovat, M A; Rafiee Dehbidi, Gh R; Mosleh Shirazi, M A

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy is among the most conventional cancer therapeutic modalities with effective local tumor control. However, due to the development of radio-resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis often occur following radiation therapy. In recent years, combination of radiotherapy and gene therapy has been suggested to overcome this problem. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential synergistic effects of N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 2 (NDRG2) overexpression, a newly identified candidate tumor suppressor gene, with radiotherapy against proliferation of prostate LNCaP cell line. In this study, LNCaP cells were exposed to X-ray radiation in the presence or absence of NDRG2 overexpression using plasmid PSES- pAdenoVator-PSA-NDRG2-IRES-GFP. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression, X-ray radiation or combination of both on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of LNCaP cells were then analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometery, respectively. Results of MTT assay showed that NDRG2 overexpression and X-ray radiation had a synergistic effect against proliferation of LNCaP cells. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression increased apoptotic effect of X-ray radiation in LNCaP cells synergistically. Our findings suggested that NDRG2 overexpression in combination with radiotherapy may be an effective therapeutic option against prostate cancer.

  5. Coaching for College Students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and problem solving. This paper describes ADHD coaching for college students and discusses how coaching is different from standard CBT treatment. This is followed by a review of empirical studies of the effectiveness of ADHD coaching for college students. Finally, some specific considerations and procedures used in coaching are described.

  6. Synergistic bactericidal effects of a sublethal concentration of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and low concentrations of nonionic surfactants against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Osaki, Yukihiko; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    DDAC is an effective disinfectant used in the medical and food industries and the environmental field. However, skin irritation in humans occurs at high DDAC concentrations. In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of a low concentration (0.3 ppm) of DDAC and low concentrations (6, 8, and 10 ppm) of 37 products of nonionic surfactants on the bactericidal activity against S. aureus. No bactericidal activity was found at 0.3 ppm DDAC alone. Results showed that a combination of a low concentration of DDAC (0.3 ppm) and some nonionic surfactants tested (synergistic effect of five products ≥ 2.0) improved the bactericidal activity of DDAC. Synergistic effects of DDAC and some nonionic surfactants are desirable and were suggested to occur as follows. Test surfactants acted against the cell walls of S. aureus, which allowed DDAC to act easily on the lipid double membrane in the cell wall, thereby increasing the bactericidal activity of DDAC. In the present study, synergistic effects of a low concentration of DDAC and some nonionic surfactants were observed, a phenomenon that may be considerable value in future developments.

  7. Synergistic effects of sulbactam in multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Temocin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is a frequently isolated etiologic agent of nosocomial infections, especially in intensive care units. With the increase in multi-drug resistance of A. baumannii isolates, finding appropriate treatment alternatives for infections caused by these bacteria has become more difficult, and available alternate treatments include the use of older antibiotics such as colistin or a combination of antibiotics. The current study aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of various antibiotic combinations against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii strains. Thirty multi-drug and carbapenem resistant A. baumannii strains isolated at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital between June 2011 and June 2012 were used in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and species-level identification were performed using conventional methods and the VITEK 2 system. The effects of meropenem, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tigecycline, and colistin alone and in combination with sulbactam against the isolates were studied using Etest (bioMérieux in Mueller-Hinton agar medium. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC was used to determine the efficacy of the various combinations. While all combinations showed a predominant indifferent effect, a synergistic effect was also observed in 4 of the 5 combinations. Synergy was demonstrated in 43% of the isolates with the meropenem-sulbactam combination, in 27% of the isolates with tigecycline-sulbactam, and in 17% of the isolates with colistin-sulbactam and amikacin-sulbactam. No synergy was detected with the sulbactam-ciprofloxacin combination and antagonism was detected only in the sulbactam-colistin combination (6.66% of the isolates. Antibiotic combinations can be used as an alternative treatment approach in multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections.

  8. Competitive and synergistic effects in pH dependent phosphate adsorption in soils: LCD modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-10-01

    The pH dependency of soluble phosphate in soil was measured for six agricultural soils over a pH range of 3-10. A mechanistic model, the LCD (ligand charge distribution) model, was used to simulate this change, which considers phosphate adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides in soils under the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) and polyvalent cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), and Fe(3+)). For all soils except one, the description in the normal pH range 5-8 is good. For some soils at more extreme pH values (for low P-loading soils at low pH and for high P-loading soils at high pH), the model over predicts soluble P. The calculation shows that adsorption is the major mechanism controlling phosphate solubility in soils, except at high pH in high P-loading soils where precipitation of calcium phosphate may take place. NOM and polyvalent cations have a very strong effect on the concentration level of P. The pattern of pH dependency of soluble P in soils differs greatly from the pH effects on phosphate adsorption to synthetic metal (hydr)oxides in a monocomponent system. According to the LCD model, the pH dependency in soil is mainly caused by the synergistic effects of Ca(2+) adsorption to oxides. Adsorption of Al(3+) to NOM adsorbed plays an important role only at a pH < 4.5. Presence of NOM coating strongly competes with phosphate for the adsorption and is an important factor to consider in modeling phosphate adsorption in natural samples.

  9. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C.; Versfeld, Wilferd D.; Kilian, J. Werner; Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a “periparturient rise” in parasite intensity, and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential

  10. Synergistic inhibitory effects of deferasirox in combination with decitabine on leukemia cell lines SKM-1, THP-1, and K-562.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nianyi; Chen, Qinfen; Gu, Jingwen; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Guangjie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhicheng; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-05-30

    A multi-center study from the French Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Group confirmed that iron chelation therapy is an independent prognostic factor that can increase the survival rate of patients who are suffering from transfusion-dependent low-risk MDS. In this study, we aimed to explore this clinical phenomena in vitro, by exploring the synergistic effect of the iron chelator Deferasirox (DFX) and the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor Decitabine (DAC) in the leukemia cell lines SKM-1, THP-1, and K-562. Treatment with both DFX or DAC promoted apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest, and inhibited proliferation in all three of these cell lines. The combination of DFX and DAC was much greater than the effect of using either drug alone. DFX showed a synergistic effect with DAC on cell apoptosis in all three cell lines and on cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in K-562 cells. DFX decreased the ROS levels to varying degrees. In contrast, DAC increased ROS levels and an increase in ROS was also noted when the two drugs were used in combination. Treatment of cells with DAC induced re-expression of ABAT, APAF-1, FADD, HJV, and SMPD3, presumably through demethylation. However the combination of DAC and DFX just had strong synergistic effect on the re-expression of HJV.

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms on the day that the pills are taken. ... understand ways to change or better cope with ADHD symptoms, such as organizing schoolwork or dealing with emotional ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms ... Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should continue ...

  13. My ADHD and me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I illustrate how individuals diagnosed with ADHD relate to, engage with, and interpret both ADHD and explanations of the diagnosis. Based on my research on adults’ experiences of ADHD, I describe how my informants 1) identify with ADHD as a specific way of being human as well as 2......) distance themselves from ADHD by separating themselves from and disclaiming behavior connected to ADHD. Notions of ADHD as a brain disorder, I argue, form the basis of both ways of relating to ADHD. Lastly, I discuss how neurobiological explanations of ADHD produce specific choices about and hopes...... for treatment. The analysis is based on interviews with 13 adults diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood; on observations made at conferences and seminars about ADHD for professionals, patients and relatives; and lastly on observations from online blogs and forums about ADHD as part of a two-year anthropological...

  14. College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese College Students with ADHD No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  15. Synergistic effect of tungsten disulfide and cenosphere combination on braking performance of composite friction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachhap, Rakesh K.; Satapathy, Bhabani K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract showing correlation between enhanced frictional stability and enhanced visc-oelastic energy dissipation. - Highlights: • Developed new class of brake composites based on WS 2 and cenosphere. • Synergistic effect of WS 2 and cenosphere for enhanced friction stability. • Wear surface morphology revealed composition specific topography. • Friction fade-recovery performance remained optimal. - Abstract: Tungsten disulfide (WS 2 /TDS) based cenosphere (Cn) filled friction composites with varying cenosphere to WS 2 ratio (Cn/TDS) were fabricated by compression molding of phenolic resin based dry formulation mix and evaluated for their thermal, thermo-mechanical and tribological performances. The loss and revival of braking friction effectiveness due to heating or cooling of the disc termed as fade and recovery performance have been characterized on a Krauss friction testing machine following ECE R-90 industrial standards. The fade performance remained dependent on Cn/TDS, where enhanced fading could be correlated to lower Cn/TDS value accompanied with broader frictional fluctuations i.e. μ max –μ min . A decrease in the frictional-recovery response ensued with increase in Cn/TDS. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed an increase in storage modulus till 2.5 wt.% of TDS loading followed by consistent decrease whereas two distinct peaks in loss modulus plots that are composition independent have been observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the worn surface morphology associated with the dynamics of contact patches formation and deformation vis-a-vis friction layer formation as integrally responsible for the observed friction performance. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) enabled compositional analysis of the friction layer viz. Fe, W, Si, and Al content which may have a mechanistic role in controlling phenomena like, disc rubbing, lubricity, porosity, and hardness of friction layer formed during braking

  16. Synergistic Effect of Gelatin and Glycerol on Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vaishaka R.; Hegde, Ampar Chitharanjan

    2013-10-01

    The use of organic compounds which improves corrosion resistance has attracted growing interest in electroplating technology. In this direction, this article presents the experimental results of electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloy on mild steel (MS) from acid chloride bath using gelatin and glycerol as additives. The bath composition and operating parameters have been optimized by the conventional Hull cell method. The effect of gelatin and glycerol, individually and in combination on the deposition process, was identified by a cyclic voltammetry (CV) study at different scan rates. Bright deposition of Zn-Ni alloy was found at optimal current density (c.d.) due to the preferential deposition of gelatin and glycerol by controlling the Ni content of the alloy. The CV study demonstrated that alloy deposition is diffusion controlled when additives were used individually and is adsorption controlled when used in combination. Corrosion behaviors at different current densities (c.d.s) were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance (EIS) methods. The surface morphology and phase structure of the coatings were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The experimental results revealed that both gelatin and glycerol have synergistic effects in improving the electrocrystallization process and, hence, the corrosion stability of the coatings. At an optimal c.d. (3.0 A dm-2), the Zn-Ni alloy coating showed peak performance against corrosion with the least corrosion rate. Better corrosion protection at optimal c.d., which was attributed to specific Zn(101), γ-(411,330), and Zn(103) reflections, is evidenced by the XRD study.

  17. Antibiotic activity and synergistic effect of antimicrobial peptide against pathogens from a patient with gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Park, Soon Nang; Park, Seong-Cheol; Park, Joon Yong; Park, Yong Ha; Hahm, Joon Soo; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    HP (2-20) is a peptide derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1 that has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against various species of bacteria. When we tested the effects of HP (2-20), we found that this peptide displayed strong activity against pathogens from a patient with gallstones, but it did not have hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. We also found that HP (2-20) had potent activity against cefazolin sodium-resistant bacterial cell lines, and that HP (2-20) and cefazolin sodium had synergistic effects against cell lines resistant to the latter. To investigate the mechanism of action of HP (2-20), we performed fluorescence activated flow cytometry using pathogens from the patient with gallstones. As determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining, pathogenic bacteria treated with HP (2-20) showed higher fluorescence intensity than untreated cells, similar to melittin-treated cells, and that HP (2-20) acted in an energy- and salt-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HP (2-20) caused significant morphological alterations in the cell surface of pathogens from the patient with gallstones. By determining their 16S rDNA sequences, we found that both the pathogens from the patient with gallstones and the cefazolin sodium-resistant cell lines showed 100% homology with sequences from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these results suggest that HP (2-20) has antibiotic activity and that it may be used as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired pathogens from patients with gallstones and antibiotic-resistant cell lines

  18. Synergistic effect of silicate clay and phosphazene-oxyalkyleneamines on thermal stability of cured epoxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Liao, Yi-Lin; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2010-03-01

    Amine substitution of hexachlorocyclophosphazene (HCP) with poly(oxypropylene)diamines (POP) afforded HCP-POP adducts which were subsequently intercalated into a layered silicate clay. The relative thermal stabilities of the epoxies cured with the phosphazene-amines and the intercalated clays were studied. The organoclays, with the confined HCP-POP from 400 and 2000 g/mol M(w) amines, are nongelled products when using 1/6 M ratio of HCP/POP starting materials in tetrahydrofuran solvent. The intercalation of HCP-POP polyamine salts into sodium montmorillonite afforded the HCP-POP-embedded organoclays with an expanded interlayer silicate spacing (2.4-5.1 nm) from the original 1.2 nm spacing (X-ray diffraction). The effect of silicate clays was evaluated by blending the HCP-POP/clay hybrids into a two-component epoxy system (diglycidyl ether of 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) and a diamine) and fully cured to form solid materials. The distribution of the exfoliated silicate platelets in the matrix was analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated an enhanced thermal stability for the HCP/clay epoxy nanocomposites, with a delayed weight-loss pattern (temperature of weight loss at 10% (T(10 wt.%)) from 360 to 385 degrees C and temperature of weight loss at 85% (T(85 wt.%)) from 598 to 696 degrees C), compared to the pristine epoxies. By comparing these epoxies with different amounts of phosphazene and/or silicates, the TGA revealed a synergistic effect for the presence of both phosphorous and silicate components. Furthermore, the epoxies had improved physical properties such as hardness (from 3H to 5H) and surface adhesion (observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) on fracture surface). 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. School dysfunction in youth with autistic spectrum disorder in Taiwan: The effect of subtype and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Kao, Wei-Chih; Chou, Mei-Chun; Chou, Wen-June; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2018-02-10

    School dysfunction is observed in youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the factors moderating their school dysfunction have not been well explored. This study investigated school functions in youths with ASD in Taiwan, stratified by personal characteristics including demographics, ASD subtypes, intelligence profiles, and the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We recruited 160 youths (aged 6-18 years, 87.5% boys) with a clinical diagnosis of ASD and 160 age and gender-matched typically developing (TD) youths. Their parents received a semi-structured psychiatric interview for their ASD and ADHD diagnoses and reported their school functions. Youths with ASD were further grouped into low-functioning autism (LFA, ASD with intellectual disability and developmental language delay, n = 44), high-functioning autism (HFA, ASD with no intellectual disability, n = 55) and Asperger's syndrome (AS, ASD with neither language delay nor intellectual disability, n = 61). Compared to TD, ASD had worse school functions in the domains of academic performance, attitude toward schoolwork, social interaction, and behavioral problems except for no academic differences from TD in HFA and ASD without ADHD. Subgroup analysis revealed that HFA and AS had better academic performance but showed worse attitude toward school than LFA. Comorbidity of ADHD negatively impacted all domains of school functions. Besides autistic and ADHD symptoms, oppositional symptoms, lower intelligence, older age, and female gender in youths also predicted school dysfunction. Although youths with ASD have school dysfunction in several domains, this study specifically addresses the role of intelligence and comorbid ADHD on their school dysfunction. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Impaired school functions varied in ASD youths with different characteristics. Youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter

  20. Novel synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin with bortezomib on hepatocellular carcinoma cells and orthotopic tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cun; Jin, Guangzhi; Sun, Haiyan; Wu, Weizhong; Liu, Yinkun; Gao, Dongmei; Guo, Kun; Kang, Xiaonan; Jiang, Kai; Sun, Chun; Li, Yan; Sun, Lu; Shu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the chemotherapy efficacy against HCC is still unsatisfactory. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been emerged as an important cancer therapeutic target. However, HCC cells often resistant to rapamycin because of the paradoxical activation of Akt by rapamycin. In this study, we investigated whether bortezomib could enhance the antitumor effects of rapamycin. The effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by CCK-8 analysis, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 staining and transwell assays, respectively. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Akt were detected by Western blotting. The effects of rapamycin and/or bortezomib on the mRNA expression levels of p53, p27, p21 and Bcl-2 family in HCCLM3 cells were evaluated by RT-PCR. The roles of rapamycin and bortezomib on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. The effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo were test by PCNA and TUNEL staining. Bortezomib synergized with rapamycin to reduce cell growth, induce apoptosis, and inhibit cell mobility in vitro. Further mechanistic studies showed that bortezomib inhibited rapamycin-induced phosphorylated Akt, which in turn enhanced apoptosis of HCC cell lines. The alteration of the mRNA expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53, p27, p21 and apoptosis associated genes Bcl-2, Bax were also involved in the synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin and bortezomib. P53 inhibitor PFT-α significantly attenuate the effect of rapamycin and bortezomib on cell apoptosis, which indicated that the pro-apoptotic effect of rapamycin and bortezomib may be p53-dependent. Treatment of HCCLM3-R bearing nude mice with rapamycin and bortezomib significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition (72.4%), comparing with either rapamycin- (54.7%) or

  1. Novel synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin with bortezomib on hepatocellular carcinoma cells and orthotopic tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, the chemotherapy efficacy against HCC is still unsatisfactory. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been emerged as an important cancer therapeutic target. However, HCC cells often resistant to rapamycin because of the paradoxical activation of Akt by rapamycin. In this study, we investigated whether bortezomib could enhance the antitumor effects of rapamycin. Methods The effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by CCK-8 analysis, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 staining and transwell assays, respectively. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Akt were detected by Western blotting. The effects of rapamycin and/or bortezomib on the mRNA expression levels of p53, p27, p21 and Bcl-2 family in HCCLM3 cells were evaluated by RT-PCR. The roles of rapamycin and bortezomib on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. The effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo were test by PCNA and TUNEL staining. Results Bortezomib synergized with rapamycin to reduce cell growth, induce apoptosis, and inhibit cell mobility in vitro. Further mechanistic studies showed that bortezomib inhibited rapamycin-induced phosphorylated Akt, which in turn enhanced apoptosis of HCC cell lines. The alteration of the mRNA expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53, p27, p21 and apoptosis associated genes Bcl-2, Bax were also involved in the synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin and bortezomib. P53 inhibitor PFT-α significantly attenuate the effect of rapamycin and bortezomib on cell apoptosis, which indicated that the pro-apoptotic effect of rapamycin and bortezomib may be p53-dependent. Treatment of HCCLM3-R bearing nude mice with rapamycin and bortezomib significantly enhanced tumor growth

  2. Combined effects of irritants and allergens. Synergistic effects of nickel and sodium lauryl sulfate in nickel- sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Tove; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Overgaard, Lene

    2002-01-01

    (nickel chloride) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) alone and in combination. Evaluation of skin reactions was performed by colorimetry, measurement of transepidermal water loss and clinical evaluation, and the data were analyzed by logistic dose-response models. A synergistic effect was found of combined...... of combined exposure on skin barrier impairment was not found, since the barrier function is significantly influenced by SLS-exposure only and not by NiCl2. Concentration limits are used by industry and government agencies to protect consumers. The present results clearly illustrate that elicitation......Knowledge of the combined effects of irritants and allergens is of interest with respect to accurate risk assessment. The threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in previously sensitized individuals may theoretically be markedly influenced by the simultaneous presence of irritants...

  3. Effectiveness of nutritional interventions on the functioning of children with ADHD and/or ASD. An updated review of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood and comprises a range of behavioral problems, including inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD has been investigated extensively during the last 30 years. At this point most researchers agree that ADHD is a problem of complex etiology that needs to be investigated as a function of complex interactions. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a chronic disorder, with onset before three years of age. It is one of the fastest growing developmental disabilities in the United States and Puerto Rico. It presents with a wide range of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors, social and language impairment. Function and outcome is affected not only by core deficits but by associated behaviors such as hyperactivity, aggression, anxiety, and depression. Many studies have indicated that behavioral therapy and medication may be at least partially helpful in the treatment of children with ADHD or with ASD. Research on the effect of diet and nutrition on ADHD and autism has been increasing in the past two decades, particularly on the symptoms of hyperactivity and attention. Particular attention has focused on the role of food additives, refined sugar, food allergies, and fatty acid metabolism. It is imperative that data supporting new treatments should be scrutinized for scientific study design, clinical safety, and scientific validity, before embarking on them as modes of therapy. This updated review presents the evidence regarding the usefulness and limitations of the most frequent nutritional and dietary interventions in the treatment of ADHD and/or ASD.

  4. A prospective evaluation of synergistic effect of sulbactam and tazobactam combination with meropenem or colistin against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali M.Marie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the synergistic effect of sulbactam/tazobactam in combination with meropenem or colistin against multidrug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients from a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. During the study period, 54 multidrug and carbapenem-resistant isolates of A. baumannii isolates were collected from blood and respiratory samples of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or bacteremia. Microbroth checkerboard assay (CBA and E-test were performed to look for synergistic interface of sulbactam and tazobactam with meropenem or colistin. All 54 MDR isolates of A. baumannii were resistant to carbapenem. Minimum inhibitory concentration [50/90] value against sulbactam, tazobactam, meropenem, colistin was found to be 64/128, 64/128, 64/256, and 0.5/1.0 respectively. Synergy was detected in more isolates with CBA compared to E-test. All four combinations showed significant synergistic bactericidal activity. However, the combination with colistin showed greater synergistic effect than combination with meropenem. Antagonism was not detected with any of the combinations and any method, but indifference was seen in tazobactam and colistin combination alone. A significant bactericidal effect was seen with sulbactam combination with meropenem or colistin in both methods. A combination therapy can be a choice of treatment. As colistin is known to exhibit nephrotoxicity, the combination of sulbactam and meropenem might be considered as an alternative antibiotic treatment for such multi- and extremely resistant bacteria. Yet, sample size is small in our study, so further well-designed in vitro and clinical studies on large scale should confirm our findings.

  5. A prospective evaluation of synergistic effect of sulbactam and tazobactam combination with meropenem or colistin against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammed Ali M; Krishnappa, Lakshmana Gowda; Alzahrani, Alhusain J; Mubaraki, Murad A; Alyousef, Abdullah A

    2015-10-14

    The present study evaluates the synergistic effect of sulbactam/tazobactam in combination with meropenem or colistin against multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients from a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. During the study period, 54 multidrug and carbapenem-resistant isolates of A. baumannii isolates were collected from blood and respiratory samples of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or bacteremia. Microbroth checkerboard assay (CBA) and E-test were performed to look for synergistic interface of sulbactam and tazobactam with meropenem or colistin. All 54 MDR isolates of A. baumannii were resistant to carbapenem. Minimum inhibitory concentration [50/90] value against sulbactam, tazobactam, meropenem, colistin was found to be 64/128, 64/128, 64/256, and 0.5/1.0 respectively. Synergy was detected in more isolates with CBA compared to E-test. All four combinations showed significant synergistic bactericidal activity. However, the combination with colistin showed greater synergistic effect than combination with meropenem. Antagonism was not detected with any of the combinations and any method, but indifference was seen in tazobactam and colistin combination alone. A significant bactericidal effect was seen with sulbactam combination with meropenem or colistin in both methods. A combination therapy can be a choice of treatment. As colistin is known to exhibit nephrotoxicity, the combination of sulbactam and meropenem might be considered as an alternative antibiotic treatment for such multi- and extremely resistant bacteria. Yet, sample size is small in our study, so further well-designed in vitro and clinical studies on large scale should confirm our findings.

  6. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooij Sandra JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1 What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2 How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3 How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  7. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  8. Synergistic antibacterial effect of curcumin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Su-Hyun; Joung, Dae-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Bae; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Lee, Dong-Sung; Shin, Dong-Won; Kweon, Kee-Tae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2013-06-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are spread among infected patients, with infection rates increasing at an alarming rate. Furthermore, increased resistance to antibiotics has resulted in serious challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. Under the selection pressure of exposure to antibiotics, microorganisms evolve to survive against the new conditions imposed by therapy. Therefore, there exists a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. Curcumin (CCM), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of a plant, Curcuma longa Linné., has been found to possess many beneficial biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of curcumin and antibiotics as well as to determine the antibacterial activity of CCM against specific MRSA strains. The antibacterial activity of CCM was assessed by the broth microdilution method (by calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC]), checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill assay. Antimicrobial activity of CCM was observed against all tested strains. The MICs of CCM against 10 strains of S. aureus ranged from 125 to 250 μg/ml. In the checkerboard test, CCM markedly reduced the MICs of the antibiotics oxacillin (OXI), ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and norfloxacin (NOR) used against MRSA. The time-kill curves showed that a combined CCM and OXI treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24h. This study suggested that CCM reduced the MICs of several antibiotics tested, notably of OXI, AMP, CIP, and NOR, and that CCM in combination with antibiotics could lead to the development of new combination of antibiotics against MRSA infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Synergistic effects of iodine and silver ions co-implanted in 6H–SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhudzai, R.J.; Malherbe, J.B.; Hlatshwayo, T.T.; Berg, N.G. van der; Devaraj, A.; Zhu, Z.; Nandasiri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H–SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H–SiC and their subsequent annealing behaviour has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 °C for 30 h in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H–SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings. - Highlights: • Co-implantation of Ag and I ions in 6H–SiC was performed. • Clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters observed after annealing. • Complete loss of Ag after high temperature annealing of silver only sample. • Iodine was retained in iodine only sample after high temperature annealing. • Iodine was found to play a role in the retention of Ag in the co-implanted samples.

  10. New evaluation method of material degradation considering synergistic effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yukio; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Okubo, Nariaki; Kondo, Keietsu; Tsukada, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    In core structural materials of next generation reactors such as a liquid-metal cooled fast breeding reactor and a supercritical-water cooled thermal or first reactor, materials' degradation behavior by neutron irradiation damage and thermal (cyclic) stress should be considered with fair accuracy in design process (including maintenance and repair plans), because the materials are used under higher temperature gradients and higher neutron flux fields than those in the present light water reactors. In the current experimental design rules, service lives of core structural components were determined by the materials degradation such as the increase of ductile-to-brittle transition temperature after post irradiation examination data. However, other materials degradations such as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), which occurs by the degradation synergistically interacting with radiation hardening, local chemical composition change, swelling and radiation creep, should be considered reasonably in the design process of the next generation reactors, because of the anticipation of the beneficial effects by synergy of radiation damage. The radiation hardening and local chemical composition change at grain boundaries due to radiation-induced segregation increased with increasing dose. Above some threshold dose, swelling increased rapidly with increasing dose. Residual stress due to thermal stress and welding procedure decreased with increasing dose. To predict material failure by IASCC with reasonable accuracy, in this study, each material degradation phenomenon with different dose dependence was modeled with consideration of radiation induced stress relaxation. And then the models were integrated to simulate the failure behavior for the duration of reactor operation period. In this paper, the models obtained by ion-irradiation experiments and compared by data from neutron irradiation experiments were presented, and the concept of our new evaluation

  11. Synergistic effect of κ-carrageenan on oxazolone-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Feng; Gao, Xin; Niu, Tingting; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Haimin

    2016-03-25

    Carrageenan is a traditional ingredient that has been widely used in the food industry. In the present study, we propose a hypothesis that carrageenan is a conditional inflammatory agent. When the intestinal tract is in an "unhealthy" state such as that during bacterial infection or acute inflammation, carrageenan can synergistically enhance the inflammatory response. BALB/C mice received κ-carrageenan via intragastric administration prior to the induction of oxazolone colitis. Weight changes, survival rate, histologic change, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood, and expression of genes and proteins involved in inflammation and cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa were examined. Intragastric administration of κ-carrageenan to BALB/c mice prior to the induction of oxazolone colitis resulted in an aggravation of body weight loss, a decrease in the survival ratio, aggravation of colonic inflammation, and decrease in the ratio of CD4 + CD25+/CD4+. The secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) also significantly increased after κ-carrageenan administration. κ-Carrageenan, together with oxazolone, suppressed the expression of forkhead box p3 (FOXp3) and increased the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the colonic mucosa. These results were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses at the molecular and protein levels, respectively. κ-Carrageenan aggravated oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in BALB/c mice. This effect is associated with an activation of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway, a decreased ratio of Tregs, and the induction of Th2-dependent immune responses.

  12. Synergistic effects of fenbendazole and metronidazole against Giardia muris in Swiss mice naturally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Romera, Liara Izabela Lopes; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study were proposed different protocols for the treatment of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris. Male Swiss mice were divided into seven groups, with five animals each, in a blind, controlled, randomized by drawing lots and once-repeated experiment. Parasite detection and cure control were performed using the Faust method and search by trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa. Clinical parameters (weight, water and feed consumption, elimination of excreta, aspect of the fur and feces) were also evaluated. All animals were treated with metronidazole (M), fenbendazole (F), and probiotics (P), administered intragastrically, during 7 days. M1, FM1, and F1 groups were treated 1×/day; M3, FM3, and PM3 groups 3×/day; and ST (control group) received only water. After the 5th and 7th days of treatment, the animals in FM1/FM3 and PM3/M3 groups presented, respectively, negative results and remained negative in the following 10 days. Animals in F1 group consumed less water (p = 0.00010) compared with FM1/FM3/PM3. The animals in M1 group compared with FM3/M3, F1 compared with M3, and ST compared with FM1/FM3/M3/PM3 consumed a larger amount of feed (p = 0.00001). The animals in F1 group compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3, FM1 compared with FM3, and ST compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3 eliminated lower volume of excreta (p = 0.00001). The results show that the association between F and M potentiates the effects, indicating a synergistic action of these two drugs, and FM1 is the best protocol due to early negativity in the animals, lower concentrations of the drugs, lower risk of toxicity and stress, and less alterations in clinical parameters.

  13. Unprecedented carbon accumulation in mined soils: the synergistic effect of resource input and plant species invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Doane, Timothy A; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R

    2013-09-01

    Opencast mining causes severe impacts on natural environments, often resulting in permanent damage to soils and vegetation. In the present study we use a 14-year restoration chronosequence to investigate how resource input and spontaneous plant colonization promote the revegetation and reconstruction of mined soils in central Brazil. Using a multi-proxy approach, combining vegetation surveys with the analysis of plant and soil isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) and chemical and physical fractionation of organic matter in soil profiles, we show that: (1) after several decades without vegetation cover, the input of nutrient-rich biosolids into exposed regoliths prompted the establishment of a diverse plant community (> 30 species); (2) the synergistic effect of resource input and plant colonization yielded unprecedented increases in soil carbon, accumulating as chemically stable compounds in occluded physical fractions and reaching much higher levels than observed in undisturbed ecosystems; and (3) invasive grasses progressively excluded native species, limiting nutrient availability, but contributing more than 65% of the total accumulated soil organic carbon. These results show that soil-plant feedbacks regulate the amount of available resources, determining successional trajectories and alternative stable equilibria in degraded areas undergoing restoration. External inputs promote plant colonization, soil formation, and carbon sequestration, at the cost of excluding native species. The introduction of native woody species would suppress invasive grasses and increase nutrient availability, bringing the system closer to its original state. However, it is difficult to predict whether soil carbon levels could be maintained without the exotic grass cover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings, describing how the combination of resource manipulation and management of invasive species could be used to optimize restoration strategies

  14. Correlations between water-soluble organic aerosol and water vapor: a synergistic effect from biogenic emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Christopher J; Bergin, Michael H; Weber, Rodney J

    2008-12-15

    Ground-based measurements of meteorological parameters and water-soluble organic carbon in the gas(WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Atlanta, Georgia, from May to September 2007. Fourteen separate events were observed throughout the summer in which WSOCp and water vapor concentrations were highly correlated (average WSOCp-water vapor r = 0.92); however, for the entire summer, no well-defined relationship existed between the two. The correlation events, which lasted on average 19 h, were characterized by a wide range of WSOCp and water vapor concentrations. Several hypotheses for the correlation are explored, including heterogeneous liquid phase SOA formation and the co-emission of biogenic VOCs and water vapor. The data provide supporting evidence for contributions from both and suggest the possibility of a synergistic effect between the co-emission of water vapor and VOCs from biogenic sources on SOA formation. Median WSOCp concentrations were also correlated with elemental carbon (EC), although this correlation extended over the entire summer. Despite the emission of water vapor from anthropogenic mobile sources and the WSOCp-EC correlation, mobile sources were not considered a potential cause for the WSOCp-water vapor correlations because of their low contribution to the water vapor budget. Meteorology could perhaps have influenced the WSOCp-EC correlation, but other factors are implicated as well. Overall, the results suggest that the temperature-dependent co-emission of water vapor through evapotranspiration and SOA precursor-VOCs by vegetation may be an important process contributing to SOA in some environments.

  15. Copyrolysis of Biomass and Coal: A Review of Effects of Copyrolysis Parameters, Product Properties, and Synergistic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Concerns in the last few decades regarding the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the dependence on fossil fuels have resulted in calls for more renewable and alternative energy sources. This has led to recent interest in copyrolysis of biomass and coal. Numerous reviews have been found related to individual pyrolysis of coal and biomass. This review deals mainly with the copyrolysis of coal and biomass and then compares their results with those obtained using coal and biomass pyrolysis in detail. It is controversial whether there are synergistic or additive behaviours when coal and biomass are blended during copyrolysis. In this review, the effects of reaction parameters such as feedstock types, blending ratio, heating rate, temperature, and reactor types on the occurrence of synergy are discussed. Also, the main properties of the copyrolytic products are pointed out. Some possible synergistic mechanisms are also suggested. Additionally, several outlooks based on studies in the literature are also presented in this paper. PMID:27722171

  16. Copyrolysis of Biomass and Coal: A Review of Effects of Copyrolysis Parameters, Product Properties, and Synergistic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Quan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns in the last few decades regarding the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the dependence on fossil fuels have resulted in calls for more renewable and alternative energy sources. This has led to recent interest in copyrolysis of biomass and coal. Numerous reviews have been found related to individual pyrolysis of coal and biomass. This review deals mainly with the copyrolysis of coal and biomass and then compares their results with those obtained using coal and biomass pyrolysis in detail. It is controversial whether there are synergistic or additive behaviours when coal and biomass are blended during copyrolysis. In this review, the effects of reaction parameters such as feedstock types, blending ratio, heating rate, temperature, and reactor types on the occurrence of synergy are discussed. Also, the main properties of the copyrolytic products are pointed out. Some possible synergistic mechanisms are also suggested. Additionally, several outlooks based on studies in the literature are also presented in this paper.

  17. Synergistic anti-glioma effect of a coloaded nano-drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Huae Xu,1,* Feng Jia,2,* Pankaj Kumar Singh,3 Shu Ruan,4 Hao Zhang,5,* Xiaolin Li5 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Yancheng City No 1 People’s Hospital, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong Medical College, Yancheng, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 4Department of Endocrinology, Yancheng Third Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University Medical College, Yancheng, 5Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The anti-glioma effect of temozolomide (Tem is sometimes undermined by the emerging resistance. Recently, resveratrol (Res, herbal medicine extracted from grape seeds, has been demonstrated for its potential use in chemosensitization. In the current study, both these drugs were loaded simultaneously into nanoparticles with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly epsilon caprolactone (mPEG-PCL as drug carriers in order to achieve better antitumor efficiency. Tem/Res-coloaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles were constructed, characterized, and tested for antitumor effect on glioma cells by using in vitro and xenograft model system. The nanoparticle constructs were satisfactory with drug loading content (Res =~12.4%; Tem =~9.3% and encapsulation capacity of >85% for both the drugs. In addition, the coencapsulation led to better in vitro stability of the nanoparticles than Tem-loaded nanoparticles. An in vitro uptake study demonstrated a high uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles by glioma cells. The synergistic antitumor effect against glioma cells was observed in the combinational treatment of Res and Tem. Tem/Res-coloaded nanoparticles induced higher apoptosis in U87 glioma cells as

  18. Synergistic Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Carcinoma (KB) Cells under Oxidative Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Medicinal plants with synergistic effects on growth inhibition of cancer cells under oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 51 natural medicinal plants, which were reported to have anticancer effect on hepatoma, stomach cancer or colon cancers which are frequently found in Korean, were prepared and screened for their synergistic activity on growth inhibition of cancer cells under chemically-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Twenty seven samples showed synergistic activity on the growth inhibition in various extent under chemically-induced oxidative stress. Among those samples, eleven samples, such as Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffiusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, Cridium officinale, showed decrease in IC 50 values more than 50%, other 16 samples showed decrease in IC 50 values between 50-25%, compared with the value acquired when medicinal plant sample was used alone. Among those 11 samples, extract of Catalpa ovata showed the highest activity. IC 50 values were decrease to 61% and 28% when carcinoma cells were treated with Catalpa ovata extract in combination of 75 and 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide, respectively

  19. Synergistic effect of cellulose nanocrystals/graphene oxide nanosheets as functional hybrid nanofiller for enhancing properties of PVA nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Miri, Nassima; El Achaby, Mounir; Fihri, Aziz; Larzek, Mohamed; Zahouily, Mohamed; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Solhy, Abderrahim

    2016-02-10

    Novel functional hybrid nanofillers composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and graphene oxide nanosheets (GON), at different weight ratios (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2), were successfully prepared and characterized, and their synergistic effect in enhancing the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites was investigated. Due to the synergistic reinforcement, it was found that the Young's modulus, tensile strength and toughness of the PVA nanocomposite containing 5 wt% hybrid nanofiller (1:2) were significantly improved by 320%, 124% and 159%, respectively; and the elongation at break basically remained compared to the neat PVA matrix. In addition, the glass and melting temperatures as well as the moisture sorption of nanocomposites were also enhanced. This synergistic effect improved the dispersion homogeneity by avoiding the agglomeration phenomenon of nanofillers within the polymer matrix, resulting in nanocomposites with largely enhanced properties compared to those prepared from single nanofiller (CNC or GON). The preparation of these hybrid nanofillers and their incorporation into a polymer provided a novel method for the development of novel multifunctional nanocomposites based on the combination of existing nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The synergistic effects of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil herbicides on weed population in rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ramli Ishak; Sabri Junoh; Ismail Sahid

    2002-01-01

    Four treatments with the herbicides 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil were carried out in two consecutive rice planting seasons, to study the synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil on rice weed populations at Pasir Panjang, the Northwest Selangor Project (PBLS), Projek Barat Laut Selangor) rice granary area. The treatments were control, 1x recommended rate (single dose), 2x recommended rate (double dose) of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and farmer practice. In all plots, propanil herbicide was applied at similar rate. Among the ecological indices measured were Simpson Index of diversity and importance (I.V.). A total number of 19 weed species was identified and the most common important weed was Najas graminae Del. The second most commonly found important weed was Scirpus lateriflorus Gmel. Other important weeds frequently found were Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. In the rice agroecosystem, species diversity of weeds was affected but total weed biomass was not affected synergistically by the mixture of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil. The negative synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil was to increase the total biomass of Scirpus lateriflorus, at 2x recommended dose rate of 2,4-D dimethyl amine. (Author)

  1. Synergistic Effects of Citalopram and Morphine in the Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the synergistic effects of opioids and other analgesic drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been established in relieving acute pain due to renal calculi, no studies today have evaluated the concomitant administration of opiates and other drugs with analgesic effects, such as serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Considering the high prevalence of renal colic, the present study was carried out to compare the effect of concomitant prescription of morphine and a placebo with that of morphine and citalopram on the management of acute pain due to renal calculi. Methods: The present double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out from October 2012 to March 2013 in the Al-Zahra educational Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 90 patients with acute renal colic pain were randomly divided into two groups of 45 subjects. The subjects in one group received morphine/ placebo and another one morphine/citalopram. The patients’ pain severity was determined by visual analogue scale (VAS before and 20 minutes after administration of medications. In case of persistent pain the second or even third dose was administered and the pain severity was once again determined. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 using chi-squared, two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test, and log rank test. Results: The decrease in pain severity in the morphine/citalopram group was significantly compared to the morphine/placebo group and the time before administration of the medications (p<0.001. In contrast, administration of morphine/placebo did not have a significant effect on pain severity at this interval (p=0.32. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the first injection was successful in relieving pain in 15 (33.3% and 26 (57.8% subjects in the morphine/placebo and morphine/citalopram groups, respectively. The second injection of these medications resulted in therapeutic success in 35 (87.8% and 42 (95.6% subjects in the above groups

  2. The Synergistic Effect between Electrical and Chemical Factors in Plasma Gene/Molecule-Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasma and processes on cells promote plasma gene/molecule transfection. We have discovered a new plasma source using a microcapillary electrode which enables high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability simultaneously. However, the mechanism of the transfection by plasma was not clear. To clarify the transfection mechanisms by micro plasma, we focused on the effects of electrical (current, charge, field, etc.) and chemical (radicals, RONS, etc.) factors generated by the micro plasma and evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones. At first, the necessity of the electrical factors was estimated by the laser produced plasma (LPP). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cell was cultured on a 96-well plate or 12-well micro slide chamber. Plasmids pCX-EGFP in Tris-EDTA buffer was dropped on the cells and they were exposed to the capillary discharge plasma (CDP) or the LPP. In the case of the CDP, the plasma was generated between the tip of the capillary electrode and the cells so that both electrical and chemical factors were supplied to the cells. In this setup, about 20% of average transfection efficiency was obtained. In the case of the LPP, the plasma was generated apart from the cells so that electrical factors were not supplied to the cells. In this setup, no transfection was observed. These results show that the electrical factors are necessary for the plasma gene transfection. Next, the necessity of the chemical factors was estimated the effect of catalase to remove H2O2 in CDP. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.4 by scavenging H2O2 with catalase. However, only the solution of H2O2 caused no gene transfection in cells. These results shows that H2O2 is important species to cause gene/molecule transfection but still needs a synergistic effect with electrical or other chemical factors. This work was partly supported by

  3. Carbon and TiO{sub 2} synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes, E-mail: evelynalvesnunes@yahoo.com.br; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO{sub 2} structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO{sub 2} structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO{sub 2} phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO{sub 2} during the sol-gel step, with a TiO{sub 2} structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO{sub 2} based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO{sub 2}-Carbon

  4. Effects of a Summer Treatment Program on Functional Sports Outcomes in Young Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children’s sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  5. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults : The effect of laterality and state regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Borger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation,

  6. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD.

  7. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  8. Effects of Comorbid ADHD with Learning Disabilities on Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Baker, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and learning disabilities (LD) frequently coexist and there are indications that comorbidity may increase the risk of psychopathology. Method: The current study examined the gender distribution and frequency of comorbidity and its impact on the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and aggression in a clinic sample of 80…

  9. The Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene ("DRD4") Moderates Family Environmental Effects on ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Waldman, Irwin; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prime candidate for exploration of gene-by-environment interaction (i.e., G x E), particularly in relation to dopamine system genes, due to strong evidence that dopamine systems are dysregulated in the disorder. Using a G x E design, we examined whether the "DRD4" promoter 120-bp tandem repeat…

  10. The Redundancy Effect on Retention and Transfer for Individuals with High Symptoms of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Victoria; Lewis, David; Toussaint, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia elements of text and audio need to be carefully integrated together to maximize the impact of those elements for learning in a multimedia environment. Redundancy information presented through audio and visual channels can inhibit learning for individuals diagnosed with ADHD, who may experience challenges in the processing of…

  11. Effects of OROS-MPH Versus Dl-Amphetamine-XR on Driving Performance of ADHD Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Driving performance of 35 adolescent ADHD patients (19 boys/16 girls; mean age 17.8 years on a driving simulator was compared while taking OROS methylphenidate (Concerta, 72 mg, mixed dl-amphetamine salts (Adderall XR, 30 mg, or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study at University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

  12. Modulation of response timing in ADHD, effects of reinforcement valence magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated.

  13. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a brief school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, K; Taylor, J A; Valentine, A; Guo, B; Sampson, C J; Sellman, E; James, M; Hollis, C; Daley, D

    2016-07-01

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of children with, or at risk of, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of a group parenting intervention programme (+/- a teacher session) for children at risk of ADHD. In a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, 12 primary schools were randomly assigned to control, parent-only and combined (parent + teacher) intervention arms. Eligible children had high levels of parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention (n = 199). At 6 month follow-up, the primary outcome measure was the parent-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised (ADHD index). Secondary outcomes included the Conners' sub-scales (hyperactivity, cognitive problems/inattention and oppositional behaviour), the teacher-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised, child health-related quality of life, parental burden and parental mental health. The cost-effectiveness analyses reflected a health and personal social services perspective. ISRCTN87634685. Follow-up data were obtained from 76 parents and 169 teachers. There was no effect of the parent-only (mean difference = -1.1, 95% CI -5.1,2.9; p = 0.57) or combined interventions (mean difference = -2.1, 95% CI -6.4,2.1; p = 0.31) on the ADHD index. The combined intervention was associated with reduced parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms (mean difference = -5.3; 95% CI -10.5,-0.01; p = 0.05) and the parent-only intervention with improved parental mental health (mean difference = -1.9; 95% CI -3.2,-0.5; p = 0.009). The incremental costs of the parent-only and the combined interventions were £73 and £123, respectively. Above a willingness-to-pay of £31 per one-point improvement in the ADHD index, the parent-only programme had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness. Participants found the

  14. Antileishmanial activity of semisynthetic lupane triterpenoids betulin and betulinic acid derivatives: synergistic effects with miltefosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Sousa

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTDs, endemic in 88 countries, affecting more than 12 million people. The treatment consists in pentavalent antimony compounds, amphotericin B, pentamidine and miltefosine, among others. However, these current drugs are limited due to their toxicity, development of biological resistance, length of treatment and high cost. Thus, it is important to continue the search for new effective and less toxic treatments. The anti-Leishmania activity of sixteen semisynthetic lupane triterpenoids derivatives of betulin (BT01 to BT09 and betulinic acid (AB10 to AB16 were evaluated. Drug interactions between the active compounds and one current antileishmanial drug, miltefosine, were assessed using the fixed ratio isobologram method. In addition, effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis/necrosis events, morphology and DNA integrity were studied. The derivatives BT06 (3β-Hydroxy-(20R-lupan-29-oxo-28-yl-1H-imidazole-1-carboxylate and AB13 (28-(1H-imidazole-1-yl-3,28-dioxo-lup-1,20(29-dien-2-yl-1H-imidazole-1-carboxylate were found to be the most active, with IC50 values of 50.8 µM and 25.8 µM, respectively. Interactions between these two compounds and miltefosine were classified as synergistic, with the most effective association being between AB13 and miltefosine, where decreases of IC50 values to 6 µM were observed, similar to the miltefosine activity alone. AB13 induced significant morphological changes, while both derivatives produced anti-proliferative activity through cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Neither of these derivatives induced significant apoptosis/necrosis, as indicated by phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation assays. In addition, neither of the derivatives induced death in macrophage cell lines. Thus, they do not present any potential risk of toxicity for the host cells. This study has identified the betulin derivative BT06 and the betulinic acid derivative AB13 as promising

  15. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  16. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  17. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Dong-Wu; Tang, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2014-09-01

    This study aims at evaluating the anticancer effects of berberine hydrochloride (berberine) and d-limonene, alone and in combination, on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 to determine whether berberine and d-limonene work synergistically and elucidate their mechanisms. MGC803 cells were treated with berberine and d-limonene, alone and in combination, for 24-48 h. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on growth were determined by MTT assay. The combination index and drug reduction index were calculated with the Chou-Talalay method based on the median-effect principle. Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were employed to evaluate the effects of both drugs on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in MGC803 cells. Berberine or d-limonene alone can inhibit the growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine and d-limonene at a combination ratio of 1:4 exhibited a synergistic effect on anti-MGC803 cells. The two drugs distinctly induced intracellular ROS generation, reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced the expression of caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The combination of berberine and d-limonene showed more remarkable effects compared with drugs used singly in MGC803 cells. The combination of berberine and d-limonene exerted synergistic anticancer effects on MGC803 cells by cell-cycle arrest, ROS production, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway.

  18. Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Alexander

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem (NTS, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and the dorsomedial nucleus (DMH of the hypothalamus. Results In fasted C57BL/6 mice, the anorexigenic effect of CART(61-102 in the doses of 0.1 or 0.5 μg/mouse was significantly enhanced by low doses of CCK-8 of 0.4 or 4 μg/kg, while 1 mg/kg dose of CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the effect of CART(61-102 on food intake. After simultaneous administration of 0.1 μg/mouse CART(61-102 and of 4 μg/kg of CCK-8, the number of Fos-positive neurons in NTS, PVN, and DMH was significantly higher than after administration of each particular peptide. Besides, CART(61-102 and CCK-8 showed an additive effect on inhibition of the locomotor activity of mice in an open field test. Conclusion The synergistic and long-lasting effect of the CART peptide and CCK on food intake and their additive effect on Fos immunoreactivity in their common targets suggest a co-operative action of CART peptide and CCK which could be related to synergistic effect of leptin on CCK satiety.

  19. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation.

  20. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D. Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20 or ADHD+D (n = 36, aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA, Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C, and Life Participation Scale for ADHD-Child Version (LPS-C were assessed. Results Atomoxetine demonstrated significant improvement for both groups on the ADHDRS-IV, LPS-C, and K-TEA reading comprehension standard and composite scores. K-TEA spelling subtest improvement was significant for the ADHD group, whereas the ADHD+D group showed significant reading decoding improvements. Substantial K-TEA reading and spelling subtest age equivalence gains (in months were achieved for both groups. The WMTB-C central executive score change was significantly greater for the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD+D group showed significant phonological loop score enhancement by visit over the ADHD group. Atomoxetine was well tolerated, and commonly reported adverse events were similar to those previously reported. Conclusions Atomoxetine reduced ADHD symptoms and improved reading scores in both groups. Conversely, different patterns and magnitude of improvement in working memory component scores existed between ADHD and ADHD+D patients. Though limited by small sample size, group differences in relation to the comparable changes in improvement in ADHD symptoms could suggest that brain systems related to the therapeutic benefit of atomoxetine in reducing ADHD symptoms may be different in individuals with ADHD+D and ADHD without dyslexia. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00191048

  1. Synergistic antibacterial effects of herbal extracts and antibiotics on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A computational and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Chiu-Fai; Hoi, Sai-On; Hoi, Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Hong; Fong, Io-Hong; Ngok, Cheong-Kei; Meng, Li-Rong; Fong, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global concern, and the discovery of antimicrobial herbal constituents may provide valuable solutions to overcome the problem. In this study, the effects of therapies combining antibiotics and four medicinal herbs on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were investigated. Specifically, the synergistic effects of Magnolia officinalis, Verbena officinalis, Momordica charantia, and Daphne genkwa in combination with oxacillin or gentamicin against methicillin-resistant (ATCC43300) and methicillin-susceptible (ATCC25923) S. aureus were examined. In vitro susceptibility and synergistic testing were performed to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of the antibiotics and medicinal herbs against MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. To identify the active constituents in producing these synergistic effects, in silico molecular docking was used to investigate the binding affinities of 139 constituents of the four herbs to the two common MRSA inhibitory targets, penicillin binding proteins 2a (PBP2a) and 4 (PBP4). The physicochemical and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties and drug safety profiles of these compounds were also analyzed. D. genkwa extract potentiated the antibacterial effects of oxacillin against MRSA, as indicated by an FIC index value of 0.375. M. officinalis and V. officinalis produced partial synergistic effects when combined with oxacillin, whereas M. charantia was found to have no beneficial effects in inhibiting MRSA. Overall, tiliroside, pinoresinol, magnatriol B, and momorcharaside B were predicted to be PBP2a or PBP4 inhibitors with good drug-like properties. This study identifies compounds that deserve further investigation with the aim of developing therapeutic agents to modulate the effect of antibiotics on MRSA. Impact statement Antibiotic resistant is a well-known threat to global health and

  2. Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen and Molybdenum on Localized Corrosion of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    According to the bipolar model, ion selectivity of some species in the passive film is important factor to control the passivation. An increase of cation selectivity of outer layer of the passive film can stabilize the film and improves the corrosion resistance. Therefore, the formation and roles of ionic species in the passive film should be elucidated. In this work, two types of solution (hydrochloric or sulfuric acid) were used to test high N and Mo-bearing stainless steels. The objective of this work was to investigate the formation of oxyanions in the passive film and the roles of oxyanions in passivation of stainless steel. Nitrogen exists as atomic nitrogen, nitric oxide, nitro-oxyanions (NO x - ), and N-H species, not nitride in the passive film. Because of its high mobility, the enriched atomic nitrogen can act as a reservoir. The formation of N-H species buffers the film pH and facilitates the formation of oxyanions in the film. NO x - species improve the cation selectivity of the film, increasing the oxide content and film density. NO x - acts similar to a strong inhibitor both in the passive film and at active sites. This facilitates the formation of chromium oxide. Also, NO x - can make more molybdate and nitric oxide by reacting with Mo. The role of Mo addition on the passivation characteristics of stainless steel may differ with the test environment. Mo exists as metallic molybdenum, Molybdenum oxide, and molybdate and the latter facilitates the oxide formation. When nitrogen and molybdenum coexist in stainless steel, corrosion resistance in chloride solutions is drastically increased. This synergistic effect of N and Mo in a chloride solution is mainly due to the formation of nitro-oxyanions and molybdate ion. Oxyanions can be formed by a 'solid state reaction' in the passive film, resulting in the formation of more molybdate and nitric oxide. These oxyanions improve the cation selectivity of the outer layer and from more oxide and increase the

  3. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Protein systems (PS) are routinely used by companies from Brazil and around the globe to improve the texture, yield, and palatability of processed foods. Understanding the synergistic behavior among the different protein structures of these systems during thermal treatment under the influence of pH can help to better define optimum conditions for products and processes. The interpretation of the reactions and interactions that occur simultaneously among the protein constituents of these systems as dispersions during thermal processing is still a major challenge. Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate under different conditions of pH (5.0, 6.5, and 7.0) and heat processing (85°C/15min and 95°C/5min). The solutions were standardized to 25% of total solids and 17% of protein. Ten analytical parameters were used to characterize each of the startup-viscosity ramps for 35 experiments conducted in a 2×3 × 5 mixed planning matrix, using principal component analysis to interpret behavioral similarities. The study showed the clear influence of pH 5.5 in the elevation of the initial temperature of the PS startup viscosity by at least 5°C, as well as the effect of different milk protein concentrate:whey protein concentrate ratios above 15:85 at pH 7.0 on the viscographic profile curves. These results suggested that the primary agent driving the changes was the synergism among the reactions and interactions of casein with whey proteins during processing. This study reinforces the importance of the rapid viscosity analyzer as an analytical tool for the simulation of industrial processes involving PS, and the use of the startup viscosity ramp as a means of interpreting the interactions of system components with respect to changes related to the treatment temperature. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  4. Are there any potentially dangerous pharmacological effects of combining ADHD medication with alcohol and drugs of abuse? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Xanthe M; McArdle, Paul A; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-10-30

    Among young people up to 18 years of age, approximately 5% have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), many of whom have symptoms persisting into adulthood. ADHD is associated with increased risk of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, including substance misuse. Many will be prescribed medication, namely methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine. If so, it is important to know if interactions exist and if they are potentially toxic. Three databases (Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO) from a 22 year period (1992 - June 2014) were searched systematically. Key search terms included alcohol, substance related disorders, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, and death, which identified 493 citations (344 after removal of duplicates). The eligibility of each study was assessed jointly by two investigators, leaving 20 relevant articles. We identified only a minimal increase in side-effects when ADHD medication (therapeutic doses) was taken with alcohol. None of the reviewed studies showed severe sequelae among those who had overdosed on ADHD medication and other coingestants, including alcohol. The numbers across all the papers studied remain too low to exclude uncommon effects. Also, studies of combined effects with novel psychoactive substances have not yet appeared in the literature. Nevertheless, no serious sequelae were identified from combining ADHD medication with alcohol/illicit substances from the pre-novel psychoactive substance era.

  5. What Is ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD KidsHealth / For Parents / ADHD What's in this article? ... Print en español Qué es TDAH? What Is ADHD? ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It ...

  6. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Guo Hong-Xia; Zhang Feng-Qi; Zhao Wen; Wang Yan-Ping; Zhang Ke-Ying; Ding Li-Li; Luo Yin-Hong; Wang Yuan-Ming; Fan Xue

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, A.; Lewis, O.; Kumar, R.; Yeruva, S. L. H.; Curry, B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greate...

  8. The synergistic apoptotic effects of thiophenfurin, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor, in combination with retinoids in HL60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria; Tolomeo, Manlio; Grifantini, Mario; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Cappellacci, Loredana; Simoni, Daniele; Invidiata, Francesco P; Aiello, Stefania; Dusonchet, Luisa

    2007-01-01

    New effective cytotoxic agents and combinations are urgently needed in cancer treatment. The enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase is a potentially useful target for drug development, since its activity has been shown to be amplified in malignant cells. Thiophenfurin, an inhibitor of the enzyme synthesized by us, is endowed with a significant apoptotic activity in promyelocytic leukaemia HL60 cells. Since retinoids were successfully employed in the treatment of patients with leukaemia, demonstrating significant differentiation-inducing and apoptotic effects, we carried out this study to evaluate the effects of the combination of thiophenfurin and several retinoid molecules, acting in different phases of the cell cycle in vitro. The results show that thiophenfurin is capable of eliciting significant S phase-specific antiproliferative effects in different sensitive and resistant cell lines with the IC50s ranging from 6.7 to 26 microM. When HL60 cells were treated with thiophenfurin in combination with retinoids, the effects on cell growth were additive or synergistic, depending on the kind of retinoid used and the sequence of treatment. In particular, we observed additive effects when the cells were exposed to thiophenfurin and all-transretinoic acid either simultaneously or sequentially. Instead, when the new heterocyclic retinoid isoxazole benzoic acid was used, synergism was obtained in the cells treated sequentially. The combination of thiophenfurin and isoxazole benzoic acid determined synergistic apoptotic effects through a mitochondrion-dependent mechanism, suggesting the possible usefulness of this combination in the treatment of leukaemia.

  9. Comparative effects of emotion management training and social skills training in Korean children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Sil; Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2015-02-01

    ADHD is associated with social and emotional impairment that goes beyond the core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention deficits. This study evaluates the comparative efficacy of emotional management training (EMT) with social skills training (SST) and no treatment in children with ADHD. A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study was conducted with 32 boys and 40 girls (aged 10-12 years). The Child Behavior Checklist, Emotion Expression Scale for Children, Child Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children were completed before and after the intervention. The EMT group exhibited a significant improvement in emotion recognition and expressive reluctance. Therefore, focusing on emotion identification and expression in social cognitive processes (i.e., EMT), instead of merely focusing on social skills (SST), enhances treatment efficacy. These results support the hypothesis that focusing on the identification and expression of emotional information processes, instead of merely focusing on social skills (SST) enhances treatment efficacy. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  10. Does the Environment Have an Enduring Effect on ADHD? A Longitudinal Study of Monozygotic Twin Differences in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Luisa T; Coventry, William L; Corley, Robin P; Willcutt, Erik G; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K; Byrne, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the development of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the long-term effects of these factors are still unclear. This study analyses data from 1024 monozygotic (identical) twins in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia who were assessed for ADHD in Preschool, Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Differences within each twin pair were used as a direct measure of non-shared environmental effects. The Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model developed by Cole et al. (Psychological Methods, 10, 3-20, 2005) was used to separate the non-shared environmental effects into stable factors, and transient factors that excluded measurement error. Stable factors explained, on average, 44 % and 39 % of the environmental variance in hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms, respectively. Transient effects explained the remaining 56 % and 60 % of variance. The proportion of stable variance was higher than expected based on previous research, suggesting promise for targeted interventions if future research identifies these stable risk factors.

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Stimulant and Non-Stimulant Medication for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Trials of Methylphenidate, Amphetamines and Atomoxetine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennissen, L.; Bakker-Huvenaars, M.J.; Banaschewski, T.; Carucci, S.; Coghill, D.; Danckaerts, M.; Dittmann, R.W.; Hollis, C.; Kovshoff, H.; McCarthy, S.; Nagy, P.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Wong, I.C.; Zuddas, A.; Rosenthal, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with stimulant and non-stimulant medication. ADHD medication may be associated with cardiovascular effects. It is important to identify whether mean group effects translate into clinically

  12. ADHD knowledge, misconceptions, and treatment acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Mark J

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of several effective treatments, many children with ADHD do not receive adequate services. A variety of factors may influence help-seeking behavior among families of children with ADHD. This study explores two factors that may influence help-seeking decisions: knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD and treatment acceptability. A total of 196 participants completed measures of ADHD knowledge and use of information sources prior to rating the acceptability of two interventions: stimulant medication and sugar elimination diets. Higher levels of ADHD misconceptions were associated with lower acceptance of medication and higher acceptance of dietary interventions. However, analysis of individual misconceptions suggests that specific misconceptions are differentially related to perceptions of individual treatments. It may be important for clinicians to assess and deliberately target specific misconceptions as part of treatment for ADHD. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  13. In vivo synergistic cytogenetic effects of aminophylline on lymphocyte cultures from patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonaki, Effie; Manika, Katerina [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Zarogoulidis, Paul, E-mail: pzarog@hotmail.com [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Domvri, Kalliopi; Voutsas, Vasilis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Mourelatos, Dionysios [Biology and Genetics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► SCEs in vivo, a possible predictor of tumor chemoresponse. ► In vivo exposure to combined treatment, applying the SCE assay. ► Aminophylline enhances DNA instability induced by chemotherapy in vivo. ► In vivo synergistic effect of Aminophylline with the chemotherapeutic agents. - Abstract: Background: The anti-cancer and cytogenetic effects of aminophylline (AM) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo cytogenetic effects of AM in newly diagnosed patients with small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), receiving chemotherapy for the first time. Methods: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from six patients with SCLC and six patients with NSCLC after the in vitro addition of AM and after the in vivo administration of AM in patients receiving chemotherapy. Results: The in vitro addition of AM significantly increased SCEs only in SCLC patients (p < 0.001). The in vivo administration of AM after chemotherapy increased SCEs in both cancer types (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.003) and this increase was synergistic, the rates of SCEs in the presence of AM were higher than the expected SCE values if the increases above background for chemotherapy and AM were independent and additive (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.008). Although in both groups of patients cell division delays were observed after the combined chemotherapy plus in vivo AM treatment, the correlation between the magnitude of the SCE response and the PRI depression was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These observations suggest that AM enhances the results of concurrently administered chemotherapy by synergistically increasing its cytogenetic effects in patients with lung cancer.

  14. Is There a Positive Synergistic Effect of Biochar and Compost Soil Amendments on Plant Growth and Physiological Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lukas Seehausen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of biochar (BC with compost has been suggested to be a promising strategy to promote plant growth and performance, but although “synergistic” effects have been stated to occur, full-factorial experiments are few, and explicit tests for synergism are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of BC and spent mushroom substrate (SMS has a positive synergistic effect on plant growth and physiological performance in a nutrient-limited growing media. A greenhouse experiment with a full factorial design was conducted using mixed-wood BC (3.0 kg·m−2 and SMS (1.5 kg·m−2 (the combination was not co-composted as organic soil amendments for the annual Abutilon theophrasti and the perennial Salix purpurea. Several measurements related to plant growth and physiological performance were taken throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, we found that the combination of BC + SMS had neutral or antagonistic interactive effects on many plant growth traits. Antagonistic effects were found on maximum leaf area, above- and belowground biomass, reproductive allocation, maximum plant height, chlorophyll fluorescence, and stomatal conductance of A. theophrasti. The effect on S. purpurea was mostly neutral. We conclude that the generalization that BC and compost have synergistic effects on plant performance is not supported.

  15. Synergistic effects of acyclic retinoid and OSI-461 on growth inhibition and gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahito; Suzui, Masumi; Deguchi, Atsuko; Lim, Jin T E; Xiao, Danhua; Hayes, Julia H; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Weinstein, I Bernard

    2004-10-01

    Hepatoma is one of the most frequently occurring cancers worldwide. However, effective chemotherapeutic agents for this disease have not been developed. Acyclic retinoid, a novel synthetic retinoid, can reduce the incidence of postsurgical recurrence of hepatoma and improve the survival rate. OSI-461, a potent derivative of exisulind, can increase intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, which leads to activation of protein kinase G and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the combined effects of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. We found that the combination of as little as 1.0 micromol/L acyclic retinoid and 0.01 micromol/L OSI-461 exerted synergistic inhibition of the growth of HepG2 cells. Combined treatment with low concentrations of these two agents also acted synergistically to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through induction of Bax and Apaf-1, reduction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. OSI-461 enhanced the G0-G1 arrest caused by acyclic retinoid, and the combination of these agents caused a synergistic decrease in the levels of expression of cyclin D1 protein and mRNA, inhibited cyclin D1 promoter activity, decreased the level of hyperphosphorylated forms of the Rb protein, induced increased cellular levels of the p21(CIP1) protein and mRNA, and stimulated p21(CIP1) promoter activity. Moreover, OSI-461 enhanced the ability of acyclic retinoid to induce increased cellular levels of retinoic acid receptor beta and to stimulate retinoic acid response element-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. A hypothetical model involving concerted effects on p21(CIP1) and retinoic acid receptor beta expression is proposed to explain these synergistic effects. Our results suggest that the combination of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 might be an effective regimen for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of human hepatoma and possibly other malignancies.

  16. Synergistic antiproliferative and anticholesterogenic effects of linalool, 1,8-cineole, and simvastatin on human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenak Kladniew, Boris; Polo, Mónica; Montero Villegas, Sandra; Galle, Marianela; Crespo, Rosana; García de Bravo, Margarita

    2014-05-05

    Monoterpenes are naturally occurring plant hydrocarbons with multiple effects on the mevalonate pathway (MP), while statins competitively inhibit hydroxymethylglutarylcoenzyme-A reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the MP. Monoterpenes and statins proved capable of inhibiting both proliferation and cholesterogenesis. In the present study we assess the in vitro antiproliferative and anticholesterogenic effects of two monoterpenes: linalool and 1,8-cineole-either alone, in combination with each other, or combined individually with simvastatin-on liver-derived (HepG2) and extrahepatic (A549) cell lines. The three compounds alone inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion, while their pairwise combination produced synergistic antiproliferative effects in both cell lines. Incorporation experiments with [(14)C]acetate revealed that linalool and 1,8-cineole inhibited the MP, probably at different points, resulting in a reduction in cholesterogenesis and an accumulation of other MP intermediates and products. Linalool or 1,8-cineole, either together or individually with simvastatin, synergistically inhibited cholesterol synthesis. At low concentrations both monoterpenes inhibited steps specifically involved in cholesterol synthesis, whereas at higher concentrations HMGCR levels became down-regulated. Added exogenous mevalonate failed to reverse the inhibition of proliferation exerted by linalool and 1,8-cineole, suggesting that HMGCR inhibition alone is not responsible for the antiproliferative activity of those agents. This work demonstrates that monoterpenes in combination with each other, or individually in combination with simvastatin synergistically inhibits proliferation and cholesterogenesis in the human cell lines investigated, thus contributing to a clearer understanding of the action of essential-oil components, and their combination with the statins, in the targeting of specific points within a complex metabolic pathway. Copyright © 2014

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma repression by TNFα-mediated synergistic lethal effect of mitosis defect-induced senescence and cell death sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Fu, Jing; Du, Min; Zhang, Haibin; Li, Lu; Cen, Jin; Li, Weiyun; Chen, Xiaotao; Lin, Yunfei; Conway, Edward M; Pikarsky, Eli; Wang, Hongyan; Pan, Guoyu; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Yang; Hui, Lijian

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer lacking effective therapies. Several measures have been proposed to treat HCCs, such as senescence induction, mitotic inhibition, and cell death promotion. However, data from other cancers suggest that single use of these approaches may not be effective. Here, by genetic targeting of Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that plays dual roles in mitosis and cell survival, we identified a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated synergistic lethal effect between senescence and apoptosis sensitization in malignant HCCs. Survivin deficiency results in mitosis defect-associated senescence in HCC cells, which triggers local inflammation and increased TNFα. Survivin inactivation also sensitizes HCC cells to TNFα-triggered cell death, which leads to marked HCC regression. Based on these findings, we designed a combination treatment using mitosis inhibitor and proapoptosis compounds. This treatment recapitulates the therapeutic effect of Survivin deletion and effectively eliminates HCCs, thus representing a potential strategy for HCC therapy. Survivin ablation dramatically suppresses human and mouse HCCs by triggering senescence-associated TNFα and sensitizing HCC cells to TNFα-induced cell death. Combined use of mitotic inhibitor and second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases mimetic can induce senescence-associated TNFα and enhance TNFα-induced cell death and synergistically eliminate HCC. (Hepatology 2016;64:1105-1120). © 2016 The Authors. (Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  19. Synergistic effects of liquid and gas phase discharges using pulsed high voltage for dyes degradation in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhou, Minghua; Lei, Lecheng

    2005-07-01

    The technology of combined liquid and gas phase discharges (LGD) using pulsed high voltage for dyes degradation was developed in this study. Apparent synergistic effects for Acid orange II (AO) degradation in the presence of oxygen were observed. The enhancement of AO degradation rate was around 302%. Furthermore, higher energy efficiency was obtained comparing with individual liquid phase discharge (LD) or gas phase discharge process (GD). The AO degradation in the presence of oxygen by LGD proceeded through the direct ozone oxidation and the ozone decomposition induced by LD. Important operating parameters such as electrode distance, applied voltage, pulse repetition rate, and types of dyes were further investigated.

  20. Synergistic effect of graphene oxide on the methanol oxidation for fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwal, Samarjeet; Ghosh, Sarit; Nandi, Debkumar; Devi, Nishu; Perla, Venkata K.; Barik, Rasmita; Mallick, Kaushik

    2017-09-01

    Aromatic polypyrene was synthesized by the oxidative polymerization of pyrene with potassium tetrachloropalladate (II), as oxidant. During the polymerization process the palladium salt was reduced to metallic palladium and forms the metal-polymer composite material. Polypyrene stabilized palladium nanoparticles showed electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of methanol. The performance of the electrocatalytic activity was substantially improved with the incorporation of graphene oxide to the palladium-polypyrene composite and the synergistic performance was attributed to the electronic and structural properties of the system.

  1. Consequences of ADHD Medication Use for Children’s Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates effects of early ADHD medication use on key human capital outcomes for children diagnosed with ADHD while using rarely available register based data on diagnoses and prescription drug purchases. Our main identification strategy exploits plausible exogenous assignment of child......This paper estimates effects of early ADHD medication use on key human capital outcomes for children diagnosed with ADHD while using rarely available register based data on diagnoses and prescription drug purchases. Our main identification strategy exploits plausible exogenous assignment...

  2. Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigorra, Aitana; Garolera, Maite; Guijarro, Silvina; Hervás, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    ADHD affects working memory (WM) and other executive functions (EFs) and thereby negatively impacts school performance, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. The main aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of computerized WM training (CWMT) on EF rating scales. A secondary objective was to assess its efficacy on performance-based measures of EF (PBMEF), learning, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. 66 children with combined-type ADHD between 7 and 12 years of age from the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit (Spain) were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. The participants were randomized (1:1) to an experimental group (EG) (CWMT) (n = 36) or a control group (CG) (placebo training). Assessments were conducted at baseline (T0), 1-2 weeks (T1), and 6 months post-intervention (T2) with the administration of EF rating scales, PBMEF, measures of academic achievement, and questionnaires regarding clinical symptoms and functional impairment. Participants, parents, teachers and professionals who performed the cognitive assessments were blinded. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed significant improvements in EF scales-parent version, from T1 to T2, on the metacognition index [p = 0.03, d' = -0.78 (95 % CI -1.28 to -0.27)] and on WM (also significant at T2-T0) and plan/organize subscales. Significant improvements were also noted in EF scales-teacher version, from T0 to T1 and T2, on the metacognitive index [p = 0.05, d' = -0.37 (95 % CI -0.86 to 0.12) T1-T0, p = 0.02, d' = -0.81 (95 % CI -1.31 to -0.30) T2-T0] and on the initiate, WM, monitor and shift subscales. There were also significant improvements in PBMEF, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment. CWMT had a significant impact on ADHD deficits by achieving long-term far-transfer effects.

  3. Interaction and its induced inhibiting or synergistic effects during co-gasification of coal char and biomass char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yongqi; Wang, Zhiqing; Huang, Jiejie; Fang, Yitian

    2014-12-01

    Co-gasification of coal char and biomass char was conducted to investigate the interactions between them. And random pore model (RPM) and modified random pore model (MRPM) were applied to describe the gasification behaviors of the samples. The results show that inhibiting effect was observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Hulunbeier lignite coal char, while synergistic effects were observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Shenmu bituminous coal char and Jincheng anthracite coal char. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the intimate contact and comparable gasification rate between biomass char and coal char, and the loss of the active form of potassium caused by the formation of KAlSiO4, which was proved to be inactive during gasification. While the synergistic effect was caused by the high potassium content of biomass char and the significant difference of reaction rate between coal char and biomass char during gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles for effective adsorption of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadian, Mahboubeh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Fard, Mina Matin; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The threat of toxic substances such as heavy metals to public health and wildlife has led to an increasing public awareness. Different techniques for neutralizing the toxic effects of heavy metals in wastewater have been used. Here, we prepared a new and efficient type of adsorbent, zinc oxide-graphene nanocomposite (ZnO-Gr), via a green method to remove Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions. A facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique in the presence of an ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [C6mim] [NTf2], was used to prepare ZnO-Gr. The synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles in this new adsorbent for Ni (II) ions caused a maximum adsorption capacity of 66.7 mg g-1 at room temperature which is much higher than that of graphene nanosheets (3.8 mg g-1) and other carbonaceous nanomaterials used as an adsorbent in the literature. The maximum desorption percentage (90.32%) was achieved at pH 3.6. By thermodynamic study, we found that the adsorption of this heavy metal ion on ZnO-Gr was spontaneous (Δ G° = -6.14 kJ mol-1) and endothermic (Δ H° = 53.31 kJ mol-1) with entropy change of Δ S° = 199.45 J K-1 mol- 1.

  6. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register Login Donate Join Renew Toggle navigation Understanding ADHD About ADHD Data and Statistics General Prevalence Co-occurring Conditions Long-Term Outcomes Treatment Data Cost of ADHD Other Data The Science of ADHD The Importance ...

  7. Synergistic Effect of Zuo Jin Wan on DDP-Induced Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901/DDP Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Feng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW, has been found as an anticancer drug in human cancer. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ZJW extracts on DDP-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901/DDP cells. Our results demonstrated that ZJW extracts could increase the sensitivity of SGC-7901/DDP cells to DDP by increasing the concentration of DDP in cytoplasm and enhance the proapoptosis of DDP by upregulating the JNK and Bax expression, downregulating the Bcl-2 expression, increasing the accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm, and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In vivo, ZJW extracts enhanced the inhibiting effect of DDP on tumor growth in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft model and upregulated the expression of p-JNK and Bax but downregulated the Bcl-2 expression in xenograft tumors. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo, ZJW extracts could enhance the proapoptotic effect of DDP by promoting the activation of JNK and the expression of Bcl-2, inhibiting the Bax expression, followed by increasing the release of Cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and finally activating the caspase cade reaction. Our results implied that ZJW might serve as a synergistic drug with chemotherapeutic drugs DDP in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  8. DNA, cell wall and general oxidative damage underlie the tellurite/cefotaxime synergistic effect in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C Molina-Quiroz

    Full Text Available The constant emergence of antibiotic multi-resistant pathogens is a concern worldwide. An alternative for bacterial treatment using nM concentrations of tellurite was recently proposed to boost antibiotic-toxicity and a synergistic effect of tellurite/cefotaxime (CTX was described. In this work, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is proposed. Global changes of the transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite/CTX were determined by DNA microarrays. Induction of a number of stress regulators (as SoxS, genes related to oxidative damage and membrane transporters was observed. Accordingly, increased tellurite adsorption/uptake and oxidative injuries to proteins and DNA were determined in cells exposed to the mixture of toxicants, suggesting that the tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect is dependent, at least in part, on oxidative stress. Thus, the synergistic tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect depends on increased tellurite uptake/adsorption which results in damage to proteins, DNA and probably other macromolecules. Our findings represent a contribution to the current knowledge of bacterial physiology under antibiotic stress and can be of great interest in the development of new antibiotic-potentiating strategies.

  9. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  10. Synergistic Effect of L-Methionine and KI on Copper Corrosion Inhibition in HNO3 (1M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel SEDIK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available L-Methionine (L-Met efficiency as a non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in 1M HNO3 has been studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization. Copper corrosion rate significant decrease was observed in the presence of L-Met at 10-4M. The Obtained Results from potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements are in good agreement. L-Methionine adsorption on copper surface follows Langmuir isotherm. L-Met free energy adsorption on copper (-30 KJ mol-1 reveals an inhibition strong physical adsorption on copper surface. In order to evaluate the L-Met effect, L-Met and iodide ion’synergistic effect was used to prevent copper corrosion in nitric acid. It was found that inhibitor efficiency (IE reached 98.27 % in 1M solution containing 10-4M L-Met and 10- 3 M KI. The synergistic effect was attributed to iodide ions adsorption on copper surface, which facilitated the L-Met adsorption and an inhibitive film formation.

  11. Synergistic Anticancer Effects of Vorinostat and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against HuCC-T1 Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of vorinostat and epigallocatechin-3-gallate against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. A novel chemotherapy strategy is required as cholangiocarcinomas rarely respond to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Both vorinostat and EGCG induce apoptosis and suppress invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. The combination of vorinostat and EGCG showed synergistic growth inhibitory effects and induced apoptosis in tumor cells. The Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 and -7 activity increased, but poly (ADP-ribose polymerase expression decreased when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Furthermore, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, and migration of tumor cells decreased following treatment with the vorinostat and EGCG combination compared to those of vorinostat or EGCG alone. Tube length and junction number of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs decreased as well as vascular endothelial growth factor expression following vorinostat and EGCG combined treatment. These results indicate that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG had a synergistic effect on inhibiting tumor cell angiogenesis potential. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG is a novel option for cholangiocarcinoma chemotherapy.

  12. Synergistic effect of parathyroid hormone and growth hormone on trabecular and cortical bone formation in hypophysectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevarra, Maria Sarah N; Yeh, James K; Castro Magana, Mariano; Aloia, John F

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency in pediatric patients results in short stature and osteopenia. We postulated that the GH and parathyroid hormone (PTH) combination would result in improvement in bone growth and bone formation. Forty hypophysectomized female rats at age 8 weeks were divided into hypophysectomy (HX), HX + PTH (62.5 microg/kg, s.c. daily), HX + GH (3.33 mg/kg, s.c. daily), and HX + PTH + GH for a 4-week study. GH increased body weight, bone growth, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), whereas PTH increased BMC and BMD without a significant effect on bone size. GH increased both periosteal and endocortical bone formation and cortical size, while PTH increased only endocortical bone formation. GH mitigated the trabecular bone loss by increasing bone formation, while PTH increased bone mass by increasing bone formation and suppressing osteoclast number per bone area. The result of combined intervention shows an increase in trabecular, periosteal and endocortical bone formation and suppression of bone resorption resulting in a synergistic effect on increasing trabecular and cortical bone volume and BMD. The combination treatment of PTH and GH increases bone growth, bone formation, decreases bone resorption and has a synergistic effect on increasing bone density and bone mass. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Systematic chemical analysis approach reveals superior antioxidant capacity via the synergistic effect of flavonoid compounds in red vegetative tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Yanfen; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Shuangxi; Yao, Yuncong

    2018-02-01

    The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL) and ever-green leaves (GL) of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies.

  14. Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  15. DOCA stimulates salt appetite in Zucker rats: effect of dose, synergistic action with central angiotensin II, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouessi, S T; Falconetti, C; Fernette, B; Thornton, S N

    2007-09-14

    An enhanced sodium appetite is found in rats by the synergist interaction of peripheral mineralocorticoids, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA), and central angiotensin II (AngII), the synergy theory. We used obese Zucker rats which have a predisposition to develop hypertension under appropriate salt conditions to examine this synergy response between AngII and different low doses of DOCA on 2% NaCl intake. Obese and lean Zucker rats on low sodium food were treated systemically with 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg/day of DOCA for 3 days, before receiving i.c.v. AngII (10 pmol) on the fourth day. Food, fluid intakes and urine outputs were measured daily throughout. Plasma aldosterone levels were also analysed. Results showed that AngII alone increased water but not salt intake, whereas all three doses of DOCA by themselves enhanced daily salt intake during the treatment period. The lowest dose of DOCA plus AngII did not stimulate an enhanced sodium consumption. The 1 mg/kg was the threshold dose of DOCA for a synergistic response, and with 2 mg/kg DOCA the obese rats consumed nearly 2-fold more hypertonic NaCl solution than the leans. Moreover, obese baseline plasma levels of aldosterone were more elevated than the lean rats. In conclusion, in adult Zucker rats a threshold level of mineralocorticoid is required for the salt stimulating action of central AngII. In the obese rat the synergistic effect is enhanced with higher doses of mineralocorticoid, suggesting that the plasma level of aldosterone could be a prominent factor, which may predispose the obese to salt-sensitivity and, possibly, subsequently to hypertension under appropriate conditions.

  16. Metformin synergistically enhances antiproliferative effects of cisplatin and etoposide in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fernandes Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of combining conventional antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and etoposide with metformin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the NCI-H460 cell line, in order to develop new therapeutic options with high efficacy and low toxicity.METHODS: We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and calculated the combination index for the drugs studied.RESULTS: We found that the use of metformin as monotherapy reduced the metabolic viability of the cell line studied. Combining metformin with cisplatin or etoposide produced a synergistic effect and was m